WorldWideScience

Sample records for digit length ratio

  1. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  2. Validation of digit-length ratio (2D:4D) assessments on the basis of DXA-derived hand scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The second-to-fourth digit-length ratio (2D:4D) may be a correlate of prenatal sex steroids, and it has been linked to sporting prowess. The aim of the study was to validate dual-energy X-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) as a technique to assess 2D:4D in soccer players under 15 years of age (U-15). Paired X-ray and DXA scans of the left hands of 63 male U-15 elite soccer players (age: 14.0 ± 0.3 years) were performed, and 2D:4D was then compared between the two techniques. The 2D:4D measurements were performed twice by two blinded raters. Intrarater and interrater reliability, as well as agreement between the X-ray and the DXA assessments, were tested. Intrarater reliabilities of both raters using X-ray with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.97 and 0.90 were excellent. Using DXA, the ICCs were 0.90 and 0.91 thus also showing excellent reliability. Interrater reliabilities were excellent using both the X-ray (ICC of 0.94) and the DXA (ICC of 0.90), assessments respectively. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that the 2D:4D ratios of the two raters did not differ significantly between the X-ray and the DXA assessments. The standard errors of estimate were 0.01 for both techniques. The 95% limits of agreement of ±0.018 (±2.0%) and ±0.023 (±2.6%), respectively, were within the acceptable tolerance of 5%, and showed very good agreement. DXA offered a replicable technique for assessing 2D:4D in youth soccer players. Therefore, the DXA technique seems to be an alternative method for evaluating 2D:4D in youth sports

  3. Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Beom; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2016-12-01

    Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this association is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endurance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.

  4. Effects of prenatal Leydig cell function on the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Prenatal sex hormones can induce abnormalities in the reproductive system and adversely impact on genital development. We investigated whether sex hormones in cord blood influenced the ratio of the second to fourth digit lengths (2D/4D in school-aged children. Of the 514 children who participated in a prospective cohort study on birth in Sapporo between 2002 and 2005, the following sex hormone levels were measured in 294 stored cord blood samples (135 boys and 159 girls; testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone, LH, FSH, inhibin B, and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3. A total of 350 children, who were of school age and could be contacted for this survey, were then requested via mail to send black-and-white photocopies of the palms of both the left and right hands. 2D/4D was calculated in 190 children (88 boys and 102 girls using photocopies and derived from participants with the characteristics of older mothers, a higher annual household income, higher educational level, and fewer smokers among family members. 2D/4D was significantly lower in males than in females (p<0.01. In the 294 stored cord blood samples, T, T/E, LH, FSH, Inhibin B, and INSL3 levels were significantly higher in samples collected from males than those from females. A multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with INSL3 in males and was significantly higher in males with <0.32 ng/mL of INSL3 (p<0.01. No correlations were observed between other hormones and 2D/4D. In conclusion, 2D/4D in school-aged children, which was significantly lower in males than in females, was affected by prenatal Leydig cell function.

  5. Measuring digit lengths with 3D digital stereophotogrammetry: A comparison across methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremba, Allison; Weinberg, Seth M

    2018-05-09

    We compared digital 3D stereophotogrammetry to more traditional measurement methods (direct anthropometry and 2D scanning) to capture digit lengths and ratios. The length of the second and fourth digits was measured by each method and the second-to-fourth ratio was calculated. For each digit measurement, intraobserver agreement was calculated for each of the three collection methods. Further, measurements from the three methods were compared directly to one another. Agreement statistics included the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and technical error of measurement (TEM). Intraobserver agreement statistics for the digit length measurements were high for all three methods; ICC values exceeded 0.97 and TEM values were below 1 mm. For digit ratio, intraobserver agreement was also acceptable for all methods, with direct anthropometry exhibiting lower agreement (ICC = 0.87) compared to indirect methods. For the comparison across methods, the overall agreement was high for digit length measurements (ICC values ranging from 0.93 to 0.98; TEM values below 2 mm). For digit ratios, high agreement was observed between the two indirect methods (ICC = 0.93), whereas indirect methods showed lower agreement when compared to direct anthropometry (ICC < 0.75). Digit measurements and derived ratios from 3D stereophotogrammetry showed high intraobserver agreement (similar to more traditional methods) suggesting that landmarks could be placed reliably on 3D hand surface images. While digit length measurements were found to be comparable across all three methods, ratios derived from direct anthropometry tended to be higher than those calculated indirectly from 2D or 3D images. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  7. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian J Chai

    Full Text Available The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  8. Digit ratio predicts sense of direction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2012-01-01

    The relative length of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) has been linked with prenatal androgen in humans. The 2D:4D is sexually dimorphic, with lower values in males than females, and appears to correlate with diverse measures of behavior. However, the relationship between digit ratio and cognition, and spatial cognition in particular, has produced mixed results. In the present study, we hypothesized that spatial tasks separating cue conditions that either favored female or male strategies would examine this structure-function correlation with greater precision. Previous work suggests that males are better in the use of directional cues than females. In the present study, participants learned a target location in a virtual landscape environment, in conditions that contained either all directional (i.e., distant or compass bearing) cues, or all positional (i.e., local, small objects) cues. After a short delay, participants navigated back to the target location from a novel starting location. Males had higher accuracy in initial search direction than females in environments with all directional cues. Lower digit ratio was correlated with higher accuracy of initial search direction in females in environments with all directional cues. Mental rotation scores did not correlate with digit ratio in either males or females. These results demonstrate for the first time that a sex difference in the use of directional cues, i.e., the sense of direction, is associated with more male-like digit ratio.

  9. Selective breeding for a behavioral trait changes digit ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginia H Y Yan

    Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.

  10. The Golden ratio, ionic and atomic radii and bond lengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Rajalakshmi

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 103, 6-8 (2005), s. 877-882 ISSN 0026-8976 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Bohr radius * bond lengths * axial ratios Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2005

  11. Spatial age-length key modelling using continuation ratio logits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper W.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    -called age-length key (ALK) is then used to obtain the age distribution. Regional differences in ALKs are not uncommon, but stratification is often problematic due to a small number of samples. Here, we combine generalized additive modelling with continuation ratio logits to model the probability of age...

  12. Convective mixing length and the galactic carbon to oxygen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, A; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We have studied chemical evolution models, assuming instantaneous recycling, and considering: a) the effects of mass loss both in massive stars and in intermediate mass stars, and b) the initial mass function of the solar neighbourhood (Serrano 1978). From these models we have derived the yields of carbon and oxygen. It is concluded that the condition C/O approximately 0.58 in the solar neighbourhood can only be satisfied if, during advanced stages of stellar evolution of intermediate mass stars, the ratio of the convective mixing length to the pressure scale height is > approximately 2.

  13. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Allison A; Hurd, Peter L

    2005-03-01

    Finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter second digits (index fingers) than fourth digits (ring fingers). Smaller, more masculine, digit ratios are thought to be associated with either higher prenatal testosterone levels or greater sensitivity to androgens, or both. Men with more masculine finger ratios are perceived as being more masculine and dominant by female observers, and tend to perform better in a number of physical sports. We hypothesized that digit ratio would correlate with propensity to engage in aggressive behavior. We examined the relationship between trait aggression, assayed using a questionnaire, and finger length ratio in both men and women. Men with lower, more masculine, finger length ratios had higher trait physical aggression scores (r(partial) = -0.21, N = 134, P = 0.028). We found no correlation between finger length ratio and any form of aggression in females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has an organizational effect on adult physical aggression in men.

  14. Second to fourth digit ratio: a predictor of adult lung function

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    I-Nae Park

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex and sex hormones play a major role in lung physiology. It has been proposed that the ratio of the second to fourth digits (digit ratio is correlated with fetal sex hormones. We therefore hypothesized that digit ratio might help predict lung function. We investigated the relationship between digit ratio and pulmonary function test (PFT fi ndings. A total of 245 South Korean patients (162 male, 83 female aged from 34 to 90 years who were hospitalized for urological surgery were prospectively enrolled. Before administering the PFTs, the lengths of the second and fourth digits of the right hand were measured by a single investigator using a digital Vernier caliper. In males (n = 162, univariate and multivariate analysis using linear regression models showed that digit ratio was a signifi cant predictive factor of forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (FVC: r = 0.156, P = 0.047; FEV1: r = 0.160, P = 0.042. In male ever-smokers (n = 69, lung functions (FVC and FEV1 were correlated with smoking exposure rather than digit ratio. In female never-smokers (n = 83, lung functions (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were positively correlated with digit ratio on univariate analysis (FEV1: r = 0.242, P = 0.027; FEV1/FVC ratio: r = 0.245, P = 0.026. Patients with lower digit ratios tend to have decreased lung function. These results suggest that digit ratio is a predictor of airway function.

  15. Digit ratios, the menstrual cycle and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are partially determined by biological factors. We do this by investigating whether digit ratios (2D:4D) and menstrual cycle information are correlated with choices in ultimatum, trust, public good and dictator games. Digit ratios are thought to be a proxy for

  16. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ...

  17. Analyzing gigahertz bunch length instabilities with a digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stege, R.E. Jr.; Krejcik, P.; Minty, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    A bunch length instability, nicknamed the ''sawtooth'', because of its transient behavior, has been observed at high current running in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) electron damping ring. The incompatibility of this instability with successful SLC naming prompted its study using a high bandwidth real-time spectrum analyzer, the Tektronix 3052 digital signal processor (DSP) system. This device has been used to study energy ramping in storage rings but this is the first time it has been used to study transient instability phenomena. It is a particularly valuable tool for use in understanding non-linear, multiple frequency phenomena. The frequency range of this device has been extended through the use of radio frequency (RF) down converters. This paper describes the measurement setup and presents some of the results

  18. Second to fourth digit ratio, sex differences and antropometric measuments: their relationship in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Aysegul; Tekin, Murat; Ertekin, Yusuf H; Şahin, Erkan M; Cevizci, Sibel; Cibik, Birol; Oguz, Sevilay; Erbag, Oznur

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements on 2/4 digit ratio in the school aged children. This cross-sectional study was completed in primary and secondary schools in the city center of Canakkale, Turkey. The students were seated at a table by the responsible doctor, and were asked to extend the palm of the right and left hand in the schools. Using a Vernier Caliper the 2/4 fingers were measured from the palm twice, and the results were noted together with socio-demographic information. Weight, length, waist and hip measurements were taken while students were behind a folding screen. A total of 1860 students from 5-14 years were included in the study. The right hand 2/4 digit ratio was 0.9765±0.035 and the left hand ratio was 0.9716±0.036 for girls. For the boys the ratios were 0.9688±0.035 for right hand and 0.9653±0.033 for left hand. The digit ratios of girls were significantly higher than boys and the right hand ratio was even greater. The 2/4 digit measurements of both hands of students were positively correlated with each other. In regression model left hand 2/4 ratio is dependent hip circumference, monthly income and gender as adjusted r2 0.051. The right hand 2/4 ratio was dependent gender, monthly income, hip circumference and birthweight as adjusted r2 0.041. The 2/4 digit ratio of school-aged in Turkish children differed based on gender. Digit ratios depend on the hip circumference, gender (girls have higher ratio), birthweight, gestation week and monthly income. Further research, especially the effect of monthly income, is needed.

  19. Ratio-based lengths of intervals to improve fuzzy time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarng, Kunhuang; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore ways of determining the useful lengths of intervals in fuzzy time series. It is suggested that ratios, instead of equal lengths of intervals, can more properly represent the intervals among observations. Ratio-based lengths of intervals are, therefore, proposed to improve fuzzy time series forecasting. Algebraic growth data, such as enrollments and the stock index, and exponential growth data, such as inventory demand, are chosen as the forecasting targets, before forecasting based on the various lengths of intervals is performed. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses are also carried out for various percentiles. The ratio-based lengths of intervals are found to outperform the effective lengths of intervals, as well as the arbitrary ones in regard to the different statistical measures. The empirical analysis suggests that the ratio-based lengths of intervals can also be used to improve fuzzy time series forecasting.

  20. Jet length/velocity ratio: a new index for echocardiographic evaluation of chronic aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Karaçimen, Denizhan; Erer, Hatice Betül; İlhan, Erkan; Sayar, Nurten; Karakuş, Gültekin; Çekirdekçi, Elif; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Management of aortic regurgitation depends on the assessment for severity. Echocardiography remains as the most widely available tool for evaluation of aortic regurgitation. In this manuscript, we describe a novel parameter, jet length/velocity ratio, for the diagnosis of severe aortic regurgitation. A total of 30 patients with aortic regurgitation were included to this study. Severity of aortic regurgitation was assessed with an aortic regurgitation index incorporating five echocardiographic parameters. Jet length/velocity ratio is calculated as the ratio of maximum jet penetrance to mean velocity of regurgitant flow. Jet length/velocity ratio was significantly higher in patients with severe aortic regurgitation (2.03 ± 0.53) compared to patients with less than severe aortic regurgitation (1.24 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). Correlation of jet length/velocity ratio with aortic regurgitation index was very good (r(2) = 0.86) and correlation coefficient was higher for jet length/velocity ratio compared to vena contracta, jet width/LVOT ratio and pressure half time. For a cutoff value of 1.61, jet length/velocity ratio had a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 88%, with an AUC value of 0.955. Jet length/velocity ratio is a novel parameter that can be used to assess severity of chronic aortic regurgitation. Main limitation for usage of this novel parameter is jet impringement to left ventricular wall. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Study of signal-to-noise ratio in digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuri; Fujita, Naotoshi; Kodera, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    Mammography techniques have recently advanced from those using analog systems (the screen-film system) to those using digital systems; for example, computed radiography (CR) and flat-panel detectors (FPDs) are nowadays used in mammography. Further, phase contrast mammography (PCM)-a digital technique by which images with a magnification of 1.75× can be obtained-is now available in the market. We studied the effect of the air gap in PCM and evaluated the effectiveness of an antiscatter x-ray grid in conventional mammography (CM) by measuring the scatter fraction ratio (SFR) and relative signal-to-noise ratio (rSNR) and comparing them between PCM and the digital CM. The results indicated that the SFRs for the CM images obtained with a grid were the lowest and that these ratios were almost the same as those for the PCM images. In contrast, the rSNRs for the PCM images were the highest, which means that the scattering of x-rays was sufficiently reduced by the air gap without the loss of primary x-rays.

  2. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  3. Effect of digital noise reduction on the accuracy of endodontic file length determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh; Khademi, Abbas Ali; Shokraneh, Ali; Farhadi, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement accuracy of endodontic file length on periapical digital radiography after application of noise reduction digital enhancement. Thirty-five human single-rooted permanent teeth with canals measuring 20-24 mm in length were selected. ISO no.08 endodontic files were placed in the root canals of the teeth. The file lengths were measured with a digital caliper as the standard value. Standard periapical digital images were obtained using the Digora digital radiographic system and a dental X-ray unit. In order to produce the enhanced images, the noise reduction option was applied. Two blinded radiologists measured the file lengths on the original and enhanced images. The measurements were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (a=0.05). Both the original and enhanced digital images provided significantly longer measurements compared with the standard value (P 0.05). Noise reduction digital enhancement did not influence the measurement accuracy of the length of the thin endodontic files on the digital periapical radiographs despite the fact that noise reduction could result in the elimination of fine details of the images.

  4. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arjun; Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The peffect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length ratio of right and left hands observed in both male and female population. Our study reports that the finger length ratio (2D:4D) for Central India population did not show significant association between finger length ratio and fraternal birth order among the first two successive born.

  5. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Basso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm. The apparent tooth length (APTL was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0, whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P≤0.48 between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length.

  6. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  7. Ratio of sheath thickness to Debye length for a slightly ionized continuum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.

    1980-01-01

    The penetration of plasma sheaths for spherical probes in a slightly ionized continuum plasma has been computed for values of epsilon (the ratio of ion to electron temperature) of 0.01 and 1.0 with rhosub(p) (the ratio of probe radius to plasma Debye length) set at 5.10,20 and 30. Values of the potential drops at the sheath boundaries are presented

  8. The Relationship of Body Length and Ratio Pappilla with Sex in Gobi Fish (Sicyopterus macrostetholepis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Taula Sari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex in goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. has been done at Animal Structure and Developmental Laboratory, Biologi Department, Faculty of Matematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang, which purposed to analyse the relationship of body length and ratio papilla with sex of goby fish (S. macrostetholepis Blkr.. The samples were taken in wild stream area at Batangkuranji river, Padang City. This research used descriptive method and data were analyzed by qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of investigation showed that in several goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. with different sex had the same of body length and the same of ratio papilla. So, there was not relationship between of body length and ratio papilla with sex.  Goby fishes (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. it belongs to the hermaphrodite protogini, which the androgynous young females, while in adulthood, it would change sex to male. The results of this study are expected to add to the treasures of knowledge and information about reproductive gobies (S. macrostetholepis Blkr. in the preservation and development of fish farming.   

  9. The study on length and diameter ratio of nail as preliminary design for slope stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Indra; Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Muslih Purwana, Yusep

    2017-11-01

    Soil nailing technology has been widely applied in practice for reinforced slope. The number of studies for the effective design of nail-reinforced slopes has also increased. However, most of the previous study was focused on a safety factor of the slope; the ratio of length and diameter itself has likely never been studied before. The aim of this study is to relate the length and diameter ratio of the nail with the safety factor of the 20 m height of sand slope in the various angle of friction and steepness of the slope. Simplified Bishop method was utilized to analyze the safety factor of the slope. This study is using data simulation to calculate the safety factor of the slope with soil nailing reinforcement. The results indicate that safety factor of slope stability increases with the increase of length and diameter ratio of the nail. At any angle of friction and steepness of the slope, certain effective length and diameter ratio was obtain. These results may be considered as a preliminary design for slope stabilization.

  10. 2D:4D digit ratio predicts delay of gratification in preschoolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Da Silva

    Full Text Available We replicate the Stanford marshmallow experiment with a sample of 141 preschoolers and find a correlation between lack of self-control and 2D:4D digit ratio. Children with low 2D:4D digit ratio are less likely to delay gratification. Low 2D:4D digit ratio may indicate high fetal testosterone. If this hypothesis is true, our finding means high fetal testosterone children are less likely to delay gratification.

  11. Morphometric Characteristics and Length-Weight Relationship of Russian Sturgeon Juveniles Fed with Different Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cristina ANDREI(GURIENCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze some morphometric characteristics and the correlation between them for Russian sturgeon juveniles (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii reared in a recirculating aquaculture system fed at different fed with different ratio: 1% body weight (BW, 1.5% BW, 2% BW and ad libitum feeding (which was around 2.8% BW.Fish, with an average body mass around 248.194 ± 1.59 g. Following biometric measurements were made for each fish, including weight (W, total length (TL, standard length (SL, fork length (FL, maximum body depth (last depth of caudal peduncle, H; preanal distance (AD, predorsal distance (PD, length of head (C, preorbital distance (PO, length of pectoral fin (LPF, interorbital distance (ID, maximum width of head (MH, width of mouth (WM, width of the head at the level of the mouth (WHM. The obtained results showed significant differences between all morphometric measurements (p<0.05 for all the experimental variants, emphasizing that in the ad libitum feeding all morphometric measurements were significantly higher than in the other experimental variants. In order to highlight more eloquent these differences, were developed some linear regressions between the morphometric measurements and significant positive correlation (p<0.05 between dependent and independent variables were found.

  12. A study on assessment of the length of styloid process in digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The styloid process (SP is an anatomical structure whose clinical importance is not well understood. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to study the type of SP as per Langlais′ classification and to assess the feasibility of digital panoramic radiographs in measuring the length of SP. Materials and Methods: Eighty digital panoramic radiographs of patients with dental problems were retrieved from archives of our department as soft copies. The radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of SP was measured on both sides using measurement toolbars on accompanying analysis software. The type of elongation patterns of SP was classified as per Langlais′ classification. Finally, the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average length of the left and right side SPs was 29.1882 ± 6.86 and 28.16 ± 6.44, respectively. Majority of patients were found to be asymptomatic, and Langlais′ Type I elongated SP was more common than others. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs are valuable tools in early detection of elongated SP. Digital radiographs help in avoiding a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular region.

  13. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  14. The 2D : 4D Digit Ratio as a Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, Marlou; de Kruijff, Deborah; Otten, Leila S.; Kraneveld, A D; Garssen, J; Verster, J C

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that the second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio, 2D : 4D, may be a biomarker for the risk of developing autism. The aim of the current study was to determine the usefulness of the 2D : 4D digit ratio as biomarker for autistic traits. N = 401 healthy

  15. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  16. Digit Ratio (2D:4D Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bönte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  17. The algorithm of random length sequences synthesis for frame synchronization of digital television systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аndriy V. Sadchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital television systems need to ensure that all digital signals processing operations are performed simultaneously and consistently. Frame synchronization dictated by the need to match phases of transmitter and receiver so that it would be possible to identify the start of a frame. As a frame synchronization signals are often used long length binary sequence with good aperiodic autocorrelation function. Aim: This work is dedicated to the development of the algorithm of random length sequences synthesis. Materials and Methods: The paper provides a comparative analysis of the known sequences, which can be used at present as synchronization ones, revealed their advantages and disadvantages. This work proposes the algorithm for the synthesis of binary synchronization sequences of random length with good autocorrelation properties based on noise generator with a uniform distribution law of probabilities. A "white noise" semiconductor generator is proposed to use as the initial material for the synthesis of binary sequences with desired properties. Results: The statistical analysis of the initial implementations of the "white noise" and synthesized sequences for frame synchronization of digital television is conducted. The comparative analysis of the synthesized sequences with known ones was carried out. The results show the benefits of obtained sequences in compare with known ones. The performed simulations confirm the obtained results. Conclusions: Thus, the search algorithm of binary synchronization sequences with desired autocorrelation properties received. According to this algorithm, the sequence can be longer in length and without length limitations. The received sync sequence can be used for frame synchronization in modern digital communication systems that will increase their efficiency and noise immunity.

  18. Good mixing length: Digital simulation of fluid mixing with and without obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.; Burgos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The good mixing length of a tracer assures that the samples or measures taken are fair. A non homogeneous tracer mixing through the cross section of the fluid medium involved in the experiment (eg. a river or a pipe) may conduct to erroneous conclusions. For establishing that length, a digital simulation of a two dimensional fluid flow, using Navier-Stokes equations, was done. A continuous tracer injection was simulated.The good mixing length was studied in two cases, first with a free of obstacles situation and then the effect of a significant obstacle located after the tracer injection point. As usual in practice, the good mixing length was estimated using a suitable upper bound for the concentration deviations from the mean in a given cross section. An analytical discussion of the obtained results is done

  19. Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D:4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Tobolsky, Victoria A; Marlowe, Frank W; Miller, Kathleen W

    2016-02-01

    The ratio between the length of the second and the length of the fourth digit (2D:4D) is sexually dimorphic such that males of many species possess a lower ratio than females, particularly in the right hand. Still, men and women often exhibit overlapping 2D:4D ranges and the ratio is highly variable between populations. In order to further explore populational variability, we chose to analyze 2D:4D in the Hadza, a population of hunter-gatherers living in Tanzania. Data were collected separately by two researchers over the course of three years (1998, 2001, 2006) from 152 adult participants (male: n = 76, female: n = 76). Independent samples t-tests were used to explore sex differences, paired samples t-tests were used to explore directional effects within each sex, and linear regression and one-way ANOVA were used to test possible age effects. In none of the years, or pooled (n = 152), did we find evidence that adult men have a lower 2D:4D than adult women. If anything, the data suggest that women in this population have a significantly lower right hand 2D:4D than men (P < 0.001, d = 0.57). In contrast, left hand 2D:4D did not exhibit a sex difference (P = 0.862, d = 0.03). These findings challenge the current view that lower 2D:4D in men is a uniform characteristic of our species. Cross-populational variance in 2D:4D may be related to known patterns of hormonal variation resulting from both genetic and environmental mechanisms, though this relationship merits further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Influence of length-to-diameter ratio on shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijie, MA; Yang, Jiansen; Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaojun

    2017-09-01

    In order to study the shrinkage performance of basalt concrete, using the shrinkage rate as index, the work not only studied the influence of different length-to-diameter ratio (LDR) on plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage of basalt fiber concrete, but also analyzed the action mechanism. The results show that when the fiber content is 0.1%, the LDR of 800 and 1200 take better effects on reducing plastic shrinkage, however the fiber content is 0.3%, that of LDR 600 is better. To improve drying shrinkage, the fiber of LDR 800 takes best effect. In the concrete structure, the adding basalt fibers form a uniform and chaotic supporting system, optimize the pore and the void structure of concrete, make the material further compacted, reduce the water loss, so as to decrease the shrinkage of concrete effectively.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  2. Second to Fourth Digit Ratio and Numerical Competence in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Brookes, Helen; Neave, Nick; Manning, John T.; Geary, David C.

    2006-01-01

    The ratio between the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D)--a potential proxy for prenatal testosterone (T) exposure--shows a sex difference, with males usually having lower mean values; the latter potentially indicates higher prenatal T exposure. We studied relations between 2D:4D and competencies in the domains of counting, number knowledge, and…

  3. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2009-06-01

    From early childhood, gender identity and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are discriminative characteristics between sexes. Both the human brain and 2D:4D may be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. This calls for an examination of 2D:4D in patients with gender identity disorder (GID) to study the possible influence of prenatal testosterone on gender identity. Until now, the only study carried out on this issue suggests lower prenatal testosterone levels in right-handed male-to-female GID patients (MtF). We compared 2D:4D of 56 GID patients (39 MtF; 17 female-to-male GID patients, FtM) with data from a control sample of 176 men and 190 women. Bivariate group comparisons showed that right hand 2D:4D in MtF was significantly higher (feminized) than in male controls, but similar to female controls. The comparison of 2D:4D ratios of biological women revealed significantly higher (feminized) values for right hands of right handed FtM. Analysis of variance confirmed significant effects for sex and for gender identity on 2D:4D ratios but not for sexual orientation or for the interaction among variables. Our results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID. The development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.

  5. INCLUSION RATIO BASED ESTIMATOR FOR THE MEAN LENGTH OF THE BOOLEAN LINE SEGMENT MODEL WITH AN APPLICATION TO NANOCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Niilo-Rämä

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel estimator for estimating the mean length of fibres is proposed for censored data observed in square shaped windows. Instead of observing the fibre lengths, we observe the ratio between the intensity estimates of minus-sampling and plus-sampling. It is well-known that both intensity estimators are biased. In the current work, we derive the ratio of these biases as a function of the mean length assuming a Boolean line segment model with exponentially distributed lengths and uniformly distributed directions. Having the observed ratio of the intensity estimators, the inverse of the derived function is suggested as a new estimator for the mean length. For this estimator, an approximation of its variance is derived. The accuracies of the approximations are evaluated by means of simulation experiments. The novel method is compared to other methods and applied to real-world industrial data from nanocellulose crystalline.

  6. The effects of cavity length on nest size, sex ratio and mortality of Centris (Heterocentris) analis (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini)

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso , Juliana; Silva , Janaina; Garófalo , Carlos

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This study investigated the effects of different cavity lengths in trap-nests on the number of cells constructed per nest, sex ratio and mortality of offspring of Centris analis at three sites in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cavity length did not affect the occupation rates of the trap-nests, with the exception of a preference for the shortest trap-nests found at one site. The number of cells per nest increased with trap-nest length. Cavity length affected neithe...

  7. Your fate is in your hands? Handedness, digit ratio (2D:4D), and selection to a national talent development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Pabst, Jan; Strauß, Bernd; Büsch, Dirk; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade a small evidence base has highlighted the potential importance of seemingly innocuous variables related to one's hands, such as hand dominance and the relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), to success in sport. This study compared 2D:4D digit ratio and handedness among handball players selected to advance in a national talent development system with those not selected. Participants included 480 youth handball players (240 females and 240 males) being considered as part of the talent selection programme for the German Youth National team. Hand dominance and digit ratio were compared to age-matched control data using standard t-tests. There was a greater proportion of left-handers compared to the normal population in males but not in females. There was also a lower digit ratio in both females and males. However, there were no differences between those selected for the next stage of talent development and those not selected on either handedness or digit ratio. These results add support for general effects for both digit ratio and handedness in elite handball; however, these factors seem inadequate to explain talent selection decisions at this level.

  8. Using 2D: 4D digit ratios to determine motor skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, H-L; Li, Y-H; Zhu, F-L; Li, S-J; Ni, H

    2016-03-01

    In past few decades, there has an outburst of research surrounding second to fourth finger digit ratio (2D:4D) and its relation to prenatal sex steroids including both testosterone and estrogen. In utero, testosterone and estrogen are responsible for the differences in digit ratio between the genders. Recent research has tried to extend past the influence of steroids and look at the potential effect of digit ratios on fine and gross motor skills in children. We compiled the current understanding of the connection between sex hormones and the development of the 2D:4D ratio as well as the effect the ratio has on motor skills. There seems to be a significant positive correlation between 2D:4D digit ratio and precision of fine motor skill. In addition, there is a negative correlation between 2D:4D ratio and speed of fine motor activity. In this review, we will outline the use of 2D:4D ratio as a biomarker for prenatal sex steroids and through that, a proxy marker for fine and gross motor skills.

  9. Second-to-fourth digit ratio predicts success among high-frequency financial traders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Gurnell, Mark; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-01-13

    Prenatal androgens have important organizing effects on brain development and future behavior. The second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a marker of these prenatal androgen effects, a relatively longer fourth finger indicating higher prenatal androgen exposure. 2D:4D has been shown to predict success in highly competitive sports. Yet, little is known about the effects of prenatal androgens on an economically influential class of competitive risk taking-trading in the financial world. Here, we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London in which we sampled 2D:4D from a group of male traders engaged in what is variously called "noise" or "high-frequency" trading. We found that 2D:4D predicted the traders' long-term profitability as well as the number of years they remained in the business. 2D:4D also predicted the sensitivity of their profitability to increases both in circulating testosterone and in market volatility. Our results suggest that prenatal androgens increase risk preferences and promote more rapid visuomotor scanning and physical reflexes. The success and longevity of traders exposed to high levels of prenatal androgens further suggests that financial markets may select for biological traits rather than rational expectations.

  10. Measurement of clavicular length and shortening after a midshaft clavicular fracture: Spatial digitization versus planar roentgen photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2016-08-01

    Clavicular shortening after fracture is deemed prognostic for clinical outcome and is therefore generally assessed on radiographs. It is used for clinical decision making regarding operative or non-operative treatment in the first 2weeks after trauma, although the reliability and accuracy of the measurements are unclear. This study aimed to assess the reliability of roentgen photogrammetry (2D) of clavicular length and shortening, and to compare these with 3D-spatial digitization measurements, obtained with an electromagnetic recording system (Flock of Birds). Thirty-two participants with a consolidated non-operatively treated two or multi-fragmented dislocated midshaft clavicular fracture were analysed. Two observers measured clavicular lengths and absolute and proportional clavicular shortening on radiographs taken before and after fracture consolidation. The clavicular lengths were also measured with spatial digitization. Inter-observer agreement on the radiographic measurements was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Agreement between the radiographic and spatial digitization measurements was assessed using a Bland-Altman plot. The inter-observer agreement on clavicular length, and absolute and proportional shortening on trauma radiographs was almost perfect (ICC>0.90), but moderate for absolute shortening after consolidation (ICC=0.45). The Bland-Altman plot compared measurements of length on AP panorama radiographs with spatial digitization and showed that planar roentgen photogrammetry resulted in up to 37mm longer and 34mm shorter measurements than spatial digitization. Measurements of clavicular length on radiographs are highly reliable between observers, but may not reflect the actual length and shortening of the clavicle when compared to length measurements with spatial digitization. We recommend to use proportional shortening when measuring clavicular length or shortening on radiographs for clinical decision making. Copyright

  11. Comparison of digital radiography and apex locator with the conventional method in root length determination of primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E Neena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the Working length in primary teeth endodontics using intra oral digital radiovisiography and apex locator with conventional method for accuracy. Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 30 primary teeth which were indicated for pulpectomy in the patients of the age group of 5-11 years All experimental teeth had adequate remaining tooth structure for rubber dam isolation and radiographicaly visible canals. Endodontic treatment was required due to irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis. A standardized intraoral periapical radiograph of the tooth was taken using conventional method by paralleling technique. The distance between the source and the tooth, tooth and the films were standardized using X-ray positioning device. During the pulpectomy procedure, the working length was determined by digital radiograph and apex locator. The measurements were then compared with the conventional method of root canal measurement technique for accuracy Result: From the results obtained we can conclude that Working length determined in primary molars using digital radiography and Apex locator did not show any significant difference in the mean working length measurements when compared with the conventional radiographic method. Conclusions: Apex locator is comparable to conventional radiograph in determining the working length without radiation in the primary teeth. Intraoral digital radiography is the safest method in determining the working length with significant reduction in radiation exposure.Hence, both the techniques can be safely used as alternatives to conventional radiographic methods in determining working length in primary teeth.

  12. Width/Length Ratio in Maxillary Anterior Teeth. Comparative Study of Esthetic Preferences among Professionals and Laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Lorena; Orozco-Varo, Ana; Arroyo-Cruz, Gema; Jiménez-Castellanos, Emilio

    2017-05-17

    Many studies have examined the esthetic preferences of professionals in the maxillary anterior region; however, only a few have taken into account the ratios that are more frequent within the population or other ratios suggested in the literature as ideal. Previous studies also failed to compare them with the esthetic preferences of the lay population with regards to the smile. The purpose of this study is to highlight the differences when perceiving the esthetics of smiles between general dentists and laypersons, and linking them with the width/length of the maxillary anterior teeth. Photographs of the full face of a female subject were modified with Photoshop CS regarding the length/width relationships of the 6 maxillary anterior teeth. The three modifications made were: (a) 80% length/width, (b) 85%, length/width, and (c) 85% length/width in central incisors, 80% length/width in lateral incisors and canines. Three sequences of photograph pairs were created with different ratios and presented in PowerPoint to a sample of 100 general dentists and 100 laypersons. The ratio considered as the most esthetic by the majority of the judges was 85% for central incisors and 80% for lateral incisors and canines, with a statistically significant difference (p esthetic preferences of the studied populations either due to gender or professional experience of the dentists (p > 0.01). According to the results obtained in this study, professionals and laypersons considered a width/length ratio of 85% for maxillary central incisors and 80% for lateral incisors and canines as the most esthetic for maxillary anterior teeth. These results do not support findings from other studies previously published with similar ratios in central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines. Today clinicians practice in a treatment environment where not only function and utility but also esthetics is demanded in almost every procedure. Restoring/maintaining function is considered essential in any

  13. Walk Ratio (Step Length/Cadence) as a Summary Index of Neuromotor Control of Gait: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura; Simone, Anna; Tesio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, the step length/cadence ratio [walk ratio (WR) in mm/(steps/min) and normalized for height] is known to be constant around 6.5 mm/(step/min). It is a speed-independent index of the overall neuromotor gait control, in as much as it reflects energy expenditure, balance, between-step variability, and attentional demand. The speed…

  14. Reduction of parasitic interferences in digital holographic microscopy by numerically decreased coherence length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmeier, S.; Langehanenberg, P.; von Bally, G.; Kemper, B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large coherence length of laser light, optical path length (OPL) resolution in laser based digital holographic microscopy suffers from parasitic interferences caused by multiple reflections within the experimental setup. Use of partially coherent light reduces this drawback but requires precise and stable matching of object and reference arm's OPLs and limits the spatial frequency of the interference pattern in off-axis holography. Here, we investigate if the noise properties of spectrally broadened light sources can be generated numerically. Therefore, holograms are coherently captured at different laser wavelengths and the corresponding reconstructed wave fields are numerically superimposed utilizing variable weightings. Gaussian and rectangular spectral shapes of the so synthesized field are analyzed with respect to the resulting noise level, which is quantified in OPL distributions of a reflective test target. Utilizing a Gaussian weighting, the noise level is found to be similar to the one obtained with the partially coherent light of a superluminescent diode. With a rectangular shaped synthesized spectrum, noise is reduced more efficient than with a Gaussian one. The applicability of the method in label-free cell analysis is demonstrated by quantitative phase contrast images obtained from living cancer cells.

  15. Estimating the hemodynamic influence of variable main body-to-iliac limb length ratios in aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Xenakis, Antonios; Georgiadis, George S

    2018-02-01

    We conducted a computational study to assess the hemodynamic impact of variant main body-to-iliac limb length (L1/L2) ratios on certain hemodynamic parameters acting on the endograft (EG) either on the normal bifurcated (Bif) or the cross-limb (Cx) fashion. A customary bifurcated 3D model was computationally created and meshed using the commercially available ANSYS ICEM (Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The total length of the EG, was kept constant, while the L1/L2 ratio ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 in the Bif and Cx reconstructed EG models. The compliance of the graft was modeled using a Fluid Structure Interaction method. Important hemodynamic parameters such as pressure drop along EG, wall shear stress (WSS) and helicity were calculated. The greatest pressure decrease across EG was calculated in the peak systolic phase. With increasing L1/L2 it was found that the Pressure Drop was increasing for the Cx configuration, while decreasing for the Bif. The greatest helicity (4.1 m/s2) was seen in peak systole of Cx with ratio of 1.5 whereas its greatest value (2 m/s2) was met in peak systole in the Bif with the shortest L1/L2 ratio (0.3). Similarly, the maximum WSS value was highest (2.74Pa) in the peak systole for the 1.5 L1/L2 of the Cx configuration, while the maximum WSS value equaled 2 Pa for all length ratios of the Bif modification (with the WSS found for L1/L2=0.3 being marginally higher). There was greater discrepancy in the WSS values for all L1/L2 ratios of the Cx bifurcation compared to Bif. Different L1/L2 rations are shown to have an impact on the pressure distribution along the entire EG while the length ratio predisposing to highest helicity or WSS values is also determined by the iliac limbs pattern of the EG. Since current custom-made EG solutions can reproduce variability in main-body/iliac limbs length ratios, further computational as well as clinical research is warranted to delineate and predict the hemodynamic and clinical effect of variable

  16. The 2D:4D digit ratio as biomarker for substance abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernstrand, A.M.; Van Den Borne, L.; Lensvelt, L.M.H.; Ribbert, L.L.A.; De With, A.C.; Goede, L.X.Y.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio is a biomarker for prenatal testosterone and estrogen exposure. It has been hypothesized that the developmental origins of health and behavior are modulated by the presence or absence of prenatal sex hormones. Several

  17. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and social integration: an effect of prenatal sex hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, P.; Davidson, M. W.; Haim, D. A.; Carcelli, S.; Fowler, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2017), s. 476-489 ISSN 2050-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : social networks * digit ratio * prenatal and rogens Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics

  18. Performance and emission characteristics of LPG powered four stroke SI engine under variable stroke length and compression ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, Hakan; Yamin, Jehad A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A computer simulation of a variable stroke length, LPG fuelled, four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled spark ignition engine was done. The engine capacity was varied by varying the stroke length of the engine, which also changed its compression ratio. The simulation model developed was verified with experimental results from the literature for both constant and variable stroke engines. The performance of the engine was simulated at each stroke length/compression ratio combination. The simulation results clearly indicate the advantages and utility of variable stroke engines in fuel economy and power issues. Using the variable stroke technique has significantly improved the engine's performance and emission characteristics within the range studied. The brake torque and power have registered an increase of about 7-54% at low speed and 7-57% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. The brake specific fuel consumption has registered variations from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 3% at low speed and from a reduction of about 6% to an increase of about 8% at high speed relative to the original engine design and for all stroke lengths and engine speeds studied. On the other hand, an increase of pollutants of about 0.65-2% occurred at low speed. Larger stroke lengths resulted in a reduction of the pollutants level of about 1.5% at higher speeds. At lower stroke lengths, on the other hand, an increase of about 2% occurred. Larger stroke lengths resulted in increased exhaust temperature and, hence, make the exhaust valve work under high temperature

  19. Signal-to-noise ratio estimation in digital computer simulation of lowpass and bandpass systems with applications to analog and digital communications, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, W. H.; Turner, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are developed to estimate power gain, delay, signal-to-noise ratio, and mean square error in digital computer simulations of lowpass and bandpass systems. The techniques are applied to analog and digital communications. The signal-to-noise ratio estimates are shown to be maximum likelihood estimates in additive white Gaussian noise. The methods are seen to be especially useful for digital communication systems where the mapping from the signal-to-noise ratio to the error probability can be obtained. Simulation results show the techniques developed to be accurate and quite versatile in evaluating the performance of many systems through digital computer simulation.

  20. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian; Crewther, Blair; Fink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. This ratio is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (T) and estrogen (E) in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence for this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that this association is statistically non-significant. Here, we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones, one must consider both fetal organizing and adult activating effects of T and E. In particular, we hypothesize that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this is particularly evident in "challenging" conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

  1. Can digit ratio (2D:4D) studies be helpful in explaining the aetiology of idiopathic gynecomastia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Aetiology of idiopathic form of gynecomastia is unknown and it has not been established if it is related to factors present at the prenatal period or if it is caused by yet unidentified environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to compare digit ratio (2D:4D) in men with idiopathic gynecomastia and unaffected male and female controls from the general population. The study involved 250 subjects (50 men with idiopathic gynecomastia, 100 control men and 100 control women). Eight measurements were taken: body height, waist and hip circumferences, II and IV digits' lengths (right and left), and body weight, and 4 indices were calculated: BMI, WHR, and 2D:4D for the right and left hand. 2D:4D in men with gynecomastia ([median (I-III quartiles)]: 1.03 (1.01-1.04) for right hand and 1.03 (1.01-1.03) for left hand) was significantly different than the ratio in control men [0.97 (0.95-0.99)] for right and left hand) (pgynecomastia were characterized with higher values of the following variables: weight, waist and hip circumferences, BMI and WHR. Their body height was significantly greater than in women (pgynecomastia and justify introducing the new group: "gynecomastia related to the prenatal sex hormones disturbances". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  3. Storage capacity for fissile material as a function of facility shape (room length-to-width ratio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a previous study for applying surface density methods to square room of varying size are shown to be conservative for rectangular rooms as well. The surface density required to produce criticality has been calculated as a function of the facility length-to-width ratio for a variety of room widths and unit sizes, shapes, and fissile material compositions. For a length to width ratio greater than or equal to 6, the critical surface density is essentially constant. This allows further economies since more fissile material can be stored at a given subcritical value of k/ sub eff/(0.90) in a rectangular vault of given usable area than in a square one. (U.S.)

  4. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  5. Discounting and Digit Ratio: Low 2D:4D Predicts Patience for a Sample of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal trade-offs are ubiquitous in human decision making. We study the relationship between preferences over such trade-offs and the ratio of the second digit to that of the forth (2D:4D, a marker for pre-natal exposure to sex hormones. Specifically, we study whether 2D:4D affects discounting. Our sample consists of 419 female participants of a Guatemalan conditional cash transfer program who take part in an experiment. Their choices in the convex time budget (CTB experimental task allow us to make inferences regarding their patience (discounting, while controlling for present-biasedness and preference for smoothing consumption (utility curvature. We find that women with lower digit ratios tend to be more patient.

  6. Signal-Noise Ratio Control Subsystem of Digital Equipment for Transmission of "Strela" Relay Protection Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zabenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurement function of relative noise and interference level in the information transmission channel is considered as an important one for controlling parameters of high-frequency signal. The present paper simulates an algorithm for measuring signal-noise ratio in the transmission channel of high-voltage lines which is used in the digital equipment for transmission of relay protection and emergency automation commands of "Strela" complex.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and social integration: an effect of prenatal sex hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Branas-Garza, Pablo; Davidson, Michael W.; Haim, Dotan A.; Carcelli, Shannon; Fowler, James H.

    2017-01-01

    The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens (measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D) shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which m...

  8. Recirculation zone length in renal artery is affected by flow spirality and renal-to-aorta flow ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Fulker, David; Barber, Tracie

    2017-07-01

    Haemodynamic perturbations such as flow recirculation zones play a key role in progression and development of renal artery stenosis, which typically originate at the aorta-renal bifurcation. The spiral nature of aortic blood flow, division of aortic blood flow in renal artery as well as the exercise conditions have been shown to alter the haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. This study focuses on the combinative effects of spiral component of blood flow, renal-to-aorta flow ratio and the exercise conditions on the size and distribution of recirculation zones in renal branches using computational fluid dynamics technique. Our findings show that the recirculation length was longest when the renal-to-aorta flow ratio was smallest. Spiral flow and exercise conditions were found to be effective in reducing the recirculation length in particular in small renal-to-aorta flow ratios. These results support the hypothesis that in renal arteries with small flow ratios where a stenosis is already developed an artificially induced spiral flow within the aorta may decelerate the progression of stenosis and thereby help preserve kidney function.

  9. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, pbrain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Second-to-fourth digit ratio and impulsivity: a comparison between offenders and nonoffenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Gummerum, Michaela; Rolison, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Personality characteristics, particularly impulsive tendencies, have long been conceived as the primary culprit in delinquent behavior. One crucial question to emerge from this line of work is whether impulsivity has a biological basis. To test this possibility, 44 male offenders and 46 nonoffenders completed the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, and had their 2D∶4D ratio measured. Offenders exhibited smaller right hand digit ratio measurements compared to non-offenders, but higher impulsivity scores. Both impulsivity and 2D∶4D ratio measurements significantly predicted criminality (offenders vs. nonoffenders). Controlling for education level, the 2D∶4D ratio measurements had remained a significant predictor of criminality, while impulsivity scores no longer predicted criminality significantly. Our data, thus, indicates that impulsivity but not 2D∶4D ratio measurements relate to educational attainment. As offenders varied in their number of previous convictions and the nature of their individual crimes, we also tested for differences in 2D∶4D ratio and impulsivity among offenders. Number of previous convictions did not correlate significantly with the 2D∶4D ratio measurements or impulsivity scores. Our study established a link between a biological marker and impulsivity among offenders (and lack thereof among non-offenders), which emphasise the importance of studying the relationship between biological markers, impulsivity and criminal behavior.

  11. Finite Word-Length Effects in Digital State-Space Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Psenicka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-space description of digital filters involves except the relationship between input and output signals an additional set of state variables. The state-space structures of digital filters have many positive properties compared with direct canonical structures. The main advantage of digital filter structures developed using state-space technique is a smaller sensitivity to quantization effects by fixed-point implementation. In our presentation, the emphasis is on the analysis of coefficient quantization and on existence of zero-input limit cycles in state-space digital filters. The comparison with direct form II structure is presented.

  12. Haldane’s Rule Is Linked to Extraordinary Sex Ratios and Sperm Length in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Christianson, Sarah J.; Brand, Cara L.; Ru, George; Shell, Wyatt

    2014-01-01

    We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane’s rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2066 males derived from backcross experiments involving two pairs of populations and found that the proportion of mated males that fail to produce any offspring ranged from 38 to 60% among crosses with some males producing strongly female-biased or male-biased sex ratios. After genotyping each male at 25–28 genetic markers we found quantitative trait loci (QTL) that jointly influence male sterility, sperm length, and biased progeny sex ratios in each pair of populations, but almost no shared QTL between population crosses. We also discovered that the extant XSR chromosome has no effect on sex ratio or sterility in these backcross males. Whether shared QTL are caused by linkage or pleiotropy requires additional study. Nevertheless, these results indicate the presence of a “cryptic” drive system that is currently masked by suppressing elements that are associated with sterility and sperm length within but not between populations and, therefore, must have evolved since the populations became isolated, i.e., in hybrid sterility. PMID:25164880

  13. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  14. Radiological examination in diagnosis of dolicho-sigmoid taking into consideration the colon and sigmoid length ratio in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was usefulness evaluation of radiological examination in the diagnosis of dolicho sigmoid, especially establishing diagnosis criteria of pictures on contrast enema films which may be pathognomonic for dolicho sigmoid in children. An attempt has been made to establish objectively the length of sigmoid and colon to calculated the radio of their sizes in children with dolicho sigmoid syndrome and in control group. Contrast enemas were performed in 176 children. Among the examined children, in 26 cases dolicho sigmoid syndrome was found, including two cases of dolicho colon. Children with dolicho sigmoid syndrome showed various anomalies in elongated sigmoid location at its different levels. Generally, it was situated at the level of between L 1 and L 5 . The sigmoid formed often two or more abnormal loops with various bending and twisting or irregular protrusions. The coefficient or our invention concerned the ratio of colon length to the length of elongated sigmoid and on the basis of calculations made on children suffering from dolicho sigmoid syndrome the numerical values ranged from 0.7 to 1.5. The same calculations performed on the control for the proposed coefficient ranged from 2.2 to 4.2. (author). 65 refs, 15 figs, 11 tabs

  15. Optical 'dampening' of the refractive error to axial length ratio: implications for outcome measures in myopia control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Fiona E; Logan, Nicola S

    2018-05-01

    To gauge the extent to which differences in the refractive error axial length relationship predicted by geometrical optics are observed in actual refractive/biometric data. This study is a retrospective analysis of existing data. Right eye refractive error [RX] and axial length [AXL] data were collected on 343 6-to-7-year-old children [mean 7.18 years (S.D. 0.35)], 294 12-to-13-year-old children [mean 13.12 years (S.D. 0.32)] and 123 young adults aged 18-to-25-years [mean 20.56 years (S.D. 1.91)]. Distance RX was measured with the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 infrared open-field autorefractor. Child participants were cyclopleged prior to data collection (1% Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride). Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent [MSE] ≤-0.50 D. Axial length was measured using the Zeiss IOLMaster 500. Optical modelling was based on ray tracing and manipulation of parameters of a Gullstrand reduced model eye. There was a myopic shift in mean MSE with age (6-7 years +0.87 D, 12-13 years -0.06 D and 18-25 years -1.41 D), associated with an increase in mean AXL (6-7 years 22.70 mm, 12-13 years 23.49 mm and 18-25 years 23.98 mm). There was a significant negative correlation between MSE and AXL for all age groups (all p theory predicts that there will be a reduction in the RX: AXL ratio with longer eyes. The participant data although adhering to this theory show a reduced effect, with eyes with longer axial lengths having a lower refractive error to axial length ratio than predicted by model eye calculations. We propose that in myopia control intervention studies when comparing efficacy, consideration should be given to the dampening effect seen with a longer eye. © 2018 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  16. Effect of Process Parameters on Flow Length and Flash Formation in Injection Moulding of High Aspect Ratio Polymeric Micro Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkhalik Eladl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of the effects of process parameters on the quality characteristics of polymeric parts produced by micro injection moulding (μIM with two different materials. Four injection moulding process parameters (injection velocity, holding pressure, melt temperature and mould temperature were investigated using Polypropylene (PP and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS. Three key characteristics of the mouldings were evaluated with respect to process settings and the material employed: part mass, flow length and flash formation. The experimentation employs a test part with four micro fingers with different aspect ratios (from 21 up to 150 and was carried out according to the Design of Experiments (DOE statistical technique. The results show that holding pressure and injection velocity are the most influential parameters on part mass with a direct effect for both materials. Both parameters have a similar effect on flow length for both PP and ABS at all aspect ratios and have higher effects as the feature thickness decreased below 300 μm. The study shows that for the investigated materials the injection speed and packing pressure were the most influential parameters for increasing the amount of flash formation, with relative effects consistent for both materials. Higher melt and mould temperatures settings were less influential parameters for increasing the flash amount when moulding with both materials. Of the two investigated materials, PP was the one exhibiting more flash formation as compared with ABS, when corresponding injection moulding parameters settings for both materials were considered.

  17. Age estimation by canines' pulp/tooth ratio in an Iranian population using digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Shadkam, Elaheh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2018-04-01

    Age estimation in adults is an important issue in forensic science. This study aimed to estimate the chronological age of Iranians by means of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of canines in digital panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs of 271 male and female subjects aged 16-64 years. The pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of upper and lower canines was calculated by AutoCAD software. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. There was a significant and inverse correlation between age and pulp/tooth area ratio of upper and lower canines (r=-0.794 for upper canine and r=-0.282 for lower canine; p-value<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived separately for upper, lower and both canines. The mean difference between actual and estimated age using upper canine was 6.07±1.7. The results showed that the pulp/tooth area ratios of canines are a reliable method for age estimation in Iranians. The pulp/tooth area ratio of upper canine was better correlated with chronological age than that of lower canine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cycle length and COD/N ratio determine properties of aerobic granules treating high-nitrogen wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Bernat, Katarzyna; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic granule characteristic in sequencing batch reactors treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated at cycle lengths (t) of 6, 8 and 12 h with the COD/N ratios in the influent of 4.5 and 2.3. The biomass production (Y obs) correlated with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in grams per COD removed. Denitrification efficiency significantly decreased as the amount of EPS in biomass increased, suggesting that organic assimilation in EPS hampers nitrogen removal. Granule hydrophobicity was highest at t of 8 h; the t has to be long enough to remove pollutants, but not so long that excessive biomass starvation causes extracellular protein consumption that decreases hydrophobicity. At a given t, reducing the COD/N ratio improved hydrophobicity that stimulates cell aggregation. At t of 6 h and the COD/N ratio of 2.3, the dominance of 0.5-1.0 mm granules favored simultaneous nitrification and denitrification and resulted in the highest nitrogen removal.

  19. The central corneal light reflex ratio from photographs derived from a digital camera in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsang, Suampa; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn

    2012-05-01

    To determine the normal range of Central Corneal Light Reflex Ratio (CCLRR) from photographs of young adults. A digital camera equipped with a telephoto lens with a flash attachment placed directly above the lens was used to obtain corneal light reflex photographs of 104 subjects, first with the subject fixating on the lens of the camera at a distance of 43 centimeters, and then while looking past the camera to a wall at a distance of 5.4 meters. Digital images were displayed using Adobe Photoshop at a magnification of l200%. The CCLRR was the ratio of the sum of distances between the inner margin of cornea and the central corneal light reflex of each eye to the sum of horizontal corneal diameter of each eye. Measurements were made by three technicians on all subjects, and repeated on a 16% (n=17) subsample. Mean ratios (standard deviation-SD) from near/distance measurements were 0.468 (0.012)/0.452 (0.019). Limits of the normal range, with 95% certainty, were 0.448 and 0.488 for near measurements and 0.419 and 0.484 for distance measurements. Lower and upper indeterminate zones were 0.440-0.447 and 0.489-0.497 for near measurements and 0.406-0.418 and 0.485-0.497 for distance measurements. More extreme values can be considered as abnormal. The reproducibility and repeatability of the test was good. This method is easy to perform and has potential for use in strabismus screening by paramedical personnel.

  20. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2014-02-01

    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  1. Value of digit ratio 2D:4D, a biomarker of prenatal hormone exposure, is stable across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal hormone exposure and, consequently, as a predictor of many characteristics throughout a woman's lifespan. A previous study has suggested that values of 2D:4D vary across menstrual cycles and further questioned the reliability of a single measurement of 2D:4D among cycling women, while another study failed to confirm these results. However, these studies estimated the timing of cycle phases based on a date of menstruation reported by participants and also had small sample sizes. For our study, we evaluated potential changes in 2D:4D values across a menstrual cycle in a group of women among whom the phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by hormonal (luteinizing hormone based) ovulation tests. We studied 32 naturally cycling women aged 22-37 from rural Poland. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured based on scans of both hands taken three times (i.e. in the follicular phase, peri-ovulatory phase and luteal phase of the cycle) for each participant. No differences in 2D:4D value across the menstrual cycle were detected either when right-hand, left-hand, and mean 2D:4D for both hands were analysed, nor when difference in the 2D:4D value between hands (D left-right ) was evaluated. We documented that 2D:4D is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and these findings suggest that among naturally cycling women, a value of 2D:4D can be reliably obtained from measurements taken during any day of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel method for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) evaluation of digital mammography detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P.; Phelan, N.; Egan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a new, simple method of evaluating the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) over the entire image field of a digital detector and to compare different mammography systems. Images were taken under clinical exposure conditions for a range of simulated breast thicknesses using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). At each PMMA thickness, a second image which included an additional 0.2-mm Al sheet was also acquired. Image processing software was used to calculate the CNR in multiple regions of interest (ROI) covering the entire area of the detector in order to obtain a 'CNR image'. Five detector types were evaluated, two CsI-αSi (GE Healthcare) flat panel systems, one αSe (Hologic) flat panel system and a two generations of scanning photon counting digital detectors (Sectra). Flat panel detectors exhibit better CNR uniformity compared with the first-generation scanning photon counting detector in terms of mean pixel value variation. However, significant improvement in CNR uniformity was observed for the next-generation scanning detector. The method proposed produces a map of the CNR and a measurement of uniformity throughout the entire image field of the detector. The application of this method enables quality control measurement of individual detectors and a comparison of detectors using different technologies. (orig.)

  3. Copolymers of N-cyclohexylacrylamide and n-butyl acrylate: synthesis, characterization, monomer reactivity ratios and mean sequence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copolymerization of N-cyclohexylacrylamide (NCHA and n-butyl acrylate (BA was carried out in dimethylformamide at 55±1°C using azobisisobutyronitrile as a free radical initiator. The copolymers were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and the copolymer compositions were determined by 1H-NMR analysis. The reactivity ratios of the monomers were determined by both linear and non-linear methods. The reactivity ratios of monomers determined using linear methods like Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.77 , Kelen-Tudos (r1 = 0.38 and r2 = 1.77, ext. Kelen-Tudos (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.75 Yezrieler-Brokhina-Roskin (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.77 and non-linear methods like Tidwell-Mortimer (r1 = 0.37 and r2 = 1.76, ProCop (r1 = 0.36 and r2 = 1.82. The Q and e values for NCHA are 0.67 and 0.68 respectively. Mean sequence lengths of copolymers are estimated from r1 and r2 values. It shows that the BA units increases in a linear fashion in the polymer chain as the concentration of BA increases in the monomer feed.

  4. A parallel VLSI architecture for a digital filter of arbitrary length using Fermat number transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Yeh, C. S.; Shao, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel architecture for computation of the linear convolution of two sequences of arbitrary lengths using the Fermat number transform (FNT) is described. In particular a pipeline structure is designed to compute a 128-point FNT. In this FNT, only additions and bit rotations are required. A standard barrel shifter circuit is modified so that it performs the required bit rotation operation. The overlap-save method is generalized for the FNT to compute a linear convolution of arbitrary length. A parallel architecture is developed to realize this type of overlap-save method using one FNT and several inverse FNTs of 128 points. The generalized overlap save method alleviates the usual dynamic range limitation in FNTs of long transform lengths. Its architecture is regular, simple, and expandable, and therefore naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  5. LEARNING ONE-DIGIT DECIMAL NUMBERS BY MEASUREMENT AND GAME PREDICTING LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe how students develop understanding of one-digit decimals. To achieve the aim, Local Instruction Theory (LIT about the process of learning decimals and the means designed to support that learning are developed. Along with this idea, the framework of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME is proposed. Based on the aim, design research methodology is used. This paper discusses learning activities of three meetings from teaching experiment of the focus group students of the fourth grade elementary school in Surabaya: SDIT Al Ghilmani. The data indicated that the learning activities promoted the students’ understanding of one-digit decimal numbers.Keyword: measurement, decimal numbers, number line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.1.1447.35-46

  6. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  7. Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D and concentrations of circulating sex hormones in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Howard A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is used as a marker of prenatal sex hormone exposure. The objective of this study was to examine whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones and SHBG measured in adulthood was associated with 2D:4D. Methods This analysis was based on a random sample from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. The sample consisted of of 1036 men and 620 post-menopausal women aged between 39 and 70 at the time of blood draw. Concentrations of circulating sex hormones were measured from plasma collected at baseline (1990-1994, while digit length was measured from hand photocopies taken during a recent follow-up (2003-2009. The outcome measures were circulating concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenediol glucoronide for men only and oestrone sulphate for women only. Free testosterone and oestradiol were estimated using standard formulae derived empirically. Predicted geometric mean hormone concentrations (for tertiles of 2D:4D and conditional correlation coefficients (for continuous 2D:4D were obtained using mixed effects linear regression models. Results No strong associations were observed between 2D:4D measures and circulating concentrations of hormones for men or women. For males, right 2D:4D was weakly inversely associated with circulating testosterone (predicted geometric mean testosterone was 15.9 and 15.0 nmol/L for the lowest and highest tertiles of male right 2D:4D respectively (P-trend = 0.04. There was a similar weak association between male right 2D:4D and the ratio of testosterone to oestradiol. These associations were not evident in analyses of continuous 2D:4D. Conclusions There were no strong associations between any adult circulating concentration of sex hormone or SHGB and 2D:4D. These results contribute to the growing body of evidence indicating that 2D:4D is unrelated to adult sex

  8. Voxel effects within digital images of trabecular bone and their consequences on chord-length distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajon, D.A.; Shah, A.P.; Watchman, C.J.; Bolch, W.E.; Jokisch, D.W.; Patton, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    Chord-length distributions through the trabecular regions of the skeleton have been investigated since the early 1960s. These distributions have become important features for bone marrow dosimetry; as such, current models rely on the accuracy of their measurements. Recent techniques utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy to acquire 3D images of trabecular bone that are then used to measure 3D chord-length distributions by Monte Carlo methods. Previous studies have shown that two voxel effects largely affect the acquisition of these distributions within digital images. One is particularly pertinent as it dramatically changes the shape of the distribution and reduces its mean. An attempt was made to reduce this undesirable effect and good results were obtained for a single-sphere model using minimum acceptable chord (MAC) methods (Jokisch et al 2001 Med. Phys. 28 1493-504). The goal of the present work is to extend the study of these methods to more general models in order to better quantify their consequences. First, a mathematical model of a trabecular bone sample was used to test the usefulness of the MAC methods. The results showed that these methods were not efficient for this simulated bone model. These methods were further tested on a single voxelized sphere over a large range of voxel sizes. The results showed that the MAC methods are voxel-size dependent and overestimate the mean chord length for typical resolutions used with NMR microscopy. The study further suggests that bone and marrow chord-length distributions currently utilized in skeletal dosimetry models are most likely affected by voxel effects that yield values of mean chord length lower than their true values. (author)

  9. Copy number ratios determined by two digital polymerase chain reaction systems in genetically modified grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urquiza, M.; Acatzi Silva, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    Three certified reference materials produced from powdered seeds to measure the copy number ratio sequences of p35S/hmgA in maize containing MON 810 event, p35S/Le1 in soybeans containing GTS 40-3-2 event and DREB1A/acc1 in wheat were produced according to the ISO Guides 34 and 35. In this paper, we report digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) protocols, performance parameters and results of copy number ratio content of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in these materials using two new dPCR systems to detect and quantify molecular deoxyribonucleic acid: the BioMark® (Fluidigm) and the OpenArray® (Life Technologies) systems. These technologies were implemented at the National Institute of Metrology in Mexico (CENAM) and in the Reference Center for GMO Detection from the Ministry of Agriculture (CNRDOGM), respectively. The main advantage of this technique against the more-used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is that it generates an absolute number of target molecules in the sample, without reference to standards or an endogenous control, which is very useful when not much information is available for new developments or there are no standard reference materials in the market as in the wheat case presented, or when it was not possible to test the purity of seeds as in the maize case presented here. Both systems reported enhanced productivity, increased reliability and reduced instrument footprint. In this paper, the performance parameters and uncertainty of measurement obtained with both systems are presented and compared.

  10. The Relationship Between Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sexual Orientation in Men from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2016-04-01

    We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.

  11. Displacement-length ratios and contractional strains of lunar wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Ni, Yuheng; Liu, Chunli

    2018-04-01

    Wrinkle ridges are complex thrust faults commonly found in lunar mare basalts and caused by compressional stresses from both local basin and global Moon. In this paper, we select 59 single wrinkle ridges in Mare Serenitatis and 39 single wrinkle ridges in Mare Tranquillitatis according to WAC mosaic image. For each wrinkle ridge, several topographic profiles near its midpoint are generated to measure its height and maximum displacement (Dmax) through LOLA DEM data. Then we make 2D plots of displacement-length (L) for ridge population in the two maria. The Dmax-L ratios (γ) are derived by a linear fit method according to the D-L data. The γ value (2.13 × 10-2) of ridges in Mare Tranquillitatis is higher than the γ value (1.73 × 10-2) of ridges in Mare Serenitatis. In the last, the contractional strains (ε) in Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis are estimated to be ∼0.36% and 0.14% (assuming the fault plane dip θ is 25°). The values of the free-air gravity anomalies in Mare Serenitatis range from 78 to 358 mGal higher than those of the gravity anomalies in Mare Tranquillitatis which range from -70 to 120 mGal. The average thickness of basalts in Mare Tranquillitatis is 400 m, while that of basalts in Mare Serenitatis is 798 m. Moreover, the average age for ridge group in Mare Serenitatis is bigger than the wrinkle ridge's age in Mare Tranquillitatis. The formation of ridge group in Mare Serenitatis takes longer time than that in Mare Serenitatis. Therefore, we think the higher value of gravity anomalies, thicker basaltic units and longer formation time for wrinkle ridge in Mare Serenitatis maybe result in the higher value of contractional strain, although the formation of Tranquillitatis basin is earlier than that of Serenitatis basin.

  12. Level of Digitization in Dutch Hospitals and the Lengths of Stay of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poelgeest, Rube; van Groningen, Julia T; Daniels, John H; Roes, Kit C; Wiggers, Theo; Wouters, Michel W; Schrijvers, Guus

    2017-05-01

    A substantial amount of research has been published on the association between the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) and quality outcomes in U.S. hospitals, while limited research has focused on the Western European experience. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between the use of EMR technologies in Dutch hospitals and length of stay after colorectal cancer surgery. Two data sets were leveraged for this study; the HIMSS Analytics Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM SM ) and the Dutch surgical colorectal audit (DSCA). The HIMSS Analytics EMRAM score was used to define a Dutch hospital's electronic medical records (EMR) capabilities while the DSCA was used to profile colorectal surgery quality outcomes (specifically total length of stay (LOS) in the hospital and the LOS in ICU). A total of 73 hospitals with a valid EMRAM score and associated DSCA patients (n = 30.358) during the study period (2012-2014) were included in the comparative set. A multivariate regression method was used to test differences adjusted for case mix, year of surgery, surgical technique and for complications, as well as stratifying for academic affiliated hospitals and general hospitals. A significant negative association was observed to exist between the total LOS (relative median LOS 0,974, CI 95% 0.959-0,989) of patients treated in advanced EMR hospitals (high EMRAM score cohort) versus patients treated at less advanced EMR care settings, once the data was adjusted for the case mix, year of surgery and type of surgery (laparoscopy or laparotomy). Adjusting for complications in a subgroup of general hospitals (n = 39) yielded essentially the same results (relative median LOS 0,934, CI 95% 0,915-0,954). No consistent significant associations were found with respect to LOS on the ICU. The findings of this study suggest advanced EMR capabilities support a healthcare provider's efforts to achieve desired quality outcomes and efficiency in Western

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and circulating testosterone, oestradiol, and progesterone levels across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Klimek, Magdalena; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-02-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used by researchers as an indicator of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Two previous studies have examined associations between 2D:4D and circulating sex steroid concentrations across the menstrual cycle in adult females. One reported that digit ratio correlated positively with oestradiol levels, whereas the other found no such effect; neither observed significant associations with progesterone. To examine associations between 2D:4D, as well as asymmetry (i.e. right minus left 2D:4D), and circulating sex steroids across the menstrual cycle. Correlational. 32 naturally cycling adult females from rural southern Poland. Salivary oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and testosterone to oestradiol ratio (T:O) measured during the follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal phases. Average levels across the cycle were also examined. Asymmetry in digit ratio correlated positively with oestradiol at each phase, as well as with average levels across the cycle. Each association, other than that relating to average levels, remained statistically significant after a range of covariates had been controlled for. No other significant correlations were observed between digit ratio variables and circulating hormone levels. Our results might suggest that low exposure to androgens and/or high exposure to oestrogens during gestation is a predictor of high oestradiol levels in naturally cycling females of reproductive age. However, considering that it was asymmetry in digit ratio, and not either right or left 2D:4D, that was a significant predictor, it is also possible that these effects reflect more general associations between bilateral asymmetry and circulating oestradiol levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  15. Digit Ratio (2D:4D and Gender Inequalities Across Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Manning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality varies across nations, where such inequality is defined as the disproportionate representation of one sex over the other in desirable social, economic, and biological roles (typically male over female. Thus in Norway, 40% of parliamentarians are women, in the USA 17%, and in Saudi Arabia 0%. Some of this variation is associated with economic prosperity but there is evidence that this cause and effect can go in either direction. Here we show that within a population the average ratio of index (2D to ring (4D finger lengths (2D:4D—a proxy measure of the relative degree to which offspring is exposed in utero to testosterone versus estrogen—is correlated with measures of gender inequality between nations. We compared male and female 2D:4D ratios to female parliamentary representation, labor force participation, female education level, maternal mortality rates, and juvenile pregnancy rates per nation in a sample of 29 countries. We found those nations who showed higher than expected female fetal exposure to testosterone (low 2D:4D and lower than expected male exposure to fetal testosterone (high 2D:4D had higher rates of female parliamentary representation, and higher female labor force participation. In short, the more similar the two sexes were in 2D:4D, the more equal were the two sexes in parliamentary and labor force participation. The other variables were not as strongly correlated. We suggest that higher than expected fetal testosterone in females and lower fetal testosterone in males may lead to high female representation in the national labor force and in parliament.

  16. FURTHER EVIDENCE OF AN ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LOW SECOND-TO-FOURTH DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) AND SELECTION FOR THE UNIFORMED SERVICES: A STUDY AMONG POLICE PERSONNEL IN WROCŁAW, POLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Kociuba, Marek; Chakraborty, Raja; Sitek, Aneta; Ignasiak, Zofia

    2017-08-22

    Males and females differ in their preference for occupations and sporting activities, and differ also in risk-taking attitudes. In addition to other explanations, prenatal hormone exposure has been implicated in these gender-associated differences. The ratio of the relative lengths of the second-to-fourth digits (2D:4D) is a proxy indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone relative to oestrogen. The 2D:4D ratio has been found to be associated with choice of occupation, particularly among females. This study investigated whether 2D:4D differed between police officers and a control group of civilians in Wrocław, Poland. Participants were 147 male and 55 female police officers and 91 male and 75 female civilian controls. The police officers had to undergo rigorous physical ability tests during recruitment and their job bore relatively higher risk, whereas the controls had a normal civilian lifestyle. Height, weight, hand grip strength and lengths of the second and fourth digits were measured. Analyses of variance and covariance were employed to assess the significance of difference in digit ratio between groups (police officers and civilians) allowing for interaction with sex. The policewomen, compared with the female controls, were taller and had stronger hand grip strength, but had lower 2D:4D in the right hand and average 2D:4D of both hands. However, male and female police officers slightly differed only in the right hand digit ratio but not in the left hand ratio or the average for the two hands. However, the control group showed significant sex differences in all digit ratios with higher (feminine) mean values in females. The study provides further evidence that prenatal testosterone exposure, as reflected in the 2D:4D ratio, might have an association with choice of occupation, particularly among females.

  17. The Accuracy of the Digital imaging system and the frequency dependent type apex locator in root canal length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rib; Park, Chang Seo

    1998-01-01

    In order to achieve a successful endodontic treatment, root canals must be obturated three-dimensionally without causing any damage to apical tissues. Accurate length determination of the root canal is critical in this case. For this reason, I've used the conventional periapical radiography, Digora (digital imaging system) and Root ZX (the frequency dependent type apex locator) to measure the length of the canal and compare it with the true length obtained by cutting the tooth in half and measuring the length between the occlusal surface and the apical foramen. From the information obtained by these measurements, I was able to evaluate the accuracy and clinical usefulness of each systems, whether the thickness of files used in endodontic therapy has any effect on the measuring systems was also evaluated in an effort to simplify the treatment planning phase of endodontic treatment. 29 canals of 29 sound premolars were measured with no 15, no 20, no 25 files by 3 different dentists each using the periapical radiography, Digora and Root ZX. The measurements were then compared with the true length. The results were as follows ; 1. In comparing mean discrepancies between measurements obtained by using periapical radiography (mean error : -0.449 ± 0.444 mm), Digora (mean error : -0.417 ± 0.415 mm) and Root ZX (mean error : 0.123 ± 0.458 mm) with true length, periapical radiography and Digora system had statistically significant differences (p 0.05). 2. By subtracting values obtained by using periapical radiography, Digora and Root ZX from the true length and making a distribution table of their absolute values, the following analysis was possible. In the case of periapical film, 140 out of 261 (53.6%) were clinically acceptable satisfying the margin of error of less than 0.5 mm, 151 out of 261 (53,6%) were acceptable in the Digora system while Root ZX had 197 out of 261 (75.5%) within the limits of 0.5 mm margin of error. 3. In determining whether the thickness of

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and possible effects of in utero testosterone: evidence from the 2D:4D finger length ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizwan, S.; Manning, J. T.; Brabin, B. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to high fetal testosterone (FT), and an increased risk in offspring for autism, ADHD, conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour and criminal outcomes. The ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (2D:4D) is thought to be negatively related

  19. The effects of sex, sexual orientation, and digit ratio (2D:4D) on mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael; Manning, John T; Reimers, Stian

    2007-04-01

    In spite of the reduced level of experimental control, this large scale study brought some clarity into the relation between mental rotation task (MRT) performance and a number of variables where contradictory associations had previously been reported in the literature. Clear sex differences in MRT were observed for a sample of 134,317 men and 120,783 women, with men outperforming women. There were also MRT differences as a function of sexual orientation: heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and homosexual women performed better than heterosexual women. Although bisexual men performed better than homosexual men but less well than heterosexual men, no significant differences were observed between bisexual and homosexual women. MRT performance in both men and women peaked in the 20-30 year range, and declined significantly and markedly thereafter. Both men and women showed a significant negative correlation between left and right digit finger ratio and MRT scores, such that individuals with smaller digit ratios (relatively longer ring finger than index finger) performed better than individuals with larger digit ratios.

  20. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Ratio Is Improved When Using a Digital, Nonmydriatic Fundus Camera Onsite in a Diabetes Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Roser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of onsite screening with a nonmydriatic, digital fundus camera for diabetic retinopathy (DR at a diabetes outpatient clinic. Research Design and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 502 patients, 112 with type 1 and 390 with type 2 diabetes. Patients attended screenings for microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic polyneuropathy (DP, and DR. Single-field retinal imaging with a digital, nonmydriatic fundus camera was used to assess DR. Prevalence and incidence of microvascular complications were analyzed and the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting complications for all entities was calculated in order to differentiate natural progress from missed DRs. Results. For both types of diabetes, prevalence of DR was 25.0% (n=126 and incidence 6.4% (n=32 (T1DM versus T2DM: prevalence: 35.7% versus 22.1%, incidence 5.4% versus 6.7%. 25.4% of all DRs were newly diagnosed. Furthermore, the ratio of newly diagnosed to preexisting DR was higher than those for DN (p=0.12 and DP (p=0.03 representing at least 13 patients with missed DR. Conclusions. The results indicate that implementing nonmydriatic, digital fundus imaging in a diabetes outpatient clinic can contribute to improved early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy.

  2. THE INTRINSIC EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.

  3. Exploring the limits of case-to-capsule ratio, pulse length, and picket energy for symmetric hohlraum drive on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two years, we have been exploring low gasfill hohlraums (He fill at 0.3-0.6 mg/cc) as an alternate to the high gasfill hohlraums used in NIC and the High Foot campaigns (He fill at 1-1.6 mg/cc). These low fill hohlraums have significantly reduced laser-plasma instabilities and increased coupling to the target as compared to the high fill hohlraums and take us to a new region of parameter space where the hohlraum is limited by hydrodynamic motion of the hohlraum wall rather than by laser plasma interactions. The outer cone laser beams interacting with the hohlraum wall produce a ``bubble'' of low density, high Z material that moves toward the center of the hohlraum. This gold or depleted uranium bubble eventually intercepts the inner cone beams and prevents the inner cone beams from reaching the waist of the hohlraum-where they are needed to get a symmetric implosion. Thus, the speed of the bubble expansion sets the allowable pulse duration in a given size hohlraum. Data and simulations suggest that the bubble is launched by the early part of the laser pulse (``picket'') and the gold/gas interfaces moves nearly linearly in time toward the axis of the hohlraum. The velocity of the bubble is related to the square root of the energy in the picket of the pulse - thus the picket energy and pulse duration set the allowable hohlraum size and case-to-capsule ratio. In this talk, will discuss a data based model to describe the bubble motion and apply this model to a broad set of data from a variety of ablators (CH, HDC, Be), pulse durations (6-14 ns), case-to-capsule ratios (rhohl/rcap of 3-4.2), hohlraum sizes (5.4-6.7 mm diameter), and hohlraum gasfill densities (0.3-0.6 mg/cc). We will discuss how this model can help guide future designs and how improvements in the hohlraum (foam liners, hohlraum shape) can open up new parts of parameter space. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National

  4. Digital color analysis of color-ratio composite LANDSAT scenes. [Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. Applied to the LANDSAT MSS data of the Goldfield, Nevada, area, this method permits precise and quantitative definition of the limonitic areas originally observed in a LANDSAT color ratio composite. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district. From the analysis, the numerical distinction between limonitic and nonlimonitic ground is generally less than 3% using the LANDSAT bands and as much as 8% in ratios of LANDSAT MSS bands.

  5. Social communication and emotion difficulties and second to fourth digit ratio in a large community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, Manuela; Kothari, Radha; Skuse, David; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Recent research investigating the extreme male brain theory of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has drawn attention to the possibility that autistic type social difficulties may be associated with high prenatal testosterone exposure. This study aims to investigate the association between social communication and emotion recognition difficulties and second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and circulating maternal testosterone during pregnancy in a large community-based cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A secondary aim is to investigate possible gender differences in the associations. Data on social communication (Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, N = 7165), emotion recognition (emotional triangles, N = 5844 and diagnostics analysis of non-verbal accuracy, N = 7488) and 2D:4D (second to fourth digit ratio, N = 7159) were collected in childhood and early adolescence from questionnaires and face-to-face assessments. Complete data was available on 3515 children. Maternal circulating testosterone during pregnancy was available in a subsample of 89 children. Males had lower 2D:4D ratios than females [t (3513) = -9.775, p emotion recognition, and the lowest 10 % of 2D:4D ratios. A significant association was found between maternal circulating testosterone and left hand 2D:4D [OR = 1.65, 95 % CI 1.1-2.4, p < 0.01]. Previous findings on the association between 2D:4D and social communication difficulties were not confirmed. A novel association between an extreme measure of 2D:4D in males suggests threshold effects and warrants replication.

  6. The Association of Digit Ratio (2D : 4D) with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine sex hormone environment as indicated by the second to the fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) can be associated with cancer risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of 2D : 4D with cancer diagnosis, malignancy, and age at presentation. Studies that evaluated the association of 2D : 4D with cancer risk were collected from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Clarivate Analytics databases. Nineteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis. The 2D : 4D ratio was studied in prostate cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, brain tumors, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Low 2D : 4D was associated with prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and brain tumors, while high 2D : 4D, with breast cancer risk and cervical dysplasia. The 2D : 4D ratio was not associated with prostate, breast, and gastric cancer stage. Greater 2D : 4D ratio was associated with younger presentation of breast cancer and brain tumors. The meta-analyses demonstrated that testicular cancer was not associated with right-hand 2D : 4D ratio ( p = 0.74) and gastric cancer was not associated with right-hand ( p = 0.15) and left-hand ( p = 0.95) 2D : 4D ratio. Sex hormone environment during early development is associated with cancer risk later in life. Further studies exploring the link between intrauterine hormone environment and cancer risk are encouraged.

  7. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  8. Digital image analysis supports a nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio cutoff value of 0.5 for atypical urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Jen-Fan; Charu, Vivek; Zhang, M Lisa; VandenBussche, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    An elevated nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio of ≥0.5 is a required criterion for the diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells (AUC) in The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology. To validate the N:C ratio cutoff value and its predictive power for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC), the authors retrospectively reviewed the urinary tract cytology specimens of 15 cases of AUC with HGUC on follow-up (AUC-HGUC) and 33 cases of AUC without HGUC on follow-up (AUC-N-HGUC). The number of atypical cells in each case was recorded, and each atypical cell was photographed and digitally examined to calculate the nuclear size and N:C ratio. On average, the maximum N:C ratios of atypical cells were significantly different between the AUC-HGUC and AUC-N-HGUC cohorts (0.53 vs 0.43; P =.00009), whereas the maximum nuclear sizes of atypical cells (153.43 μM 2 vs 201.47 μM 2 ; P = .69) and the number of atypical cells per case (10.13 vs 7.88; P = .12) were not found to be significantly different. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the maximum N:C ratio alone had high discriminatory capacity (area under the curve, 79.19%; 95% confidence interval, 64.19%-94.19%). The optimal maximum N:C ratio threshold was 0.486, giving a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.8% for predicting HGUC on follow-up. The identification of AUC with an N:C ratio >0.486 has a high predictive power for HGUC on follow-up in AUC specimens. This justifies using the N:C ratio as a required criterion for the AUC category. Individual laboratories using different cytopreparation methods may require independent validation of the N:C ratio cutoff value. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:710-6. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Fully iterative scatter corrected digital breast tomosynthesis using GPU-based fast Monte Carlo simulation and composition ratio update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul, E-mail: jong.ye@kaist.ac.kr [Bio Imaging and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taewon; Cho, Seungryong [Medical Imaging and Radiotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Younghun; Lee, Jongha; Jang, Kwang Eun [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, 130, Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaegu; Choi, Young Wook [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), 111, Hanggaul-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Cha, Joo Hee [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro, 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: In digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), scatter correction is highly desirable, as it improves image quality at low doses. Because the DBT detector panel is typically stationary during the source rotation, antiscatter grids are not generally compatible with DBT; thus, a software-based scatter correction is required. This work proposes a fully iterative scatter correction method that uses a novel fast Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) with a tissue-composition ratio estimation technique for DBT imaging. Methods: To apply MCS to scatter estimation, the material composition in each voxel should be known. To overcome the lack of prior accurate knowledge of tissue composition for DBT, a tissue-composition ratio is estimated based on the observation that the breast tissues are principally composed of adipose and glandular tissues. Using this approximation, the composition ratio can be estimated from the reconstructed attenuation coefficients, and the scatter distribution can then be estimated by MCS using the composition ratio. The scatter estimation and image reconstruction procedures can be performed iteratively until an acceptable accuracy is achieved. For practical use, (i) the authors have implemented a fast MCS using a graphics processing unit (GPU), (ii) the MCS is simplified to transport only x-rays in the energy range of 10–50 keV, modeling Rayleigh and Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect using the tissue-composition ratio of adipose and glandular tissues, and (iii) downsampling is used because the scatter distribution varies rather smoothly. Results: The authors have demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately estimate the scatter distribution, and that the contrast-to-noise ratio of the final reconstructed image is significantly improved. The authors validated the performance of the MCS by changing the tissue thickness, composition ratio, and x-ray energy. The authors confirmed that the tissue-composition ratio estimation was quite

  10. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-06-10

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals' prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect.

  11. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana; Basavaraju, Suman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  12. Optimizing image quality and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities using the contrast-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, R.; Neitzel, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of X-ray tube voltage and filtration on image quality in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and dose for digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities and to determine conditions that give the best balance of CNR and patient dose. Materials and Methods: In a phantom study simulating the absorption properties of distal extremities, the CNR and the related patient dose were determined as a function of tube voltage in the range 40 - 66 kV, both with and without additional filtration of 0.1 mm Cu/1 mm Al. The measured CNR was used as an indicator of image quality, while the mean absorbed dose (MAD) - determined by a combination of measurement and simulation - was used as an indicator of the patient dose. Results: The most favorable relation of CNR and dose was found for the lowest tube voltage investigated (40 kV) without additional filtration. Compared to a situation with 50 kV or 60 kV, the mean absorbed dose could be lowered by 24 % and 50 %, respectively, while keeping the image quality (CNR) at the same level. Conclusion: For digital radiography of distal pediatric extremities, further CNR and dose optimization appears to be possible using lower tube voltages. Further clinical investigation of the suggested parameters is necessary. (orig.)

  13. The presence of aggression cues inverts the relation between digit ratio (2D:4D) and pro-social behaviour in a dictator game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millet, K.; Dewitte, S.

    2009-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter index (2D) compared to ring (4D) fingers than women. More masculine ratios are thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. In the present paper, we aim to show the context-dependency of the relation

  14. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  15. Cerebral laterality for language is related to adult salivary testosterone levels but not digit ratio (2D:4D) in men: A functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Martin, Maryanne

    2017-03-01

    The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D). A significant quadratic relationship between degree of cerebral laterality for language and adult T concentrations was observed, with enhanced T levels for strong left hemisphere dominance and strong right hemisphere dominance. No systematic effects on laterality were found for cortisol or 2D:4D. Findings suggest that higher levels of T are associated with a relatively attenuated degree of interhemispheric sharing of linguistic information, providing support for the callosal and the sexual differentiation hypotheses rather than the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fixation strength of biocomposite wedge interference screw in ACL reconstruction: effect of screw length and tunnel/screw ratio. A controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary stability of the graft is essential in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. An optimal method of fixation should be easy to insert and provide great resistance against pull-out forces. A controlled laboratory study was designed to test the primary stability of ACL tendinous grafts in the tibial tunnel. The correlation between resistance to traction forces and the cross-section and length of the screw was studied. Methods The tibial phase of ACL reconstruction was performed in forty porcine tibias using digital flexor tendons of the same animal. An 8 mm tunnel was drilled in each specimen and two looped tendons placed as graft. Specimens were divided in five groups according to the diameter and length of the screw used for fixation. Wedge interference screws were used. Longitudinal traction was applied to the graft with a Servohydraulic Fatigue System. Load and displacement were controlled and analyzed. Results The mean loads to failure for each group were 295,44 N (Group 1; 9 × 23 screw, 564,05 N (Group 2; 9 × 28, 614,95 N (Group 3; 9 × 35, 651,14 N (Group 4; 10 × 28 and 664,99 (Group 5; 10 × 35. No slippage of the graft was observed in groups 3, 4 and 5. There were significant differences in the load to failure among groups (ANOVA/P Conclusions Longer and wider interference screws provide better fixation in tibial ACL graft fixation. Short screws (23 mm do not achieve optimal fixation and should be implanted only with special requirements.

  17. The Big Finger: the second to fourth digit ratio is a predictor of sporting ability in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S N; Kato, B S; Hunkin, J L; Vivekanandan, S; Spector, T D

    2006-01-01

    Background The second to fourth finger length ratio (2d:4d) is thought to be related to diverse traits including cognitive ability, disease susceptibility, and sexuality. Objective To examine the relationship between 2d:4d and sports ability in women. Methods Hand radiographs from 607 women (mean age 54 years) were used to estimate 2d:4d. Ranking of sports ability was on a scale (1–5). Results The highest achieved level of participation in any sport was significantly negatively associated with 2d:4d (b  =  −4.93, p  =  0.01) as was the relationship between 2d:4d and running level (b  =  −6.81, p  =  0.034). Ability in other sports also showed a negative relationship albeit non‐significant. Conclusions These results suggest that a low 2d:4d ratio is related to increased female sports ability. It can be postulated that this ratio may predict potential sports ability. Understanding the mechanisms underpinning this relationship may give important insights into musculoskeletal fitness, health and disease. PMID:17008344

  18. Specimen aspect ratio and progressive field strain development of sandstone under uniaxial compression by three-dimensional digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Munoz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete stress–strain characteristics of sandstone specimens were investigated in a series of quasi-static monotonic uniaxial compression tests. Strain patterns development during pre- and post-peak behaviours in specimens with different aspect ratios was also examined. Peak stress, post-peak portion of stress–strain, brittleness, characteristics of progressive localisation and field strain patterns development were affected at different extents by specimen aspect ratio. Strain patterns of the rocks were obtained by applying three-dimensional (3D digital image correlation (DIC technique. Unlike conventional strain measurement using strain gauges attached to specimen, 3D DIC allowed not only measuring large strains, but more importantly, mapping the development of field strain throughout the compression test, i.e. in pre- and post-peak regimes. Field strain development in the surface of rock specimen suggests that strain starts localising progressively and develops at a lower rate in pre-peak regime. However, in post-peak regime, strains increase at different rates as local deformations take place at different extents in the vicinity and outside the localised zone. The extent of localised strains together with the rate of strain localisation is associated with the increase in rate of strength degradation. Strain localisation and local inelastic unloading outside the localised zone both feature post-peak regime.

  19. Digitized hand-wrist radiographs: comparison of subjective and software-derived image quality at various compression ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Layne K; Scarfe, William C; Naylor, Rachel H; Scheetz, James P; Silveira, Anibal; Gillespie, Kevin R

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of JPEG 2000 compression of hand-wrist radiographs on observer image quality qualitative assessment and to compare with a software-derived quantitative image quality index. Fifteen hand-wrist radiographs were digitized and saved as TIFF and JPEG 2000 images at 4 levels of compression (20:1, 40:1, 60:1, and 80:1). The images, including rereads, were viewed by 13 orthodontic residents who determined the image quality rating on a scale of 1 to 5. A quantitative analysis was also performed by using a readily available software based on the human visual system (Image Quality Measure Computer Program, version 6.2, Mitre, Bedford, Mass). ANOVA was used to determine the optimal compression level (P quality. When we used quantitative indexes, the JPEG 2000 images had lower quality at all compression ratios compared with the original TIFF images. There was excellent correlation (R2 >0.92) between qualitative and quantitative indexes. Image Quality Measure indexes are more sensitive than subjective image quality assessments in quantifying image degradation with compression. There is potential for this software-based quantitative method in determining the optimal compression ratio for any image without the use of subjective raters.

  20. From neural oscillations to reasoning ability: Simulating the effect of the theta-to-gamma cycle length ratio on individual scores in a figural analogy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Andrelczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    Several existing computational models of working memory (WM) have predicted a positive relationship (later confirmed empirically) between WM capacity and the individual ratio of theta to gamma oscillatory band lengths. These models assume that each gamma cycle represents one WM object (e.g., a binding of its features), whereas the theta cycle integrates such objects into the maintained list. As WM capacity strongly predicts reasoning, it might be expected that this ratio also predicts performance in reasoning tasks. However, no computational model has yet explained how the differences in the theta-to-gamma ratio found among adult individuals might contribute to their scores on a reasoning test. Here, we propose a novel model of how WM capacity constraints figural analogical reasoning, aimed at explaining inter-individual differences in reasoning scores in terms of the characteristics of oscillatory patterns in the brain. In the model, the gamma cycle encodes the bindings between objects/features and the roles they play in the relations processed. Asynchrony between consecutive gamma cycles results from lateral inhibition between oscillating bindings. Computer simulations showed that achieving the highest WM capacity required reaching the optimal level of inhibition. When too strong, this inhibition eliminated some bindings from WM, whereas, when inhibition was too weak, the bindings became unstable and fell apart or became improperly grouped. The model aptly replicated several empirical effects and the distribution of individual scores, as well as the patterns of correlations found in the 100-people sample attempting the same reasoning task. Most importantly, the model's reasoning performance strongly depended on its theta-to-gamma ratio in same way as the performance of human participants depended on their WM capacity. The data suggest that proper regulation of oscillations in the theta and gamma bands may be crucial for both high WM capacity and effective complex

  1. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  2. Does the index-to-ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) differ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Results from an international online case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Pamphlett, Roger

    2017-08-07

    The ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D) (2D:4D) has been reported to be lower (ie, 2Dcontrols. This has led to suggestions that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone, which also lowers this ratio, could be a risk factor for ALS. In an attempt to test this hypothesis, we examined 2D:4Ds from large numbers of patients with ALS and controls. An online multilingual questionnaire enabling respondents to measure their own index and ring finger lengths. Of the initial 949 respondents, 572 remained for analysis after elimination for inability to straighten fingers, not answering the question, statistical outliers and aged controls (112 males, 258 females). Unpaired t-tests with 95% CIs were used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds. Males had significantly lower mean 2D:4Ds than females, in both ALS and control groups, for both left and right hands. No significant differences were found in 2D:4Ds between ALS and control groups, in either males or females, for either left or right hands. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed no power for 2D:4Ds to predict ALS status in either males or females. 2D:4Ds did not differ between patients with ALS and controls in this study. This was despite the dataset being large enough to confirm the established finding of lower 2D:4Ds in males compared with females. These findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone is a risk factor for ALS. A putative lower 2D:4D has been proposed to explain the link between ALS and exercise, but our results indicate that other exercise-related factors are more likely to explain this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Percentage of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of >= 5% or >= 15% impervious cover by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentages of stream and water body shoreline lengths within 30 meters of impervious cover by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC)...

  4. Early-to-mid gestation fetal testosterone increases right hand 2D:4D finger length ratio in polycystic ovary syndrome-like monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Abbott

    Full Text Available A smaller length ratio for the second relative to the fourth finger (2D:4D is repeatedly associated with fetal male-typical testosterone (T and is implicated as a biomarker for a variety of traits and susceptibility to a number of diseases, but no experimental human studies have been performed. The present study utilizes the rhesus monkey, a close relative of humans, and employs discrete gestational exposure of female monkeys to fetal male-typical T levels for 15-35 days during early-to-mid (40-76 days; n = 7 or late (94-139 days; n = 7 gestation (term: 165 days by daily subcutaneous injection of their dams with 10 mg T propionate. Such gestational exposures are known to enhance male-typical behavior. In this study, compared to control females (n = 19, only early-to-mid gestation T exposure virilizes female external genitalia while increasing 2D:4D ratio in the right hand (RH by male-like elongation of RH2D. RH2D length and 2D:4D positively correlate with androgen-dependent anogenital distance (AG, and RH2D and AG positively correlate with duration of early-to-mid gestation T exposure. Male monkeys (n = 9 exhibit a sexually dimorphic 2D:4D in the right foot, but this trait is not emulated by early-to-mid or late gestation T exposed females. X-ray determined phalanx measurements indicate elongated finger and toe phalanx length in males, but no other phalanx-related differences. Discrete T exposure during early-to-mid gestation in female rhesus monkeys thus appears to increase RH2D:4D through right-side biased, non-skeletal tissue growth. As variation in timing and duration of gestational T exposure alter male-like dimensions of RH2D independently of RH4D, postnatal RH2D:4D provides a complex biomarker for fetal T exposure.

  5. The Relationship between the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D, which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%, who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood

  6. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  7. Lack of association between digit ratio (2D:4D) and assertiveness: replication in a large sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Findings regarding within-sex associations of digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative pointer to long-lasting effects of prenatal androgen action, and sexually differentiated personality traits have generally been inconsistent or unreplicable, suggesting that effects in this domain, if any, are likely small. In contrast to evidence from Wilson's important 1983 study, a forerunner of modern 2D:4D research, two recent studies in 2005 and 2008 by Freeman, et al. and Hampson, et al. showed assertiveness, a presumably male-typed personality trait, was not associated with 2D:4D; however, these studies were clearly statistically underpowered. Hence this study examined this question anew, based on a large sample of 491 men and 627 women. Assertiveness was only modestly sexually differentiated, favoring men, and a positive correlate of age and education and a negative correlate of weight and Body Mass Index among women, but not men. Replicating the two prior studies, 2D:4D was throughout unrelated to assertiveness scores. This null finding was preserved with controls for correlates of assertiveness, also in nonparametric analysis and with tests for curvilinear relations. Discussed are implications of this specific null finding, now replicated in a large sample, for studies of 2D:4D and personality in general and novel research approaches to proceed in this field.

  8. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and dominance: A possible explanation for the feminist paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMadison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e. those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  9. Numerical analysis of ion temperature effects to the plasma wall transition using a one-dimensional two-fluid model. I. Finite Debye to ionization length ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2017-06-01

    A one-dimensional, two-fluid, steady state model is used for the analysis of ion temperature effects to the plasma-wall transition. In this paper, the model is solved for a finite ratio ɛ between the Debye and the ionization length, while in Part II [T. Gyergyek and J. Kovačič, Phys Plasmas 24, 063506 (2017)], the solutions for ɛ = 0 are presented. Ion temperature is treated as a given, independent parameter and it is included in the model as a boundary condition. It is shown that when the ion temperature larger than zero is selected, the ion flow velocity and the electric field at the boundary must be consistent with the selected ion temperature. A numerical procedure, how to determine such "consistent boundary conditions," is proposed, and a simple relation between the ion temperature and ion velocity at the boundary of the system is found. The effects of the ion temperature to the pre-sheath length, potential, ion temperature, and ion density drops in the pre-sheath and in the sheath are investigated. It is concluded that larger ion temperature results in a better shielding of the plasma from the wall. An attempt is made to include the ion heat flux qi into the model in its simplest form q i = - K ' /d T i d x , where K ' is a constant heat conduction coefficient. It is shown that inclusion of such a term into the energy transfer equation introduces an additional ion heating mechanism into the system and the ion flow then becomes isothermal instead of adiabatic even in the sheath.

  10. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D is not related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D, a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. METHODS: In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13.5-18 y was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. RESULTS: Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019 was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9.2% (flexibility and 33.9% (static strength of variance. CONCLUSION: Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls.

  11. The left hand second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is not related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Maarten W; Van Aken, Katrijn; Claessens, Albrecht L

    2013-01-01

    The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with fitness and sports performance, although results are not univocal. Most studies however focus on a single aspect of physical fitness or one sports discipline. In this study the 2D:4D ratio of 178 adolescent girls (age 13.5-18 y) was measured on X-rays of the left hand. The relation between 2D:4D digit ratio and multiple aspects of physical fitness (balance, speed of limb movement, flexibility, explosive strength, static strength, trunk strength, functional strength, running speed/agility, and endurance) was studied by correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression. For comparison the relation between these physical fitness components and a selected number of objectively measured anthropometric traits (stature, mass, BMI, somatotype components and the Bayer & Bailey androgyny index) are presented alongside the results of 2D:4D digit ratio. Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio (0.925±0.019) was not significantly correlated with any of the physical fitness components nor any of the anthropometric variables included in the present study. 2D:4D did not enter the multiple stepwise regression for any of the physical fitness components in which other anthropometric traits explained between 9.2% (flexibility) and 33.9% (static strength) of variance. Unlike other anthropometric traits the 2D:4D digit ratio does not seem to be related to any physical fitness component in adolescent girls and therefore most likely should not be considered in talent detection programs for sporting ability in girls.

  12. The contributions of Hans-Dieter Rösler: pioneer of digit ratio (2D:4D) research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Dressler, Stefan G; Loibl, Lisa Mariella

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade, the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative biomarker for the organizational (permanent) effects of prenatal androgens on the human brain, body, and behavior, has received extensive research attention in psychology. This account makes more widely accessible the contributions of the German psychologist, Hans-Dieter Rösler, an early, for a long time unnoticed, predecessor of modern 2D:4D research. In the mid-1950s, Rösler collected a massive sample of hand outline drawings, totalling nearly 7,000 individuals, ranging in age from 1 mo. to 70 yr. With regard to the distal finger-extent pattern, Rösler differentiated radial (longer index than ring finger), ulnar (reversed pattern), and intermediate hand types, which reflect higher (more female-typical), lower (more male-typical), and intermediate 2D:4D, respectively. Here is summarized Rösler's research. In a series of investigations into the hand types, he reported on their anatomical bases, unsuitability for paternity testing, developmental changes, heritability, sex, side, and occupational group differences, and associations with left-handedness, manual dexterity, mental retardation, and clinodactyly. Based on new data from 313 male and 316 female adults, hand type is further shown to be only a weak proxy of actual 2D:4D, leaving 75% of the interindividual variation in 2D:4D unexplained. Notwithstanding these shortcomings of the hand-type method, Rösler's work from the 1950s still has the potential to inform modern 2D:4D research, as it contains a multitude of testable hypotheses not yet picked up by current research.

  13. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Meixiang; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Chunxia; Xing, Bin; Li, Wenyong; Qian, Jianping; Li, Sha; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xiaodan; Yan, Yujing; Wang, Yan'an; Yang, Xinting

    2015-01-01

    In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012) of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT), an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT), an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  14. Apple fruit diameter and length estimation by using the thermal and sunshine hours approach and its application to the digital orchard management information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    Full Text Available In apple cultivation, simulation models may be used to monitor fruit size during the growth and development process to predict production levels and to optimize fruit quality. Here, Fuji apples cultivated in spindle-type systems were used as the model crop. Apple size was measured during the growing period at an interval of about 20 days after full bloom, with three weather stations being used to collect orchard temperature and solar radiation data at different sites. Furthermore, a 2-year dataset (2011 and 2012 of apple fruit size measurements were integrated according to the weather station deployment sites, in addition to the top two most important environment factors, thermal and sunshine hours, into the model. The apple fruit diameter and length were simulated using physiological development time (PDT, an indicator that combines important environment factors, such as temperature and photoperiod, as the driving variable. Compared to the model of calendar-based development time (CDT, an indicator counting the days that elapse after full bloom, we confirmed that the PDT model improved the estimation accuracy to within 0.2 cm for fruit diameter and 0.1 cm for fruit length in independent years using a similar data collection method in 2013. The PDT model was implemented to realize a web-based management information system for a digital orchard, and the digital system had been applied in Shandong Province, China since 2013. This system may be used to compute the dynamic curve of apple fruit size based on data obtained from a nearby weather station. This system may provide an important decision support for farmers using the website and short message service to optimize crop production and, hence, economic benefit.

  15. Measurement of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of metals by means of ESPI using a digital camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, J. B. Pascual; Michtchenko, A.; Barragán Pérez, O.; Susarrey Huerta, O.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, mechanical experiments with a low-cost interferometry set-up are presented. The set-up is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory where optical equipment is absent. The arrangement consists of two planes of illumination, allowing the measurement of the two perpendicular in-plane displacement directions. An axial load was applied on three different metals, and the longitudinal and transversal displacements were measured sequentially. A digital camera was used to acquire the images of the different states of load of the illuminated area. A personal computer was used to perform the digital subtraction of the images to obtain the fringe correlations, which are needed to calculate the displacements. Finally, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of the metals were calculated using the displacement data.

  16. Numerical study of the effect of relative humidity and stoichiometric flow ratio on PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell performance with various channel lengths: An anode partial flooding modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Cai, Qiong; Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Chunbo; Scott, Keith; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional, along the channel, non-isothermal, two-phase flow, anode partial flooding model was developed to investigate the effects of relative humidity, stoichiometric flow ratio and channel length, as well as their interactive influence, on the performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. Liquid water formation and transport at the anode due to the condensation of supersaturated anode gas initiated by hydrogen consumption was considered. The model considered the heat source/sink in terms of electrochemical reaction, Joule heating and latent heat due to water phase-transfer. The non-uniform temperature distributions inside the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and channels at various stoichiometric flow ratios were demonstrated. The Peclet number was used to evaluate the contributions of advection and diffusion on liquid water and heat transport. Results indicated that higher anode relative humidity is required to the improved cell performance. As the decrease in the anode relative humidity and increase in channel length, the optimal cathode relative humidity was increased. The initial increase in stoichiometric flow ratio improved the limiting current densities. However, the further increases led to limited contributions. The Peclet number indicated that the liquid water transport through the electrode was mainly determined by the capillary diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of RH, stoichiometric flow ratio, channel length are studied. • Fully humidified anode is required to maintain the good cell performance. • Optimal RH_c is 30–40% for channel length of 1–10 cm at high current density. • Effect of stoichiometric flow ratio is more significant for longer channels. • Both liquid water and heat transport are diffusion dominated rather than advection.

  17. Plastic Models Designed to Produce Large Height-to-Length Ratio Steady-State Planar and Axisymmetric (Radial) Viscous Liquid Laminar Flow Gravity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Harvey F.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…

  18. Tests of variable-band multilayers designed for investigating optimal signal-to-noise vs artifact signal ratios in Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography (DDSA) imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyers, D.; Ho, A.; Li, Q.; Piestrup, M.; Rice, M.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, various design techniques were applied to investigate the feasibility of controlling the bandwidth and bandshape profiles of tungsten/boron-carbon (W/B 4 C) and tungsten/silicon (W/Si) multilayers for optimizing their performance in synchrotron radiation based angiographical imaging systems at 33 keV. Varied parameters included alternative spacing geometries, material thickness ratios, and numbers of layer pairs. Planar optics with nominal design reflectivities of 30%--94% and bandwidths ranging from 0.6%--10% were designed at the Stanford Radiation Laboratory, fabricated by the Ovonic Synthetic Materials Company, and characterized on Beam Line 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, in this paper we report selected results of these tests and review the possible use of the multilayers for determining optimal signal to noise vs. artifact signal ratios in practical Dual-Energy Digital Subtraction Angiography systems

  19. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

  20. [Use of the 2D:4D digit ratio as a biological marker of specific language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Jordà, Antònia; Gamundí, Antoni; Nicolau Llobera, María Cristina; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva

    2018-04-03

    The finding of biological markers of specific language impairment would facilitate their detection and early intervention. In this sense, the 2D:4D finger ratio is considered an indirect indicator of prenatal exposure to testosterone. Previous studies have related it to linguistic competence and aggressive behaviour, and could be a candidate for a biological marker of language impairment. The aim was to compare the value of the 2D:4D ratio in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) with those of children with typical language development, as well as to establish to what extent this biological index correlates with the behaviour (linguistic, cognitive, social,...) in both groups. 2D:4D ratio, language, cognition and social behaviour were compared in a group of children with SLI (n=15), with a group of children without language difficulties (n=16) of the same age (between 5-8 years), gender (male), and socio-cultural level. Children with SLI showed significantly higher values of 2D:4D ratio of the right hand, and a negative correlation between this ratio and their linguistic competence. Although the children with SLI showed impaired adaptive abilities, but not more aggressive behaviour, these measurements did not correlate with the 2D:4D index. Nevertheless, social behaviour correlated with language and cognition competence. A higher value of the biological 2D:4D ration (lower intrauterine exposure to testosterone) seems to be associated with language difficulties in boys with SLI, but not with their behavioural difficulties. Their behavioural difficulties seem to be a consequence of their linguistic difficulties and their level of cognition. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Agreement in Measurement of Optic Cup-to-Disc Ratio with Stereo Biomicroscope Funduscopy and Digital Image Analysis: Results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare

    2017-02-01

    To determine agreement in estimations of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) between clinical stereo-biomicroscopic funduscopy and digital fundus image analysis. Systematic sampling of 1-in-7 from a sample of 13,591 participants aged ≥40 years gave a subsample who were examined in detail. VCDR was estimated clinically by 60 diopter aspheric lens biomicroscopic funduscopy (c-VCDR) and by digital fundus images (i-VCDR) graded at the Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Spearman's correlation coefficient, paired t-test and the Bland-Altman method to assess limits of agreement (LOA) between the two methods were applied. Of 1759 participants in the subsample, 848 participants (48%) with normal frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual fields and data for i-VCDR and c-VCDR in both eyes (n = 1696 eyes) were included in the analysis. By absolute difference of VCDR values for each eye between the two methods, 1585 eyes (94%) differed by ≤0.2. Mean i-VCDR was 0.381 (standard deviation, SD 0.156), and mean c-VCDR 0.321 (SD 0.145). i-VCDRs were significantly larger by a mean difference of 0.061 (SD 0.121; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.055-0.066; p method were lower limit -0.182 (95% CI -0.192 to -0.172) and upper limit 0.303 (95% CI 0.293-0.313). The 95% LOA intervals narrowed with higher VCDR. Digital image analysis and clinical assessment are two distinct methods to measure VCDR; with larger i-VCDRs in this survey. Applying i-VCDR cut-off values to c-VCDR measurements in the Nigeria Blindness Survey might have underestimated glaucoma prevalence. It is recommended that all participants in glaucoma surveys have VCDR by digital image measurement.

  2. The Relationship of Digit Ratio (2D:4D) with Cerebral Lateralization and Grip Strength in Elite Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hakan; Eler, Nebahat

    2018-01-01

    The index finger and the 4th finger ratio (2D:4D) is the indicator of the prenatal testosterone. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between 2D:4D, hand preference and hand grip strength in swimmers. A total of 80 elite swimmers, participated in the study. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), hand 2D:4D finger…

  3. A comparative evaluation of working length with digital radiography and third generation apex locator (ProPex in the presence of various intracanal irrigants: An in vivo/ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfana Khursheed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate working length determination is a pre-requisite for a successful endodontic treatment. Even with improved systems of working length measurement, different readings may be recorded in different electrolytes present in the canal. The purpose of this in vivo/ex vivo comparative study was to determine the accuracy in measuring the working length of root canal using Direct Digital Radiographic Method (Radiovisiography or RVG and ProPex electronic apex locator in the presence of three different irrigating solutions: 0.9% normal saline, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% NaOCl solutions. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth scheduled for extraction with mature apices were selected for this study. Measurements were performed by using RVG and ProPex in the presence of irrigating solutions. After extraction of the teeth, light microscope was used to confirm visually the relationship of the tip of the endodontic file to the apical foramen, and actual lengths were determined by reducing 0.5 mm from this length. The statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA test and Tukey-HSD post hoc procedure. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: No significant difference was found between overall mean electronic working length and digital radiographic length; however, prediction error (P < 0.05 was significant with respect to different irrigants. Among the irrigating solutions, chlorhexidine gluconate had the smallest distance to the actual lengths, whereas NaOCl had the greatest. Conclusion: Electronic apex locator ProPex yielded best result in the presence of chlorhexidine, whereas the largest error was demonstrated with NaOCl indicating that higher electroconductive irrigating solutions affect the precision of multi-frequency apex locators.

  4. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Urquídez, Dalmira; Pérez-Urquiza, Melina; Valdez Torres, José-Benigno; León-Félix, Josefina; García-Estrada, Raymundo; Acatzi-Silva, Abraham

    2016-01-05

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%-100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio.

  5. Development, Optimization, and Evaluation of a Duplex Droplet Digital PCR Assay To Quantify the T-nos/hmg Copy Number Ratio in Genetically Modified Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to guarantee the reliability of analytical measurements. The CRMs available in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are characterized using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This technology has limited application, because of its dependence on a calibrant. The objective of this study was to obtain a method with higher metrological quality, to characterize the CRMs for their contents of T-nos/hmg copy number ratio in maize. A duplex droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay was developed and optimized by a central composite design. The developed method achieved an absolute limit of detection (LOD) of 11 cP T-nos, a relative LOD of 0.034%, a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 23 cP (relative LOQ of 0.08%), and a dynamic range of 0.08%–100% T-nos/hmg ratio. The specificity and applicability of the assay were established for the analysis of low T-nos concentrations (0.9%) in several corn varieties. The convenience of DNA digestion to reduce measurement bias in the case of multiple-copy binding was confirmed through an enzymatic restriction assay. Given its overall performance, this method can be used to characterize CRM candidates for their contents of T-nos/hmg ratio. PMID:26605751

  6. Razão peso/comprimento: um bom indicador do estado nutricional em recém-nascidos a termo? Weight/length ratio: is it a good index to assess the nutritional status of full-term newborns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana D. de A. Braga

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: uma avaliação acurada do estado nutricional da criança ao nascer tem importância na identificação precoce de eventos mórbidos relacionados com a aceleração ou desaceleração do crescimento intra-útero. Os índices antropométricos resultantes das razões entre o peso e o comprimento e aqueles que resultam da razão entre o perímetro braquial e o perímetro cefálico podem ser uma alternativa, dentro da antropometria, para esse fim. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi verificar o grau de correlação entre a prega cutânea triciptal e os índices antropométricos - índice ponderal de Rohrer, índice de massa corpórea, razão peso/comprimento, razão perímetro braquial/perímetro cefálico - utilizados como critério de avaliação do estado nutricional de recém-nascidos. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal em 390 recém-nascidos a termo na maternidade do Centro de Atenção à Saúde da Mulher do Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, no período de maio a julho de 1999. Os recém-nascidos foram avaliados quanto ao peso, comprimento, perímetros cefálico e braquial e prega cutânea triciptal. Resultados: os resultados mostraram que os índices antropométricos apresentaram correlação significante com a prega cutânea triciptal, tendo sido a razão simples entre o peso e o comprimento aquele que se correlacionou mais fortemente (r = 0,63; p Objective: An accurate assessment of the nutritional status of an infant at birth is very important, since it provides information on early identification of pathological events related to intrauterine growth acceleration or retardation. Anthropometric ratios such as weight/length and mid-arm circumference/head circumference may be used as alternative tools for this purpose. The main objective of this study was to verify the correlation between triceps skinfold thickness with Rohrer Index, Body Mass Index, weight/length ratio, and mid-arm circumference

  7. Comparing a recursive digital filter with the moving-average and sequential probability-ratio detection methods for SNM portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The author compared a recursive digital filter proposed as a detection method for French special nuclear material monitors with the author's detection methods, which employ a moving-average scaler or a sequential probability-ratio test. Each of these nine test subjects repeatedly carried a test source through a walk-through portal monitor that had the same nuisance-alarm rate with each method. He found that the average detection probability for the test source is also the same for each method. However, the recursive digital filter may have on drawback: its exponentially decreasing response to past radiation intensity prolongs the impact of any interference from radiation sources of radiation-producing machinery. He also examined the influence of each test subject on the monitor's operation by measuring individual attenuation factors for background and source radiation, then ranked the subjects' attenuation factors against their individual probabilities for detecting the test source. The one inconsistent ranking was probably caused by that subject's unusually long stride when passing through the portal

  8. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M.; Schwab, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 ± 231.7 cGy*cm 2 versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 ± 103.8 cGy*cm 2 ). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  9. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  10. Weight-length Relationships, Gonadosomatic Indeces, Sex Ratios and Relative Weight of the Omani-Indian Oil sardine, Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes1847) from Al-Seeb Area; Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jufaili Saud

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the weight-length relationship and spawning period of the Omani Indian Oil sardine Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes 1847) which inhabits the near shore zone along the Omani coast. A total of 1744 specimens were collected between January 1997 to February 1998 from Al-Seeb; a suburban area situated by the sea in Muscat, Oman. Samples were obtained on a monthly basis from beach seine and gillnet catches. The female to male sex ratio was obtained to be 0.6. The monthly varia...

  11. Nearly constant ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break length scale in the plasma beta range from 0.2 to 1.4 in the solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    The spectrum break at the ion scale of the solar wind magnetic fluctuations are considered to give important clue on the turbulence dissipation mechanism. Among several possible mechanisms, the most notable ones are the two mechanisms that related respectively with proton thermal gyro-radius and proton inertial length. However, no definite conclusion has been given for which one is more reasonable because the two parameters have similar values in the normal plasma beta range. Here we do a statistical study for the first time to see if the two mechanism predictions have different dependence on the solar wind velocity and on the plasma beta in the normal plasma beta range in the solar wind at 1 AU. From magnetic measurements by Wind, Ulysses and Messenger, we select 60 data sets with duration longer than 8 hours. We found that the ratio between the proton inertial scale and the spectrum break scale do not change considerably with both varying the solar wind speed from 300km/s to 800km/s and varying the plasma beta from 0.2 to 1.4. The average value of the ratio times 2pi is 0.46 ± 0.08. However, the ratio between the proton gyro-radius and the break scale changes clearly. This new result shows that the proton inertial scale could be a single factor that determines the break length scale and hence gives a strong evidence to support the dissipation mechanism related to it in the normal plasma beta range. The value of the constant ratio may relate with the dissipation mechanism, but it needs further theoretical study to give detailed explanation.

  12. Correlation of morphological variants of the soft palate and Need's ratio in normal individuals: A digital cephalometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Sachdeva, Suresh K; Juneja, Suruchi [Surendera Dental College and Research Institute, Sriganganagar (India); Kumaraswam; Kikkeri Lakshminarayana [Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Farooqia Dental College, Mysore (India); Basavaraju, Suman [Dept. of Periodontics, J.S.S Dental College, Mysore (India)

    2014-09-15

    The present study was aimed to investigate the variation of soft palate morphology in different age and gender groups. The correlations of radiographic velar length (VL), velar width (VW), pharyngeal depth (PD), and Need's ratio with soft palate variants were also studied in the North Indian subpopulation. The study sample consisted of 300 subjects aged between 15 and 45 (mean: 31.32) years. The velar morphology on lateral cephalograms was examined and grouped into six types. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate with gender and different age groups. The most frequent type of soft palate was leaf shaped (48.7%), and the least common was crook shaped (3.0%) among both the genders and various age groups, showing a significant correlation. The mean VL, VW, and PD values were significantly higher in males and significantly correlated with the types of soft palate. A significant correlation was observed between the mean VL, VW, PD, and Need's ratio with various age groups, showing an inconsistent pattern with an increase in age. The types of soft palate, gender, and Need's ratio were also significantly correlated, with an overall higher mean value of the Need's ratio among female subjects and the S-shaped soft palate. The knowledge of a varied spectrum of velar morphology and the variants of the soft palate help in a better understanding of the velopharyngeal closure and craniofacial anomalies.

  13. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement

  14. Effects of exposure equalization on image signal-to-noise ratios in digital mammography: A simulation study with an anthropomorphic breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Lai Chaojen; Whitman, Gary J.; Geiser, William R.; Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The scan equalization digital mammography (SEDM) technique combines slot scanning and exposure equalization to improve low-contrast performance of digital mammography in dense tissue areas. In this study, full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images of an anthropomorphic breast phantom acquired with an anti-scatter grid at various exposure levels were superimposed to simulate SEDM images and investigate the improvement of low-contrast performance as quantified by primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs). Methods: We imaged an anthropomorphic breast phantom (Gammex 169 ''Rachel,'' Gammex RMI, Middleton, WI) at various exposure levels using a FFDM system (Senographe 2000D, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI). The exposure equalization factors were computed based on a standard FFDM image acquired in the automatic exposure control (AEC) mode. The equalized image was simulated and constructed by superimposing a selected set of FFDM images acquired at 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 times of exposure levels to the standard AEC timed technique (125 mAs) using the equalization factors computed for each region. Finally, the equalized image was renormalized regionally with the exposure equalization factors to result in an appearance similar to that with standard digital mammography. Two sets of FFDM images were acquired to allow for two identically, but independently, formed equalized images to be subtracted from each other to estimate the noise levels. Similarly, two identically but independently acquired standard FFDM images were subtracted to estimate the noise levels. Corrections were applied to remove the excess system noise accumulated during image superimposition in forming the equalized image. PSNRs over the compressed area of breast phantom were computed and used to quantitatively study the effects of exposure equalization on low-contrast performance in digital mammography. Results: We found that the highest achievable PSNR improvement factor was 1.89 for

  15. Performance analysis of 20 nm gate-length In0.2Al0.8N/GaN HEMT with Cu-gate having a remarkable high ION/IOFF ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Lenka, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new structure of In x Al 1−x N/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with gate length of 20 nm. The threshold voltage of this HEMT is achieved as −0.472 V. In this device the InAlN barrier layer is intentionally n-doped to boost the I ON /I OFF ratio. The InAlN layer acts as donor barrier layer for this HEMT which exhibits an I ON = 10 −4.3 A and a very low I OFF = 10 −14.4 A resulting in an I ON /I OFF ratio of 10 10.1 . We compared our obtained results with the conventional InAlN/GaN HEMT device having undoped barrier and found that the proposed device has almost 10 5 times better I ON /I OFF ratio. Further, the mobility analysis in GaN channel of this proposed HEMT structure along with DC analysis, C–V and conductance characteristics by using small-signal analysis are also presented in this paper. Moreover, the shifts in threshold voltage by DIBL effect and gate leakage current in the proposed HEMT are also discussed. InAlN was chosen as the most preferred barrier layer as a replacement of AlGaN for its excellent thermal conductivity and very good scalability. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Digital breast tomosynthesis: studies of the effects of acquisition geometry on contrast-to-noise ratio and observer preference of low-contrast objects in breast phantom images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M; Chan, Heang-Ping; Telang, Santosh; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A; Paramagul, Chintana; Neal, Colleen; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Larson, Sandra C; Carson, Paul L; Schmitz, Andrea; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Watcharotone, Kuanwong

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acquisition geometry in digital breast tomosynthesis was evaluated with studies of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and observer preference. Contrast-detail (CD) test objects in 5 cm thick phantoms with breast-like backgrounds were imaged. Twelve different angular acquisitions (average glandular dose for each ∼1.1 mGy) were performed ranging from narrow angle 16° with 17 projection views (16d17p) to wide angle 64d17p. Focal slices of SART-reconstructed images of the CD arrays were selected for CNR computations and the reader preference study. For the latter, pairs of images obtained with different acquisition geometries were randomized and scored by 7 trained readers. The total scores for all images and readings for each acquisition geometry were compared as were the CNRs. In general, readers preferred images acquired with wide angle as opposed to narrow angle geometries. The mean percent preferred was highly correlated with tomosynthesis angle (R = 0.91). The highest scoring geometries were 60d21p (95%), 64d17p (80%), and 48d17p (72%); the lowest scoring were 16d17p (4%), 24d9p (17%) and 24d13p (33%). The measured CNRs for the various acquisitions showed much overlap but were overall highest for wide-angle acquisitions. Finally, the mean reader scores were well correlated with the mean CNRs (R = 0.83). (paper)

  17. Digital breast tomosynthesis: Studies of the effects of acquisition geometry on contrast-to-noise ratio and observer preference of low-contrast objects in breast phantom images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Schmitz, Andrea; Zelakiewicz, Scott; Telang, Santosh; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Helvie, Mark A.; Paramagul, Chintana; Neal, Colleen; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Larson, Sandra C.; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acquisition geometry in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) was evaluated with studies of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) and observer preference. Contrast-detail (CD) test objects in 5 cm thick phantoms with breast-like backgrounds were imaged. Twelve different angular acquisitions (average glandular dose for each ~1.1 mGy) were performed ranging from narrow angle 16° with 17 projection views (16d17p) to wide angle 64d17p. Focal slices of SART-reconstructed images of the CD arrays were selected for CNR computations and the reader preference study. For the latter, pairs of images obtained with different acquisition geometries were randomized and scored by 7 trained readers. The total scores for all images and readings for each acquisition geometry were compared as were the CNRs. In general, readers preferred images acquired with wide angle as opposed to narrow angle geometries. The mean percent preferred was highly correlated with tomosynthesis angle (R=0.91). The highest scoring geometries were 60d21p (95%), 64d17p (80%), and 48d17p (72%); the lowest scoring were 16d17p (4%), 24d9p (17%) and 24d13p (33%). The measured CNRs for the various acquisitions showed much overlap but were overall highest for wide-angle acquisitions. Finally, the mean reader scores were well correlated with the mean CNRs (R=0.83). PMID:25211509

  18. The Effect of Testosterone Administration and Digit Ratio (2D:4D on Implicit Preference for Status Goods in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been linked to social status seeking in humans. The present study investigated the effects of testosterone administration on implicit and explicit preferences for status goods in healthy male participants (n = 64, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. We also investigated the interactive effect between second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; i.e., a proximal index of prenatal testosterone and testosterone treatment on status preferences. Results showed that testosterone administration has no discernable influence on self-reported willingness-to-pay (i.e., the explicit measure or implicit attitudes towards status goods. Individuals with lower 2D:4D (i.e., more masculine had more positive attitudes for high-status goods on an Implicit Association Task, and this association was abolished with testosterone administration. These data suggest interactive effects of acute testosterone administration and prenatal testosterone exposure on human social status seeking, and highlight the utility of implicit methods for measuring status-related behavior.

  19. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika; Wallert, John; Woodley, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda.

  20. Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika; Wallert, John; Woodley, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other. We measured the 2D:4D digit ratios (collected from both hands) and a personality trait known as dominance (measured with the Directiveness scale) in a sample of women attending a feminist conference. The sample exhibited significantly more masculine 2D:4D and higher dominance ratings than comparison samples representative of women in general, and these variables were furthermore positively correlated for both hands. The feminist paradox might thus to some extent be explained by biological differences between women in general and the activist women who formulate the feminist agenda. PMID:25250010

  1. A novel technique for determination of two dimensional signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor of an antiscatter grid in digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøtthellen, Jacob; Konst, Bente; Abildgaard, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: to present a new and simplified method for pixel-wise determination of the signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor KSNR of an antiscatter grid, when used with a digital imaging system. The method was based on approximations of published formulas. The simplified estimate of K2SNR may be used as a decision tool for whether or not to use an antiscatter grid. Methods: the primary transmission of the grid Tp was determined with and without a phantom present using a pattern of beam stops. The Bucky factor B was measured with and without a phantom present. Hence K2SNR maps were created based on Tp and B. A formula was developed to calculate K2SNR from the measured Bs without using the measured Tp. The formula was applied on two exposures of anthropomorphic phantoms, adult legs and baby chest, and on two homogeneous poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) phantoms, 5 cm and 10 cm thick. The results from anthropomorphic phantoms were compared to those based on the beam stop method. The results for the PMMA-phantoms were compared to a study that used a contrast-detail phantom. Results: 2D maps of K2SNR over the entire adult legs and baby chest phantoms were created. The maps indicate that it is advantageous to use the antiscatter grid for imaging of the adult legs. For baby chest imaging the antiscatter grid is not recommended if only the lung regions are of interest. The K2SNR maps based on the new method correspond to those from the beam stop method, and the K2SNR from the homogenous phantoms arising from two different approaches also agreed well with each other. Conclusion: a method to measure 2D K2SNR associated with grid use in digital radiography system was developed and validated. The proposed method requires four exposures and use of a simple formula. It is fast and provides adequate estimates for K2SNR.

  2. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  3. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  4. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  5. Effects of gender, digit ratio, and menstrual cycle on intrinsic brain functional connectivity: A whole-brain, voxel-wise exploratory study using simultaneous local and global functional connectivity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donishi, Tomohiro; Terada, Masaki; Kaneoke, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    Gender and sex hormones influence brain function, but their effects on functional network organization within the brain are not yet understood. We investigated the influence of gender, prenatal sex hormones (estimated by the 2D:4D digit ratio), and the menstrual cycle on the intrinsic functional network organization of the brain (as measured by 3T resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)) using right-handed, age-matched university students (100 males and 100 females). The mean (± SD ) age was 20.9 ± 1.5 (range: 18-24) years and 20.8 ± 1.3 (range: 18-24) years for males and females, respectively. Using two parameters derived from the normalized alpha centrality analysis (one for local and another for global connectivity strength), we created mean functional connectivity strength maps. There was a significant difference between the male mean map and female mean map in the distributions of network properties in almost all cortical regions and the basal ganglia but not in the medial parietal, limbic, and temporal regions and the thalamus. A comparison between the mean map for the low 2D:4D digit ratio group (indicative of high exposure to testosterone during the prenatal period) and that for the high 2D:4D digit ratio group revealed a significant difference in the network properties of the medial parietal region for males and in the temporal region for females. The menstrual cycle affected network organization in the brain, which varied with the 2D:4D digit ratio. Most of these findings were reproduced with our other datasets created with different preprocessing steps. The results suggest that differences in gender, prenatal sex hormone exposure, and the menstrual cycle are useful for understanding the normal brain and investigating the mechanisms underlying the variable prevalence and symptoms of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  6. The relationship between second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios and problematic and pathological Internet use among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Düzgün, Melike; Erdem, Ayşe Merve; Karaçaylı, Esranur; Topan, Nur Begüm; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Zhai, Zu Wei; Kuloğlu, Murat; Potenza, Marc N

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The ratio of the second and fourth fingers (2D:4D ratio) is a sexually dimorphic trait, with men tending to have lower values than women. This ratio has been related to prenatal testosterone concentrations and addictive behaviors including problematic video-gaming. We aimed to investigate the possible association between 2D:4D ratios and Internet addiction and whether such a relationship would be independent of impulsivity. Methods A total of 652 university students (369 women, 283 men), aged 17-27 years, were enrolled in the study. Problematic and pathological Internet use (PPIU) was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (version 11; BIS-11) and had their 2D:4D ratios measured. Results 2D:4D ratios were not significantly different in women with PPIU and in those with adaptive Internet use (AIU). Men with PPIU exhibited lower 2D:4D ratios on both hands when compared with those with AIU. Correlation analysis revealed that 2D:4D ratios on both hands were negatively correlated with IAT scores among men, but not among women. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age, duration of weekly Internet use, impulsiveness, and 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were independently associated with IAT scores among men, and impulsivity did not mediate the relationship between 2D:4D ratios and PPIU. Conclusions For men, 2D:4D ratios on the right hand were inversely correlated with Internet addiction severity even after controlling for individual differences in impulsivity. These findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone levels may contribute to the occurrence of PPIU among men.

  7. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  8. Distal digital replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Leila; Klausner, Jill Q; Chang, James

    2013-11-01

    Hand surgeons have been hesitant to perform distal digital replantation because of the technical challenges and the perception of a high cost-to-benefit ratio. Recent studies, however, have shown high survival rates and excellent functional and aesthetic results, providing renewed enthusiasm for distal replantation. The authors reviewed the literature and summarize key points regarding the surgical treatment, perioperative care, and outcomes of distal digital replantation. They describe specific techniques and considerations for surgical repair in each of four distal zones as described by Sebastin and Chung. Zone 1A replantation involves an artery-only anastomosis of a longitudinal pulp artery. Venous anastomosis first becomes possible in zone 1B. Zone 1C involves periarticular amputations where arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint is usually indicated. Repair of the artery, vein, and nerve is technically optimal in zone 1D, where venous anastomosis should be performed. Overall, survival rates for distal digital replantation are similar to those reported for more proximal replantation. The literature reports good outcomes regarding nail salvage, fingertip sensibility, and range of motion, with restoration of length and aesthetic appearance. Distal replantation performed at institutions that specialize in microsurgery and specifically tailored to the level of injury is associated with good survival, function, and patient satisfaction and superior aesthetic outcome. More prospective data are needed to evaluate the cost of treatment, psychological outcomes, and functional outcomes of distal replantation compared with revision amputation.

  9. 内外径比值对横向效应侵彻体的影响分析%Simulation Analysis of the Influence of Length-Diameter Ratio on Lateral Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦志刚; 曹旭; 张明博

    2017-01-01

    通过研究不同内外径比值对PELE横向效应的影响,对不同内外径比情况弹丸侵彻靶板的过程进行数值仿真.结果表明:任意一种类型横向效应侵彻体,其消耗的能量随着内外径比值的增大而增大;对于一个设定的内外径比,总有一个最佳长径比值使其横向效应效果最优.%Through the study of the influence of different ratio of inner and outer diameters on the transverse effect of PELE,numerical simulation of projectile penetration into target plate with different ratio of internal and external diameter was carried out.The results show that:for any type of lateral effect penetrator,its energy consumption increases as the diameter ratio increases;for a set diameter ratio,there is always an optimum value so that the lateral effect will be best.

  10. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  11. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  12. Homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A digital Vernier caliper was used to obtain direct linear measurements of the toe length of both feet; hallux (1T), second toe (2T), third toe (3T), fourth toe (4T), and the fifth toe (5T). Ten (10) possible toe-length ratios were also determined and named as follows; 1T/2T, 1T/3T, 1T/4T, 1T/5T, 2T/3T, 2T/4T, 2T/5T, 3T/4T, 3T/5T, ...

  13. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers.In this article, we explore this ...

  14. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Fibonacci numbers, golden ratio, Sanskrit prosody, solar panel. Abstract. Our attraction to another body increases if the body is symmetricaland in proportion. If a face or a structure is in proportion,we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful.The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found inmany ...

  15. Golden Ratio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our attraction to another body increases if the body is sym- metrical and in proportion. If a face or a structure is in pro- portion, we are more likely to notice it and find it beautiful. The universal ratio of beauty is the 'Golden Ratio', found in many structures. This ratio comes from Fibonacci numbers. In this article, we explore this ...

  16. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  17. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  18. Quantitation of specific binding ratio in 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: accurate processing strategy for cerebral ventricular enlargement with use of 3D-striatal digital brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akihiro; Onishi, Hideo; Amijima, Hizuru

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ventricular enlargement on the specific binding ratio (SBR) and to validate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-Mask algorithm for quantitative SBR assessment of 123 I-FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with the use of a 3D-striatum digital brain (SDB) phantom. Ventricular enlargement was simulated by three-dimensional extensions in a 3D-SDB phantom comprising segments representing the striatum, ventricle, brain parenchyma, and skull bone. The Evans Index (EI) was measured in 3D-SDB phantom images of an enlarged ventricle. Projection data sets were generated from the 3D-SDB phantoms with blurring, scatter, and attenuation. Images were reconstructed using the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm and corrected for attenuation, scatter, and resolution recovery. We bundled DaTView (Southampton method) with the CSF-Mask processing software for SBR. We assessed SBR with the use of various coefficients (f factor) of the CSF-Mask. Specific binding ratios of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 corresponded to SDB phantom simulations with true values. Measured SBRs > 50% that were underestimated with EI increased compared with the true SBR and this trend was outstanding at low SBR. The CSF-Mask improved 20% underestimates and brought the measured SBR closer to the true values at an f factor of 1.0 despite an increase in EI. We connected the linear regression function (y = - 3.53x + 1.95; r = 0.95) with the EI and f factor using root-mean-square error. Processing with CSF-Mask generates accurate quantitative SBR from dopamine transporter SPECT images of patients with ventricular enlargement.

  19. Can Sex Differences in Science Be Tied to the Long Reach of Prenatal Hormones? Brain Organization Theory, Digit Ratio (2D/4D), and Sex Differences in Preferences and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, Jeffrey; Ceci, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    Brain organization theory posits a cascade of physiological and behavioral changes initiated and shaped by prenatal hormones. Recently, this theory has been associated with outcomes including gendered toy preference, 2D/4D digit ratio, personality characteristics, sexual orientation, and cognitive profile (spatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities). We examine the evidence for this claim, focusing on 2D/4D and its putative role as a biomarker for organizational features that influence cognitive abilities/interests predisposing males toward mathematically and spatially intensive careers. Although massive support exists for early brain organization theory overall, there are myriad inconsistencies, alternative explanations, and outright contradictions that must be addressed while still taking the entire theory into account. Like a fractal within the larger theory, the 2D/4D hypothesis mirrors this overall support on a smaller scale while likewise suffering from inconsistencies (positive, negative, and sex-dependent correlations), alternative explanations (2D/4D related to spatial preferences rather than abilities per se), and contradictions (feminine 2D/4D in men associated with higher spatial ability). Using the debate over brain organization theory as the theoretical stage, we focus on 2D/4D evidence as an increasingly important player on this stage, a demonstrative case in point of the evidential complexities of the broader debate, and an increasingly important topic in its own right.

  20. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-14

    Jun 14, 2017 ... of individuals,[2,5-8] the relationship between CR and refractive status ... the relationship between refractive error and ocular .... AG, 07740 Jena Germany). ..... adult population in rural Myanmar: The Meiktila eye study. Clin.

  1. Powiązania wskaźnika placów 2D:4D z cechami budowy ciała i sprawnością motoryczną u młodych piłkarzy = The relationship digit ratio 2D:4D with body build features and motoric performance in young footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mońka

    2017-02-01

    z leżenia. Próby zostały przeprowadzone zgodnie z procedurą testu Eurofit (1993. Dodatkowo wykonano pomiar siły ścisku ręki przy pomocy dynamometru. Wyniki Wskaźnik 2D:4D przyjmuje u badanych piłkarzy typowe dla mężczyzn wartości.  Stwierdzono jednak słabe związki formuły palców z cechami budowy somatycznej oraz z niektórymi komponentami sprawności motorycznej.       Summary The ratio of the finger’s length 2D: 4D shows sexual dimorphism. Males have a lower digit ratio in comparison to women. This is the result of the sex hormones –androgens. Researches indicate that high level of testosterone determines better strength, dexterity, greater force and tendency to aggression and to fight. These features are important to succeed sports. The studies have verified relationship digit ratio 2D:4D with body build and motor performance as well as results in sport. The published results are not conclusive with reference to the characteristics of fitness. Aim of study The aim of the study was examine if the value index 2D: 4D among Polish, young soccer players correlates with morphological features and level of motoric performance. Material and methods The researches are conducted in group of 38 soccer players from Sport Club Polkowice. The age of examined was 16-18 years old. The professional training was at least  6  years. There was measured digit ratio, basic anthropological features and motoric efficiency. There was used three motoric tests: sit-ups, standing long jump and flexibility. Conclusion Digit ratio indicates low relationship with the characteristics of the somatic construction and some components of the motoric performance.

  2. Modified toe pulp fillet flap coverage: Better wound healing and satisfactory length preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Oon; Suh, Hyo Wan; Lee, Jun Yong

    2018-01-01

    Amputation is commonly performed for toe necrosis secondary to peripheral vascular diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. When amputating a necrotic toe, preservation of the bony structure is important for preventing the collapse of adjacent digits into the amputated space. However, in the popular terminal Syme's amputation technique, partial amputation of the distal phalanx could cause increased tension on the wound margin. Herein, we introduce a new way to resect sufficient bony structure while maintaining the normal length, based on a morphological analysis of the toes. Unlike the pulp of the finger in the distal phalanx, the toe has abundant teardrop-shaped pulp tissue. The ratio of the vertical length to the longitudinal length in the distal phalanx was compared between the toes and fingers. Amputation was performed at the proximal interphalangeal joint level. Then, a mobilizable pulp flap was rotated 90° cephalad to replace the distal soft tissue defect. This modified toe fillet flap was performed in 5 patients. The toe pulp was found to have a vertically oriented morphology compared to that of the fingers, enabling length preservation through cephalad rotation. All defects were successfully covered without marginal ischemia. While conventional toe fillet flap coverage focuses on the principle of length preservation as the first priority, our modified method takes both wound healing and length into account. The fattiest part of the pulp is advanced to the toe tip, providing a cushioning effect and enough length to substitute for phalangeal bone loss. Our modified method led to satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes.

  3. RUN LENGTH SYNCHRONIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important aspect of digital communications is the problem of determining efficient methods for acquiring block synchronization . In this paper we...utilizes an N-digit sync sequence as prefix to the data blocks. The results of this study show that this technique is a practical method for acquiring block synchronization .

  4. A digital transducer and digital microphone using an optical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelmansarai, F. A.

    1996-09-01

    A transducer is devised to measure pressure, displacements or angles by optical means. This transducer delivers a digital output without relying on interferometry techniques or analogue-to-digital converters. This device is based on an optical scanner and an optical detector. An inter-digital photoconductive detector (IDPC) is employed that delivers a series of pulses, whose number depends on the scan length. A pre-objective scanning configuration is used that allows for the possibility of a flat image plane. The optical scanner provides scanning of IDPC and the generated scan length is proportional to the measurand.

  5. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  6. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  7. Validity of plant fiber length measurement : a review of fiber length measurement based on kenaf as a model

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Theodore. Mianowski; Yi-yu. Lin

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of fiber length measurement techniques such as digitizing, the Kajaani procedure, and NIH Image are compared in order to determine the optimal tool. Kenaf bast fibers, aspen, and red pine fibers were collected from different anatomical parts, and the fiber lengths were compared using various analytical tools. A statistical analysis on the validity of the...

  8. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  9. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  10. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  11. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  12. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept...

  13. Digital skrivedidaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Digital skrivedidaktik består af to dele. Første del præsenterer teori om skrivekompetence og digital skrivning. Digital skrivning er karakteriseret ved at tekster skrives på computer og med digitale værktøjer, hvilket ændrer skrivningens traditionelle praksis, produkt og processer. Hvad er digital...... om elevens skriveproces) og Blogskrivning (der styrker eleverne i at bruge blogs i undervisningen)....

  14. Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  15. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  16. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  17. Digital subtraktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    2004-01-01

    Digital subtraktion er en metode til at fjerne uønskede oplysninger i et røntgenbillede. Subtraktionsteknikken bruges primært i forbindelse med angiografi hvor man kun er interesseret i at se selve karret. Derfor er digital subtraktion i daglig tale synonymt med DSA eller DVI – hhv. Digital...... Subtraction Angiography eller Digital Vascular Imaging. Benævnelserne er to røntgenfirmaers navn for den samme teknik. Digital subtraktion kræver speciel software, samt at apparaturet kan eksponere i serier....

  18. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  19. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  20. Object-oriented classification of drumlins from digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kakoli

    Drumlins are common elements of glaciated landscapes which are easily identified by their distinct morphometric characteristics including shape, length/width ratio, elongation ratio, and uniform direction. To date, most researchers have mapped drumlins by tracing contours on maps, or through on-screen digitization directly on top of hillshaded digital elevation models (DEMs). This paper seeks to utilize the unique morphometric characteristics of drumlins and investigates automated extraction of the landforms as objects from DEMs by Definiens Developer software (V.7), using the 30 m United States Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset DEM as input. The Chautauqua drumlin field in Pennsylvania and upstate New York, USA was chosen as a study area. As the study area is huge (approximately covers 2500 sq.km. of area), small test areas were selected for initial testing of the method. Individual polygons representing the drumlins were extracted from the elevation data set by automated recognition, using Definiens' Multiresolution Segmentation tool, followed by rule-based classification. Subsequently parameters such as length, width and length-width ratio, perimeter and area were measured automatically. To test the accuracy of the method, a second base map was produced by manual on-screen digitization of drumlins from topographic maps and the same morphometric parameters were extracted from the mapped landforms using Definiens Developer. Statistical comparison showed a high agreement between the two methods confirming that object-oriented classification for extraction of drumlins can be used for mapping these landforms. The proposed method represents an attempt to solve the problem by providing a generalized rule-set for mass extraction of drumlins. To check that the automated extraction process was next applied to a larger area. Results showed that the proposed method is as successful for the bigger area as it was for the smaller test areas.

  1. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  2. Digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference book provides in-depth coverage of all aspects of digital mammography, including detector technology, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, soft-copy reading, digital workflow, and PACS. Specific advantages and disadvantages of digital mammography in comparison to screen-film mammography are thoroughly discussed. By including authors from both North America and Europe, the book is able to outline variations in the use, acceptance, and quality assurance of digital mammography between the different countries and screening programs. Advanced imaging techniques and future developments such as contrast mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are also covered in detail. All of the chapters are written by internationally recognized experts and contain numerous high-quality illustrations. This book will be of great interest both to clinicians who already use or are transitioning to digital mammography and to basic scientists working in the field. (orig.)

  3. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    , by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising......This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...

  4. Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Karl Peter

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signage for in-store advertising at gas stations/retail stores in Germany: A field study Digital Signage networks provide a novel means of advertising with the advantage of easily changeable and highly customizable animated content. Despite the potential and increasing use of these media empirical research is scarce. In a field study at 8 gas stations (with integrated convenience stores) we studied the effect of digital signage advertising on sales for different products and servi...

  5. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  6. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  8. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  9. Digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Werner K.

    1997-02-01

    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  10. homo sapiens are bilaterally symmetrical but not with toe length and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Ongeti

    2017-11-12

    Nov 12, 2017 ... in toe length and toe-length ratios among the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. A total ... The toe-length ratios also displayed symmetrical differences for ... For the female population, all ratios were not significantly different.

  11. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  12. Digital Audiobooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben; Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard

    Audiobooks are rapidly gaining popularity with widely accessible digital downloading and streaming services. The paper is framing how the digital audiobook expands and changes the target groups for book publications and how it as an everyday activity is creating new reading experiences, places...

  13. Digital TMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

  14. Odd Length Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-09-01

    Let's denote by VE the speed of the Earth and byVR the speed of the rocket. Both travel in the same direction on parallel trajectories. We consider the Earth as a moving (at a constant speed VE -VR) spacecraft of almost spherical form, whose radius is r and thus the diameter 2r, and the rocket as standing still. The non-proper length of Earth's diameter, as measured by the astronaut is: L = 2 r√{ 1 -|/VE -VR|2 c2 } rocket! Also, let's assume that the astronaut is laying down in the direction of motion. Therefore, he would also shrink, or he would die!

  15. discouraged by queue length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Parthasarathy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient solution is obtained analytically using continued fractions for a state-dependent birth-death queue in which potential customers are discouraged by the queue length. This queueing system is then compared with the well-known infinite server queueing system which has the same steady state solution as the model under consideration, whereas their transient solutions are different. A natural measure of speed of convergence of the mean number in the system to its stationarity is also computed.

  16. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co......-service, is a new task in public administration, where street level bureaucrats assist citizens in using the new digital solutions. The paper is based on a case study conducted primarily in a citizen service centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on ethnography the paper gives an empirical account of the ongoing...

  17. Digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Rogopoulos, A.; Chauvel, C.; Geoffray, A.

    1988-01-01

    Two observers conducted a blind evaluation of 100 mammography files, including 47 malignant cases. Films were read both before and after image digitization at 50 μm and 100 μm with the FilmDRSII. Digitization permitted better analysis of the normal anatomic structures and moderately improved diagnostic sensitivity. Searches for microcalcifications before and after digitization at 100 μm and 50 μm showed better analysis of anatomic structures after digitization (especially for solitary microcalcifications). The diagnostic benefit, with discovery of clustered microcalcifications, was more limited (one case at 100 μm, nine cases at 50 μm). Recognition of microcalcifications was clearly improved in dense breasts, which can benefit from reinterpretation after digitization at 50 μm rather 100μm

  18. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  19. Automatic cell identification and visualization using digital holographic microscopy with head mounted augmented reality devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy; Rawat, Siddharth; Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile. Morphological features are extracted from the cell's optical path length map, including mean optical path length, coefficient of variation, optical volume, projected area, projected area to optical volume ratio, cell skewness, and cell kurtosis. Classification is performed using the random forest classifier, support vector machines, and K-nearest neighbor, and the results are compared. Finally, the augmented reality device displays the cell's pseudocolor 3D rendering of its optical path length profile, extracted features, and the identified cell's type or class. The proposed system could allow a healthcare worker to quickly visualize cells using augmented reality smart glasses and extract the relevant information for rapid diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the integration of digital holographic microscopy with augmented reality devices for automated cell identification and visualization.

  20. Digital Ethics/Going Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    Finds that the recent National Press Photographers Association code of ethics can serve as a model for any photography staff. Discusses how digital imaging is becoming commonplace in classrooms, due to decreasing costs and easier software. Explains digital terminology. Concludes that time saved in the darkroom and at the printer is now spent on…

  1. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  2. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    . An ethnographic account of how digital reforms are implemented in practice shows how street-level bureaucrat’s classic tasks such as specialized casework are being reconfigured into educational tasks that promote the idea of “becoming digital”. In the paper, the author argues that the work of “becoming digital....... Originality/value: The study contributes to ethnographic research in public administration by combining two separate subfields, e-government and street-level bureaucracy, to discern recent transformations in public service delivery. In the digital era, tasks, control and equality are distributed in ways...

  3. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  4. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    . Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... -- ch. 9. Retouch Yourself: The Pleasures and Politics of Digital Cosmetic Surgery / Tanya Sheehan -- ch. 10. Virtual Selves: Art and Digital Autobiography / Louise Wolthers -- ch. 11. Mobile-Media Photography: New Modes of Engagement / Michael Shanks and Connie Svabo....

  5. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  6. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media....... With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills....

  7. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  8. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  9. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  10. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...

  11. Digital Discretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  12. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  13. Position of the Patella among Emirati Adult Knees. Is Insall-Salvati Ratio Applicable to Middle-Easterners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Althani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal patellar height is associated with anterior knee pain and several conditions that affect the patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to 1 report the incidence of patella alta and patella baja and 2 investigate whether the normal limits of the Insall-Salvati ratio is applicable in adult Middle-Easterners. Methods: A radiographic review of the lateral radiographs of 736 Middle-Eastern knees were performed. Patellar tendon length (TL and the patellar length (TP was digitally measured and the ratios of these measures was used to calculate the Insall-Salvati ratio. Results: The overall mean TL/PL ratio was 1.20±0.17. The Insall-Salvati ratio was higher (p=0.0013 in males (1.22± 0.12 than in females (1.18±0.17. According to our measurement, the recommended levels for defining abnormal patellar position should be 0.86 for patella baja and 1.54 for patella alta. Conclusion: The use of TL/PL ratio demonstrated a higher incidence of patella alta and a higher mean TL/PL ratio compared to other techniques. The normal ranges for the TL/PL differs from western populations and may be attributed to lifestyle differences.

  14. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  15. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  16. Digital watermark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Maver

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  17. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  18. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  19. Digital Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson Brooks, Eva; Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children’s play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The paper addresses questions related to how digital technology can foster creativity in early childhood learning environments. It consists of an analysis of children......’s interaction with the KidSmart furniture focusing on digital creativity potentials and play values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively...... consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children’s digital creativity....

  20. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.; Lissner, J.; Rienmueller, R.; Haendle, J.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1984-01-01

    Using a prototype of an electronic, universal examination unit equipped with a special X-ray TV installation, spotfilm exposures and digital angiographies with high spatial resolution and wide-range contrast could be made in the clinic for the first time. With transvenous contrast medium injection, the clinical results of digital angiography show excellent image quality in the region of the carotids and renal arteries as well as the arteries of the extremities. The electronic series exposures have an image quality almost comparable to the quality obtained with cutfilm changers in conventional angiography. There are certain limitations due to the input field of 25 cm X-ray image intensified used. In respect of the digital angiography imaging technique, the electronic universal unit is fully suitable for clinical application. (orig.) [de

  1. Digital photogrammetry

    CERN Document Server

    Egels, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the use of photography for surveying primarily and is used for the production of maps from aerial photographs. Along with remote sensing, it represents the primary means of generating data for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). As technology develops, it is becoming easier to gain access to it. The cost of digital photogrammetric workstations are falling quickly and these new tools are therefore becoming accessible to more and more users. Digital Photogrammetry is particularly useful as a text for graduate students in geomantic and is also suitable for people with a good basic scientific knowledge who need to understand photogrammetry, and who wish to use the book as a reference.

  2. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  3. Digital "X"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baiyere, Abayomi; Grover, Varun; Gupta, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using digital before existing research concepts seem to be on the rise in the IS field. This panel is positioned to explore what value lies in labelling our research as digital “x” as opposed to the well established IT “x” (where “x” can be strategy, infrastructure, innovation, artifa...... between this stream of research and existing research. Central among the expected output of the panel is the advancement of suggestions for future research and the critical pitfalls to avoid in doing so....

  4. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  5. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  6. Digital voltmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannes Kamadi; Soekarno.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical voltage measuring equipment with digital display has been made. This equipment uses four digits display with single polarity measurement and integrating system. Pulses from the oscillator will be counted and converted to the staircase voltages, and compared to the voltage measured. When the balance is already achieved, the pulse will appear at the comparator circuit. This pulse will be used to trigger univibrator circuit. The univibrator output is used as signal for stopping the counting, and when reading time T already stops, the counting system will be reset. (authors)

  7. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  8. Digital literacies

    CERN Document Server

    Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus

  9. Wskaźnik palców a budowa ciała i sprawność motoryczna mężczyzn trenujących sporty walki i nietrenujących = The digit ratio 2D:4D and body build and motoric fitness of men training martial arts and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mońka

    2016-12-01

    miejsca, siady z leżenia, pomiar dynamometryczny ręki prawej i lewej. Próby zostały przeprowadzone zgodnie z procedurą testu Eurofit.   Wyniki               Analiza wyników wykazała istotne różnice wskaźnika palców między badanymi grupami. Stwierdzono też powiązania tego wskaźnika z cechami budowy somatycznej u badanych mężczyzn. Nie odnotowano natomiast istotnych zależności formuły palców z wynikami prób motorycznych.       Summary               The level of physical fitness is conditioned by many factors, including build morphological. One of the morphological elements is digit ratio 2D: 4D. Index finger forms in fetal life under the influence of sex hormones and it remains constant in the further ontogenetic development. High testosterone level, reflecting the lower value digit ratio, determines a better agility, endurance and strength. In addition, it affects the behavior of players, increasing the tendency to aggression and will to fight and take risks.      Aim                                The aim of the study is estimation relationship of digit ratio 2D: 4D with the somatic features and the level of motor skills in a group of men training martial arts and non-athletes. Material and methods               The researches are conducted in group of 28 men training martial arts and group of 30 non-athletes men. All of them were students of University of Physical Education. The age of examined was 19-25. There was measured digit ratio, basic anthropological features and motoric fitness. There was used four motoric tests: sit-ups, standing long jump, flexibility and hand grip strength. Conclusion               The analysis of the results has showed significant differences of digit ratio between the examined groups. There is the correlation of this indicator with the somatic features in both groups. However there were any significant correlations of digit ratio

  10. Spatially and temporally resolved diagnostics of dense sprays using gated, femtosecond, digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Dioumaev, Andrei K.; Ziaee, Ali; Minniti, Marco; Dunn-Rankin, Derek

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes research that demonstrated gated, femtosecond, digital holography, enabling 3D microscopic viewing inside dense, almost opaque sprays, and providing a new and powerful diagnostics capability for viewing fuel atomization processes never seen before. The method works by exploiting the extremely short coherence and pulse length (approximately 30 micrometers in this implementation) provided by a femtosecond laser combined with digital holography to eliminate multiple and wide angle scattered light from particles surrounding the injection region, which normally obscures the image of interest. Photons that follow a path that differs in length by more than 30 micrometers from a straight path through the field to the sensor do not contribute to the holographic recording of photons that travel in a near straight path (ballistic and "snake" photons). To further enhance the method, off-axis digital holography was incorporated to enhance signal to noise ratio and image processing capability in reconstructed images by separating the conjugate images, which overlap and interfere in conventional in-line holography. This also enables digital holographic interferometry. Fundamental relationships and limitations were also examined. The project is a continuing collaboration between MetroLaser and the University of California, Irvine.

  11. Digital delicacies

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2001-01-01

    This presentation outlines the purpose and work of the newly appointed Digital Projects Librarian at the University of Auckland. It gives a brief overview of what digitisation is, the benefits, the stages of a digitisation project and also samples of interesting international digitisation projects and new University of Auckland Library Digitisation projects.

  12. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  13. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  14. Digital books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  15. Digital forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Larsen, Torben; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Større effektivitet, bedre service og mere demokrai er blot nogle af forventningerne til indførelse af digital forveltning i kommunerne. Kapitlet giver bland andet svar på spørgsmålene : Hvordan lever kommunerne op hertil i dagligdagen? hvilke virkemidler anvender de? Hvilke barrierer har der været...

  16. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  17. Baseline Screening Mammography: Performance of Full-Field Digital Mammography Versus Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth S; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Akhtar, Amana L; Synnestvedt, Marie B; Schnall, Mitchell; Conant, Emily F

    2015-11-01

    Baseline mammography studies have significantly higher recall rates than mammography studies with available comparison examinations. Digital breast tomosynthesis reduces recalls when compared with digital mammographic screening alone, but many sites operate in a hybrid environment. To maximize the effect of screening digital breast tomosynthesis with limited resources, choosing which patient populations will benefit most is critical. This study evaluates digital breast tomosynthesis in the baseline screening population. Outcomes were compared for 10,728 women who underwent digital mammography screening, including 1204 (11.2%) baseline studies, and 15,571 women who underwent digital breast tomosynthesis screening, including 1859 (11.9%) baseline studies. Recall rates, cancer detection rates, and positive predictive values were calculated. Logistic regression estimated the odds ratios of recall for digital mammography versus digital breast tomosynthesis for patients undergoing baseline screening and previously screened patients, adjusted for age, race, and breast density. In the baseline subgroup, recall rates for digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis screening were 20.5% and 16.0%, respectively (p = 0.002); digital breast tomosynthesis screening in the baseline subgroup resulted in a 22% reduction in recall compared with digital mammography, or 45 fewer patients recalled per 1000 patients screened. Digital breast tomosynthesis screening in the previously screened patients resulted in recall reduction of 14.3% (p tomosynthesis than from digital mammography alone.

  18. Link lengths and their growth powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Youngsik; No, Sungjong; Oh, Seungsang; Rawdon, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    For a certain infinite family F of knots or links, we study the growth power ratios of their stick number, lattice stick number, minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength compared with their minimum crossing number c(K) for every K∈F. It is known that the stick number and lattice stick number grow between the (1/2) and linear power of the crossing number, and minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow with at least the (3/4) power of crossing number (which is called the four-thirds power law). Furthermore, the minimal lattice length and minimum ropelength grow at most as O (c(K)[ln(c(K))] 5 ), but it is unknown whether any family exhibits superlinear growth. For any real number r between (1/2) and 1, we give an infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the stick number and lattice stick number grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. Furthermore for any real number r between (3/4) and 1, we give another infinite family of non-splittable prime links in which the minimum lattice length and minimum ropelength grow exactly as the rth power of crossing number. (paper)

  19. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital...... materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no unifying interpretation of digital humanities above the level of studying digital materials with the help...... of software-supported methods. This is so, in part, because of the complexity of the world and, in part, because digital media remain open to the projection of new epistemologies onto the functional architecture of these media. The third section discusses the heterogeneous character of digital materials...

  20. Digital Materia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Marcus; Richey, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Med tankar från pedagogen Montessori och filosoferna Platon och Baudrillard har detta arbete behandlat frågor om datorn och dess betydelse för en grafiker. Frågeställningen formulerades efter hand och lydde tillslut: ”Hur kan materia te sig i digital form?” Forskningen resulterade i en hypotes för hur digital materia skulle födas i datorn: genom att blanda två uppsättningar av data, såsom två genuppsättningar tillsammans skapar en ny organism. Under produktionen utvecklades därmed en metod fö...

  1. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    government, and draws on empirical material generated through observations, field notes, interviews and policy documents. The material is documenting how service is performed by frontline agents in the ‘bureaucratic encounter’ with citizens, who needs assistance to use digital self-service in order to apply...... online for a public benefit. Findings: The paper shows that e-government technology changes the mode of professionalism in citizen service from service to support. The paper gives an empirical account of recent Danish digital reforms and shows how the reforms both enable and constrain the work...... of ‘becoming digital’ by frontline agents. Overall the street-level bureaucrat’s classical tasks such as specialized casework are being displaced into promoting and educational tasks. An implication of this is blurred distinctions between professional skills and personal competences of the frontline agent...

  2. Digital resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliotheca Latinitatis Mediaevalis (circa VII sec. - XIV sec. IntraText Digital Library [01/06] Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum. A digital library of Latin literature by David Camden [01/06] Fonti disponibili online concernenti la vita religiosa medievale Rete Vitae Religiosae Mediaevalis Studia Conectens [01/06] Fuentes del Medievo Hispanico Instituto de Historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [01/06] Latin Literature Forum Romanum [01/06] Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Dissertazioni sopra le antichità italiane, 1751 Biblioteca dei Classici Italiani di Giuseppe Bonghi [01/06] Medieval Latin The Latin Library [01/06] Médiévales Presses Universitaires de Vincennes - Revues.org [01/06] Regesta imperii Deutsche Kommission für die Bearbeitung der Regesta Imperii e.V. [01/06] Suda On Line Byzantine Lexicography [01/06

  3. Digital teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Conde Melguizo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Espín, Manuel (Coord.(2011 Adolescentes Digitales.  Revista Estudios de Juventud, Nº 92. Marzo 2011. INJUVE, Madrid."Adolescentes digitales" se nos muestra como una obra que pretende explorar desde distintos puntos de vista la realidad de la generación conocida como “nativos digitales” (Prensky, la generación actual de adolescentes que ha crecido con internet y el mundo digital como su entorno normal de socialización.

  4. Digital Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Bunnell, Katie

    2007-01-01

    This research is concerned with developing a new business model for flexible small scale ceramic production that exploits the customisation capabilities of digital manufacturing technologies and the market potential and global connectivity of the world wide web. It is arguably of particular relevance to regional economic development in remote areas (Amin, Tomaney, Sabel) such as Cornwall where there is a culture of high quality small scale production, limited market and manufacturing opportun...

  5. Hydrodynamics of a Digitized Adult Humpback Whale Flipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmann, Wesley N.; McDonald, Samuel J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Fish, Frank E.

    2013-11-01

    During feeding, humpback whales turn with a turn radius of up to 1 /6th of their length towards schools of fish enclosed by bubble nets. This high maneuverability requirement is facilitated by high aspect ratio flippers with leading edge tubercles that delay stall. Previous experimental and computational studies have used idealized models, such as airfoils with scalloped leading edges, to explore the influence of leading edge tubercles on boundary layer separation, vortex generation, and airfoil lift and drag characteristics. Owing to the substantial size of the flipper, no studies have been performed on a digitized adult humpback flipper with real geometry. In this study the hydrodynamics of a realistic humpback flipper model were explored. The model was developed by digitizing a sequence of 18 images circumscribing the suspended flipper of a beached humpback whale. A physical prototype was constructed based on the resulting 3D model, along with a complementary model with the tubercles removed. Experimentally-obtained measurements of lift and drag were used to study the influence of the tubercles. In the presentation, digitization and flow measurement methods are described, and the flow data and results are presented and discussed.

  6. Digital citizens Digital nations: the next agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2015-01-01

    DIGITAL CITIZENS CREATE A DIGITAL NATION Citizens will play the lead role as they – in the next phase of the information society – collectively create a digital nation. Personal adoption of information and communication technology will create a digital infrastructure that supports individual and

  7. Poisson’s Ratio Extrapolation from Digital Image Correlation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    prior to dewetting ). Also, it is often impractical to measure compressibility. Current rocket laboratory methods measure strains in propellants...distribution unlimited. Public Affairs Clearance Number XXXXX. Damage Characterization of Propellants 16 Dewetting Results 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 5 10 15 20

  8. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  9. Noise and resolution with digital filtering for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakatos, T.

    1991-01-01

    Digital noise filtering looks very promising for semiconductor spectrometry. The resolution and conversion speed of the analog to digital converter (ADC) used at the input of a digital signal processor and analyzer can strongly influence the signal to noise ratio, the peak position and shape. The article leads with the investigation of these effects using computer modelling. (orig.)

  10. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital fluorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, H.A. de.

    1980-11-01

    The specifications of a digital fluorimeter. That with adequated analytical techniques permits to determine trace amounts of fluorescents materials in samples, are described. The fluorimeter is of the reflection type, and uses fluorescents lamps for the excitation and an optical system which is connected to a photomultiplyer machine and permits the measurement of the light intensity. In the case of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) the equipment is used for to determine the uranium content in sample materials to be exported. The precision of the instrument is about + - 1% in the scale of 0.1 which is the normally one used in the current researchs. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Digital entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Richter, Chris; Kraus, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    comprising guided interviews with 14 companies from Germany, Austria and Switzerland provides detailed insights into different aspects of the sharing economy phenomenon. Our results make a direct contribution to sharing economy research, especially regarding the new business models of start-ups. Here, we...... find a clear difference between the relevance of economic and social orientation. The latter appears to be in higher demand among customers than entrepreneurs. The increasingly digitalized environment has led to a changed living situation characterized by urbanity, openness to new solutions, changed...

  13. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  14. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  15. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  16. Superconductor digital electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of these notes is to offer a brief review of the history of superconductor digital electronics, and discuss prospects of its future development. Due to length restrictions, many important technical contributions could not be mentioned at all - with sincere apologies to their authors. Though an attempt has been made to give an unbiased review of the most important work all over the world, a special emphasis on the efforts in the former Soviet Union, which had not been discussed much in literature, and in which the author of this text took an active part, seemed excusable. Another important qualification is that the author phased out his own research in the field about 10 years ago, so that the last parts of the notes, devoted to present-time and future work, should be viewed as not much more than remarks by an (interested) outsider.

  17. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  18. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  19. A digital long pulse integrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Strait, E.J.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-10-01

    A prototype digital integrator with very long integration capabilities has been developed and field tested on an inductive magnetic sensor on the DIII-D Tokamak. The integrator is being developed for use on ITER with a pulse length of 1000 s, and has direct applications for other long pulse Tokamaks. Inductive magnetic sensors are routinely used on existing Tokamaks, are well understood, and are extremely robust, however, they require integration of the signal to determine the magnetic field strength. The next generation of Tokamaks, will have pulse lengths of 1000 s or longer, require integrators with drift and noise characteristics compatible with the very long pulse lengths. This paper will discuss the architecture, algorithms, and programming of the Long Pulse Integrator (LPI). Of particular interest are the noise control and the built-in offset correction techniques used in this application

  20. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  1. Three-dimensional motion measurements of free-swimming microorganisms using digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Seo, Kyung Won; Choi, Yong Seok; Sohn, Myong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    A digital holographic microscope is employed to measure the 3D motion of free-swimming microorganisms. The focus function used to quantify image sharpness provides a better depth-directional accuracy with a smaller depth-of-focus compared with the intensity method in determining the depth-directional position of spherical particles of various diameters. The focus function is then applied to measure the 3D positions of free-swimming microorganisms, namely dinoflagellates C. polykrikoides and P. minimum. Both automatic segmentation and proper selection of a focus function for a selected segment are important processes in measuring the positional information of two free-swimming microorganisms of different shapes with various width-to-length ratios. The digital holographic microscopy technique improved in this work is useful for measuring 3D swimming trajectories, velocities and attitudes of hundreds of microorganisms simultaneously. It also exhibits exceptional depth-directional accuracy

  2. Impact of Cyclic Prefix length on OFDM system Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a study on the impact of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) length on the downlink Capacity in a base-band synchronized SISO-OFDM context. To measure this impact, the capacity, measured in bits per second per hertz, is chosen as quality parameter. The study shows how the lengthening of the CP......) the useful OFDM symbol duration, 2) the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver and 3) the channel Power Delay Profile (PDP). Depending on the values of these parameters different optimum CP lengths are obtained. For a system using only one value of CP length we suggest an optimum value to be 4us...... for an OFDM symbol length of 40us and 6us for an OFDM symbol length of 80us....

  3. VVER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (author)

  4. WWER-1000 dominance ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkov, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Dominance ratio, or more precisely, its closeness to unity, is important characteristic of large reactor. It allows evaluate beforehand the number of source iterations required in deterministic calculations of power spatial distribution. Or the minimal number of histories to be modeled for achievement of statistical error level desired in large core Monte Carlo calculations. In this work relatively simple approach for dominance ratio evaluation is proposed. It essentially uses core symmetry. Dependence of dominance ratio on neutron flux spatial distribution is demonstrated. (Authors)

  5. Sharpening Sharpe Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Jonathan E. Ingersoll Jr.; Matthew I. Spiegel; Ivo Welch

    2002-01-01

    It is now well known that the Sharpe ratio and other related reward-to-risk measures may be manipulated with option-like strategies. In this paper we derive the general conditions for achieving the maximum expected Sharpe ratio. We derive static rules for achieving the maximum Sharpe ratio with two or more options, as well as a continuum of derivative contracts. The optimal strategy has a truncated right tail and a fat left tail. We also derive dynamic rules for increasing the Sharpe ratio. O...

  6. Digital radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, H; Gerke, O; Rosendahl, K

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New developments in processing of digital radiographs (DR), including multi-frequency processing (MFP), allow optimization of image quality and radiation dose. This is particularly promising in children as they are believed to be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults....... OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the use of MFP software reduces the radiation dose without compromising quality at DR of the femur in 5-year-old-equivalent anthropomorphic and technical phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 110 images of an anthropomorphic phantom were imaged on a DR system (Canon DR...... with CXDI-50 C detector and MLT[S] software) and analyzed by three pediatric radiologists using Visual Grading Analysis. In addition, 3,500 images taken of a technical contrast-detail phantom (CDRAD 2.0) provide an objective image-quality assessment. RESULTS: Optimal image-quality was maintained at a dose...

  7. Fokus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    i det digitale domæne – udviklinger, der foregår hastigt og er gennemgribende, og som derfor kræver et nærmere blik på forholdet mellem kunsten og teknologien. Komponistens forståelse af sin metier udfordres – samtidig med at befæstede ideer om kunstværket møder modstand fra nye mediemæssige...... sammenhænge og fra forandrede distributionsformer. Dette betyder ændrede betingelser for både produktion og reception af kunstmusik og lydkunst. Med Digital tager vi udgangspunkt i fire komponisters meget forskellige bud på hvordan teknologien spiller en rolle i arbejdet. Juliana Hodkinson beskriver hvordan...

  8. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  9. Keeping disease at arm's length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2015-01-01

    active ageing change everyday life with chronic disease, and how do older people combine an active life with a range of chronic diseases? The participants in the study use activities to keep their diseases at arm’s length, and this distancing of disease at the same time enables them to engage in social...... and physical activities at the activity centre. In this way, keeping disease at arm’s length is analysed as an ambiguous health strategy. The article shows the importance of looking into how active ageing is practised, as active ageing seems to work well in the everyday life of the older people by not giving...... emphasis to disease. The article is based on ethnographic fieldwork and uses vignettes of four participants to show how they each keep diseases at arm’s length....

  10. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  11. CEBAF Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes without modifying the old procedures. Two of them can be used when the beam is not compressed longitudinally while the other one, the synchrotron light monitor, can be used with compressed or uncompressed beam.

  12. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  13. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  14. Summary of neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, L.

    1981-12-01

    All available neutron-nuclei scattering lengths are collected together with their error bars in a uniform way. Bound scattering lengths are given for the elements, the isotopes, and the various spin-states. They are discussed in the sense of their use as basic parameters for many investigations in the field of nuclear and solid state physics. The data bank is available on magnetic tape, too. Recommended values and a map of these data serve for an uncomplicated use of these quantities. (orig.)

  15. Overview of bunch length measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of particle and photon beam bunch length measurements is presented in the context of free-electron laser (FEL) challenges. Particle-beam peak current is a critical factor in obtaining adequate FEL gain for both oscillators and self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. Since measurement of charge is a standard measurement, the bunch length becomes the key issue for ultrashort bunches. Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques are presented in the context of using electromagnetic radiation over eight orders of magnitude in wavelength. In addition, the measurement of microbunching in a micropulse is addressed

  16. Digital work in a digitally challenged organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, Carol

    Digitally literate employees are accustomed to having free access to digital media technologies. However, some organizations enact information technology (IT) governance structures that explicitly proscribe access to these technologies, resulting in considerable tension between employees and the

  17. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  19. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  20. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  1. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  2. Bone age assessment by digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm which allows bone age assessment by digital radiological images was developed. For geometric parameters extraction, the phalangeal and metacarpal regions of interest are enhanced and segmented, through spatial and morphological filtering. This study is based on perimeter, length and area, from distal to proximal portions. The quantification of these parameters make possible comparison between chronological and skeletal age, using growth standard tables

  3. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  4. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tube Length and Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ruktantichoke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study water flowed through a straight horizontal plastic tube placed at the bottom of a large tank of water. The effect of changing the length of tubing on the velocity of flow was investigated. It was found that the Hagen-Poiseuille Equation is valid when the effect of water entering the tube is accounted for.

  6. Finite length Taylor Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, C. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Axisymmetric numerical solutions of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for flow between concentric rotating cylinders of finite length are obtained by a spectral collocation method. These representative results pertain to two-cell/one-cell exchange process, and are compared with recent experiments.

  7. Digital produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen sætter fokus på digital produktion, som er en stærk læringsform, der faciliterer elevernes læreprocesser og kvalificerer elevernes faglige læringsresultater. Det sker når lærerne udarbejder didaktiske rammedesign, hvor eleverne arbejder selvstændigt inden for dette rammedesign, og hvor mål og...... procesevaluering stilladserer elevernes faglige proces. I digitale produktionsprocesser arbejder eleverne iterativt, de udvikler ejerskab til produktionen og fastholder selv deres læreprocesser. It’s multimodalitet, elevernes kollaborative tilgange, videndeling mellem eleverne og elevernes uformelle lege- og...... elevernes digitale produktion er lærernes didaktiske rammesætning og stilladserende tilgange. Her lægger lærerne op til, at eleverne som didaktiske designere i relation til rammesætningen skal organisere og planlægge deres læreprocesser, inddrages i målsætning, evaluering og valg af digitale ressourcer...

  8. Digital dannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    I al vores iver efter at få presset nogle flere digitale dimser ind i skolen, er vi i fare for at glemme hvad det er vi skal med disse dimser. Der er store forventninger til at de kan gøre det lettere at være lærer (og dermed billigere), og det kan det måske. Men der er jo også et dannelsesspørgs......I al vores iver efter at få presset nogle flere digitale dimser ind i skolen, er vi i fare for at glemme hvad det er vi skal med disse dimser. Der er store forventninger til at de kan gøre det lettere at være lærer (og dermed billigere), og det kan det måske. Men der er jo også et...... dannelsesspørgsmål knyttet til it. Hvad er egentlig digital dannelse? Og hvad betyder det for danskfaget?...

  9. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  10. An analysis of error patterns in children′s backward digit recall in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homira Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order. Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction, it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children′s working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise.

  11. An analysis of error patterns in children's backward digit recall in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated) and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order). Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children's working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise. PMID:26168949

  12. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2015-01-01

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI

  13. Arbitrary-ratio power splitter based on nonlinear multimode interference coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajaldini, Mehdi [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    We propose an ultra-compact multimode interference (MMI) power splitter based on nonlinear effects from simulations using nonlinear modal propagation analysis (NMPA) cooperation with finite difference Method (FDM) to access free choice of splitting ratio. Conventional multimode interference power splitter could only obtain a few discrete ratios. The power splitting ratio may be adjusted continuously while the input set power is varying by a tunable laser. In fact, using an ultra- compact MMI with a simple structure that is launched by a tunable nonlinear input fulfills the problem of arbitrary-ratio in integrated photonics circuits. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is used as the offered material due to the high contrast refractive index and Centro symmetric properties. The high-resolution images at the end of the multimode waveguide in the simulated power splitter have a high power balance, whereas access to a free choice of splitting ratio is not possible under the linear regime in the proposed length range except changes in the dimension for any ratio. The compact dimensions and ideal performance of the device are established according to optimized parameters. The proposed regime can be extended to the design of M×N arbitrary power splitters ratio for programmable logic devices in all optical digital signal processing. The results of this study indicate that nonlinear modal propagation analysis solves the miniaturization problem for all-optical devices based on MMI couplers to achieve multiple functions in a compact planar integrated circuit and also overcomes the limitations of previously proposed methods for nonlinear MMI.

  14. Digital platforms as enablers for digital transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Mokter; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    transformation is crucial. This study aims at exploring how organizations are driven towards transformation in various ways to embrace digital platforms for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. It shows the opportunities and challenges digital platforms bring in organizations. It also highlights underlying......Digital platforms offer new ways for organizations to collaborate with the external environment for ideas, technologies, and knowledge. They provide new possibilities and competence but they also bring new challenges for organizations. Understanding the role of these platforms in digital...... mechanisms and potential outcomes of various digital platforms. The contribution of the submission is valuable for scholars to understand and further explore this area. It provides insight for practitioners to capture value through digital platforms and accelerate the pace of organizations’ digital...

  15. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....... hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...

  16. In Vitro Comparative Study of the Working Length Determination with Radiovisiography and Conventional Radiography in Dilacerated Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare digital and conventional radiography in determining the working length of dilacerated canals.Methods: Thirty nine human extracted single-rooted teeth with root curvature more than 35 degrees were included in this study. After access preparation, a file was inserted into the canal and advanced until the file tip was visualized at the foramen. With measurement of the file length using a millimeter ruler, true canal length was determined for each canal. Then, teeth were mounted in acrylic blocks and canal length was estimated by using on-screen digital radiography with both 3- and 6-clicks measurement and from conventional radiography by conforming a preserved file on the image of the root canal.Results: There were no significant differences in measurement accuracy between the true canal length and conventional radiographic length, but there were significant difference between both digital radiographic techniques with true canal length. There was no significant correlation between root curvature and canal length estimation error of studied methods.Conclusion: In dilacerated canals, the accuracy of determination of working length by using conventional radiography is higher than digital radiography

  17. Digital quadrature phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  18. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  19. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  20. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  1. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  2. Minimal Length, Measurability and Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a continuation of the previous papers written by the author on the subject. In terms of the measurability (or measurable quantities notion introduced in a minimal length theory, first the consideration is given to a quantum theory in the momentum representation. The same terms are used to consider the Markov gravity model that here illustrates the general approach to studies of gravity in terms of measurable quantities.

  3. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  4. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  5. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  6. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  7. Comparison of reconfigurable structures for flexible word-length multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pfänder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits. Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic. But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA. Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, e.g. regarding digital signal processing (DSP applications.

    In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison. This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures. All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array. Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

  8. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  9. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  10. Cognitive Hacking and Digital Government: Digital Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Thompson

    2004-01-01

    Recently the National Center for Digital Government held a workshop on "The Virtual Citizen: Identity, Autonomy, and Accountability: A Civic Scenario Exploration of the Role of Identity in On-Line. Discussions at the workshop focused on five scenarios for future authentication policies with respect to digital identity. The underlying technologies considered for authentication were: biometrics: cryptography, with a focus on digital signatures; secure processing/computation; and reputation syst...

  11. Digital Materialisms: Frameworks for Digital Media Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Casemajor, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, digital materialism has received increasing interest in the field of media studies. Materialism as a theoretical paradigm assumes that all things in the world are tied to physical processes and matter. Yet within digital media studies, the understanding of what should be the core object of a materialist analysis is debated. This paper proposes to untangle some of the principal theoretical propositions that compose the field of digital materialism. It outlines six frameworks t...

  12. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  13. The rectilinear Steiner ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PO de Wet

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The rectilinear Steiner ratio was shown to be 3/2 by Hwang [Hwang FK, 1976, On Steiner minimal trees with rectilinear distance, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 30, pp. 104– 114.]. We use continuity and introduce restricted point sets to obtain an alternative, short and self-contained proof of this result.

  14. A truly Newtonian softening length for disc simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huré, J.-M.; Trova, A.

    2015-02-01

    The softened point mass model is commonly used in simulations of gaseous discs including self-gravity while the value of associated length λ remains, to some degree, controversial. This `parameter' is however fully constrained when, in a discretized disc, all fluid cells are demanded to obey Newton's law. We examine the topology of solutions in this context, focusing on cylindrical cells more or less vertically elongated. We find that not only the nominal length depends critically on the cell's shape (curvature, radial extension, height), but it is either a real or an imaginary number. Setting λ as a fraction of the local disc thickness - as usually done - is indeed not the optimal choice. We then propose a novel prescription valid irrespective of the disc properties and grid spacings. The benefit, which amounts to 2-3 more digits typically, is illustrated in a few concrete cases. A detailed mathematical analysis is in progress.

  15. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  16. Digital multilayer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueber, C.; Klose, K.J.; Thelen, M.

    1991-01-01

    With digital multilayer tomography a sequence of projection images is recorded by an image intensifier television system and stored as digital data during a linear run of a layer sequence. Using this data record, tomograms of the examined body region can be computed for any layer thickness by shifts and superimposition of the single projections later at a digital workstation. The qualities of digital and conventional tomograms are basically comparable. A drawback of digital tomography is its lower local resolution (512 x 512 image matrix), advantages are a lower radiation exposure, a shorter patient examination time, and the facilities of digital image processing (later processing, archive setup, transmission). (orig.) [de

  17. Experience with digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Korzhenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital techniques in mammography has become a last step for completing the process of digitization in diagnostic imaging. It is assumed that such a spatial decision will be required for digital mammography, as well as for high-resolution intensifying screen-film systems used in conventional mammography and that the digital techniques will be limited by the digitizer pixel size on detecting minor structures, such as microcalcifications. The introduction of digital technologies in mammography involves a tight control over an image and assures its high quality.

  18. Logic of the digital

    CERN Document Server

    Evens, Aden

    2015-01-01

    Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo

  19. Transformer ratio enhancement experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Power, J. G.; Kanareykin, A.; Neasheva, E.; Altmark, A.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a multibunch scheme for efficient acceleration based on dielectric wakefield accelerator technology was outlined in J.G. Power, W. Gai, A. Kanareykin, X. Sun. PAC 2001 Proceedings, pp. 114-116, 2002. In this paper we present an experimental program for the design, development and demonstration of an Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA). The principal goal is to increase the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam. We present here an experimental design of a 13.625 GHz dielectric loaded accelerating structure, a laser multisplitter producing a ramped bunch train, and simulations of the bunch train parameters required. Experimental results of the accelerating structure bench testing and ramped pulsed train generation with the laser multisplitter are shown as well. Using beam dynamic simulations, we also obtain the focusing FODO lattice parameters

  20. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000-24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan.CONCLUSION: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized...

  1. Phase alteration compensation in reflection digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, O; Amezquita, R; Monroy, F

    2011-01-01

    The phase maps obtained from digital holographic microscopy techniques carry information about the axial lengths of the object under study. Additionally, these phase maps have information of tilt and curvatures with origin in the off-axis geometry and the magnification lenses system, respectively. Only a complete compensation of these extra phases allows a correct interpretation of the phase information. In this article a numerical strategy to compensate for these alterations is designed, using a phase mask located in different planes. This strategy is applied in the measurement of a phase steps plate using a digital holography setup.

  2. Effect of length/width ratio of tapered beams on the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, S P; Renaud, M; Jambunathan, M; Goedbloed, M; Van Schaijk, R

    2013-01-01

    Tapering of the beams as a way to increase the generated output power of cantilever piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained popularity in recent years. The tapering increases the average strain in the beam and consequently the charge generated by the piezoelectric material. Different authors claim an improvement of up to 30% in the generated output power. We have investigated the possibility of using tapered beams in MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters. Numerical simulations did not suggest any increase in the generated output power and the lack of improvement was confirmed in practice. With the help of the numerical simulations it was further found that the tapering does work but only for certain design configurations, namely for cantilevers with long slender beams. For cantilevers with short wide beams, the tapering has no significant effect on the output power of the harvester. (paper)

  3. Successful replantation in ten-digit amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Umit; Cepel, Selim; Buldu, Halil

    2010-01-01

    Amputations involving ten digits are very rare because of different lengths of the digits. A 34-year-old man working in a printing house presented one hour after guillotine amputation involving all ten digits. Surgery was initiated 80 minutes after admission and took seven hours. Under axillary anesthesia, the operation was performed by two teams each consisting of two microsurgeons and two assistants. Replantation was completed without the use of any skin graft or flap. Fingertip examination showed poor arterial circulation in the second, third, and fourth digits of the left hand after 24 hours of replantation and surgical exploration was performed, during which anastomosis of the ulnar digital artery of the second digit was re-established and a Y-shaped vein graft was placed at the level of the third web to restore revascularization of the third and fourth digits. However, these interventions did not prevent the development of necrosis in the distal segment of the fourth digit which resulted in dry gangrene that required amputation. After 38 months of replantation, radiographic examination showed complete union in all fingers without malunion or damage to the joint surface and about 8 degrees of medial angulation in the proximal phalanx of the fourth digit of the right hand. The patient did not have difficulty in performing daily activities and had a considerably good pinching. Losses of active range of motion of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints were within the rage of 10 to 30 degrees in both hands. In the assessment of sensation, static and dynamic two-point discrimination test results were 6.1 mm and 4.0 mm, respectively.

  4. How Digital Are the Digital Humanities? An Analysis of Two Scholarly Blogging Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Cornelius; Bastos, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare two academic networking platforms, HASTAC and Hypotheses, to show the distinct ways in which they serve specific communities in the Digital Humanities (DH) in different national and disciplinary contexts. After providing background information on both platforms, we apply co-word analysis and topic modeling to show thematic similarities and differences between the two sites, focusing particularly on how they frame DH as a new paradigm in humanities research. We encounter a much higher ratio of posts using humanities-related terms compared to their digital counterparts, suggesting a one-way dependency of digital humanities-related terms on the corresponding unprefixed labels. The results also show that the terms digital archive, digital literacy, and digital pedagogy are relatively independent from the respective unprefixed terms, and that digital publishing, digital libraries, and digital media show considerable cross-pollination between the specialization and the general noun. The topic modeling reproduces these findings and reveals further differences between the two platforms. Our findings also indicate local differences in how the emerging field of DH is conceptualized and show dynamic topical shifts inside these respective contexts. PMID:25675441

  5. Amplitude-independent flaw length determination using differential eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, E.

    2013-01-01

    Military engine component manufacturers typically specify the eddy current (EC) inspection requirements as a crack length or depth with the assumption that the cracks in both the test specimens and inspected component are of a similar fixed aspect ratio. However, differential EC response amplitude is dependent on the area of the crack face, not the length or depth. Additionally, due to complex stresses, in-service cracks do not always grow in the assumed manner. It would be advantageous to use more of the information contained in the EC data to better determine the full profile of cracks independent of the fixed aspect ratio amplitude response curve. A specimen with narrow width notches is used to mimic cracks of varying aspect ratios in a controllable manner. The specimen notches have aspect ratios that vary from 1:1 to 10:1. Analysis routines have been developed using the shape of the EC response signals that can determine the length of a surface flaw of common orientations without use of the amplitude of the signal or any supporting traditional probability of detection basis. Combined with the relationship between signal amplitude and area, the depth of the flaw can also be calculated.

  6. On the universality of knot probability ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Rechnitzer, A, E-mail: rensburg@yorku.ca, E-mail: andrewr@math.ubc.ca [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 1984 Mathematics Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Let p{sub n} denote the number of self-avoiding polygons of length n on a regular three-dimensional lattice, and let p{sub n}(K) be the number which have knot type K. The probability that a random polygon of length n has knot type K is p{sub n}(K)/p{sub n} and is known to decay exponentially with length (Sumners and Whittington 1988 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21 1689-94, Pippenger 1989 Discrete Appl. Math. 25 273-8). Little is known rigorously about the asymptotics of p{sub n}(K), but there is substantial numerical evidence. It is believed that the entropic exponent, {alpha}, is universal, while the exponential growth rate is independent of the knot type but varies with the lattice. The amplitude, C{sub K}, depends on both the lattice and the knot type. The above asymptotic form implies that the relative probability of a random polygon of length n having prime knot type K over prime knot type L. In the thermodynamic limit this probability ratio becomes an amplitude ratio; it should be universal and depend only on the knot types K and L. In this communication we examine the universality of these probability ratios for polygons in the simple cubic, face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic lattices. Our results support the hypothesis that these are universal quantities. For example, we estimate that a long random polygon is approximately 28 times more likely to be a trefoil than be a figure-eight, independent of the underlying lattice, giving an estimate of the intrinsic entropy associated with knot types in closed curves. (fast track communication)

  7. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  8. Digital rectal exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  9. Comparison of root canal lathing measurement by conventional and digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, N.; Slavik, J.; Cecetkova, A.; Jenca, A.; Hanusinova, V.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2006-01-01

    A correct working length is a critical factor within the endodontic treatment. The length of the root canal can be measured by different methods. The aim of this study was to compare methods used for measuring the length of root canals using conventional and digital radiology. The measurement was provided in both - in vitro and in vivo conditions. (authors)

  10. Digital dannelse til gymnasieeleverne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsted, Thomas; Holch Andersen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    Søsætningen af en ny tænketank skal udstikke nye digital retningslinjer for gymnasiekolerne. Baggrunden er en erkendelse af, at it-infrastruktur og digital teknologi ikke gør de alene.......Søsætningen af en ny tænketank skal udstikke nye digital retningslinjer for gymnasiekolerne. Baggrunden er en erkendelse af, at it-infrastruktur og digital teknologi ikke gør de alene....

  11. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  12. Digital asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Clinton D; Tollefson, Travis T; Kriet, J David

    2010-05-01

    Facial plastic surgeons are accumulating massive digital image databases with the evolution of photodocumentation and widespread adoption of digital photography. Managing and maximizing the utility of these vast data repositories, or digital asset management (DAM), is a persistent challenge. Developing a DAM workflow that incorporates a file naming algorithm and metadata assignment will increase the utility of a surgeon's digital images. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital Inkjet Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meichun

    2017-01-01

    Digital inkjet textile printing is an emerging technology developed with the rise of the digital world. It offers a possibility to print high-resolution images with unlimited color selection on fabrics. Digital inkjet printing brings a revolutionary chance for the textile printing industry. The history of textile printing shows the law how new technology replaces the traditional way of printing. This indicates the future of digital inkjet textile printing is relatively positive. Differen...

  14. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  15. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  16. Digital Imaging. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clunie, D. [CoreLab Partners, Princeton (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The original means of recording X ray images was a photographic plate. Nowadays, all medical imaging modalities provide for digital acquisition, though globally, the use of radiographic film is still widespread. Many modalities are fundamentally digital in that they require image reconstruction from quantified digital signals, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  17. Preparing collections for digitization

    CERN Document Server

    Bulow, Anna E

    2010-01-01

    Most libraries, archives and museums are confronting the challenges of providing digital access to their collections. This guide offers guidance covering the end-to-end process of digitizing collections, from selecting records for digitization to choosing suppliers and equipment and dealing with documents that present individual problems.

  18. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  19. Playtesting the Digital Playground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, G.; Jessen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Being able to be absorbed in play in the digital playground is motivating for children who are used digital computer games. The children can play and exercise outdoors while using the same literacy as in indoor digital games. This paper presents a new playground product where an outdoor playgroun...

  20. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  1. Potential support ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The ‘prospective potential support ratio’ has been proposed by researchers as a measure that accurately quantifies the burden of ageing, by identifying the fraction of a population that has passed a certain measure of longevity, for example, 17 years of life expectancy. Nevertheless......, the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models...

  2. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John M; Page, Lionel

    2009-11-25

    Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D), which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  3. A note on trader Sharpe Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coates

    Full Text Available Traders in the financial world are assessed by the amount of money they make and, increasingly, by the amount of money they make per unit of risk taken, a measure known as the Sharpe Ratio. Little is known about the average Sharpe Ratio among traders, but the Efficient Market Hypothesis suggests that traders, like asset managers, should not outperform the broad market. Here we report the findings of a study conducted in the City of London which shows that a population of experienced traders attain Sharpe Ratios significantly higher than the broad market. To explain this anomaly we examine a surrogate marker of prenatal androgen exposure, the second-to-fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D, which has previously been identified as predicting a trader's long term profitability. We find that it predicts the amount of risk taken by traders but not their Sharpe Ratios. We do, however, find that the traders' Sharpe Ratios increase markedly with the number of years they have traded, a result suggesting that learning plays a role in increasing the returns of traders. Our findings present anomalous data for the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

  4. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  5. Perception of Length to Width Relations of City Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T. Nefs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on how people perceive the aspect ratio of city squares. Earlier research has focused on distance perception but not so much on the perceived aspect ratio of the surrounding space. Furthermore, those studies have focused on “open” spaces rather than urban areas enclosed by walls, houses and filled with people, cars, etc. In two experiments, we therefore measured, using a direct and an indirect method, the perceived aspect ratio of five city squares in the historic city center of Delft, the Netherlands. We also evaluated whether the perceived aspect ratio of city squares was affected by the position of the observer on the square. In the first experiment, participants were asked to set the aspect ratio of a small rectangle such that it matched the perceived aspect ratio of the city square. In the second experiment, participants were asked to estimate the length and width of the city square separately. In the first experiment, we found that the perceived aspect ratio was in general lower than the physical aspect ratio. However, in the second experiment, we found that the calculated ratios were close to veridical except for the most elongated city square. We conclude therefore that the outcome depends on how the measurements are performed. Furthermore, although indirect measurements are nearly veridical, the perceived aspect ratio is an underestimation of the physical aspect ratio when measured in a direct way. Moreover, the perceived aspect ratio also depends on the location of the observer. These results may be beneficial to the design of large open urban environments, and in particular to rectangular city squares.

  6. Digital disruption ?syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clair; Staib, Andrew

    2017-05-18

    The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR). We observed this transformation and propose several digital disruption "syndromes" to assist with understanding and management during digital transformation: digital deceleration, digital transparency, digital hypervigilance, data discordance, digital churn and post-digital 'depression'. These 'syndromes' are defined and discussed in detail. Successful management of this temporary digital disruption is important to ensure a successful transition to a digital platform. What is known about this topic? Digital disruption is defined as the changes facilitated by digital technologies that occur at a pace and magnitude that disrupt established ways of value creation, social interactions, doing business and more generally our thinking. Increasing numbers of Australian hospitals are implementing digital solutions to replace traditional paper-based systems for patient care in order to create opportunities for improved care and efficiencies. Such large scale change has the potential to create transient disruption to workflows and staff. Managing this temporary disruption effectively is an important factor in the successful implementation of an EMR. What does this paper add? A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a successful rapid roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR) to become Australia's largest digital hospital over a 3-week period. We observed and assisted with the management of several cultural, behavioural and

  7. Ageing and digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    Digital games are still to a great degree considered a medium mainly for young boys. However, available statistics on Western media use show that this is far from the case. Increasingly, people of all ages and genders play digital games, also older adults in their early 60s and beyond. The aim...... of the book is to examine, analyse and discuss: 1) What older adults do with digital games and what meanings the use of digital games take on in the everyday life of older adults; 2) How older adults are perceived by society in relation to digital games; 3) How play and games can be used both...

  8. Digital Living at Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Viktoria Kathja; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2013-01-01

    of these user voices has directed us towards a ‘home-keeping’ design discourse, which opens new horizons for design of digital home control systems by allowing users to perform as self-determined controllers and groomers of their habitat. The paper concludes by outlining the implications of a ‘home......Does living with digital technology inevitably lead to digital living? Users talking about a digital home control system, they have had in their homes for eight years, indicate that there is more to living with digital technology than a functional-operational grip on regulation. Our analysis......-keeping’ design discourse....

  9. Noise analysis of a digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, B.A.; Scheibe, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques

  10. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  11. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  12. Tomosynthesis applied to digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Sedaghati, M.; Roy, D.G.; Liu, P.; Nelson, J.A.; Kubal, W.; Del Rio, P.

    1984-01-01

    This extension of the author's previous work on tomographic digital subtraction angiography (DSA) describes the theory of tomosynthetic DSA image reconstruction techniques. In addition to developing the resolution limits resulting from x-ray exposure length and image intensifier field curvature, the authors describe one method of image formation and show tomosynthetic DSA images of animal and human anatomy. Methods for improving the present technique are discussed

  13. Single start multiple stop time digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.A.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A single start multiple stop time digitizer has been developed which can digitize the time between a start pulse and multiple stop pulses. The system has been designed as a PC add on card. The resolution of the instrument is 10 nSecs and the maximum length of time that it can measure is 1.28 milliseconds. Apart from time digitization, it can also resolve the height of the incoming pulses into 64 levels. After each input pulse the system dead time is less than 300 nSecs. The driver software for this card has been developed on DOS platform. It uses graphical user interface to provide a user friendly environment. The system is intended to be used in time of flight mass spectroscopy experiments. It can also be used for time of flight experiments in nuclear physics. (author). 2 figs

  14. Digital Banking: Risks of Financial Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornіvska Valerіa O.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the results of the research into development of the digital economy in the global financial space, shows the contradictions of these processes in the context of the growth of financial inclusion of households, identifies the risks of active introduction of digital banking in poor countries of the world. The characteristics of the processes of growth of the influence of banking institutions on the operational activity and daily life of households are given, and it is proved that under conditions of digital banking, without having any other alternative ways of economic activity in terms of money circulation than non-cash turnover, clients are forced to agree to unlimited presence of financial operators in social systems. It is substantiated that in Ukraine the global risk of digitalization of the society is gradually developing as a result of the creation of unified information systems for the control of global financial flows.

  15. Digital rights management for digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

    2001-12-01

    There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

  16. Study of the Inception Length of Flow over Stepped Spillway Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the inception (development) length increases as the unit discharge increases and it decreases with an increase in both stepped roughness height and chute angle. The ratio of the development length, in this study, to that of Bauer's was found to be 4:5. Finally, SMM-5 produced the least velocity of ...

  17. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

  18. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio: the need for further complementary ratios?

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers components of the Liquidity Coverage Ratio – as well as certain prevailing gaps which may necessitate the introduction of a complementary liquidity ratio. The definitions and objectives accorded to the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) highlight the focus which is accorded to time horizons for funding bank operations. A ratio which would focus on the rate of liquidity transformations and which could also serve as a complementary metric gi...

  19. Joint variable frame rate and length analysis for speech recognition under adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Kraljevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method that combines variable frame length and rate analysis for speech recognition in noisy environments, together with an investigation of the effect of different frame lengths on speech recognition performance. The method adopts frame selection using an a posteriori signal......-to-noise (SNR) ratio weighted energy distance and increases the length of the selected frames, according to the number of non-selected preceding frames. It assigns a higher frame rate and a normal frame length to a rapidly changing and high SNR region of a speech signal, and a lower frame rate and an increased...... frame length to a steady or low SNR region. The speech recognition results show that the proposed variable frame rate and length method outperforms fixed frame rate and length analysis, as well as standalone variable frame rate analysis in terms of noise-robustness....

  20. In vivo metacarpophalanageal joint collateral ligament length changes during flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y C; Sheng, X M; Chen, J; Qian, Z W

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the in vivo length changes of the collateral ligaments of metacarpophalangeal joint during flexion. We obtained computed tomography scans of index, middle, ring and little fingers at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of joint flexion from six hands of six healthy adult volunteers. Three of them had their dominant right hand studied, and the other three had their non-dominant left hand studied. We measured and analysed the radial and ulnar collateral ligaments of each metacarpophalangeal joint from the reconstructed images. We found that the dorsal and middle portions of the both radial and ulnar collateral ligament lengthened progressively during digital flexion and reached the maximum at 90° flexion. The length of the volar portion increased from 0° to 30° flexion and then decreased from 30° to 60° flexion, reaching the minimum at 90°. In conclusion, three portions of collateral ligaments on both sides of the metacarpophalangeal joint have variable length changes during flexion, which act to stabilize the joint through its flexion arc.

  1. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  2. An improved data acquisition system for isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, T.K.; Reddy, B.; Nazare, C.K.; Handu, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic ratio mass spectrometers designed and fabricated to measure the isotopic ratios with a precision of better than 0.05%. In order to achieve this precision, the measurement system consisting of ion signal to voltage converters, analog to digital converters, and data acquisition electronics should be at least one order better than the overall precision of measurement. Using state of the art components and techniques, a data acquisition system, which is an improved version of the earlier system, has been designed and developed for use with multi-collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

  3. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  4. Digital Simulation in the Geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr A. Lobanov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of methods for digital modeling in the area of Earth Sciences. The author illustrates the difference between digital modeling in radio communication and that in the area of Earth Sciences. The article examines the integration aspect of digital models, demonstrates the advantages of digital over analog models, and illustrates that digital models are discrete. The author outlines the characteristics of digital modeling and illustrates the logical structure of digital models.

  5. Digital radiology and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the access to digital methods for handling and processing images in general, many medical imaging methods are becoming more effectively handled digitally. This applies in particular to basically digital techniques such as CT and MR but also now includes Nuclear Medicine (NM), Ultrasound (US) and a variety of radiological procedures such as Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) and Fluoroscopy (DF). The access to conventional projection images by stimulatable plates (CR) or by digitization of film makes all of radiology potentially accessible, and the management of such images by a network is the basic aim of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). However, it is suggested that in order for such systems to be of greater value, that way in which such images are treated needs to change, that is, digital images can be used to derive additional clinical value by appropriate processing

  6. Digital cine-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    Digitization of fluoroscopic images has been developed for the digital cine imaging system as a result of the computer technology, television technology, and popularization of interventional radiology. Present digital cine imaging system is able to offer images similar to cine film because of the higher operatability and better image quality with the development of interventional radiology. As a result, its higher usefulness for catheter diagnosis examination except for interventional radiology was reported, and the possibility of having filmless cine is close to becoming a reality. However several problems have been pointed out, such as spatial resolution, time resolution, storage and exchangeability of data, disconsolidated viewing functions, etc. Anyhow, digital cine imaging system has some unresolved points and lots the needs to be discussed. The tendency of digitization is the passage of the time and we have to promote a study for more useful digital cine imaging system in team medical treatment which centers on the patients. (author)

  7. Theory of Digital Automata

    CERN Document Server

    Borowik, Bohdan; Lahno, Valery; Petrov, Oleksandr

    2013-01-01

    This book serves a dual purpose: firstly to combine the treatment of circuits and digital electronics, and secondly, to establish a strong connection with the contemporary world of digital systems. The need for this approach arises from the observation that introducing digital electronics through a course in traditional circuit analysis is fast becoming obsolete. Our world has gone digital. Automata theory helps with the design of digital circuits such as parts of computers, telephone systems and control systems. A complete perspective is emphasized, because even the most elegant computer architecture will not function without adequate supporting circuits. The focus is on explaining the real-world implementation of complete digital systems. In doing so, the reader is prepared to immediately begin design and implementation work. This work serves as a bridge to take readers from the theoretical world to the everyday design world where solutions must be complete to be successful.

  8. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  9. The digital computer

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, K C

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Computer focuses on the principles, methodologies, and applications of the digital computer. The publication takes a look at the basic concepts involved in using a digital computer, simple autocode examples, and examples of working advanced design programs. Discussions focus on transformer design synthesis program, machine design analysis program, solution of standard quadratic equations, harmonic analysis, elementary wage calculation, and scientific calculations. The manuscript then examines commercial and automatic programming, how computers work, and the components of a computer

  10. Digital Textile Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Moltchanova, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly evolving technology of digital printing opens new opportunities on many markets. One of them is the printed fabric market where printing companies as well as clients benefit from new printing methods. This thesis focuses on the digital textile printing technology and its implementation for fabric-on-demand printing service in Finland. The purpose of this project was to study the technology behind digital textile printing, areas of application of this technology, the requirements ...

  11. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, Edward L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Mauck, Jerry L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Bockhorst, Richard M. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  12. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  13. Dakwah di Era Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Budiantoro, Wahyu

    2018-01-01

    These days dakwah is not only interpreted as transformation of a pure religious value, but also transformation of a more relevant value including many aspects in digital era. Digital era is when society succumbed into the flow of information causing cultural shock and difficulties on synthesizing meaning from those scattered information. Dakwah on Digital age must accommodate societal needs which tend to move into a mass society. It results in strategy and more humane and innovative dakwah me...

  14. The Digital Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    Veling, Louise; Murnane, Sinéad; Carcary, Marian; Zlydareva, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of digital technologies and their potential for reshaping the industry landscape dictates that organizations operating today have little choice but to incorporate digital technologies into their business strategies. Failure to do so will impede the business’s viability, and may ultimately lead to business failure. However, for those organizations that successfully transition to digital business, unprecedented business opportunities exist for value creation and reali...

  15. Digital piracy : theory

    OpenAIRE

    BELLEFLAMME, Paul; PEITZ, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent theoretical contributions on digital piracy. It starts by elaborating on the reasons for intellectual property protection, by reporting a few facts about copyright protection, and by examining reasons to become a digital pirate. Next, it provides an exploration of the consequences of digital piracy, using a base model and several extensions (with consumer sampling, network effects, and indirect appropriation). A closer look at market-structure implications of end-u...

  16. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  17. Easy digital engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Dal Bok

    2002-02-01

    This book lists basic of digital engineering, number system and digital code, Boolean algebra and basic logic circuit, simplify of logical expression, combinational circuit, arithmetic circuit, multivibrator circuit, sequential circuit, memory unit of semiconductor and logical element for program, D/A converter and A/D converter, logic element and integrated circuit and logic circuit and micro controller. It has exercises and answers about digital engineering and summary in the end of each chapter.

  18. Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)…

  19. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  20. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  1. The digital media handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dewdney, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of The Digital Media Handbook presents an essential guide to the historical and theoretical development of digital media, emphasising cultural continuity alongside technological change, and highlighting the emergence of new forms of communication in contemporary networked culture.Andrew Dewdney and Peter Ride present detailed critical commentary and descriptive historical accounts, as well as a series of interviews from a range of digital media practitioners, including producers, developers, curators and artists.The Digital Media Handbook highlights key concerns of today's prac

  2. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  3. Digital security technology simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  4. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  5. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  6. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  7. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  8. Cognitive Hacking and Digital Government: Digital Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thompson

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently the National Center for Digital Government held a workshop on "The Virtual Citizen: Identity, Autonomy, and Accountability: A Civic Scenario Exploration of the Role of Identity in On-Line. Discussions at the workshop focused on five scenarios for future authentication policies with respect to digital identity. The underlying technologies considered for authentication were: biometrics: cryptography, with a focus on digital signatures; secure processing/computation; and reputation systems. Most discussion at the workshop focused on issues related to authentication of users of digital government, but, as implied by the inclusion of a scenario related to ubiquitous identity theft, there was also discussion of problems related to misinformation, including cognitive hacking. Cognitive hacking refers to a computer or information system attack that relies on changing human users' perceptions and corresponding behaviors in order to succeed. This paper describes cognitive hacking, suggests countermeasures, and discusses the implications of cognitive hacking for identity in digital government. In particular, spoofing of government websites and insider misuse are considered.

  9. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  10. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  11. Length dependence of rectification in organic co-oligomer spin rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Gui-Chao; Zhang Zhao; Li Ying; Ren Jun-Feng; Wang Chuan-Kui

    2016-01-01

    The rectification ratio of organic magnetic co-oligomer diodes is investigated theoretically by changing the molecular length. The results reveal two distinct length dependences of the rectification ratio: for a short molecular diode, the charge-current rectification changes little with the increase of molecular length, while the spin-current rectification is weakened sharply by the length; for a long molecular diode, both the charge-current and spin-current rectification ratios increase quickly with the length. The two kinds of dependence switch at a specific length accompanied with an inversion of the rectifying direction. The molecular ortibals and spin-resolved transmission analysis indicate that the dominant mechanism of rectification suffers a change at this specific length, that is, from asymmetric shift of molecular eigenlevels to asymmetric spatial localization of wave functions upon the reversal of bias. This work demonstrates a feasible way to control the rectification in organic co-oligomer spin diodes by adjusting the molecular length. (paper)

  12. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  13. Measuring Crack Length in Coarse Grain Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to a coarse grain structure, crack lengths in precracked spinel specimens could not be measured optically, so the crack lengths and fracture toughness were estimated by strain gage measurements. An expression was developed via finite element analysis to correlate the measured strain with crack length in four-point flexure. The fracture toughness estimated by the strain gaged samples and another standardized method were in agreement.

  14. Dither Cavity Length Controller with Iodine Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Marty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cavity length controller for a seeded Q-switched frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is constructed. The cavity length controller uses a piezo-mirror dither voltage to find the optimum length for the seeded cavity. The piezo-mirror dither also dithers the optical frequency of the output pulse. [1]. This dither in optical frequency is then used to lock to an Iodine absorption line.

  15. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  16. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2016-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)

  17. PC-based arc ignition and arc length control system for gas tungsten arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Springfield, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a PC-based digital control system for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. This system controls the arc ignition process, the arc length, and the process of welding termination. A DT2818 made by Data Translation is used for interface and A/D and D/A conversions. The digital I/O ports of the DT2818 are used for control of wirefeed, shield gas, cooling water, welding power supply, etc. The DT2818 is housed in a PC. The welding signals and status are displayed on the screen for in-process monitoring. A user can control the welding process by the keyboard

  18. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  19. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  20. Digital signage sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Casademont Filella, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  1. Digital gaming expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    In a digitally saturated environment digital media users of all kinds, engaged in different areas of activity, are increasingly categorized in terms of their ability to appropriate and use digital media – they are regarded as non-users, experts, natives, or literates for instance. Within communic......In a digitally saturated environment digital media users of all kinds, engaged in different areas of activity, are increasingly categorized in terms of their ability to appropriate and use digital media – they are regarded as non-users, experts, natives, or literates for instance. Within...... communication and game studies there are multiple understandings of how digital expertise is expressed and performed, and subsequently how these expressions and performances can be valued, understood and theorized within the research community. Among other things expertise with and within digital games has......-of-game (Schrøder, 2003) in a three-year-long study of men and women (couples and singles) playing the largest Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game to date, World of Warcraft. In focusing on how different aspects of gaming expertise are articulated, negotiated, and performed, I aim to illustrate how...

  2. The First Digit 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1075. RESONANCE | December 2013. GENERAL | ARTICLE. Table 2. The first digits distri- bution according to Benford's law. First Frequency. Digit. 1. 30.1 %. 2. 17.6 %. 3. 12.4 %. 4. 9.7 %. 5. 7.9 %. 6. 6.7 %. 7. 5.8 %. 8. 5.1 %. 9. 4.5 % ...

  3. Digital Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarrete, T.; Rizzo, I.; Mignosa, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is the impact of media technology on the supply and demand of heritage with what is usually described as digitization? This chapter presents the concept of digitization as concerning far more than just the introduction of computers, the development of databases and websites, and the conversion

  4. Digital formidling af kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En af tidens store kulturelle dagsordner drejer sig om digital tilgængeliggørelse af kulturarv. Fortidens spor dukker op i nye former på nettet - næsten alle kulturinstitutioner arbejder med, og befolkningen har fået helt nye muligheder for at se med og deltage. Digital formidling af kulturarv...

  5. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2011-01-01

    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  6. Beyond Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Conversations in middle school about digital citizenship tend to focus on the responsibilities of citizenship and the issues of surveillance, safety, cyberbullying, and internet etiquette. While these are important and essential conversations, digital citizenship education needs to consider youth political identity and democratic participation in…

  7. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  8. Monetizing Digital Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the options the digital content creators have to monetize their creations. The simplest solution seems to be the winning one, so by enabling the ads, the digital content may be quickly transformed into money with no cost.

  9. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...

  10. Recurrent infantile digital fibromatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of an 8-year-old-boy with recurrent infantile digital fibromatosis (IDF) who presented with new ... Keywords: fibrous tumors, inclusion body fibromatosis, infantile digital fibromatosis, spindle cells, Reye tumor .... watch-and-wait strategy for patients with histologically confirmed IDF nodules that do not cause ...

  11. Practical digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Virginia Mason Medical Center, VA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques.

  12. Practical digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Beverly E.

    2008-01-01

    This book is meant for the radiologist who is facing the challenge of organizing a digital mammographic imaging center. This text is meant to be a practical book that provides information about digital mammographic physics and equipment which will allow one to intelligently compare technologies and systems. Some of the major challenges include: large expense; rapidly changing technology, and inconsistent connectivity; and finally, need for strong information technology support. The initial conversion cost to digital mammographic imaging is relatively expensive due to the cost of digital mammography hardware, software, and storage. Virtually all other imaging modalities are being converted to purely digital storage and transfer, and the digital trend in mammography is inevitable. Technical advantages of digital mammography are described. However, the improved flexibility in image display and transfer are some of its strongest features. In conclusion, although there are increasing imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate breast disease, mammography will continue to play a key role in detecting breast cancer. To be an effective imager, the radiologist should become familiar with digital mammography and understand its role within the increasing complex structure of breast imaging techniques

  13. Educating Digital Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…

  14. Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Rights Management, or DRM for short, is a much-discussed topic nowadays. The main reason for this is that DRM technology is often mentioned in the context of protection of digital audio and video content, for example to avoid large scale copying of CDs and DVDs via peer-to-peer networks in

  15. Digital reef rugosity estimates coral reef habitat complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, Phillip; Doherty, Orla; Pardede, Shinta

    2013-01-01

    Ecological habitats with greater structural complexity contain more species due to increased niche diversity. This is especially apparent on coral reefs where individual coral colonies aggregate to give a reef its morphology, species zonation, and three dimensionality. Structural complexity is classically measured with a reef rugosity index, which is the ratio of a straight line transect to the distance a flexible chain of equal length travels when draped over the reef substrate; yet, other techniques from visual categories to remote sensing have been used to characterize structural complexity at scales from microhabitats to reefscapes. Reef-scale methods either lack quantitative precision or are too time consuming to be routinely practical, while remotely sensed indices are mismatched to the finer scale morphology of coral colonies and reef habitats. In this communication a new digital technique, Digital Reef Rugosity (DRR) is described which utilizes a self-contained water level gauge enabling a diver to quickly and accurately characterize rugosity with non-invasive millimeter scale measurements of coral reef surface height at decimeter intervals along meter scale transects. The precise measurements require very little post-processing and are easily imported into a spreadsheet for statistical analyses and modeling. To assess its applicability we investigated the relationship between DRR and fish community structure at four coral reef sites on Menjangan Island off the northwest corner of Bali, Indonesia and one on mainland Bali to the west of Menjangan Island; our findings show a positive relationship between DRR and fish diversity. Since structural complexity drives key ecological processes on coral reefs, we consider that DRR may become a useful quantitative community-level descriptor to characterize reef complexity.

  16. Digital filtering and reconstruction of coded aperture images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The real-time neutron radiography facility at the University of Virginia has been used for both transmission radiography and computed tomography. Recently, a coded aperture system has been developed to permit the extraction of three dimensional information from a low intensity field of radiation scattered by an extended object. Short wave-length radiations (e.g. neutrons) are not easily image because of the difficulties in achieving diffraction and refraction with a conventional lens imaging system. By using a coded aperture approach, an imaging system has been developed that records and reconstructs an object from an intensity distribution. This system has a signal-to-noise ratio that is proportional to the total open area of the aperture making it ideal for imaging with a limiting intensity radiation field. The main goal of this research was to develope and implement the digital methods and theory necessary for the reconstruction process. Several real-time video systems, attached to an Intellect-100 image processor, a DEC PDP-11 micro-computer, and a Convex-1 parallel processing mainframe were employed. This system, coupled with theoretical extensions and improvements, allowed for retrieval of information previously unobtainable by earlier optical methods. The effect of thermal noise, shot noise, and aperture related artifacts were examined so that new digital filtering techniques could be constructed and implemented. Results of image data filtering prior to and following the reconstruction process are reported. Improvements related to the different signal processing methods are emphasized. The application and advantages of this imaging technique to the field of non-destructive testing are also discussed

  17. Estimation of Length and Order of Polynomial-based Filter Implemented in the Form of Farrow Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukotic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital polynomial-based interpolation filters implemented using the Farrow structure are used in Digital Signal Processing (DSP to calculate the signal between its discrete samples. The two basic design parameters for these filters are number of polynomial-segments defining the finite length of impulse response, and order of polynomials in each polynomial segment. The complexity of the implementation structure and the frequency domain performance depend on these two parameters. This contribution presents estimation formulae for length and polynomial order of polynomial-based filters for various types of requirements including attenuation in stopband, width of transitions band, deviation in passband, weighting in passband/stopband.

  18. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  19. Digitalization of daycare institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    in the intergenerational interaction with as well as the intragenerational interaction among daycare children. To some extent, digital media usage, foremost of tablet computers, has seen a discursive and material normalization across a number Danish daycare institutions before at all clarifying how it could be rendered...... as on situated sociomaterial approaches to critical psychological practice research in order to inquire into possible specificities of digital media device usage: How is this usage similar to and different from interacting via other material-communicative devices in a pedagogical practice? How do digital media......The digitalization of Danish daycare institutions is not only affecting the ways staff is documenting and reporting on its pedagogical work. It also appears to be redefining what pedagogical work itself is about, given the drastic increase in deployment of digital (mobile) media devices...

  20. Creative Digital Media Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    , 2006, 2009), machinima (machine + cinema + anime, real-time animation captured in games etc.), and the digital storytelling movement. A dialogic perspective on the diversity of digital media practices opens up for understanding the complex evolution of language on socio-historical, cultural......The presentation reviews the interplay of dialogic (Bakhtin, 1981) and multimodal theories on media production practices, with attention to visual communication (Kress and van Leeuwen, 2001, 2006). This theoretical approach aids in reflecting on digital media practices as novel (new) sign systems...... develop a collaborative digital storytelling showcase for their own digital stories about Roskilde University. This course is intended to bring up reflections on the wider phenomenon of contemporary media practices, such as: YouTube, DIY (do-it-yourself) filmmaking or homemade, garage cinema (Jenkins...

  1. Digital Technology Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Technology entrepreneurship is an established concept in academia. However, recent developments in the context of digital entrepreneurship call for revision and advance- ment. The multiple possible combinations of technology and entrepreneurship have res- ulted in a diversity of phenomena...... with significantly different characteristics and socio-economic impact. This article is focused on the identification and description of technology entrepreneurship in times of digitization. Based on current examples, we identify and describe characterizations of technology entrepreneurship, digital techno- logy...... entrepreneurship, and digital entrepreneurship. With this new delineation of terms, we would like to foster discussion between researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers on the impact of digitization on entrepreneurship, and set a future research agenda....

  2. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  3. The digital spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2019-01-01

    In the words of the Oxford English Dictionary, a book is 'a portable volume consisting of a series of written, printed, or illustrated pages bound together for ease of reading' (‘book, n.’nd). Yet, the world of books isn’t what it used to be. If differences between media are material differences...... analyze books as digital or even 'post-digital' artifacts (Cramer 2014), while preserving the material dimension of the book artifact. In other words: is there is such a thing as a (post-)digital spine, and how can it be described? This article outlines an answer to this question within an inferential...... (Seiter 2015), and books are produced, distributed and read on various digital media and devices, it is no longer possible to understand digital books on the basis of the material and syntactical features of the codex artifact. It then becomes important to discuss how to conceptualize and subsequently...

  4. Digital Tectonic Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due

    2005-01-01

    Tectonics has been an inherent part of the architectural field since the Greek temples while the digital media is new to the field. This paper is built on the assumption that in the intermediate zone between the two there is a lot to be learned about architecture in general and the digital media...... in particular. A model of the aspects in the term tectonics – epresentation, ontology and culture – will be presented and used to discuss the current digital tools’ ability in tectonics. Furthermore it will be discussed what a digital tectonic tool is and could be and how a connection between the digital...... and tectonic could become a part of the architectural education....

  5. Measurement of laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths of diluted hydrogen-enriched natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Haiyan; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Zuohua; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2009-01-15

    The laminar flame characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen-air-diluent gas (nitrogen/CO{sub 2}) mixtures were studied in a constant volume combustion bomb at various diluent ratios, hydrogen fractions and equivalence ratios. Both unstretched laminar burning velocity and Markstein length were obtained. The results showed that hydrogen fraction, diluent ratio and equivalence ratio have combined influence on laminar burning velocity and flame instability. The unstretched laminar burning velocity is reduced at a rate that is increased with the increase of the diluent ratio. The reduction effect of CO{sub 2} diluent gas is stronger than that of nitrogen diluent gas. Hydrogen-enriched natural gas with high hydrogen fraction can tolerate more diluent gas than that with low hydrogen fraction. Markstein length can either increase or decrease with the increase of the diluent ratio, depending on the hydrogen fraction of the fuel. (author)

  6. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  7. Computing Logarithms Digit-by-Digit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present an algorithm for computing logarithms of positive real numbers, that bears structural resemblance to the elementary school algorithm of long division. Using this algorithm, we can compute successive digits of a logarithm using a 4-operation pocket calculator. The algorithm makes no use of Taylor series or calculus, but…

  8. Length scale for configurational entropy in microemulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Kegel, W.K.; Groenewold, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the length scale that must be used in evaluating the mixing entropy in a microemulsion. The central idea involves the choice of a length scale in configuration space that is consistent with the physical definition of entropy in phase space. We show that this scale may be

  9. Proofs of Contracted Length Non-covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Different proofs of contracted length non covariance are discussed. The way based on the establishment of interval inconstancy (dependence on velocity) seems to be the most convincing one. It is stressed that the known non covariance of the electromagnetic field energy and momentum of a moving charge ('the problem 4/3') is a direct consequence of contracted length non covariance. 8 refs

  10. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  11. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  12. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women

  13. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  14. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  15. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  16. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  17. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  18. Appearance of a Minimal Length in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, Irina; Ulbricht, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data reveal with a 5$\\sigma$ significance the existence of a characteristic minimal length $l_e$= 1.57 × 10$^{−17}$ cm at the scale E = 1.253 TeV in the annihilation reaction $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ . Nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity and satisfying the weak energy condition predicts, for an arbitrary gauge invariant Lagrangian, the existence of spinning charged electromagnetic soliton asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer with the gyromagnetic ratio g=2 . Its internal structure includes a rotating equatorial disk of de Sitter vacuum which has properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, displays superconducting behavior, supplies a particle with the finite positive electromagnetic mass related to breaking of space-time symmetry, and gives some idea about the physical origin of a minimal length in annihilation.

  19. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  20. Determining storage related egg quality changes via digital image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.

  1. DSA in digital replantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuhong; Chao Ming; Jiang Dingyao; Zhang Guangqiang; Wu Jianjun; Chen Xianyi; Li Bin; Sun Jihong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess revascularization and vessel anastomosis in digital replantations with DSA. Methods: Twelve cases of digital replantations underwent digital subtract angiography during 2 to 4 days after fingers reattachment. The vessel anastomosis, hemodynamics, stenosis and discontinuation were investigated. The unobstructed and smooth anastomosis was suggested as early stage survival of the reattached fingers, the spasm and stenosis of the reattached vessels were considered as mild vascular crisis, and the discontinuation of hemodynamics were indicated as severe vascular crisis. Results: The total 27 vessels were clearly displayed on DSA. Of these vessels, 23 vessels were unobstructed and smooth, all digits were survived. Diagnosis coincidence of early stage survival was 100% (23/23). Two vessels were obstructed, which were testified having thrombus by operation research. The other 2 vessels were spasm, the digits were also survived ultimately by expectant treatment. All 4 abnormal vessel anatomosis were found by DSA. Conclusion: DSA is important modality in assessing revascularization and blood circulation for digital replantations, guiding in dealing with the vascular crisis, and in predicting early stage survival of the reattached digits. (authors)

  2. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  3. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  4. A Method for Determining Skeletal Lengths from DXA Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogelman Ignac

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal ratios and bone lengths are widely used in anthropology and forensic pathology and hip axis length is a useful predictor of fracture. The aim of this study was to show that skeletal ratios, such as length of femur to height, could be accurately measured from a DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry image. Methods 90 normal Caucasian females, 18–80 years old, with whole body DXA data were used as subjects. Two methods, linear pixel count (LPC and reticule and ruler (RET were used to measure skeletal sizes on DXA images and compared with real clinical measures from 20 subjects and 20 x-rays of the femur and tibia taken in 2003. Results Although both methods were highly correlated, the LPC inter- and intra-observer error was lower at 1.6% compared to that of RET at 2.3%. Both methods correlated positively with real clinical measures, with LPC having a marginally stronger correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.94; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.89 than RET (r2 = 0.86; r2 = 0.84; average r2 = 0.85 with X-rays and real measures respectively. Also, the time taken to use LPC was half that of RET at 5 minutes per scan. Conclusion Skeletal ratios can be accurately and precisely measured from DXA total body scan images. The LPC method is easy to use and relatively rapid. This new phenotype will be useful for osteoporosis research for individuals or large-scale epidemiological or genetic studies.

  5. Ultrasound cervical length in predicting preterm birth: Prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health problem. It is associated with a 15–20 per cent mortality rate and remains responsible for 75 per cent of perinatal deaths in foetuses without anomalies. Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of cervical length measured in the first trimester (11–14 Weeks of amenorrhea “WA” and the second trimester (20–24 Weeks of amenorrhea” WA” in an asymptomatic population of singleton pregnancies to assess the risk of spontaneous preterm birth compared to the digital assessment. Methods We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study involving 117 asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies between January and December 2015. Results In our study, the clinical examination had a low positive predictive value and a low sensibility for screening women at risk of preterm delivery. Cervical length less than 35mm between 12–14WA and 30mm between 22–24WA predicts the occurrence of preterm birth with a high sensitivity (Se, and specificity (Sp. Conclusion We conclude that ultrasound screening of preterm delivery is now highly recommended.

  6. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussy Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  7. Multiple Word-Length High-Level Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Heller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP applications are nowadays widely used and their complexity is ever growing. The design of dedicated hardware accelerators is thus still needed in system-on-chip and embedded systems. Realistic hardware implementation requires first to convert the floating-point data of the initial specification into arbitrary length data (finite-precision while keeping an acceptable computation accuracy. Next, an optimized hardware architecture has to be designed. Considering uniform bit-width specification allows to use traditional automated design flow. However, it leads to oversized design. On the other hand, considering non uniform bit-width specification allows to get a smaller circuit but requires complex design tasks. In this paper, we propose an approach that inputs a C/C++ specification. The design flow, based on high-level synthesis (HLS techniques, automatically generates a potentially pipeline RTL architecture described in VHDL. Both bitaccurate integer and fixed-point data types can be used in the input specification. The generated architecture uses components (operator, register, etc. that have different widths. The design constraints are the clock period and the throughput of the application. The proposed approach considers data word-length information in all the synthesis steps by using dedicated algorithms. We show in this paper the effectiveness of the proposed approach through several design experiments in the DSP domain.

  8. Digital cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myerowitz, P.D.; Mistretta, C.A.; Shaw, C.-G.; Van Lysel, M.S.; Swanson, D.K.; Lasser, T.A.; Dhanani, S.P.; Zarnstorff, W.C.; Vander Ark, C.R.; Dobbins, J.T.; Peppler, W.W.; Crummy, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have previously reported on real time digital fluoroscopic subtraction techniques developed in the laboratory during the past 10 years. This paper outlines basic apparatus configuration and imaging modes used for preliminary studies involving visualization of the canine and human heart. All of the techniques involve the use of real time digital subtraction processing of data from an image intensified television fluoroscopy system. Based on the configuration of the digital processing equipment a number of different imaging modalities are possible. A brief description of the apparatus and these imaging modes is given. (Auth.)

  9. Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bus, J; Hildebrandt, M

    2012-01-01

    There have been many inevitable transformations in society due to digitization - the introduction of digital technology, including communication technology, through the Internet and its use via the Web.This book is the first Yearbook of the Digital Enlightenment Forum. Whilst it cannot cover all the many aspects which the forum encompasses, the book gives an impression of the broad spectrum of the forum and a clear picture of the multi-disciplinary nature of the issues at stake.The first paper in the book is a contribution from the father of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, and Harry Halpin. They

  10. Fast transient digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, F.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display

  11. Digital Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Corniani

    2006-01-01

    Digital marketing communication is directed to profiled targets, which are active in the communication process. Every communication flow can ask for an information answer from the market. This opportunity grants immediate feed-backs and feed-forwards, so that digital communication can be easily and cheaply measured; digital communication flows are diffused at costs that are getting lower and lower, but it asks specialized and deep competences to communication managers. The ease in the flowing...

  12. plano de Marketing Digital

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Daniel Jorge Cunha Correia

    2015-01-01

    O projeto aqui apresentado consiste no desenvolvimento de um plano estratégico de marketing digital para o projeto Laboratório de Criação Digital (LCDPorto). O LCDPorto tem sete anos de existência, sem nunca ter definido uma estratégia de comunicação. O principal objetivo passa por aprofundar os vários temas que integram Marketing Digital, e desenvolver um plano que permita ao LCDPorto ganhar mais notoriedade pelas atividades que desenvolve e, também, obter mais público para...

  13. Transitioning to digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, F., E-mail: Francisco.Miranda@pwc.ca [Pratt & Whitney Canada, Longueuil, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This article provides insight on the technical and business considerations necessary to implement or to transition to digital radiography Continued refinements in digital radiography technology have resulted in significant improvements in image quality and detectability of indications. These improvements have resulted in the acceptance of the technology by users and aerospace primes for final product inspection and disposition. Digital radiography has also been identified as an interesting cost reduction initiative with the potential of providing gains in productivity through increased throughput and decreased inspection lead-times and resulting costs. (author)

  14. The Digital Marmor Parium

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The Digital Marmor Parium is a project of the Alexander von Humboldt Chair of Digital Humanities at the University of Leipzig (http://www.dh.uni-leipzig.de/wo/dmp). The aim of this work is to produce a new digital edition of the so called Marmor Parium (Parian Marble), which is a Hellenistic chronicle on a marble slab coming from the Greek island of Paros. The importance of the document is due to the fact that it preserves a Greek chronology (1581/80-299/98 BC) with a list of kings and archon...

  15. SHDAS Production Digitizer Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The Seismo-Hydroacoustic Data Acquisition System (SHDAS) is undergoing evaluation in preparation for its engineering, development, and deployment by the U.S Navy as an ocean bottom seismic monitoring system. At the current stage of development, the production digitizers are being evaluated to confirm their performance prior to packaging and assembly for deployment. The testing of the digitizers is being conducted at Delta Group Electronics, the digitizer fabricator, in San Diego, California, performed by Sandia National Laboratories with the assistance of Leidos and Delta Group Electronics.

  16. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  17. Digitization in Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Shollo, Arisa; Kreiner, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Digitization in the maritime industry is expected to transform businesses. The recently introduced mobile technologies in inter-organizational processes is an example of digitization in an industry which moves very slowly towards digital transformation. We focus on the influence of mobile...... technologies on control practices in inter-organizational processes related to coping with an engine failure. We collected qualitative data from in depth interviews with representatives of the involved parties. We identify organizational and behavioural challenges hindering information sharing during problem...... technologies increase information sharing and thus the efficiency of inter-organizational processes when coping with an engine failure....

  18. Digital archives. Alcune note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zanella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available MoRE is a digital native museum where projects of artworks are exposed, and also a digital archive where documents about art projectsare collected. MoRE is a multi-layered platform where artists, curators, art historians confront each other collecting art projects, organizing their documentation and defining tools for the communication and surveys on the public. In this paper some critical referencesare identified, that constitute a model for the project as they reflect on the impact of the digital dimension on the transformation of the museum and archive.

  19. Classifying Physical Morphology of Cocoa Beans Digital Images using Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawi, Armin; Adhitya, Yudhi

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the quality of cocoa beans through morphology of their digital images. Samples of cocoa beans were scattered on a bright white paper under a controlled lighting condition. A compact digital camera was used to capture the images. The images were then processed to extract their morphological parameters. Classification process begins with an analysis of cocoa beans image based on morphological feature extraction. Parameters for extraction of morphological or physical feature parameters, i.e., Area, Perimeter, Major Axis Length, Minor Axis Length, Aspect Ratio, Circularity, Roundness, Ferret Diameter. The cocoa beans are classified into 4 groups, i.e.: Normal Beans, Broken Beans, Fractured Beans, and Skin Damaged Beans. The model of classification used in this paper is the Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (MELS-SVM), a proposed improvement model of SVM using ensemble method in which the separate hyperplanes are obtained by least square approach and the multiclass procedure uses One-Against- All method. The result of our proposed model showed that the classification with morphological feature input parameters were accurately as 99.705% for the four classes, respectively.

  20. A Method for Calculating the Area of Zostera marina Leaves from Digital Images with Noise Induced by Humidity Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leal-Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological importance of eelgrass, nowadays anthropogenic influences have produced deleterious effects in many meadows worldwide. Transplantation plots are commonly used as a feasible remediation scheme. The characterization of eelgrass biomass and its dynamics is an important input for the assessment of the overall status of both natural and transplanted populations. Particularly, in restoration plots it is desirable to obtain nondestructive assessments of these variables. Allometric models allow the expression of above ground biomass and productivity of eelgrass in terms of leaf area, which provides cost effective and nondestructive assessments. Leaf area in eelgrass can be conveniently obtained by the product of associated length and width. Although these variables can be directly measured on most sampled leaves, digital image methods could be adapted in order to simplify measurements. Nonetheless, since width to length ratios in eelgrass leaves could be even negligible, noise induced by leaf humidity content could produce misidentification of pixels along the peripheral contour of leaves images. In this paper, we present a procedure aimed to produce consistent estimations of eelgrass leaf area in the presence of the aforementioned noise effects. Our results show that digital image procedures can provide reliable, nondestructive estimations of eelgrass leaf area.

  1. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  2. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  3. Digital models: How can dental arch form be verified chairside?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. Methods: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. Results: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05. Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001, the differences were considered clinically negligible. Conclusion: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires.

  4. Digital models: How can dental arch form be verified chairside?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Alana; Braga, Emanuel; de Araújo, Telma Martins

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Plaster dental casts are routinely used during clinical practice to access maxillary dental arch form and assist on fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. Recently introduced, digital model technology may offer a limitation for the obtainment of a dental physical record. In this context, a tool for dental arch form assessment for chairside use is necessary when employing digital models. In this regard, paper print of the dental arch seems thus to be useful. Methods: In the present study, 37 lower arch models were used. Intercanine and intermolar widths and dental arch length measurements were performed and compared using plaster dental casts, digital models and paper print image of the models. Ortho Insight 3D scanner was employed for model digitalization. Results: No statistically significant differences were noted regarding the measurements performed on the plaster or digital models (p> 0.05). Paper print images, however, showed subestimated values for intercanine and intermolar widths and overestimated values for dental arch length. Despite being statistically significant (p< 0.001), the differences were considered clinically negligible. Conclusion: The present study suggests that paper print images obtained from digital models are clinically accurate and can be used as a tool for dental arch form assessment for fabrication of individualized orthodontic archwires. PMID:29364382

  5. Digital radiography: description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthel, A.; Bonin, Th.; Cadilhon, S.; Thiery, Ch.; Chatellier, L.; Kaftandjian, V.; Honorat, Ph.; Torrent, J.; Le Brun, A.; Maglaive, J.C.; Moreau, Ph.; Pettier, J.L.; Rebuffel, V.; Roenelle, P.; Roussilhe, J.; Staat, St.; Tahon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The presented document arises from the work of the group 'Digital Radiography and sensors' of COFREND. It is a collective work of synthesis aimed to analyze the quality parameters of digital images influencing the answer and the diagnosis brought to a given industrial problem. Five families of digital sensors have been studied: 1. Image Intensifier coupled with CCD devices - 2. scintillators coupled with a CCD device- 3. Flat Panels with indirect conversion - 4. Flat Panels with direct electric conversion - 5. Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Screens). In particular, concerning a complete imaging chain, it deals with the notions of magnification, blur (unsharpness) (geometrical, kinetic or internal to the very sensor), noises, scattered radiation, spatial resolution, which is different from the one of analog detectors such as films, Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), sensitivity using IQIs, dynamic range, detection quantum efficiency, persistence and temporal resolution. This document is not a standard; it must be understood as a user's guide, and it approaches some essentials corrections to bring to a sensor in order to optimize his efficiency without losing information during the pre-processing phase in the radiographic acquisition. It also introduces some image processing tools commonly used. It can be used as a source document to the future elaboration of a standardisation document. It augurs not at all of the choice of a digital sensor with regard to the traditional radiographic film, but gives bases of reflection to a radio user for a sensible transfer from the classic radiography to the digital radiography. (authors)

  6. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  7. A new digital correlation flaw detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.B.; Furgason, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    A new portable digital random signal flaw detection system is described which uses a digital delay line to replace the acoustic delay line of the original random signal system. Using this new system, a comparison was made between the two types of transmit signals which have been used in previous systems--m-sequences and random signals. This comparison has not been possible with these previous correlation flaw detection systems. Results indicated that for high-speed short code operation, the m-sequences produced slightly lower range sidelobes than typical samples of a clipped random signal. For normal long code operation, results indicated that system performance is essentially equivalent in resolution and signal-to-noise ratio using either m-sequences or clipped and sampled random signals. Further results also showed that for normal long code operation, the system produces outputs equivalent in resolution to pulse-echo systems, but with the added benefit of signal-to-noise ratio enhancement

  8. Dichotic and dichoptic digit perception in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawfield, Angela; McFarland, Dennis J; Cacace, Anthony T

    2011-06-01

    Verbally based dichotic-listening experiments and reproduction-mediated response-selection strategies have been used for over four decades to study perceptual/cognitive aspects of auditory information processing and make inferences about hemispheric asymmetries and language lateralization in the brain. Test procedures using dichotic digits have also been used to assess for disorders of auditory processing. However, with this application, limitations exist and paradigms need to be developed to improve specificity of the diagnosis. Use of matched tasks in multiple sensory modalities is a logical approach to address this issue. Herein, we use dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing of visually presented digits for making this comparison. To evaluate methodological issues involved in using matched tasks of dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing in normal adults. A multivariate assessment of the effects of modality (auditory vs. visual), digit-span length (1-3 pairs), response selection (recognition vs. reproduction), and ear/visual hemifield of presentation (left vs. right) on dichotic and dichoptic digit perception. Thirty adults (12 males, 18 females) ranging in age from 18 to 30 yr with normal hearing sensitivity and normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity. A computerized, custom-designed program was used for all data collection and analysis. A four-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated the effects of modality, digit-span length, response selection, and ear/visual field of presentation. The ANOVA revealed that performances on dichotic listening and dichoptic viewing tasks were dependent on complex interactions between modality, digit-span length, response selection, and ear/visual hemifield of presentation. Correlation analysis suggested a common effect on overall accuracy of performance but isolated only an auditory factor for a laterality index. The variables used in this experiment affected performances in the auditory modality to a

  9. Digital Library and Digital Reference Service: Integration and Mutual Complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia

    2008-01-01

    Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…

  10. Digital Literacy Learning in Higher Education through Digital Storytelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Banny S. K.; Churchill, Daniel; Chiu, Thomas K. F.

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to develop digital literacy skills with which students can communicate and express their ideas effectively using digital media. The educational sectors around the world are beginning to incorporate digital literacy into the curriculum. Digital storytelling, one of the possible classroom activities, is an approach which may help…

  11. Digitization and digital archiving a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Leggett, Elizabeth R

    2014-01-01

    Modern library patrons are embracing the ease with which information can be accessed digitally, and so many librarians are currently working toward making information available electronically. Digitization and Digital Archiving: A Practical Guide for Librarians is a comprehensive guide with step-by-step instructions for forming digital archives.

  12. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  13. Automatic Control Of Length Of Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, William F.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear relationships among current, voltage, and length stored in electronic memory. Conceptual microprocessor-based control subsystem maintains constant length of welding arc in gas/tungsten arc-welding system, even when welding current varied. Uses feedback of current and voltage from welding arc. Directs motor to set position of torch according to previously measured relationships among current, voltage, and length of arc. Signal paths marked "calibration" or "welding" used during those processes only. Other signal paths used during both processes. Control subsystem added to existing manual or automatic welding system equipped with automatic voltage control.

  14. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  15. Utility of Digital Stereo Images for Optic Disc Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Pearson, Denise J.; Bansal, Mayank; Puri, Manika; Miller, Eydie; Alexander, Judith; Piltz-Seymour, Jody; Nyberg, William; Maguire, Maureen G.; Eledath, Jayan; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluations in glaucoma. Methods. Stereo color optic disc images in both digital and 35-mm slide film formats were acquired contemporaneously from 29 subjects with various cup-to-disc ratios (range, 0.26–0.76; median, 0.475). Using a grading scale designed to assess image quality, the ease of visualizing optic disc features important for glaucoma diagnosis, and the comparative diameters of the optic disc cup, experienced observers separately compared the primary digital stereo images to each subject's 35-mm slides, to scanned images of the same 35-mm slides, and to grayscale conversions of the digital images. Statistical analysis accounted for multiple gradings and comparisons and also assessed image formats under monoscopic viewing. Results. Overall, the quality of primary digital color images was judged superior to that of 35-mm slides (P digital color images were mostly equivalent to the scanned digitized images of the same slides. Color seemingly added little to grayscale optic disc images, except that peripapillary atrophy was best seen in color (P digital over film images was maintained under monoscopic viewing conditions. Conclusions. Digital stereo optic disc images are useful for evaluating the optic disc in glaucoma and allow the application of advanced image processing applications. Grayscale images, by providing luminance distinct from color, may be informative for assessing certain features. PMID:20505199

  16. Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Holmes, J.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Brown, T.G.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1980-06-01

    The Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak Study (LARTS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated the potential for producing a viable longburn tokamak reactor by enhancing the volt-second capability of the ohmic heating transformer through the use of high aspect ratio designs. The plasma physics, engineering, and economic implications of high aspect ratio tokamaks were assessed in the context of extended burn operation. Using a one-dimensional transport code plasma startup and burn parameters were addressed. The pulsed electrical power requirements for the poloidal field system, which have a major impact on reactor economics, were minimized by optimizing the startup and shutdown portions of the tokamak cycle. A representative large aspect ratio tokamak with an aspect ratio of 8 was found to achieve a burn time of 3.5 h at capital cost only approx. 25% greater than that of a moderate aspect ratio design tokamak

  17. The effects of session length on demand functions generated using FR schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T Mary; Kinloch, Jennifer; Poling, Alan

    2011-05-01

    In comparing open and closed economies, researchers often arrange shorter sessions under the former condition than under the latter. Several studies indicate that session length per se can affect performance and there are some data that indicate that this variable can influence demand functions. To provide further data, the present study exposed domestic hens to series of increasing fixed-ratio schedules with the length of the open-economy sessions varied over 10, 40, 60, and 120 min. Session time affected the total-session response rates and pause lengths. The shortest session gave the greatest response rates and shortest pauses and the longest gave the lowest response rates and longest pauses. The total-session demand functions also changed with session length: The shortest session gave steeper initial slopes (i.e., the functions were more elastic at small ratios) and smaller rates of change of elasticity than the longest session. Response rates, pauses, and demand functions were, however, similar for equivalent periods of responding taken from within sessions of different overall lengths (e.g., total-session data for 10-min sessions and the data for the first 10 min of 120-min sessions). These findings suggest that differences in session length can confound the results of studies comparing open and closed economies when those economies are arranged in sessions that differ substantially in length, hence data for equivalent-length periods of responding, rather than total-session data, should be of primary interest under these conditions.

  18. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  19. Fast digitization and digital receiver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, Ralph C.

    2002-01-01

    The potentially lucrative wireless market has led to technological advances in mixed signal devices such as high speed, high resolution A/D and D/A converters. This same market has also driven the development of high performance multi-channel digital receiver and digital transmitter ICs. Similarly, advances in semiconductor processes, coupled with the need for reduced time-to-market, has led to the development of large, enhanced performance, in-circuit programmable logic devices. A review of the key characteristics of these mixed-signal, signal processing and programmable logic devices is presented. The application of these devices and technologies to the instrumentation of Accelerators and Storage Rings is discussed and presented by way of examples. Issues relating to the requirements associated with real-time processing, I/O throughput, reconfigurability, reliability, maintainability and packaging requirements are also addressed

  20. Digital literacies at school. Students' digital profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pennazio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta una ricerca volta a focalizzare le modalità in cui la Digital Literacy si traduce a scuola. Lo studio ha inteso sottolineare le molteplici dimensioni della Digital Literacy: Information Technology Literacy; Information Literacy; Visual Literacy e Media Literacy ed è stato effettuato nelle scuole primarie e secondarie di primo grado in Liguria. Sono state organizzate settimane di attività di ricerca, analisi e rielaborazione di informazioni, in classe e in rete, individualmente e in gruppo. Dalle autovalutazione degli studenti, svolte al termine di ogni attività, sono emersi i profili digitali che gli studenti tendono ad assumere quando utilizzano le tecnologie digitali. Tali profili possono essere utilizzati dagli insegnanti per progettare in maniera più mirata e significativa le attività con le tecnologie a scuola.