WorldWideScience

Sample records for digestive tract tumors

  1. Endoscopic resection of tumors in the lower digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Lun; Cai; Qiang; Shi; Tao; Chen; Yun-Shi; Zhong; Li-Qing; Yao

    2015-01-01

    As endoscopic technology has developed and matured,the endoscopic resection of gastrointestinal tract polyps has become a widely used treatment. Colorectal polyps are the most common type of polyp, which are best managed by early resection before the polyp undergoes malignant transformation. Methods for treating colorectal tumors are numerous, including argon plasma coagulation, endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection, and laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. In this review, we will highlight several currently used clinical endoscopic resection methods and how they are selected based on the characteristics of the targeted tumor. Specifically, we will focus on laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery.

  2. Application of autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine in treatment of tumors of digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Liang; Hui Wang; Tie-Mie Sun; Wen-Qing Yao; Li-Li Chen; Yu Jin; Chun-Ling Li; Fan-Juan Meng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To treat patients with stage Ⅰ-Ⅳ malignant tumors of digestive tract using autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV (Newcastle disease virus) vaccine, and observe the survival period and curative effect.METHODS: 335 patients with malignant tumors of digestive tract were treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine and NDV vaccine. The autologous tumor cell vaccine were assigned for long-term survival observation. While these failed to obtain the autologous tumor tissue were given with NDV vaccine for a short-term observation on curative effect.RESULTS: The colorectal cancer patients treated with autologous tumor cell vaccine were divided into two groups:the controlled group (subjected to resection alone) (n=257),the vaccine group (subjected to both resection and immunotherapy) (n=310). 25 patients treated with NDV immunotherapy were all at stage Ⅳ without having resection.In postoperation adjuvant therapy patients, the 5, 6 and 7-year survival rates were 66.51%, 60.52 %, 56.50 %respectively; whereas in patients with resection alone, only 45.57 %, 44.76 % and 43.42 % respectively. The average survival period was 5.13 years (resection alone group 4.15years), the median survival period was over 7 years (resection alone group 4.46 years). There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients treated with resection plus vaccine were measured delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions after vaccination, (indurative scope >5 mm).The magnitude of DTH was related to the prognosis. The 5-year survival rate was 80 % for those with indurations greater than 5 mm, compared with 30 % for those with indurations less than 5 mm. The 1-year survival rate was 96 % for 25patients treated with NDV immunotherapy. The total effective rate (CR+PR) was 24.00 % in NDV immunotherapy; complete remission (CR) in 1 case (4.00 %), partial remission (PR) in 5 cases (20.00 %), stabilizedin in 16 cases (64.00 %),progression (PD) in 1 case (4.00 %). After NDV vaccine

  3. Expression of hMSH2 gene and mutant p53 in sporadic digestive tract tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康燕婕; 张振科; 王俊霞; 陈静; 彭勃; 康萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of mutated mismatch repair gene hMSH2 and mutant p53 gene in the carcinogenesis and development of sporadic digestive tract tumors. Methods hMSH2 gene in normal and tumor tissue of 30 digestive tract tumor specimens was examined using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) silver staining. The PCR product with an abnormal strand was sequenced directly. Mutant p53 protein in the tumor tissue was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Six patients were identified as having mutated strands, three on hMSH2 exon 1 and three on hMSH2 exon 5. DNA sequencing revealed that all 6 patients had mutated basic groups that led to decrease in function of the hMSH2 protein. Forty percent (12/30) of patients were p53 positive. The frequency of mutated hMSH2 in p53 positive patients (41.7%) was significantly higher than in p53 negative patients (5.6%, P<0.05). Conclusion The mutation of hMSH2 plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and development of digestive tract tumors through stimulating p53 mutation.

  4. Human papillomavirus in upper digestive tract tumors from three countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andres Castillo; Kazumasa Sugihara; Shoji Natsugoe; Yoshito Eizuru; Suminori Akiba; Chihaya Koriyama; Michiyo Higashi; Muhammad Anwar; Mulazim Hussain Bukhari; Edwin Carrascal; Lida Mancilla; Hiroshi Okumura; Masataka Matsumoto

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To clrify humn ppillomvirus (HPV) involvement in crcinogenesis of the upper digestive trct of virologicl nd pthologicl nlyses.METHODS: The present study exmined the presence of HPV in squmous cell crcinoms of the orl cvity (n = 71), nd esophgus (n = 166) collected from Jpn, Pkistn nd Colombi, with different HPV exposure risk nd genetic bckgrounds. The virl lod nd physicl sttus of HPV16 nd HPV16-E6 vrints were exmined. Comprison of p53 nd p16INK4 expression in HPV-positive nd HPV-negtive cses ws lso mde.RESULTS: HPV16 ws found in 39 (55%) orl crcinoms (OCs) nd 24 (14%) esophgel crcinoms (ECs). This site-specific difference in HPV detection between OCs nd ECs ws sttisticlly significnt (P < 0.001). There ws significnt difference in the geogrphicl distribution of HPV16-E6 vrints. Multiple infections of different HPV types were found in 13 ECs, but multiple infections were not found in OCs. This difference ws sttisticlly significnt (P = 0.001). The geometric mens (95% confidence intervl) of HPV16 virl lod in OCs nd ECs were 0.06 (0.02-0.18) nd 0.12 (0.05-0.27) copies per cell, respectively. The expression of p16INK4 proteins ws incresed by the presence of HPV in ECs (53% nd 33% in HPV-positive nd -negtive ECs, respectively; P = 0.036), nd the high-risk type of the HPV genome ws not detected in surrounding norml esophgel mucos of HPV-positive ECs.CONCLUSION: Bsed on our results, we cnnot deny the possibility of HPV16 involvement in the crcinogenesis of the esophgus.

  5. [Epidemiologic behavior of malignant digestive tract tumors over a five year period in Veracruz, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Jiménez-García, V A; Remes-Troche, J M; Rubio-Arce, J F; López-Salinas, A; Ruiz-Juárez, I; Grube-Pagola, P; Silva-Cañetas, C F

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the digestive system are considered to be a public health problem because of their elevated mortality rate. In Mexico, gastric cancer and colon cancer rank fourth and fifth, respectively, following tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer, and there has been an increase in their frequency in the last few years. However, there are no specific studies that have evaluated their epidemiologic behavior in Veracruz. To determine the frequency of digestive system cancer in five health institutions in the city of Veracruz and to describe its epidemiologic behavior over a five-year period. Annual statistics from the following hospitals were reviewed: the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, the Secretaría de Salud, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Petróleos Mexicanos, and the Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional within the time frame of January 2005 to December 2009. Diagnoses based on histopathology were recorded, along with patient age and sex. A total of 1803 cases of digestive tract cancers were detected: 52% were men and 48% were women. A yearly increase in the number of cases was observed with colon cancer being in first place, followed by stomach cancer and rectal cancer. The increase in digestive system cancer cases over the last five years in Veracruz underlines the need to evaluate the implementation of screening programs for the at-risk population and to study the different etiologic factors involved in its manifestation.

  6. Occurrence of second primary malignancies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract and pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kamp; R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); R.A. Feelders (Richard); W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAn increased association between neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas (GEP-NET) and other second primary malignancies has been suggested. We determined whether there is indeed an increased risk for second primary malignancies in GEP-NET patients compared with

  7. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a versatile mucin-like molecule likely to play a differential role in digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Herbertz, S; Helmke, B

    2001-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for brain, lung, and digestive tract cancer. In particular, alterations of the gene and/or a loss of expression have been observed in gastric, colorectal, and esophageal carcinomas. Initial evidence......, a loss of DMBT1 expression also takes place in adenocarcinomas. Regarding DMBT1 as a mucin-like molecule is a new perspective that is instructive for its functions and its role in cancer. We conclude that DMBT1 is likely to play a differential role in the genesis of digestive tract carcinomas. However...

  8. Management of hepatic metastases of well/moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna La Salvia; Stefano Partelli; Marco Tampellini; Domenico Tamburrino; Massimo Falconi; Giorgio V Scagliotti; Maria Pia Brizzi

    2016-01-01

    In neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), liver metastases (LM) represent the most crucial prognostic factor, irrespective of the primary tumor site. At diagnosis, about 65-95% of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) show hepatic metastasis. Management strategies of LM are heterogeneous and range from systemic therapy to liver-directed procedures. The type of systemic therapy used is dependent on the grade and proliferation of the tumor and includes somatostatin analogues, interferon, m-Tor and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Angiographic liver-directed techniques, such as transarterial embolization/chemoembolization and selective internal radiation therapy, offer excellent palliation for patients with liver-predominant disease. In highly selected cases, liver transplantation and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy are considered. The relatively low disease incidence and the diversity of presentation have led to a lack of well-conducted randomized controlled trials comparing the efifcacy of different treatment options. Experience indicates that surgery is the only treatment that offers potential for cure. For unresectable lesions, the absence of data from rigorous trials limits the validity of many publications that detail management. In this review we will discuss the existing approaches for hepatic metastases from GEP-NETs.

  9. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a versatile mucin-like molecule likely to play a differential role in digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Herbertz, S; Helmke, B

    2001-01-01

    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) has been proposed as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for brain, lung, and digestive tract cancer. In particular, alterations of the gene and/or a loss of expression have been observed in gastric, colorectal, and esophageal carcinomas. Initial evidence...... a role in mucosal protection. The esophagus is the only tissue displaying an additional smaller transcript of approximately 5 kb. The stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus is the only epithelium showing a constitutive targeting of DMBT1 to the extracellular matrix (ECM) suggestive of a role...

  10. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  11. [Digestive tract, obesity and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Andrea; Outomuro, Delia

    2010-01-01

    Current statistics show that overweight and obesity are seriously increasing, mainly in occidental countries with high industrialization rate. Simultaneously sedentarism has increased as a consequence of technological comforts that the dominant market economy offers. Obesity, sedentarism, excessive adiposity, especially if centrally distributed, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia interact for cancer development. Visceral adipose tissue is considerate as an endocrine organ which produces and liberates cytokines and inflammatory peptides with hormonal and metabolic signals. Although there are several obesity-related types of cancer, in this paper we focus on digestive system tumors.

  12. [Digestive tract cancer: after ten years in Santa Fe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Félix; Elias, Roberto Emanuel; Osella, Francisco Javier; Padilla, Juan Francisco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    In our earlier paper we found that esophageal cancer was the most frequent localization among all the digestive tract cancers. Furthermore, in four departments belonging to our province we also observed a colon-esophagus relationship of virtually 1 to 1. In this study we aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of esophagus and stomach tumors: a) in the Endoscopy Department, b) in all the hospital, comparing it with colon cancer and, c) as causes of death in our region of influence, in relation to all the neoplastic pathologies. 2) analyze the histological lineage and the anatomical location, according to sex, age and origin. We evaluated: 3,396 upper digestive tract endoscopies, the diagnoses of digestive tract cancer from the Histopathology Service, the discharges from hospital as the result of digestive tract cancer from the General Archives, all of them from Cullen Hospital, and death register of the province of Santa Fe accounting for digestive tract cancer. A descriptive analysis was carried out and spreadsheet from the Open Office 2.2 version and SPSS 10.0 version were used. We observed that esophageal cancer is still very frequent in the Endoscopy Department and in the Histopathology Service but not in the diagnoses at discharge from hospital. It shares similar epidemiological features to the ones observed in the international literature. The reduction of the relationship between colon and esophageal cancer in the global mortality rate of the country turns out to be surprising. In three departments situated on the north of the province it was observed a colon-esophagus cancer relationship of 1:1.

  13. Microflora of Digestive Tract in Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAZAZ, Rojan I.; BÜYÜKÜNAL BAL, Emel Banu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The gut flora are microorganisms that normally live in digestive tract and can do a number of benefit functions for their host health and growth. The unicellular microorganisms are bacteria (predominant), fungi and protozoans. The intestine divided into three parts: the duodenum and small intestine where the number of bacteria relatively low, <108 g-1, the caeca where the microbial fermentation occurs and the number of bacteria present is approximately 1011 g-1 (wet weight) and t...

  14. Toxicologic disease of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    There is a diverse and long list of toxicants that can affect the digestive system of food-producing animals. The plants and other natural toxicants discussed in this article are those primarily affecting the GI system. A number of other plants may also affect the digestive tract, but the effects from these are considered secondary and less pronounced. Often, plant poisonings affecting the digestive tract present with similar clinical signs, and a good thorough history is necessary to help differentiate between them. Moreover, a careful walk through the pasture with a keen eye to note plants that have been browsed or grazed may greatly assist the history. In cases where toxins are suspected as the cause of a GI disorder, consultation with a veterinary toxicologist at a diagnostic laboratory may be indicated. These professionals are knowledgeable about a wide variety of natural and other toxicants that may be present in your area. They can help with developing a differential diagnosis and the selection of appropriate samples to confirm the diagnosis.

  15. Diffuse polypoid lesions of the digestive tract in severe hypogammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcuţ, C; Jinga, Mariana; Costache, Raluca; Vasilescu, Florina; Stănescu-Popp, Alina; Copaci, I

    2011-01-01

    We present a case report of diffuse polypoid lesions of the digestive tract in which multiple endoscopic techniques (upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy) were performed in order to complete and refine the diagnosis in a patient with severe hypogammaglobulinemia with recurrent infections, bronchiectasies and diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the digestive tract. In patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, the endoscopic evaluation of the digestive tract might be mandatory, even in asymptomatic patients. The complete assessment should include the upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with multiple biopsies and, if possible, capsule endoscopy.

  16. 12.DIGESTIVE TRACT 12.1.Esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920110 The clinical study on gastroeso-phageal reflux.LUO Jinyan (罗金燕),et al.Digest Funct Lab,2nd Affil Hosp,Xian Med Univ.Chin J Digest 1991; 11(3): 137-140.Fifty-two patients with symptomatic gas-troesophageal reflux (GER) were studied withprolonged intraesopnageal pH monitoring,scin-

  17. 穴位按压对恶性肿瘤化疗患者消化道反应影响的Meta分析%Effect of acupressure on chemotherapy-induced digestive tract reaction for malignant tumor pataints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯吉焕; 杨桂华; 焦琳琳; 常宗霞; 袁玮; 杜娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 系统评价穴位按压对恶性肿瘤化疗患者消化道反应的影响.方法 电子检索Pubmed、Medline、Embase、AMED、Cochrane Library、Cancerlit and Cinahl、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)、中国学术期刊网络出版总库(CNKI)、维普数据库(VIP)及万方数据库等,各数据库检索时间均从建库至2014年3月.纳入穴位按压对恶性肿瘤化疗消化道反应影响的随机对照实验(RCT).结果 最终纳入8个RCT,共有959例患者.Meta分析显示,与不实施穴位按压相比,穴位按压能有效地降低恶性肿瘤化疗恶心、呕吐、干呕的发生频率,缩短经历时间及减轻症状的严重程度;同时,穴位按压可明显减少恶性肿瘤患者止吐药的使用量,但并不能提高其生活质量.结论 穴位按压能够有效改善恶性肿瘤化疗患者消化道反应,减轻患者的痛苦,且不增加患者医疗负担和精神负担.以后的研究应更多关注穴位按压对基线状态焦虑水平、功能性状态等更多结局指标的影响.%Objective To evaluate the effect of acupressure on chemotherapy-induced digestive tract reaction of malignant tumor patients.Methods We searched Pubmed,Medline,Embase,AMED,Cochrane Library,Cancerlit and Cinabl,China Biology Medicine disc (CBM),China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),VIP database (VIP)and Wanfang database,the databases were searched from the establishment of the database to March 2014.We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and of acupressure on chemotherapy-induced digestive tract reaction for malignant tumor patients.Results In total,8 RCT,959 patients were included.Meta-analysis showed that compared with the no implementation of acupressure,acupressure could effectively reduce the frequency,duration and severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea,vomiting and retching.Meanwhile,acupressure could decrease anti-emetic medication dosage,but could not increase quality of life.Conclusions Acupressure can

  18. [Origin of malignant tumors of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts and the ear (from a clinicians-point of view). 2. Pathogenesis of metastases (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher, H

    1978-08-01

    Growth and development of metastases depends on 1. Tumor cells themselves, 2. Manipulations on the primary tumor, 3. Lymphatic vessels in the surrounding area of the primary tumor, 4. Blood composition. 5. Extent of tissue resistence through which tumor cells pass. 6. Certain circulatory conditions of the blood. Tumor cells are distinguished from normal cells often by reduced (Verbrauchskoagulopathie, tendency to bleed). An increase in bloodclotting supports the development of haematogenic metastases and the tumor growth. Malignant tumors of the kidney and the intestines may develop micrometastases of the lungs which, for years, as dormant cells, remain undiscovered. Then after 12--14 years metastases (further satelites) are seen e.g. in the ENT-field. In the spreading of tumor cells the flow parameters of lymph and blood play a very important role.

  19. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs...... and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.......5%) (p dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were...

  20. 消化道恶性肿瘤手术后体重下降的原因与护理对策%The Digestive Tract Malignant Tumor the Causes and Nursing Countermeasures of Weight Loss after the Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂凌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the analysis of the digestive tract malignant tumor weight loss, the cause of postoperative nursing countermeasures are put forward. Methods General care for two groups of the same. Observation group to develop special psychological nursing, diet guidance plan. Results Observation group: weight loss < 2 kg10 cases (15.87%), 2 ~ 5 kg48 cases (76.14%), more than 5 kg in 5 cases (7.93%). Control group:weight loss < 2 kg 5 cases (7.93%), 2 ~ 5 kg 50 cases (79.35%), more than 5 kg of 8 cases (12.69%); After statistics processing, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01). Conclusion (1)The digestive tract malignant tumor weight loss after the surgery and psychological factors, surgical trauma, poor diet and so on; (2)Strengthen the psychological nursing, diet guidance to patients recovery.%目的:观察分析消化道恶性肿瘤术后体重下降的原因,提出护理对策。方法两组一般护理相同。观察组制定特殊心理护理,饮食指导计划。结果观察组:体重下降<2 kg 10例(15.87%),2~5 kg 48例(76.14%),5 kg 以上5例(7.93%);对照组:体重下降<2 kg 5例(7.93%), 2~5 kg 50例(79.35%),5 kg 以上 8例(12.69%);经统计学处理,有显著差异性(P<0.01)。结论(1)消化道恶性肿瘤手术后体重下降与心理因素,手术创伤、饮食欠佳等有关;(2)加强心理护理,饮食指导有利于患者体能恢复。

  1. [Current options for percutaneous endoscopic access to the digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, T.E.H.; Jong, D.J. de; Kristinsson, J.O.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Four patients, aged 67, 52, 56 and 64 years, respectively, undergoing percutaneous colostomy or jejunostomy are presented to illustrate current options for percutaneous endoscopic access to the digestive tract. The first patient had Parkinson's disease and required percutaneous jejunostomy for conti

  2. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  3. [Upper digestive tract endoscopy in rural Africa: Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djibril, M A; M'Ba, K B; Kaaga, Y L; Bagny, A; Edou, K A; Redah, D; Agbetra, A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the profile of esogastroduodenal disease diagnosed by upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDTE) in a rural area of Togo. This prospective study combines data collected during two two-week screening campaigns carried out in the Kara region. Patients were informed of the presence of the endoscopy team by means of a bulletin on a rural radio station. All male and female patients 15 years or older were included. A total of 220 UDTE procedure reports were recorded and analyzed including 107 men and 113 women with a mean age of 37.7 years (range: 15-84 years). Disease was detected in 72 procedures mainly in the 21 to 41 year age group (47.2 %) with a higher proportion of men than women: 38% versus 27% respectively. The most frequent indications for UDTE were epigastralgia (47.7 %) including 39% of procedures leading to the discovery of disease and diffuse abdominal pain (21.8 %). The procedure was carried out for follow-up purposes in 19.1% of cases. The most common lesions were peptic ulcer (34.2%), inflammatory disease including esophagitis, gastritis, and bulboduodenitis (32.4%), gastroduodenal bile reflux (9.3%), pylorobulbar stenosis (5.5%), tumoral disease (3.7%), and esophageal varicosities (3.7%). This study based on UDTE diagnostic procedures provided insight into the profile of esogastroduodenal disease in rural Africa. These screening campaigns required special organization using appropriate equipment and personnel.

  4. Virotherapy of digestive tumors with rodent parvovirus: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Aprahamian, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Toolan's H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) exerts a cytotoxic/oncolytic effect, predominantly mediated by its non-structural protein (NS1). This rat parvovirus is harmless, unlike other parvoviruses, and its antitumor potential may be useful to clinicians as its oncolytic action appears to be true in numerous non-digestive and digestive cancers. After a brief review of parvovirus genus and biology, we summarize the proposed mechanisms to explain the cytotoxicity of H-1PV to tumors which results in dysregulation of cell transcription, cell-cycle arrest, termination of cell replication, activation of cellular stress response and induction of cell death. Viral oncolysis induces a strong tumor-specific immune response leading to the recognition and elimination of minimal residual disease. As the action of H-1PV is not limited to the digestive tract, we initially analyse studies performed in non-digestive cancers such as glioma (as the virus is able to cross the blood brain barrier), and then focused more particularly on the results in digestive cancers. Based on the results of studies showing little H-1PV toxicity to living bodies, we advocate for the use of the parvovirus in cancers such as melanoma, glioma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in addition to conventional chemotherapy.

  5. Alcohol consumption and digestive tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephan L; Ye, Weimin; Löhr, Johannes-Matthias

    2012-09-01

    The data indicating that alcohol is an important factor increasing the risk to develop gastrointestinal cancer are consolidating. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol metabolism and has direct carcinogenic and mutagenic effects by modifying DNA via generation of DNA adducts. Oxidative stress has a prominent role in triggering chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis through formation of reactive oxygen species. Recently published large prospective cohort studies with sufficient statistical power and meta-analyses could refine the knowledge regarding the impact of alcohol on gastrointestinal cancer. Functional genetic variants of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes proved to be associated with increased risk for esophageal and gastric cancer.The highest risk increase for malignancy was observed in the upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx) and esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma), weaker correlations were established regarding gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal neoplasias. Alcohol overconsumption is a serious avoidable risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal tract cancer, both alone but even more in combination with other risk factors such as tobacco and obesity.

  6. Altitudinal Variation in Digestive Tract Length in Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangling LOU; Yanhong LI; Long JIN; Zhiping MI; Wenchao LIU; Wenbo LIAO

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays an important role in digestion and the acquisition of food energy. Understanding the impact of abiotic environments on digestive tract morphology is especially important for evolution of digestive tract across different environments. Here, we investigated altitudinal variation in digestive tract length in the Yunnan Pond Frog (Pelophylax pleuraden) across ifve populations ranging from 1413 m to 1935 m a.s.l. in Ningnan County, Sichuan province in western China. Frogs were collected during the breeding season, from 1-5 June 2012. Our results revealed that females had longer digestive tract and relative digestive tract (i.e. digestive tract length/body size) lengths in com-parison to males, on average, but the differences between them decreased with increasing altitude. Digestive tract and relative digestive tract lengths increased with increasing altitude suggesting that a higher proportion of indigestible ma-terials may be consumed at high-altitude sites and result in a relative increase in digestive tract dimensions.

  7. [Subepithelial tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupnik, Silvio; Rafaelli, Claudio; González, Graciela Osorio; Pestalardo, María Luján; Quesada, Matías; Viúdez, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are related to mesenchymal tumors and 80% of them are GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors). However, there are also other tumors, such as: leiomyomas, schwannomas, lipomas, glomus tumors, carcinoid tumors, aberrant pancreas and polyps or inflammatory tumors. Diagnosis of submucosal tumors is often performed during routine endoscopic examination, they are frequently located at the stomach and in most cases are clinically evidenced by their complications. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the elected method for their staging; but other imaging diagnosis methods include computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography scan (PET). The differential diagnosis is made by inmunohistochemical techniques, revealing in the GIST the expression of the antigen CD117, and prognostic factors are determined by size and mitotic index. Surgery is the recommended therapeutic, although in small lesions not exceeding 2 cm it has also been suggested the endoscopic resection guided by EUS and a watchful behaviour based on periodical controls in lesions with benignity criteria. The series here exhibited (2 GIST 1 lyposarcoma, 1 schwannoma and 1 inflammatory fibroid polyp) shows that all these tumors were symptomatic; have been diagnosed using endoscopy and recognized by means of histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis after surgery.

  8. Consequences of dysthyroidism on the digestive tract and viscera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronald Daher; Thierry Yazbeck; Joe Bou Jaoude; Bassam Abboud

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones define basal metabolism throughout the body, particularly in the intestine and viscera. Gastrointestinal manifestations of dysthyroidism are numerous and involve all portions of the tract. Thyroid hormone action on motility has been widely studied, but more complex pathophysiologic mechanisms have been indicated by some studies although these are not fully understood. Both thyroid hormone excess and deficiency can have similar digestive manifestations, such as diarrhea, although the mechanism is different in each situation. The liver is the most affected organ in both hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Specific digestive diseases may be associated with autoimmune thyroid processes, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Grave's disease. Among them, celiac sprue and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most frequent although a clear common mechanism has never been proven. Overall, thyroidrelated digestive manifestations were described decades ago but studies are still needed in order to confirm old concepts or elucidate undiscovered mechanisms. All practitioners must be aware of digestive symptoms due to dysthyroidism in order to avoid misdiagnosis of rare but potentially lethal situations.

  9. [Digestive tract malignant neoplasms in patients of No. 11 area IMSS in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri-Jiménez, U

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, mortality due to malignant neoplasms has shown a reduction in its growing tendencies in developed countries. However,the profile of cancer mortality in developing countries still presents a clear upward pattern, and Mexico is not the exception, for the mortality rate due to malignant tumors has shown an increase recently, which constitutes a great challenge for health institutions. To determine the frequency of malignant neoplasms in the digestive tract in patients treated in the General Hospital Area No. 11 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas,Mexico. From 11,386 histopathologic reports carried out in the Department of Pathology of the General Hospital Area No. 11 IMSS in the year 2000-2006, 165 patients were reported,diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of the digestive tract (NMTD); patients age and gender were analyzed as well as affected areas and histological stock. Benign neoplasms and metastasis were excluded. From the study of 165 cases of patients with malignant neoplasms of digestive tract (NMTD),the most affected age was patients between 60-75 years old, predilection for male (63.78%) and female(36.21%) subjects. According to the Pathology report, 24.4% were diagnosed with hepatic cancer,23.03% were colon and rectum cancer, 20.00%were stomach cancer, 13.33% with pancreatic cancer,and 7.27% were cancer of esophagus. The rest was located in other levels. Malignant neoplasms of digestive tract in patients of General Hospital Area No. 11IMSS in Nuevo Laredo are relevant in relation with other Medial Centers may be regional factors contribute to this behavior.

  10. The Dynamic Bioenergy of Animals with a Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxnes, John F.; Hausken, Kjell

    This paper provides a mathematical dynamic description of the bioenergetic time history of bilataria (multicellular animals with a digestive tract) during feeding, growth and activity. We analyze the dynamics of bioenergy using ordinary differential equations on a compartment model, which we believe could constitute a mathematical foundation. Allometric scaling laws of the quarter type are assumed for all scaling relations in accordance with fractal theory. The paper demonstrates the dynamics by which bilataria respond to activity and feeding. The model is tested against some well-known experiments for fishes.

  11. Selective decontamination of the oropharynx and the digestive tract in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, A.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Selective Digestive tract Decontamination (SDD) and Selective Oropharyngeal Decontamination (SOD) are effective infection prevention measures in intensive care patients, but reported effects on patient outcome are conflicting and the effects on infections and respiratory tract colonizati

  12. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Kesecioglu, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.; Voss, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknow

  13. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknown. We quanti

  14. Radioprotection of the digestive tract by intravenous infusion of vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juillard, G.J.F.; Peter, H.H.; Weisenburger, T.H.; Tesler, A.S.; Langdon, E.A.; Barenfus, M.; Lagasse, L.D.; Watring, W.E.; Smith, M.L.

    1975-09-01

    The effect of venous infusions of vasopressin during fractionated abdominal radiation exposures was evaluated in four pairs of dogs. In each pair, the control dog was given venous infusion of saline during irradiation. The results were analyzed from clinical observation, autopsy findings, and pathological examination. It appears that venous infusion of vasopressin has a definite and reproducible effect of radioprotection on the gastrointestinal tract, the dose modifying factor (DMF) being 1.5. Radiation therapy of the gynecologic malignancies would be one major application since the radiosensitivity of the intestinal tract is often a limiting factor in delivering high doses to the tumor, and further investigations are being done to study the effects of vasopressin on the radiosensitivity of malignant tumors.

  15. Signs and symptoms associated with digestive tract development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Batista de Morais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the development and prevalence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms associated with the development of the digestive tract, and to assess the measures aimed to reduce their negative impacts. Source of data: Considering the scope and comprehensiveness of the subject, a systematic review of the literature was not carried out. The Medline database was used to identify references that would allow the analysis of the study topics. Synthesis of results: Infants frequently show several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. These clinical manifestations can be part of gastrointestinal functional disorders such as infantile colic, infant regurgitation, and functional constipation. Allergy to cow's milk protein and gastroesophageal reflux disease are also causes of these clinical manifestations and represent an important and difficult differential diagnosis. The diseases that course with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms can have an impact on family dynamics and maternal emotional status, and may be associated with future problems in the child's life. Comprehensive pediatric care is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Maternal breastfeeding should always be maintained. Some special formulas can contribute to the control of clinical manifestations depending on the established diagnosis. Conclusion: During the normal development of the digestive tract, several gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur, usually resulting from functional gastrointestinal disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and allergy to cow's milk protein. Breastfeeding should always be maintained.

  16. Influences of Feeding Lactobacillus on Colonization of the Lactobacillus in Chicks'Digestible Tracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It was carried out with culture solution of Lactobacillus fed to the newborn chicks to observe the influences on colonization of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts. The results showed that after the chicks were fed Lactobacillus, the amount of the Lactobacillus in chicks′ digestible tracts significantly increased (P<0.01) and the Lactobacillus colonized 36h ahead of schedule

  17. New drug development in digestive neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, I; Salazar, R; Casanovas, O; Arrazubi, V; Vilar, E; Siu, L L; Yao, J; Tabernero, J

    2007-08-01

    The traditional cytotoxic agents are of limited efficacy in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (NETs). Recent investigations have brought up a number of biological features in this family of neoplasms that could represent targets for anticancer treatment. NETs seem to have an extraordinary tumor vascularization with high expression of proangiogenic molecules such as the vascular endothelial growth factor along with overexpression of certain tyrosine kinase receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the insulin growth factor receptor (IGFR) and their downstream signaling pathway components (PI3K-AKT-mTOR). The rationale of an antiangiogenic approach in the treatment of NETs and the use of other pharmacological strategies such as EGFR, IGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are discussed. Additionally, the emerging results of recent clinical trials with these targeted drugs are presented.

  18. Quantitative Macroscopic Anatomy of the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C; Bertelsen, M F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Clauss, M

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world's largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild-caught and 13 zoo-housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight and analysed by allometric regression. The majority of measures scaled positively and isometrically to body mass. Giraffes had lower tissue weight of all stomach compartments and longer large intestinal length than cattle. When compared to other ruminants, the giraffe digestive tract showed many of the convergent morphological adaptations attributed to browsing ruminants, for example lower reticular crests, thinner ruminal pillars and smaller surface area of the omasal laminae. Salivary gland weight of the giraffe, however, resembled that of grazing ruminants. This matches a previous finding of similarly small salivary glands in the other extant giraffid, the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), suggesting that not all convergent characteristics need be expressed in all species and that morphological variation between species is a combination of phylogenetic and adaptational signals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis and drugs used in associated digestive tract diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Adriana; Aragão, Giselle Gonçalves; Novaes,Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) causes chronic infections in the respiratory tract and alters the digestive tract. This paper reviews the most important aspects of drug treatment and changes in the digestive tract of patients with CF. This is a review of the literature, emphasizing the discoveries made within the last 15 years by analyzing scientific papers published in journals indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Sciences Information, United States National Library of Medicine and Medi...

  20. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  1. 癌症尿液筛查监测试剂在消化道恶性肿瘤诊治中的应用%The clinical application of URC test reagent in the diagnosis ot digestive tract malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱纪银; 郭国平

    2010-01-01

    目的 用癌症尿液筛查监测试剂(URC)检测恶性肿瘤患者尿液中特征氨基酸代谢物的含量,并探讨其临床意义.方法 用URC分别检测食管癌、胃癌和贲门癌等共124例肿瘤患者尿液.结果 食管癌阳性率为78.9%,胃癌阳性率为88.5%,贲门癌阳性率为82.4%.结论 URC对恶性肿瘤的检测有一定的特异性,特别是对消化系统的肿瘤敏感,是一种取材方便、操作简易快捷的方法,是早期发现肿瘤和判断预后的一个有价值的参考指标.%Objective To study the application of urine test reagent for cancer screen and monitoring URC significance.Methods Examined tumor patient urine separately and 80 on esophagus cancer,stomach cancer and cardiac cancer with URC.Results Esophagus cancer the postive rate is 78.9% .the stomach cancer the positive rate is 88.5% .the cardiac cancer the positive rate is 82.4% .Conclusion URC has certain specificity to malignant tumor's examination.is specially sensitive to digestive system's tumor.Its manipulation is simple and convenient.It is valuable for early dignosis and prognosis of malignant tumor.

  2. [Recurrence of upper aerodigestive tract tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurent; Zoubir, Mustapha; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Recurrences of tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract are frequent despite the improvement of the primary treatment and they limit the rate of survival long-term. They occur in patients with multiple co-morbidities, often associated with sequelae or side effects of earlier treatments. The salvage treatment will add a cumulative toxicity and therapeutic options are limited. The choice will go from curator to palliative treatment. The report benefit-risk must be assessed in each case depending on the terrain and prognostic factors that have been identified, such as performance status, the time between initial disease and the recurrence, the site and the stratification of the recurrence. In operable non-metastatic recurrence surgery remains the treatment of choice. Multimodal treatment involving surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy in this context is being evaluated. Non-operable tumors have long been considered only in a palliative context. The evaluation of detailed irradiation as bifractionnated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy helped establish protocols allowing long-term survivals and consider these treatments as potentially curators. However, the toxicity of these treatments is important. That is why the technical innovations of the radiation and the development of new chemotherapeutic agents today offer opportunities remaining to assess. The use of irradiation targeted by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiotherapy by decreasing the irradiated volume should decrease the toxicity. Generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy agents, targeted therapies also took their places associated with radiotherapy in the treatment of these patients already treated. Cetuximab was the first agent obtaining an indication. Other agents are being evaluated in metastatic recurrent tumors, including exploring the possibilities of radiopotentialisation nanoparticles and the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins.

  3. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  4. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities. PMID:28374781

  5. Microbial Biogeography and Core Microbiota of the Rat Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongyao; Chen, Haiqin; Mao, Bingyong; Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jianxin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2017-04-01

    As a long-standing biomedical model, rats have been frequently used in studies exploring the correlations between gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial biota and diseases. In the present study, luminal and mucosal samples taken along the longitudinal axis of the rat digestive tract were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based analysis to determine the baseline microbial composition. Results showed that the community diversity increased from the upper to lower GI segments and that the stratification of microbial communities as well as shift of microbial metabolites were driven by biogeographic location. A greater proportion of lactate-producing bacteria (such as Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Streptococcus) were found in the stomach and small intestine, while anaerobic Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, fermenting carbohydrates and plant aromatic compounds, constituted the bulk of the large-intestinal core microbiota where topologically distinct co-occurrence networks were constructed for the adjacent luminal and mucosal compartments. When comparing the GI microbiota from different hosts, we found that the rat microbial biogeography might represent a new reference, distinct from other murine animals. Our study provides the first comprehensive characterization of the rat GI microbiota landscape for the research community, laying the foundation for better understanding and predicting the disease-related alterations in microbial communities.

  6. Effect of Acupuncture on Chemotherapy-related Peripheral Nenrotoxicity and Digestive Tract Adverse Effects of Malignant Tumor Patients: A Clinical Study on 20 Cases%针刺防治肿瘤患者化疗后周围神经毒性及消化道不良反应20例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯海鲲; 程海英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the preventive and therapeutic effect of acupuncture on the chemotherapy-related peripheral neurotoxicity and digestive tract adverse effects of malignant tumor patients induced by paclitaxel and oxaliplatin. Methods Forty malignant tumor patients were randomized into acupuncture group and control group with 20 in each. The two groups were treated with chemotherapy and routine medication. The acupuncture group was given acupuncture at the bilateral Quchi (LIU), Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyijiao (SP 6) and Yanglingquan (GB 34 ) at the start of chemotherapy, once per day, 2 weeks in succession. After one course of chemotherapy, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria Grading System Version 2. 0 was adopted to evaluate the effect of treatment and score the incidence of the chemotherapy-related peripheral neurotoxicity and digestive tract adverse effects of the patients. Results The incidence of the chemotherapy-related peripheral neurotoxicity was 60% in both groups, the comparison between the two groups in the incidence and score showed no statistical difference (P>0. 05). The incidence of digestive tract adverse effects in the acupuncture group was 70%, and that in the control group was 85%, the comparison between the two groups showed no statistical difference (P>0. 05). The score of digestive tract adverse effects in the acupuncture group was lower than that in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture can alleviate the severity of digestive adverse effects of chemotherapy, while its effect on the peripheral neurotoxicity needs further study with greater samples.%目的 观察针刺疗法对化疗药物紫杉醇、奥沙利铂所致周围神经毒性及消化道不良反应的防治效果.方法 将40例肿瘤患者随机分为针刺组和对照组各20例,两组均采用化疗方案及常规治疗,治疗组自化疗

  7. ISOLATION AND LIGNOCELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITIES OF FIBER-DIGESTING BACTERIA FROM DIGESTIVE TRACT OF TERMITE (Cryptothermes sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I.M. Tampoebolon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the fiber-digesting bacteria isolates from termitedigestive tract and to determine the optimum conditions of growth and production of cellulase, xylanaseand ligninase enzyme of isolate. The first study was conducted to isolate and select the fiber-digestingbacteria from the digestive tract of termites based on the highest activity of cellulolytic (S, xylanolytic(X and lignolytic (L. The second study was optimation of the growth conditions of bacteria and theenzyme production due to effect of rice straw substrate and nitrogen. The material used were dry woodtermites, rice straw, and culture medium. The design used was a completely randomized factorial design,in which the first factor was rice straw substrate (1, 2, and 3% W/V, while the second factor wasnitrogen (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% W/V. Variables measured were cellulase, xylanase and ligninase activities.Results of the first sudy showed that the isolates obtained consisted of 3 types, those were cellulolyticbacteria (S1, S2, and S3, 3 types of bacteria xylanolytic (X1, X2, and X3 and 3 types of bacteria lignolytic(L1, L2, and L3. Meanwhile, results of the second study showed that isolates of S2, X3, and L1 had thehighest activity, those were 1.894 U/mL, 1.722 U/mL and 0.314 U/mL, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of 1% level of rice straw substrate and 0.3% of nitrogen showed the highest enzyme activity oncellulase, xylanase and ligninase.

  8. A SERIES OF UNCOMMON FOREIGN BODIES PRESENTING IN THE AERO-DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body impacted in the aero-digestive tract is one of the earliest reported problems. Coins, buttons, marbles, crayons, parts of toys etc. are the most commonly ingested foreign bodies in children. Fish, meat and chicken bones, dentures, nails etc.the most common foreign bodies ingested by adultsWe report a series of unusual foreign body ingestion in aero-digestive tract and their management by endoscopic retrieval.

  9. Evaluation of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.

  10. GM crops and the rat digestive tract: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, I M; Edwards, J W; Carman, J A; Haynes, J I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between genetically modified (GM) crops and health, based on histopathological investigations of the digestive tract in rats. We reviewed published long-term feeding studies of crops containing one or more of three specific traits: herbicide tolerance via the EPSPS gene and insect resistance via cry1Ab or cry3Bb1 genes. These genes are commonly found in commercialised GM crops. Our search found 21 studies for nine (19%) out of the 47 crops approved for human and/or animal consumption. We could find no studies on the other 38 (81%) approved crops. Fourteen out of the 21 studies (67%) were general health assessments of the GM crop on rat health. Most of these studies (76%) were performed after the crop had been approved for human and/or animal consumption, with half of these being published at least nine years after approval. Our review also discovered an inconsistency in methodology and a lack of defined criteria for outcomes that would be considered toxicologically or pathologically significant. In addition, there was a lack of transparency in the methods and results, which made comparisons between the studies difficult. The evidence reviewed here demonstrates an incomplete picture regarding the toxicity (and safety) of GM products consumed by humans and animals. Therefore, each GM product should be assessed on merit, with appropriate studies performed to indicate the level of safety associated with them. Detailed guidelines should be developed which will allow for the generation of comparable and reproducible studies. This will establish a foundation for evidence-based guidelines, to better determine if GM food is safe for human and animal consumption. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Massive hemorrhage of upper gastrointestinal tract caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalović, Nenad; Dukić Vladicić, Nikolina; Marić, Radmil; Cuk, Mirjana; Simatović, Milan; Jokanović, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system is a medical emergency which is followed by high mortality rate, ranging from 6 to 15% in spite of modern diagnostic methods and treatment. Bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system may be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach, which are mainly characterized by occult bleeding, while profuse bleeding rarely occurs accompanied by hemorrhagic shock. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of stomach are the most common mesenchimal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In our study we showed a 60-year-old female patient with profuse bleeding from the stomach and the clinical picture of severe hemorrhagic shock, caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor. An ovoid junction, raised towards the lumen, covered with ulcerated mucosa in several places and followed by massive arterial bleeding was found intraoperatively, after the performed gastrotomy. Histopathological examination with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that this was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Acute bleeding from the digestive system is a sudden and serious condition of the body. Urgent esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic and therapeutic method of choice. Massive bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract is very rarely caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumors, whose clinical picture is very heterogeneous and depends on tumor size and location. Abundant bleeding from the tumor is an indication for urgent surgical intervention. According to the literature massive hemorrhage of the upper digestive system can rarely be caused by gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. It is shown that abundant hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract can be caused with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Surgical resection is the main form of treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the digestive system and bleeding from these tumors caused by failure of endoscopic hemostasis.

  12. Establishment of Lactobacillus plantarum strain in honey bee digestive tract monitored using gfp fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorský, P; Fecskeová, L Kolesár; Hrehová, L; Sabo, R; Legáth, J; Pristas, P

    2017-04-26

    Lactic acid bacteria are symbiotic bacteria that naturally reside in the gastrointestinal tract of honey bees. They serve a multitude of functions and are considered beneficial and completely harmless. In our experiments Lactobacillus plantarum strain B35, isolated from honey bee digestive tract, was modified using pAD43-25 plasmid carrying a functional GFP gene sequence (gfpmut3a) and used as a model for monitoring and optimisation of the mode of application. The establishment of this strain in honey bee digestive tract was monitored using GFP fluorescence. Three different modes of oral application of this strain were tested: water suspension of lyophilised bacteria, aerosol application of these bacteria and consumption of sugar honey paste containing the lyophilised lactobacilli. Two days after administration the L. plantarum B35-gfp was present throughout the honey bee digestive tract with 10(4)-10(5) cfu/bee with highest count observed for aerosol application.

  13. Treatment of malignant digestive tract obstruction by combined intraluminal stent installation and intra-arterial drug infusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Wu Mao; Zhong-Du Gao; Jia-Yu Xu; Ren-Jie Yancg; Xiang-Seng Xiao; Ting-Hui Jiang; Wei-Jun Jiang

    2001-01-01

    AIM To study the palliative treatment of malignant obstrution of digestive tract with placement of intraluminal stent combined with intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs. METHODS A total of 281 cases of digestive tract malignant obstruction were given per oral (esophagus,stomach, duodenum and jejunum), per anal (colon and rectum ) and percutaneous transhepatic ( biliary )installation of metallic stent. Among them, 205 cases received drug infusion by cannulation of tumor supplying artery with Seldingers technique. RESULTS Altogether 350 stents were installed in 281 cases, obstructive symptoms were relieved or ameliorated after installation. Occurrence of restenotic obstruction was 8 - 43 weeks among those with intraarterial drug infusion, which was later than 4 - 26 weeks in the group with only stent installation. The average survival time of the former group was 43 (3 - 105) weeks,which was significantly longer than 15 (3- 24) weeks of the latter group. CONCLUSION Intraluminal placement of stent combined with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is one of the effective palliative therapies for malignant obstruction of the digestive tract with symptomatic as well as etiological treatment.

  14. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: Toward Non-invasive In vivo Monitoring of Its Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Ponte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the health and welfare of animals in research is paramount, and the normal functioning of the digestive tract is essential for both. Here we critically assess non- or minimally-invasive techniques which may be used to assess a cephalopod's digestive tract functionality to inform health monitoring. We focus on: (i predatory response as an indication of appetitive drive; (ii body weight assessment and interpretation of deviations (e.g., digestive gland weight loss is disproportionate to body weight loss in starvation; (iii oro-anal transit time requiring novel, standardized techniques to facilitate comparative studies of species and diets; (iv defecation frequency and analysis of fecal color (diet dependent and composition (parasites, biomarkers, and cytology; (v digestive tract endoscopy, but passage of the esophagus through the brain is a technical challenge; (vi high resolution ultrasound that offers the possibility of imaging the morphology of the digestive tract (e.g., food distribution, indigestible residues, obstruction and recording contractile activity; (vii needle biopsy (with ultrasound guidance as a technique for investigating digestive gland biochemistry and pathology without the death of the animal. These techniques will inform the development of physiologically based assessments of health and the impact of experimental procedures. Although intended for use in the laboratory they are equally applicable to cephalopods in public display and aquaculture.

  15. Elevated tumor markers in coccidiomyocosis of the female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Y

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The female genital tract is rarely involved by coccidioidomycosis. We describe a woman with disseminated coccidioidomycosis involving the female pelvic organs associated with elevated tumor markers CA 125 and CA 19-9. She had no fevers and the initial clinical suspicion was a malignancy because of the elevated tumor markers. At exploratory laparotomy a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed because of the suspicion of a malignancy. Subsequent pathology demonstrated coccidioidomycosis involving the female genital tract and no malignancy. The abnormal CA 125 and CA 19-9 returned to normal after surgical resection and treatment of the coccidioidomycosis.

  16. 肠内营养的个体化护理在消化道肿瘤化疗患者中的应用%The application of individual enteral nutrition support nursing applied for the diges-tive tract tumor chemotherapy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灼燕; 吴美华; 江美玲; 吴艳云

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect and nursing methods of individual enteral nutrition support nursing applied for the digestive tract tumor chemotherapy patients. Methods A total of 70 chemotherapy patients in in-ternal medicine department from March 2013 to December 2014 in our hospital were randomly selected. After two cour-ses of chemotherapy, the patients received individual enteral nutrition support nursing. Results Under enteral nutrition support and high quality nursing care, the 70 patients completed the chemotherapy treatment successfully. Meanwhile, the average hospitalization days, weight and adverse reactions of chemotherapy were also widely reduced. Conclusions The prevalence of nutritional risk is high for patients with digestive tract tumor chemotherapy. The individual enteral nu-trition support nursing given during the chemotherapy period can improve the nutritional status, and improve its resist-ance to chemotherapy, and improve the prognosis.%目的:探讨对消化道肿瘤化疗患者采取肠内营养的临床效果与护理方法。方法随机抽取2013年3月至2014年12月在我院内科进行化疗的患者70例,在其完成化疗两个疗程后,加以实施肠内营养个体化护理。结果70例患者在肠内营养支持及其优质护理下,顺利完成化疗疗程,且平均住院天数、体重减轻、化疗不良反应都较实施肠内营养支持护理前减少且差异具有统计学意义。结论消化道肿瘤化疗患者营养风险发生率高,化疗期间给予肠内营养个体化护理能改善其营养状态,提高其对化疗的耐受性,改善预后。

  17. PERINATAL DEVELOPMENT OF PIG’S DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Krstanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal development of the digestive system of piglets is a complex process characterized by numerous changes in the structural and functional level caused by the action of various factors. As the main organ in which digestion and absorption take place, the small intestine is most affected by these changes. During parturition the digestive system is colonized by numerous microorganisms which further stimulate the structural and immune development acting as a part of the protective barrier lining. Colostrum intake passively immunizes and promotes the development of the digestive system. The enzymatic system of piglets is undeveloped after parturition and adapted to colostrum and milk digestion developing gradually due to the interaction of food ingredients, microbiota and genes. After weaning piglets stop to eat temporarily and a short delay in growth and invasion of intestinal structure and function occure. In order to prepare the digestive system for weaning, it is important to start feeding piglets with high quality, hygienic and balanced forage on time.

  18. Modeling risk evolution of digestive tract functional violations when exposed to chemical environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Kamaltdinov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of health risk assessment are based on the representation of individual and public health as a dynamic process of “evolution”, which describes a continuous course of negative (and positive changes in the condition of the body. The article presents a conceptual diagram of multilevel health risk evolution modeling under the influence of environmental factors. The main aspects associated with the simulation of digestive processes in the “meso level” are considered. Some results of solving the problem of the flow in the digestive tract antroduodenal area taken into account tract motility. Further development ways of the model are outlines – account of biochemical reactions, secretory and absorptive functions tract. The proposed approach will enable not only to predict the risk of digestive system functional disorders, but also take into account basic physiological processes, mechanisms of income, distribution, excretion of chemicals.

  19. THE DIGESTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT OF THE TIGER GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus LARVAE TREATED WITH THYROXINE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muzaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyroxin administration in tiger grouper larval rearing was conducted to determine its effect on development of digestive tract of the larvae. Newly hatched larvae were treated with 0 mg/L (control, 0.1 mg/L, and 0.2 mg/L of thyroxin for 2 hours in a 30 L tank before were transferred into a 1 m3 rearing tank. Samples were collected daily until 10 DAH and every 3 days until 40 DAH. Development of digestive tract was observed using histological method. For all treatments, the digestive tract was the same on 1 DAH and 2 DAH. The digestive tract of 1 DAH larvae was still closed and still in the form of a simple tube. The mouth, buccopharynx, liver, pancreas, and rectum were found on 2 DAH. On 3 DAH, the esophagus, stomach, intestines, and anus started to develop. At this stage, the digestive tract of larvae treated with and without thyroxin started to become distinguishable. Several goblet cells were noticed in the rectum of the treated larvae but not in the control. Digestive tract developed earlier in treated larvae compared to the control group, such as appearance of tongue, gill raker, fundic, and cardiac stomach development, formation of pharyngeal tooth, and gastric gland. Metamorphosis of larvae into juvenile on treated larvae occurred than that the control larvae earlier.

  20. 肿瘤病人化疗前后消化道症状的对比分析%Contrastive analysis of digestive tract symptoms of tumor patients before and after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何海燕; 朱京慈; 彭娜; 王淑琼; 宋佶芳; 刘小琼

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解肿瘤病人化疗前后消化道症状的变化.[方法]用自行设计的化疗消化道症状量表对100例肿瘤静脉化疗病人化疗前后消化道症状进行纵向观察;分析化疗前、化疗第1个24h、化疗第2个24h消化道症状发生率、严重程度的差异以及相互关系.[结果]在3个时相点食欲减退、口腔/咽喉干燥、味觉异常的发生率和严重程度均居前3位,口腔/咽喉疼痛、烧心/胃灼热、腹泻的发生率和严重程度均较低.在化疗第1个24h和第2个24h,食欲减退、恶心、呕吐、味觉异常、呃逆、胃/腹胀、便秘7项症状的发生率和严重程度均高于化疗前;化疗第1个24h与第2个24h比较,消化道症状发生率和症状总分差异无统计学意义,但食欲减退、味觉异常、口腔/咽喉干燥、便秘4项症状明显加重.在消化道症状总分上,化疗前对化疗第1个24h和第2个24h均有显著预测力.[结论]化疗后消化道症状发生率和严重程度总体上高于化疗前,但消化道各种症状的变化轨迹并不相同;化疗前消化道症状的发生情况与化疗后消化道症状整体负荷密切相关.临床医护人员应重视化疗前消化道症状的评估和控制,为化疗后消化道症状的预测、筛选、预防和干预提供参考.%objective: To know about the difference of gastrointestinal tract symptoms (GIS) of tumor patients before and after chemotherapy.Methods:A total of 100 tumor patients treated with intravenous chemotherapy were vertically investigated with self - designed chemotherapy -related GIS inventory.The prevalence, severity degree, and correlations of GIS at three time points (before chemotherapy, the first 24 h after chemotherapy,the second 24 h after chemotherapy) were compared.Results: At three time points, anorexia, dry mouth/throat, and dysgeusia ranked top three symptoms for both incidence and severity;the incidence and severe degree of mouth/throat pain, heartburn, and

  1. [Pathology of the digestive tract in kangaroos. A review based on our own study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, H A; Murmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes spontaneous pathological findings including etiological aspects in digestive tracts of kangaroos, which have been detected in 166 necropsies during the last 20 years. Protozoan - infections, herpes virus infections, gastroenteritis of unknown etiology and especially the occurrence of the so called "lumpy-jaw" turned out to be of special importance. These findings are discussed with reference to the literature, completed as well by short literature reviews, sub-divided into the different organs and the variable etiology of the diseases, as by a brief description of digestive tract physiology and anatomy in marsupials.

  2. Newly Described Tumor Entities in Sinonasal Tract Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal tract (nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses) is extremely challenging due in part to the tremendous diversity of tumor types that may arise in this region. Compounding the difficulty, a number of new sinonasal tumor entities have been recently described, and pathologists may not yet be familiar with these neoplasms. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the newly described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and renal cell-like adenocarcinoma.

  3. Stress responses and digestive tract robustness of Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.

    2013-01-01

      Lactobacillus plantarumis one of the most versatile lactic acid bacteria that can successfully inhabit a variety of environmental niches. It is a common inhabitant of the human and animal gastrointestinal (GI) tract and it is used as starter culture in various fermentation processes for diff

  4. Improving the Digestive Tract Robustness of Probiotic Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes stress responses of probiotic lactobacilli, in relation to gastrointestinal (GI-)tract robustness. An overview is given of some newly developed tools to understand and improve stress responses of the model probiotic L. plantarum WCFS1 in relation to its GI persistence. These i

  5. Gene duplication and adaptive evolution of digestive proteases in Drosophila arizonae female reproductive tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Kelleher

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate-female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate-female interaction.

  6. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Devaere

    Full Text Available More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1 anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2 anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3 anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  7. Terreneuvian orthothecid (Hyolitha) digestive tracts from northern Montagne Noire, France; taphonomic, ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaere, Léa; Clausen, Sébastien; Alvaro, J Javier; Peel, John S; Vachard, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    More than 285 specimens of Conotheca subcurvata with three-dimensionally preserved digestive tracts were recovered from the Terreneuvian (early Cambrian) Heraultia Limestone of the northern Montagne Noire, southern France. They represent one of the oldest occurrences of such preserved guts. The newly discovered operculum of some complete specimens provides additional data allowing emendation of the species diagnosis. Infestation of the U-shaped digestive tracts by smooth uniseriate, branching to anastomosing filaments along with isolated botryoidal coccoids attests to their early, microbially mediated phosphatisation. Apart from taphonomic deformation, C. subcurvata exhibits three different configurations of the digestive tract: (1) anal tube and gut parallel, straight to slightly undulating; (2) anal tube straight and loosely folded gut; and (3) anal tube straight and gut straight with local zigzag folds. The arrangement of the digestive tracts and its correlation with the mean apertural diameter of the specimens are interpreted as ontogenetically dependent. The simple U-shaped gut, usually considered as characteristic of the Hyolithida, developed in earlier stages of C. subcurvata, whereas the more complex orthothecid type-3 only appears in largest specimens. This growth pattern suggests a distinct phylogenetic relationship between these two hyolith orders through heterochronic processes.

  8. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Artz, Rebekka R.E.; Haanstra, Rene; Forney, Larry J.

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge, In this study we show, by using

  9. For whom should we use selective decontamination of the digestive tract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the relevant studies on selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) published between 2009 and mid-2011. Recent findings In a multicenter cluster-randomized cross-over study in the Netherlands, SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) w

  10. The development of the digestive tract in larval European catfish (Silurus glanis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarić, Z; Kuzir, S; Petrinec, Z; Gjurcević, E; Bozić, M

    2008-04-01

    The European catfish, Silurus glanis L., has become an important aqua cultural fish in Croatia, and it is cultivated extensively in ponds in polyculture with carps. The development of the digestive tract in S. glanis was studied with the aim of improving intensive fish production. Research was carried out on S. glanis larval stadium from 1- to 19-day post-hatching (DPH). The main histological methods used were: haematoxylin and eosin staining, periodic acid Schiff staining (PAS), Alcian blue (AB) and toluidin blue staining (TB). A yolk sac was present during the first 5 days (1-5-DPH). During the initial 3-DPH period, there was no trace PAS and AB activity in the digestive tract. Differentiation of the digestive tract began at 3- to 5-DPH. The oesophagus was positive for AB at 5-DPH, PAS and TB after 7-DPH. Differentiation of enterocytes began at 5-DPG and the intestines were complete at 11-DPH. Development of liver and pancreas was also studied. The analysis of data obtained in this study suggests that after 5-DPH catfish larvae have morphologically completed digestive tracts.

  11. Selective digestive tract decontamination decreases time on ventilator in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyssen, M.E.; Doorn, P.A. van; Jacobs, B.C.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Voort, P.H. van der; Zandstra, D.F.; Horn, J.; Spronk, P.E.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Bakker, J.; Jagt, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in more than half of mechanically ventilated patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV). We investigated the impact of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), an int

  12. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in european intensive cares : The ifs and whys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, D. Reis; Citerio, G.; Perner, A.; Dimopoulos, G.; Torres, A.; Hoes, A.; Beale, R.; De Smet, A. M.; Kesecioglu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multidrug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care (ER

  13. Cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in liver transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enckevort, PJ; Zwaveling, JH; Bottema, JT; Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Slooff, MJH; TenVergert, EM

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the cost effectiveness of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in liver transplant patients. Design: Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial with an integrated economic evaluation. Setting: Two university hospitals in The Netherlands. Cost effectiven

  14. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares : the ifs and whys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, D. Reis; Citerio, G.; Perner, A.; Dimopoulos, G.; Torres, A.; Hoes, A.; Beale, R.; De Smet, A. M.; Kesecioglu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multidrug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care (ER

  15. Probiotics versus antibiotic decontamination of the digestive tract: infection and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Oudhuis (Guy); D.C. Bergmans (Tom); T. Dormans (Tom); J-H. Zwaveling (Jan-Harm); A.G. Kessels (Alphons); M.H. Prins (Martin); E.E. Stobberingh (Ellen); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been shown to decrease the infection rate and mortality in intensive care units (ICUs); Lactobacillus plantarum 299/299v plus fibre (LAB) has been used for infection prevention and does not harbour the potential disadvan

  16. Detection of methanogenic archaea in seawater particles and the digestive tract of a marine fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, MJEC; Sprenger, W; Haanstra, R; Forney, LJ

    1999-01-01

    A methanogen-specific nested PCR approach was used to detect methanogenic archaea in seawater particles of the North Sea and the feces and the digestive tract of flounder (Platichthys flesus), a fish found in the North Sea. A number of 16S rDNA sequences with 97.6-99.5% similarity to

  17. Morphohistology of the Digestive Tract of the Damsel Fish Stegastes fuscus (Osteichthyes: Pomacentridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Canan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the morphohistology of the digestive tract and the mean intestinal coefficient of the damsel fish Stegastes fuscus captured from the tidal pools of Northeastern Brazil. The wall of the digestive tract of S. fuscus is composed of the tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The esophagus is short with sphincter and thick distensible wall with longitudinally folded mucosa. Mucous glands are predominant, and the muscular layer of the esophagus presented striated fibers all along its extension. The transition region close to the stomach shows plain and striated muscular fibers. Between the stomach and intestine, there are three pyloric caeca. The intestine is long and thin with four folds around the stomach. The anterior intestine presents folds similar to those of pyloric caeca. The estimated mean intestinal coefficient and characteristics of the digestive system of S. fuscus present morphological adequacy for both herbivorous and omnivorous feeding habits.

  18. A pilot study on respiratory and digestive tract cancer among woodworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esping, B; Axelson, O

    1980-09-01

    Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses is a known occupational hazard among workers in the furniture industry. An increased frequency of cancer at other sites has also been suggested to occur among different types of woodworkers in the United States, eg, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and lung but also lymphatic and hematopoietic malignancies. This case-referent study is of a pilot character and was undertaken for the further elucidation of respiratory and digestive tract cancer among Swedish woodworkers. A four-fold excess of respiratory cancer, other than nasal cancer, was found, particularly in relation to furniture workers, whereas no definite excess of digestive tract cancer was indicated. Further studies seem worthwhile regarding cancer hazard in the woodworking industry.

  19. Quantitative morphometric analysis of the myenteric nervous plexus ganglion structures along the human digestive tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. All the functions of the digestive system are controlled, guided and initiated by the autonomic nervous system. A special part of this system placed in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract is known as the enteric or metasympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyse myenteric nervous plexus in different parts of the digestive tract. Methods. We examined the myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon and rectum in tissue samples taken from 30 cadavers of persons aged 20-84 years. After standard histological processing sections were stained with hematoxylineosin, cresyl violet (CV and AgNO3 method. Multipurpose test system M42 was used in morphometric analysis. The results were analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. Results. The number of neurons per cm2 surface was the lowest in the esophagus (2.045 ± 310.30 and the largest in the duodenum (65,511 ± 5,639. The statistical processing showed significant differences (p < 0.001 in the number of neurons between the esophagus and all other parts of the digestive tract. The maximal value of the average surface of the myenteric nervous plexus neurons was observed in the esophagus (588.93 ± 30.45 μm2 and the lowest in the stomach (296.46 ± 22.53 μm2. Conclusion. There are differences in the number of ganglion cells among different parts of the human digestive tract. The differences range from a few to several tens of thousands of neuron/cm2. The myenteric nervous plexus of the esophagus was characterized by a significantly smaller number of neurons but their bodies and nuclei are significantly larger compared to other parts of the digestive tract.

  20. Effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with digestive tract cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Nan; Yong-Chang Wei; Fu-Ling Zhou; Chun-Li Li; Chen-Guang Sui; Ling-Yun Hui; Cheng-Ge Gao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of depression on parameters of cell-mediated immunity in patients with cancers of the digestive tract.METHODS: One hundred and eight adult patients of both sexes with cancers of the digestive tract admitted between March 2001 and February 2002 in the Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were randomly enrolled in the study. The Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS), Zung self-rating anxiety scale(SAS), numeric rating scale (NRS) and social support rating scale (SSRS) were employed to evaluate the degree of depression and their contributing factors. In terms of their SDS index scores, the patients were categorized into depression group (SDS≥50) and non-depression group(SDS<50). Immunological parameters such as T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cell activities in peripheral blood were determined and compared between the two groups of patients.RESULTS: The SDS index was from 33.8 to 66.2 in the 108 cases, 50% of these patients had a SDS index more than 50. Similarly, the SAS index of all the patients ranged from 35.0 to 62.0 and 46.3% of the cases had a SAS index above 50. Cubic curve estimation showed that the depression was positively correlated with anxiety and negatively with social support. Furthermore, the depression correlated with the tumor type, which manifested in a descending order as stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, intestine, esophagus,duodenum and rectum, according to their correlativity. Step-wise regression analysis suggested that hyposexuality,dispidtment, agitation, palpitation, low CD56 and anxiety were the significant factors contributing to depression. More severe anxiety (49.7±7.5 vs 45.3±6.9, P<0.05), pain (6.5±2.8 vs4.6±3.2, P<0.05), poor social support (6.8±2.0 vs 7.6±2.1,P<0.05), as well as decline of lymphocyte count (0.33±0.09vs0.39±0.87, P<0.05) and CD56 (0.26±0.11 vs0.29±0.11,P<0.05) were noted in the depression group compared

  1. [Changes in magnesium levels in surgery of the digestive tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujoulet, R B; Romero, E G; Arrans, E L; Imaz, I M

    1976-04-01

    We studied serum concentrations of magnesium post-operatively in 41 patients divided up into four distinct groups, depending on the degree of seriousness of the operation, the loss of body fluids and the duration of intravenous feeding. The results thus obtained showed us that in digestive disorders there is an initial fall in blood magnesium accentuated in operated patients submitted to continous gastric aspiration or an external biliary drain. In these same patients, there is a tendency to normalisation from the second day after the operation. Only patients with gastric or intestinal fistulas had a curve which fell to the seventh post-operative day reaching severe levels of hypomagnesemia.

  2. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg respectively. The mean weights of the entire digestive system at first, second and third trimester were 0.80 ± 0.07 kg, 2.13 ± 0.04 kg and 4.86 ± 0.08 kg respectively. The mean weights of the digestive tract at first, second and third trimester were 0.53 ± 0.07 kg, 1.03 ± 0.05 and 2.43 ± 0.07 kg respectively. The small intestine at first trimester were found not to have any clear demarcation to show duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the entire small intestine was found to be 76.00 ± 3.00 cm at first trimester and showed clear demarcation at second and third trimesters.. The mean volumes of the entire stomach (rumen, reticular and abomasum ranged from 136.67 ± 8.30 cm3 at first trimester to 353.33 ± 6.50 cm3 at third trimester. It was observed that there was increase in body weight, organ weight and individual segment of the digestive tract of the fetuses with advancement in gestation period. A geometrical increase in length and diameter of the various segments of the digestive tract showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05 with advancement in gestational period.

  3. [Functional nutrients, digestive tract and potencial benefits for the child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón Mangini, Jorge L; Alarcón Menéndez, Pedro

    2002-01-01

    Widespread interest in the possibility that selected foods containing specifically physiologically active components might promote health has resulted in the coining of the term Functional Food. Recent studies have shown that modified foods or selected ingredients may provide health benefits. Benefits touted by these foods are known to prevent certain diseases, promote health or both; and by that promoting a state of well-being and better health; reducing the risk of disease. The gastrointestinal tract is an obvious target for the development of Functional Foods, acting as it does as the interface between diet and the metabolic events, which sustain life. The American Dietetic Association recommends cautious evaluation of the clinical efficacy of individual nutrients/ingredients before recommending their use to promote as specific health outcome. Identification of sensitive and reliable biomarkers will be key to adequate assessment of the true effect of foods and their components.

  4. 肠外营养联合化疗对消化道恶性肿瘤患者免疫功能的影响%Effects of parenteral nutrition combined with chemotherapy on immune function in patients with digestive tract malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢士超; 田炳如; 夏永明; 陈幼芬; 陈曦

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究肠外营养联合化疗对消化道恶性肿瘤患者免疫功能的影响. 方法 采用随机数字表法将100例消化道恶性肿瘤患者分为对照组和观察组,每组50例,对照组在化疗期间未给予特殊处理,观察组在化疗期间根据胃肠功能给予肠外营养支持,统计4个疗程后的营养指标、免疫功能指标、T淋巴细胞亚群等指标. 结果 观察组治疗后转铁蛋白、前白蛋白、IgA、CD4+和CD4+/CD8+明显高于对照组[(2.41±0.53)g/L比(2.15±0.57)g/L、(0.28±0.07)g/L比(0.20±0.08) g/L、(3.25±1.19)g/L比(2.85±1.01)g/L、0.403±0.065比0.323±0.083、2.15±1.02比1.35±0.73], IgM明显低于对照组[(1.02±0.35)g/L比(1.48±0.78)g/L],差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 肠外营养联合化疗能提高消化道恶性肿瘤患者机体的免疫功能,为化疗期间给予肠外营养支持的治疗方法提供一定的理论依据.%Objective To study the effect of parenteral nutrition combined with chemotherapy on immune function in patients with digestive tract malignant tumor. Methods One hundred patients with digestive tract malignant tumor were selected, and they were divided into the observation group and the control group by random digits table method with 50 cases each. The patients in control group during chemotherapy did not receive special treatment, and the patients in observation group were given parenteral nutrition support according to the gastrointestinal function during chemotherapy. The nutrition index, immune function index and T lymphocyte subsets after treatment were observed. Results The transferrin, prealbumin, IgA, CD4+and CD4+/CD8+levels after treatment in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group: (2.41±0.53) g/L vs. (2.15±0.57) g/L, (0.28±0.07) g/L vs. (0.20±0.08) g/L, (3.25±1.19) g/L vs. (2.85±1.01) g/L, 0.403±0.065 vs. 0.323±0.083 and 2.15±1.02 vs. 1.35±0.73, while the IgM in observation group was significantly lower

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide in Physiology and Diseases of the Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha B. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a Janus-faced molecule. On one hand, several toxic functions have been attributed to H2S and exposure to high levels of this gas is extremely hazardous to health. On the other hand, H2S delivery based clinical therapies are being developed to combat inflammation, visceral pain, oxidative stress related tissue injury, thrombosis and cancer. Since its discovery, H2S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and health. H2S is a gasotransmitter that exerts its effect on different systems, such as gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. In the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to H2S production by mammalian cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE, H2S is also generated by the metabolic activity of resident gut microbes, mainly by colonic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB via a dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR pathway. In the gut, H2S regulates functions such as inflammation, ischemia/ reperfusion injury and motility. H2S derived from gut microbes has been found to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. This underscores the importance of gut microbes and their production of H2S on host physiology and pathophysiology.

  6. Percutaneous gastrostomy in patients with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, A. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury SY3 8XQ (United Kingdom); Umapathy, N. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury SY3 8XQ (United Kingdom); Orme, R. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury SY3 8XQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: richard.orme@rsh.nhs.uk

    2005-10-01

    Gastrostomy for nutritional support can be performed radiologically when endoscopic technique is not possible. In patients with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract, the radiological technique in its conventional method may not be possible, as insertion of naso-gastric tube for gastric insufflation is not always successful. We reviewed our experience of gastrostomy insertion in nine such patients after failure of the conventional method. In seven of the nine patients, initial gastric puncture was achieved with a 22G needle under direct ultrasound visualisation. In the remaining two patients, initial puncture was made into locules of gas in the stomach with fluoroscopy. The stomach was then distended with air and a gastrostomy tube inserted by conventional technique. We conclude that percutaneous gastrostomy can be undertaken safely even in the presence of complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract and recommend this technique in this selective group of patients.

  7. [Results of the upper digestive tract stenting with self-expanding stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A G; Davydova, S V; Klimov, A E; Lebedev, N V

    2013-01-01

    The work is based on the analysis of the palliative treatment of 66 patients with malignant upper digestive tract obstruction who underwent implantation of 75 self-expanding metallic stents in the period of 2003-2012 yy. Early postoperative complications developed in 10 (15.2%) cases. Procedure-related complications were observed in 8 (12.1%) patients, non-specific complications occurred in 2 (3.0%) patients. In-hospital lethality was 4.5% (3 patients). 51 patients were followed until death. Symptomatic relapse of obstruction was observed in 4 cases. Median survival was 97 days. Stenting with self-expanding metal stents was concluded to be an effective and safe method of palliation of malignant upper digestive tract stenosis.

  8. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.

  9. [THE MICRO-ECOLOGY OF DIGESTIVE TRACT AS AN INDICATOR OF HUMAN HEALTH CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoukina, A M; Mikhailova, E S; Chervinets, V M; Mironov A Yu; Alekseeva, Yu A

    2015-06-01

    The study was carried out to analyze qualitative and quantitative parameters of oral fluid and feces in 74 healthy individuals of different age groups. In most of the cases, alterations of micro-ecology are established characterizing by decreasing of amount of indigenous micro-flora and increasing of number of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms of genera of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Candida. The degree of evidence of these alterations reliably increases with age. It is established that microbiota, initial and terminal biotopes of digestive tract are closely interrelated and have number of common characteristics depending on age, hormonal and immune status and reflect conditions of micro-biocenosis of digestive tract in general. The character and degree of evidence of alterations of micro-biocenosis can be an effective diagnostic criterion for complex evaluation of human health conditions with following formation of risk groups in need of particular volume of correction activities.

  10. Apparent ileal and total tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary non digestibility oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Bosch, M.W.; Tamminga, S.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Berenpas, E.B.; Knoop, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, ave

  11. Organogenesis of the digestive tract in the white seabream, Diplodus sargus. Histological and histochemical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of the white seabream, Diplodus sargus during the larval development up to day 45 post-hatching (dph) has been studied using histological and histochemical techniques. The oesophageal goblet cells appeared around 6 dph and contained neutral and acid mucosubstances (PAS/diastase-PAS and Alcian Blue pH 2.5 positive reactions). An incipient stomach can be distinguished from 2 dph but the first sign of gastric gland developme...

  12. Using archaeol to investigate the location of methanogens in the ruminant digestive tract

    OpenAIRE

    McCartney, Christine A.; Bull, Ian D.; Dewhurst, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of archaeol, a methanogen membrane lipid, may provide an alternative method to estimate methanogen abundance. The focus of this study was to determine thelocation of methanogens in the ruminant digestive tract using this biomarker. Archaeol was quantified in samples obtained from four lactating cows with rumen cannulae that grazed on either white clover (WC) or perennial ryegrass (PRG) in a changeover design study with three 3-week periods. Faeces were collected over the fi...

  13. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract to prevent postoperative infection : A randomized placebo-controlled trial in liver transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, JH; Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Haagsma, EB; Bottema, JT; Winter, Heinrich L.J.; van Enckevort, PJ; TenVergert, EM; Metselaar, HJ; Bruining, HA; Slooff, MJH

    Objective., To determine the efficacy of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in patients undergoing elective transplantation of the liver. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting. Two academic teaching hospitals. Patients. Adult patients undergoing

  14. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract to prevent postoperative infection : A randomized placebo-controlled trial in liver transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, JH; Maring, JK; Klompmaker, IJ; Haagsma, EB; Bottema, JT; Winter, Heinrich L.J.; van Enckevort, PJ; TenVergert, EM; Metselaar, HJ; Bruining, HA; Slooff, MJH

    2002-01-01

    Objective., To determine the efficacy of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in patients undergoing elective transplantation of the liver. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting. Two academic teaching hospitals. Patients. Adult patients undergoing elec

  15. Physicians' and nurses' opinions on selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination : a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Irene P.; de Smet, Anne Marie G.; Kluytmans, Jan A.; Velde, Leo F. Te; Dennesen, Paul J.; Wesselink, Ronald M.; Bouw, Martijn P.; Spanjersberg, Rob; Bogaers-Hofman, Diana; van der Meer, Nardo J.; de Vries, Jaap W.; Kaasjager, Karin; van Iterson, Mat; Kluge, Georg H.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Harinck, Hubertus I.; Bindels, Alexander J.; Pickkers, Peter; Bonten, Marc J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) in intensive care patients has been controversial for years. Through regular questionnaires we determined expectations concerning SDD (effectiveness) and experience with SDD

  16. Physicians' and nurses' opinions on selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination: a survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, I.P.; Smet, A.M. de; Kluytmans, J.A.; Velde, L.F. te; Dennesen, P.J.; Wesselink, R.M.; Bouw, M.P.W.J.M.; Spanjersberg, R.; Bogaers-Hofman, D.; Meer, N.J. van der; Vries, J.W. de; Kaasjager, K.; Iterson, M. van; Kluge, G.H.; Werf, T.S. van der; Harinck, H.I.; Bindels, A.J.; Pickkers, P.; Bonten, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) in intensive care patients has been controversial for years. Through regular questionnaires we determined expectations concerning SDD (effectiveness) and experience with SDD

  17. Characterization of Enterococcus isolates colonizing the intestinal tract of intensive care unit patients receiving selective digestive decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, Teresita D.J.; Pham, Phu; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob J.L.; Schaik, van Willem; Passel, van Mark W.J.; Smidt, Hauke

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, enterococcal population size and Enterococcus isolates colonizing the intestinal tract of ICU patients receiving Selective Digestive Decontamination (SDD) were investigated. All nine

  18. Neurogenic inflammation in the upper digestive tract of the mule duck: effect of a chemical algogen and force-feeding

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    1. The objectives were to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in 4 regions of the upper digestive tract of anaesthetised ducks (post-pharynx, pseudo-crop, transition between the pseudo-crop and the proventriculus, and proventriculus) after application of HCl stimulation of up to 4 M in the pseudo-crop. 2. The second objective was to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in the same digestive tract regions as mentioned above during 4 feeding periods of foie gras product...

  19. [The current diagnosis of tumors of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltirov, I; Terziev, T; Genadiev, Ts

    1997-01-01

    The treatment results and survivorship of patients with upper urinary tract tumors (UUTT) are largely dependent on the early diagnosis of the lesions. Twenty-eight patients presenting UUTT are studied and treated in the Clinic of Urology over the period 1987 through 1995. The diagnostic protocol includes both standard radiographic and cytological techniques, and endoscopic methods allowing for visualization and histopathological characterization of the neoplasm. The diagnostic relevance of the various methods and their efficacy are assayed, with emphasis on the necessity of their use in the differential diagnosis. The diagnostic approach described contributes to mace precise early diagnosis with preoperative determination of the degree of tumor differentiation which has an essential practical bearing on the choice of operative procedure and prognosis of the disease.

  20. Therapeutic approach to the malignant tumors of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Florentina; Tantău, M; Iancu, C; Bodea, Raluca; Părău, Angela; Acalovschi, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are malignant tumors that originate in the cholangiocytes, occur at any level of the biliary tract, are very aggressive and have a 5-year survival rate of 7-8%. Their diagnosis is late and difficult, and the prognosis is very poor. The only curative treatment of these tumors is the complete surgical resection. Signs of unresectability can be detected in most patients with CCA when establishing the diagnosis. Thus, only certain palliative measures can be employed in most cases. The ideal palliative method should be minimally invasive, accompanied by few complications, should offer an increased quality of life, require reduced hospitalization and the lowest costs. The palliative treatment of the obstructive jaundice may be achieved by means of surgical bypass, endoscopic insertion of biliary stents, percutaneous stents, transhepatic stents, photodynamic therapy and/or radio-chemotherapy.

  1. Preliminary studies on morphology and digestive tract development of tomato clownfish, Amphiprion frenatus under captive condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi F. Putra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated on the growth, morphology and digestive tract development of Amphiprion frenatus larvae under captivity con¬dition. A total of 15 larvae were sampled from 1 day after hatching (DAH to 20 DAH for measurement of total length (TL, head depth (HD, eye diameter (ED, body depth (BD, head length (HL and standard length (SL. For data analysis, total length (TL was used as variable with respect to other morphometric characters to plot relative growth curve. The relative growth equation of SL, ED, BD and HD, HL was estab¬lished by using Regression. A total of 15 larvae were sampled from 1 DAH to 17 DAH for histology procedure. Result showed that A. frenatus hatched at the advance stage with developed and functional eye, mouth and fins. Pectoral fin forms at 3 DAH (5.229 ± 0.17 TL. Notochord flexion occurred at 5 DAH (5.675 ± 0.07 TL. The complement of the notochord was characterized by the orientation of the caudal fin rays at 4 DAH (5.399 ± 0.08 TL. The reddish coloration appeared on 17 DAH (9.7695 ± 0.22 TL. At 20 DAH (13.31 ± 0.83 TL, two white bends were formed and bordered by melanophores along the bend. The total length (TL has significant relationship with standard length, head length, head depth, body depth and eye diameter. Histology of digestive tract of A. frenatus larvae at 24 hours after hatching showed alimentary tract is evident, with gut and liver differentiated. At 2 days after hatching, a well developed alimentary tract is evident, with distinct stomach, midgut and hindgut. Liver and pancreas are differentiated. On the 5 DAH (5.675 ± 0.07 TL mouth cavities are well developed. The mouth and pharynx were lined with cubic epithelial cells of irregular shape. It could be concluded that after 8 days incubation, A. frenatus hatched at the advance stage with developed and functional eye, mouth and fins. Relative growth concluded that the total length (TL has significant relationship with SL, HL, HD, BD and ED

  2. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  3. Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    9.1 Esophagus2007219 A comparative study on the diagnosis of esophageal and gastric varices between multislice spiral CT portography and endoscopy. Jin Yong(靳勇), et al. Dept Radiol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Dig 2007;27(2):78-82. Objectives To investigate the diagnosis of esophageal and gastric varices between multi-slice spiral (MS) CT portography and endoscopy. Methods Fifty-seven patients clinically diagnosed with portal hypertension were underwent MSCT portography by LightSpeed 16 CT scanner. The endoscopic examinations were also carried out in those patients within 3 days. Results The CT portography revealed that 51 patients with esophageal or gastric varices, including 39 patients with both gastric fundal varices and esophagus varix, 9 patients with only esophageal varices, 3 patients with gastric body and gastric fundal varices. While 46 patients were found by endoscopy to have esophageal or gastric varices, including 24 patients with both esophageal and gastric varices, 5 patients with only gastric varices and 17 patients with only esophageal varices. Conclusion The MSCT portography can clearly demonstrate the esophageal and gastric fundal varices, as well as major collateral vessels in portal hypertension patients. There was a certain false positivity in MSCT portography, and they can be used as supplement tests to endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal varices. The MSCT portography was more sensitive than endoscopy in diagnosis of gastric varices, and could visualize the para esophageal and para-gastric varices that were not visible to the endoscopy.

  4. Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    8.1 Stomach and duodenum2004380 Increased expression of heparanase mRNA is correlated with metastasis of gastric carcinoma and is probably correlated with c-met protein. CAIYongguo (蔡永国),et al. 3rd Milk Univ.Dept Gas-troenterol, South-West Hosp, Chongqing 400038. 2004;84(12):974-978.

  5. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    8.1 Stomach2003432 Experimental study on mitotic catastrophe induced by pcDNA3-survivin-mutant in gastric cancer cell lines.SUN Jing(孙璟), et al.Dept Gerontol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Dig 2003;23(8):487-490.

  6. Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    8.1 Esophagus 2006062 Relationship between the expression of copper - transporting P - type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7B) in human esophageal cancer tissues and the prognosis of esophageal cancer FENG Changwei(冯常炜 ) et al. Lab Can Res Henan Key Lab for Esophag Can, Zhengzhou Univ, Zhengzhou 450052. Chin J Clin Oncol 2005 ;32(22) :1261 -1263. Objective: To investigate the expression of copper -transporting P - type adenosine triphosphatase ( ATP7B)

  7. Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008540 Cholinergic receptor nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 agonist ameliorates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.BAI Aiping(白爱平).et al. Dept Gastroenterol,1st Affili Hosp,Nanchang Univ,Nanchang 330006.Chin J Dig 2008;28(8):535-539. Objective To study the therapeutic effect of cholinergic receptor,an nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR)α7 agonist,on trinitrobenzene

  8. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Esophagus2007092 Expression of CD80, CD86, TGF-β1 and IL-10 mRNA in the esophageal carcinoma. YANG Wenfeng(杨文锋), et al. Dept Thorac Surg Shandong Cancer Hosp, Jinan 250117. Chin J Oncol 2006;28(10):762-765. Objective To investigate the correlation of CD80 and CD86 mRNA expression with the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 mRNA (TGF-β1 ) and interleukin-10 mRNA (IL-10) in the esophageal cancer. To explore the reason of impaired immunological function of dentritic cell (DC) and the mechanism of cancer cell escaption from body immunity system in the esophageal cancer patient.

  9. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    2006217 Effect of RNA silencing of transforming growth factorβ1 on the growth of colon cancer cells by RNA interference. RAN Zhihua (冉志华), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Coll. Jiantong Univy, Shanghai 20001, Chin J Dig 2006;26 (3); 167-170. Objectives: To ohserve the effect of inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 on the growth and aggression of colon cancer cells by RNA interference. Methods: HCT116 colon cancer cells were transfected with

  10. DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    10.1 Esophagus2003217 The changes of immunologic function of lymphocyte and erythrocyte in esophageal carcinoma patients before and after operation. LIU Lihong(刘丽宏), et al. Dept Hematol, 4th Affili Hosp, Hebei Med U-niv, Shijiazhuang, 050011. Chin J Clin Oncol 2003; 20 (2):84-87

  11. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally greater than that in high-fat diets.

  12. Robotic digestive tract reconstruction after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a simple way to do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Leandro Cardoso; Jacob, Carlos Eduardo; Franciss, Maurice Youssef; Kappaz, Guilherme Tommasi; Rodrigues Filho, Edison Dias; Zilberstein, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    Intracorporeal digestive tract reconstruction after minimally invasive total gastrectomy may be challenging, even when using the da Vinci® Surgical System. This may be due to intrinsic difficulties during oesophago-jejunal anastomosis (EJA). The aim of this study was to describe a simple way to perform digestive tract reconstruction after robotic total gastrectomy (RTG) for gastric cancer and the results of its application in a small series of cases. In the last 2 years, six patients with gastric adenocarcinoma have been treated by RTG, four male and two female, with mean age of 59.8 (range 48-74) years. The tumour was located in the gastric body in three patients, the gastric antrum in two patients and the fundus in one patient with no need of splenectomy. In all cases, D2 lymphadenectomy was completed. A modified robotic reconstruction technique proposed by the authors was used in these operations, which consists in a latero-lateral EJA using a linear stapler. An entero-enterostomy is also performed in the upper abdomen. The mean operative time was 408 (range 340-481) min. The mean time for digestive tract reconstruction was 57 (range 47-68) min. There were no conversions to open or laparoscopic surgery. The number of lymph nodes removed varied in the range 28-52 (average 40). There was no mortality. Postoperative staging showed three T1N0M0s, one T2N0M0, one T3N0M0 and one T3N2M0. This series, which despite being small, demonstrates that this robotic reconstruction technique is safe, with no major complications, demands a relatively short time for its accomplishment, even when dealing with initial experience. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Particular Candida albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients, identified by multilocus sequence typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bing Gong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a human commensal that is also responsible for chronic gastritis and peptic ulcerous disease. Little is known about the genetic profiles of the C. albicans strains in the digestive tract of dyspeptic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, diversity, and genetic profiles among C. albicans isolates recovered from natural colonization of the digestive tract in the dyspeptic patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Oral swab samples (n = 111 and gastric mucosa samples (n = 102 were obtained from a group of patients who presented dyspeptic symptoms or ulcer complaints. Oral swab samples (n = 162 were also obtained from healthy volunteers. C. albicans isolates were characterized and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing. The prevalence of Candida spp. in the oral samples was not significantly different between the dyspeptic group and the healthy group (36.0%, 40/111 vs. 29.6%, 48/162; P > 0.05. However, there were significant differences between the groups in the distribution of species isolated and the genotypes of the C. albicans isolates. C. albicans was isolated from 97.8% of the Candida-positive subjects in the dyspeptic group, but from only 56.3% in the healthy group (P < 0.001. DST1593 was the dominant C. albicans genotype from the digestive tract of the dyspeptic group (60%, 27/45, but not the healthy group (14.8%, 4/27 (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a possible link between particular C. albicans strain genotypes and the host microenvironment. Positivity for particular C. albicans genotypes could signify susceptibility to dyspepsia.

  14. Structuring food emulsions in the gastrointestinal tract to modify lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harjinder; Ye, Aiqian; Horne, David

    2009-03-01

    The importance of nutrient lipids in the human diet has led to major advances in understanding the mechanisms of lipid digestion and absorption. With these advances has come new recognition that the matrix in which lipids are presented (i.e. food structure) in the diet could influence the rate of lipid digestion and hence the bioavailability of fatty acids. As a consequence, there is growing interest in understanding how food material properties can be manipulated under physiological conditions to control the uptake of lipids and lipid-soluble components. The lipids in many, if not most, processed foods are normally present as emulsions, which can be end products in themselves or part of a more complex food system. In this review, we discuss the formation and properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, especially how these emulsions are modified as they traverse through the gastrointestinal tract. Among other factors, the changes in the nature of the droplet adsorbed layer and the droplet size play a major role in controlling the action of lipases and lipid digestion. Greater knowledge and understanding of how the digestive system treats, transports and utilizes lipids will allow the microstructural design of foods to achieve a specific, controlled physiological response.

  15. Changes in alcohol intake and risk of upper digestive tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau C; Keiding, Niels; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Alcohol intake measured at one point in time is a strong predictor for later development of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. In this prospective cohort study, we examined whether changes in individual alcohol intake resulted in subsequent altered risk...... of these cancers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study we assessed alcohol intake among 4 896 men and 6 239 women who participated at both the first (1976-1978) and second (1981-1983) examination of the study. Alcohol intake changes on risk of upper digestive tract cancer 1981-2002 were...

  16. Parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of six species of owls (Strigiformes) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, David; Molina, Rafael; Castellà, Joaquim; Kinsella, John M

    2004-03-01

    A survey was carried out in Catalonia, Spain to determine the prevalence of parasitic helminths infesting the digestive tract of nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes). One hundred birds belonging to six owl species were examined. The number of birds examined ranged between three and 30. The overall level of infestation was 65% and the most frequent helminths present were nematodes, followed by trematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans. Strigiformes showing the highest levels of infestation were little owls (Athene noctua), 86.7% of which were infested. Helminths with the highest prevalence were Synhimantus spp., intestinal capillarids, Brachylaima spp., cestodes and Centrorhynchus aluconis.

  17. Innate and procured immunity inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Silver

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Especially when combined with unique biological adaptations, invertebrate animals provide important insights into innate immunity because the immune response is not complicated by adaptive immunity that vertebrates evolved. One such example is the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, which is unusual in two aspects, it contains a simple microbial community and it stores large amounts of vertebrate blood for a several months. In this review we will discuss aspects of the innate immunity of the leech and from the ingested blood that we term procured immunity to differentiate it from the immunity encoded by the leech genome.

  18. Effects on the pouch of different digestive tract reconstruction modes assessed by radionuclide scintigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of three digestive tract reconstruction procedures on pouch function, after radical surgery undertaken because of gastric cancer, as assessed by radionuclide dynamic imaging. METHODS: As a measure of the reservoir function, with a designed diet containing technetium-99m (99mTc), the emptying time of the gastric substitute was evaluated using a 99mTc-labeled solid test meal. Immediately after the meal, the patient was placed in front of a γ camera in a supine position and the rad...

  19. Helminths isolated from the digestive tract of diurnal raptors in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, D; Molina, R; Adelantado, C; Kinsella, J M

    2004-01-03

    The prevalence of parasitic helminths in the digestive tract of 119 diurnal raptors (Falconiformes), which had died in a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Catalonia, was studied. The birds belonged to 13 species, with 100 of them (84 per cent) being kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and goshawks (Accipiter gentilis). Ninety-five of the birds (79.8 per cent) were infected with helminths. Nematodes were the most frequently found helminth (75.6 per cent), followed by trematodes, cestodes and ancanthocephalans. All the buzzards and sparrowhawks and 92 per cent of the goshawks were infected, but only 59 per cent of the kestrels were infected.

  20. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  1. What Are Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system, also known as the digestive system. The gastrointestinal system The gastrointestinal (GI) system (or digestive system) processes ... in “ How are gastrointestinal stromal tumors diagnosed? ” Other gastrointestinal tract cancers It is important to understand that GISTs ...

  2. Macroscopic study of the digestive tract of Gracilinanus microtarsus (Wagner, 1842 (Mammalia: Didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Lobo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gracilinanus microtarsus is a small marsupial species belonging to the Didelphidae family. It has an omnivorous/frugivorous feeding habit and, therefore, it has a great ecological importance, because it is a seed-dispersing species. This article aims to describe the macroscopic morphology of the digestive tract in G. microtarsus. We used 4 animals fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The organs were dissected, measured, and photographed. The animals under study had the dental formula 2x I 5/4 C 1/1 P 3/3 M 4/4. This is the dental formula of the whole Didelphidae family. The dorsum of the tongue had vallate, fungiform, and filiform papillae. Tubular esophagus evidenced the cervical, thoracic, and abdominal portions. The unicavitary stomach consisted of glandular and aglandular region and gastric folds. Small intestine had 3 portions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Large intestine consisted of: cecum, colon, and rectum. Parotid salivary gland was the largest and it had a flattened shape. The sublingual salivary gland, whi h was the smallest, had a flattened and elongated shape. Mandibular salivary gland had an oval shape. Pancreas had a dispersed shape and lobulated aspect. Liver had a dome shape and it consisted of the lobes right medial, square, right side, left medial, left side, and caudate. The digestive tract of the animals under study is similar to the marsupial species described in the literature.

  3. Nutritional support in patients with GVHD of the digestive tract: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, B S; de Graaf, P; Wierdsma, N J; Langius, J A E; Janssen, J J W M; van Leeuwen, P A M; Visser, O J

    2013-04-01

    An important complication of allo-SCT is GVHD, which commonly affects the skin, liver and digestive tract. Clinical symptoms of GVHD of the digestive tract (GVHD-DT) include excessive diarrhoea, abdominal pain and cramps, nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia, and weight loss. Treatment is complicated and regarding nutritional support, only a few guidelines are available. Our aim was to critically appraise the literature on nutritional assessment, nutritional status and nutritional support for patients with GVHD-DT. Evidence shows that GVHD-DT is often associated with malnutrition, protein losing enteropathy, magnesium derangements, and deficiencies of zinc, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. Limited evidence exists on derangements of magnesium, resting energy expenditure, bone mineral density and pancreatic function, and some beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Expert opinions recommend adequate amounts of energy, at least 1.5 g protein/kg body weight, supplied by total parenteral nutrition in cases of severe diarrhoea. When diarrhoea is nutritional support strategies.

  4. Topographical and biometrical anatomy of the digestive tract of White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Kanti Nath

    2016-06-01

    Materials and methods: Five rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. After dissection of the rabbits, the exact positions of different parts of the digestive tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine were measured using Metric rule, thread, electronic and normal balance. Results: The mean lengths of the small intestine and large intestine were 169.53+/-21.65 and 132.3+/-17.42 cm, respectively, and weight of the whole digestive tract was 263.60+/-56.80 gm. The mean lengths and mean diameter of esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum were 9.62+/-1.64, 41.26+/-4.06, 106.60+/-14.64, 21.64+/-46.32, 41.14+/-2.82, 83.16+/-13.74 and 8.0+/-1.08 cm and 1.16+/-0.12, 1.71+/-0.11, 1.70+/-0.09, 1.73+/-0.05, 5.47+/-0.15, 3.36+/-0.16 and 2.81+/-0.24 cm, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a baseline study that may assist in disease diagnosis and clinical works with rabbits. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 145-151

  5. Morphological, histological and histochemical analysis of the digestive tract of Trachelyopterusstriatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The digestive tract of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877 was studied using morphological, histological, and histochemical techniques. The barbels, lips and tongue had stratified squamous epithelium with mucous, claviform cells, and taste buds. Trachelyopterus striatulus had a dental plaque with villiform teeth. The bucopharyngeal cavity was formed by the gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth with vilifform denticles. The oesophagus presented stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The stomach included cardiac, fundic, and pyloric regions and a simple prismatic epithelium with prismatic cells that reacted positively to periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and amylase+PAS. Only the cardiac and pyloric regions responded positively to alcian blue pH 2.5 (Ab pH 2.5 and alcian blue pH 0.5 (Ab pH 0.5. The cardiac and fundic regions exhibited tubular gastric glands. The intestine was 118.90 ± 22.49 mm long with an intestinal coefficient (CO of 0.83 ± 0.13. The epithelium was simple prismatic with a brush border and goblet cells, and a greater number of goblet cells were found in the caudal region of the intestine. The mucous cells and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase+PAS, Ab pH 2.5, and Ab pH 0.5. We analysed if the function of the mucosubstances and morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of T. striatulus are compatible with omnivorous feeding habit.

  6. Methane production and methanogenic Archaea in the digestive tracts of millipedes (Diplopoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Šustr

    Full Text Available Methane production by intestinal methanogenic Archaea and their community structure were compared among phylogenetic lineages of millipedes. Tropical and temperate millipedes of 35 species and 17 families were investigated. Species that emitted methane were mostly in the juliform orders Julida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida. The irregular phylogenetic distribution of methane production correlated with the presence of the methanogen-specific mcrA gene. The study brings the first detailed survey of methanogens' diversity in the digestive tract of millipedes. Sequences related to Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and some unclassified Archaea were detected using molecular profiling (DGGE. The differences in substrate preferences of the main lineages of methanogenic Archaea found in different millipede orders indicate that the composition of methanogen communities may reflect the differences in available substrates for methanogenesis or the presence of symbiotic protozoa in the digestive tract. We conclude that differences in methane production in the millipede gut reflect differences in the activity and proliferation of intestinal methanogens rather than an absolute inability of some millipede taxa to host methanogens. This inference was supported by the general presence of methanogenic activity in millipede faecal pellets and the presence of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens in all tested taxa in the two main groups of millipedes, the Helminthophora and the Pentazonia.

  7. Methane production and methanogenic Archaea in the digestive tracts of millipedes (Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šustr, Vladimír; Chroňáková, Alica; Semanová, Stanislava; Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Methane production by intestinal methanogenic Archaea and their community structure were compared among phylogenetic lineages of millipedes. Tropical and temperate millipedes of 35 species and 17 families were investigated. Species that emitted methane were mostly in the juliform orders Julida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida. The irregular phylogenetic distribution of methane production correlated with the presence of the methanogen-specific mcrA gene. The study brings the first detailed survey of methanogens' diversity in the digestive tract of millipedes. Sequences related to Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and some unclassified Archaea were detected using molecular profiling (DGGE). The differences in substrate preferences of the main lineages of methanogenic Archaea found in different millipede orders indicate that the composition of methanogen communities may reflect the differences in available substrates for methanogenesis or the presence of symbiotic protozoa in the digestive tract. We conclude that differences in methane production in the millipede gut reflect differences in the activity and proliferation of intestinal methanogens rather than an absolute inability of some millipede taxa to host methanogens. This inference was supported by the general presence of methanogenic activity in millipede faecal pellets and the presence of the 16S rRNA gene of methanogens in all tested taxa in the two main groups of millipedes, the Helminthophora and the Pentazonia.

  8. Experimental study on anti-neoplastic activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to digestive tract carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Zhi-hua; ZOU Jian; XIAO Shu-dong

    2005-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been demonstrated to have anti-neoplastic activity, but the effective concentration of EGCG and its possible mechanisms are uncertain. The study on the killing effects of EGCG on different digestive tract cancer cell lines can find target sites of its anti-neoplastic effect and provide a theoretical basis for its clinical application in the treatment of cancers. Methods Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) analysis was made to detect the differential sensitivities of eight digestive tract cancer cell lines to EGCG. The effect of EGCG on cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line was measured by flow cytometry. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol, the influence of EGCG on telomerase activity of sensitive cancer cell line was also investigated. RT-PCR method was employed to detect the influence of EGCG on the expressions of hTERT, c-myc, p53 and mad1 genes in sensitive cancer cell line. Results EGCG exhibited dose-dependent killing effects on all eight disgestive tract cancer cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of SW1116, MKN45, BGC823, SGC7901, AGS, MKN28, HGC27 and LoVo cells were 51.7 μmol/L, 55.9 μmol/L, 68.5 μmol/L, 79.1 μmol/L, 83.8 μmol/L, 119.8 μmol/L, 183.2 μmol/L and 194.6 μmol/L, respectively. There were no apparent changes in cell cycle distribution of sensitive cancer cell line MKN45 48 hours after incubating with three different concentrations of EGCG compared with the controls. It was found that EGCG could suppress the telomerase activity of MKN45 cells, and the effects were dose- and time-dependent. After EGCG administration, the expression of hTERT and c-myc genes in MKN45 cells was decreased, that of the mad1 gene increased, and that of the p53 gene unchanged. Conclusions EGCG has dose-dependent killing effects on different digestive tract cancer cell lines. Administration of EGCG has no obvious effect on cell cycle

  9. Histological structure of the digestive tract of waders (Aves, Сharadrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758, Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758, Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758, T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758, T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767, T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764, Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758, Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812, C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763, C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 and Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758. The features of histological structure of all parts of the digestive tract of the waders species under analysis were defined and adaptations in the structure of the digestive system to distant migrations were detected. It is determined that the histological structure of the wall of the esophagus of the studied species of waders is universal, and the relief of mucosa is folded; stratified squamous epithelium of the mucous membrane has an insignificant degree of hornification. A large number of esophagus glands is observed in the lamina propria of the mucosa; these glands secrete mucus which facilitates the movement of food along the esophagus. The muscular coat is well-developed and formed by longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle tissue. It is found that characteristics of histological structure of the stomach wall of the waders species under analysis are presupposed by the following functions: 1 glandular stomach wall provides secretion of digestive enzymes through active secretory activity of glands of deep complex; 2 secretion (mucus of simple tubular glands is excreted to the surface of glandular stomach performing the protective function; 3 the wall of the muscular stomach provides mechanical treatment of food through well-developed muscle layer and solid layer of the cuticle. It is established that the waders’ intestine is shortened, that is compensated by the complication of the relief of intestinal mucosa by plates that form

  10. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunwatthanakul, Phatcha; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan

    2006-01-01

    There is a high incidence of oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province. A population-based case control study was conducted from June to November 2004 to determine the association of oral exposure to radium-contaminated water and cancer of the upper digestive tract in the district.Thirty-two confirmed cases and 128 sex and five-year birth cohort matched neighborhood controls were selected by multistage sampling from six villages in four sub-districts. All subjects were verified to have been permanent residents in the district for more than 10 years. Thirty cases were dead at the time of the study, thus their relatives were interviewed to determine their amount of water drinking, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel chewing and exposure to other potential risk factors in the past. The other two cases and all controls were directly interviewed. The concentration of radium in shallow well water at the subject's houses was estimated using a contour map of Ra-226 in the water at the location of their residence. The results showed a strong and dose-dependent associationb etween consumption of radium-contaminated shallow well water and cancer of the upper digestive tract. In multivariate analysis controlled for important risk factors of the cancer, the odds ratios for exposure to oral radium consumption 50-100 mBq/day and >100 mBq/day compared with <50 mBq/day were 2.83 (95% CI: 0.50-16.19) and 29.76 (95% CI: 4.39-201.6) respectively. The risk also increased with consumption of fresh water fish which might have been contaminated by dissolved radium in the water. This study offers the first evidence of the association between radium and cancer of the upper digestive tract to the world literature. Further studies with other methods such as area-wide correlation of radium-uranium concentration and the

  11. Trichomycetes (Zygomycota) in the digestive tract of arthropods in Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Yamile B; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Lichtwardt, Robert W; Hamada, Neusa

    2003-09-01

    Eight species of Harpellales and three species of Eccrinales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes) were found associated with the digestive tract of arthropods from terrestrial and aquatic environments in the central Amazon region of Brazil. New species of Harpellales include: Harpella amazonica, Smittium brasiliense, Genistellospora tropicalis in Simuliidae larvae and Stachylina paucispora in Chironomidae larvae. Axenic cultures of S. brasiliense were obtained. Probable new species of Enterobryus (Eccrinales), Harpella, and Stachylina (Harpellales) are described but not named. Also reported are the previously known species of Eccrinales, Passalomyces compressus and Leidyomyces attenuatus in adult Coleoptera (Passalidae), and Smittium culisetae and Smittium aciculare (Harpellales) in Culicidae and Simuliidae larvae, respectively. Comments on the distribution of some of these fungi and their hosts in the Neotropics are provided.

  12. Trichomycetes (Zygomycota in the digestive tract of arthropods in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile B Alencar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight species of Harpellales and three species of Eccrinales (Zygomycota: Trichomycetes were found associated with the digestive tract of arthropods from terrestrial and aquatic environments in the central Amazon region of Brazil. New species of Harpellales include: Harpella amazonica, Smittium brasiliense, Genistellospora tropicalis in Simuliidae larvae and Stachylina paucispora in Chironomidae larvae. Axenic cultures of S. brasiliense were obtained. Probable new species of Enterobryus (Eccrinales, Harpella, and Stachylina (Harpellales are described but not named. Also reported are the previously known species of Eccrinales, Passalomyces compressus and Leidyomyces attenuatus in adult Coleoptera (Passalidae, and Smittium culisetae and Smittium aciculare (Harpellales in Culicidae and Simuliidae larvae, respectively. Comments on the distribution of some of these fungi and their hosts in the Neotropics are provided.

  13. [A rare case of digestive tract hemorrhage of extraluminal origin after total gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, Paola; Alfieri, Sergio; Rotondi, Fabio; Di Miceli, Dario; Sofo, Luigi; Pacelli, Fabio; Battista Doglietto, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a case of digestive bleeding (melaena and enterorrhagia) in a patient undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and later splenectomy for subcapsular haematoma in a different hospital. The source of bleeding was not intraluminal; the bleeding arose from double erosion of the gastroduodenal artery in the tract above the anterior surface of the pancreas, close to the dehiscent duodenal stump. The blood flowed mainly into the enteric district through the open stump thus causing the clinical signs described. The diagnosis was made during an emergency surgical operation for haemorrhagic shock. The patient underwent haemostasis with two stitches on the gastroduodenal artery, external drainage of the duodenum with a Petzer tube, laparostomy of the infected area and ileostomy. After three months he had completely recovered.

  14. The digestive tract of rat after flight in the biosatellite Cosmos 1667.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groza, P; Bordeianu, A; Boca, A

    1987-01-01

    From the histochemical investigation carried out on the digestive tract of rats after 7 days space flight in the soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667 it resulted that neutral and acid glycoproteins diminished slightly in the sublingual gland, stomach, small intestine and the colon. Some intestinal enzymes augmented (leucineaminopeptidase, acid phosphatase, adenosinetriphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase). The changes observed after this flight were less marked than after an 18 day flight (in the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 and 1129) and similar to those revealed after 7 days of hypokinesia. The glycoprotein changes were close to those observed after a 5-day flight (Cosmos 1514) but in which there were pregnant rats; after these last flights, the enzymes were not studied.

  15. Host Matters: Medicinal Leech Digestive-Tract Symbionts and their Pathogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Marden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digestive-tract microbiota exert tremendous influence over host health. Host-symbiont model systems are studied to investigate how symbioses are initiated and maintained, as well as to identify host processes affected by resident microbiota. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, is an excellent model to address such questions owing to a microbiome that is consistently dominanted by two species, Aeromonas veronii and Mucinivorans hirudinis, both of which are cultivable and have sequenced genomes. This review outlines current knowledge about the dynamics of the H. verbana microbiome. We discuss in depth the factors required for A. veronii colonization and proliferation in the leech crop and summarize the current understanding of interactions between A. veronii and its annelid host. Lastly, we discuss leech usage in modern medicine and highlight how leech-therapy associated infections, often attributable to Aeromonas spp., are of growing clinical concern due in part to an increased prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains.

  16. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S. (Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  17. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipasiri Soonthornchai

    Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  18. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  19. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-02-04

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. Copyright © 2016 Mignolet et al.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a human commensal bacterium highly prevalent in the digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular

  2. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a human commensal bacterium highly prevalent in the digestive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence ofStreptococcus salivariusHSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides.

  4. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients : a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Wit, G. A.; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne-Marie; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Design: A post hoc analysis of a pre

  5. Emergence of Colistin Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae after the Introduction of Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination in an Intensive Care Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halaby, Teysir; Naiemi, al Nashwan; Kluytmans, Jan; Palen, van der Job; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) selectively eradicates aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (AGNB) by the enteral administration of oral nonabsorbable antimicrobial agents, i.e., colistin and tobramycin. We retrospectively investigated the impact of SDD, applied for 5 years as part

  6. A before-after study of multi-resistance and cost of selective decontamination of the digestive tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, P H J; van Roon, E N; Kampinga, G A; Boerma, E C; Gerritsen, R Th; Egbers, P H M; Kuiper, M A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared standard antibiotic use with an antibiotic policy based on selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) for cost and microbiology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 2-year before-after observational study was performed in an 11-bed, mixed medical and surgical intensive care u

  7. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of fibre in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  8. Organogenesis of the digestive tract in the white seabream, Diplodus sargus. Histological and histochemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Darias, M J; Cañavate, J P; Yúfera, M; Sarasquete, C

    2003-10-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of the white seabream, Diplodus sargus during the larval development up to day 45 post-hatching (dph) has been studied using histological and histochemical techniques. The oesophageal goblet cells appeared around 6 dph and contained neutral and acid mucosubstances (PAS/diastase-PAS and Alcian Blue pH 2.5 positive reactions). An incipient stomach can be distinguished from 2 dph but the first sign of gastric gland development was detected around 13-15 dph, increasing in number and size by 22-23 dph. Gastric glands were concentrated in the cardiac stomach region and they had a high content of protein rich in tyrosine, arginine and tryptophan. Acidophilic supranuclear inclusions related to pynocitosis of proteins, were already observed in the intestinal cells of the posterior intestine around 4-6 dph (exogenous feeding) and they were present until 25 dph. The intestinal mucous cells appeared between 15-18 dph and contained a mixture of neutral and acid mucosubstances/glycoconjugates, carboxylated ones being more abundant than the sulphated ones. The stomach and gastric glands were fully developed by the first month of life marking the beginning of digestive features characteristic of the juvenile stage. Around 4-6 dph, glycogen, proteins and neutral lipids were observed in the granular cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Strongly acidophilic zymogen granules were also present, at this time, in the basophilic cytoplasm of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cells and contained abundant proteins, especially rich in arginine, tyrosine and tryptophan.

  9. Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Wada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of the Japanese horned beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, are an example of a saprophage insect. Generally, Scarabaeid larvae, such as T. dichotomus, eat dead plant matter that has been broken down by fungi, such as Basidiomycota. It is thought that β-1,3-glucan, a constituent polysaccharide in microbes, is abundant in decayed plant matter. Studies of the degradation mechanism of β-1,3-glucan under these circumstances are lacking. In the current study, we sought to clarify the relationship between the capacity to degrade polysaccharides and the food habits of the larvae. The total activities and optimum pH levels of several polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from the larvae were investigated. The foregut, midgut and hindgut of final instar larvae were used. Enzymatic activities were detected against five polysaccharides (soluble starch, β-1,4-xylan, β-1,3-glucan, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose and four glycosides (p-nitrophenyl (PNP-β-N-acetylglucosaminide, PNP-β-mannoside, PNP-β-glucoside and PNP-β-xyloside. Our results indicate that the digestive tract of the larvae is equipped with a full enzymatic system for degrading β-1,3-glucan and β-1,4-xylan to monomers. This finding elucidates the role of the polysaccharide-digesting enzymes in the larvae, and it is suggested that the larvae use these enzymes to enact their decomposition ability in the forest environment.

  10. Passage of feed in dairy cows : use of stable isotopes to estimate passage kinetics through the digestive tract of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cows possess a unique digestive system to digest fibre-rich diets. Ingested feed is retained and degraded in the rumen by the enteric microbial population and is passed from the rumen to the following segments of the digestive tract. Passage of feed determines energy and protein supply to the

  11. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified allergens (allergoids have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastrointestinal tract conditions (saliva, and gastric fluid were simulated in accordance with the EU Pharmacopoeia. The biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives following exposure to different conditions were monitored by determining the number of residual amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, SDS PAGE, immunoblotting and inhibition of mugwort-specific IgE. Exposure to saliva fluid for 2 min did not influence the biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives. In the very acidic conditions of the simulated gastric fluid, the degree of demaleylation and desuccinylation, even after 4 h exposure, was low, ranging from 10 to 30 %. The digestion patterns with pepsin proceeded rapidly in both the unmodified and modified samples. In all four cases, a highly resistant IgE-binding protein theMwof which was about 28 – 35 kD, was present. Within the physiological conditions, no new IgE binding epitopes were revealed, as demonstrated by immunoblot and CAP inhibition of the mugwort specific IgE binding. An important conclusion of this study is the stability of the modified derivatives in the gastrointestinal tract of patients, within physiological conditions. The means that they are suitable for use inmuch higher concentrations in local forms of immunotherapy than unmodified ones.

  12. [Relationship between N-nitrosodimethylamine and risk of digestive tract cancers: a Meta analysis based on cohort studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Guo, X M; Bao, H L; Tan, J B

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the relationship between N-nitrosodimethylamine(NDMA)and the risk of digestive tract cancers. The papers about the relationship between NDMA and the risk of digestive tract cancers published from 1980 to 2012 were retrieved following databases: Chinese BioMedical Literature Database(CBM), the Chinese Journal Full-text Database(CNKI), Wanfang Database, PubMed and EBSCO. The fix and random effect model was used and statistical analyses were conducted by using RevMan 5.1 software. Thirteen papers were found, in which 7 about digestive tract cancers were used in this Meta analysis. The NDMA had significant positive effect on the incidence of digestive tract cancers(RR=1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). The relationship between NDMA and esophageal cancer was not significant(RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.98-1.41)but NDMA could increase the risk of gastric cancer(RR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.00-1.18). For the subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer, NDMA had positive relationship with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(RR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.01-2.96), but had no significant relationship with esophageal adenocarcinoma, cardiac carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. The population-based cohort studies have showed that the NDMA could significantly increase the risk of digestive tract cancers, but the effects differed with subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. However, it is necessary to collect more evidence due to the limited studies and obvious differences in the study design, sampling and exposure measurement of these cohort studies.

  13. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B; Poole, D P

    2012-04-01

    The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders

  14. Light and scanning electron microscope examination of the digestive tract in peppered moray eel, Gymnothorax pictus (Elopomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiue, Shunpei; Akiyoshi, Hideo

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of the digestive tract of the peppered moray eel, Gymnothorax pictus (G. pictus) (Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes) was examined using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The digestive tract is composed of the esophagus, the stomach, and the intestines; pyloric caeca were absent. The stomach was divided into a cardiac region that was continuous with the esophagus, a body which terminated in a long blind sac, and a pyloric region that was continuous with the intestine. The short intestine possessed several partitions that were created by the mucosal folds within the posterior region. The terminal region of the stomach was characterized by the thick longitudinal muscularis and subserosa, and the gastric glands and microvilli were absent. Ciliary tufts of ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the partition-like mucosal folds within the intestinal wall. Acidic mucus was secreted throughout the digestive tract. It was suggested that the terminal region of the stomach is specialized for storage of large food items. In addition, it is possible that the partition-like mucosal folds within the intestine perform a function similar to that of the spiral valve and, and along with ciliated cells, facilitated digestion and absorption. The acidic mucus likely maintained surface epithelium pH and protease activity. Within a phylogenetic context, the absence of a pyloric caeca in G. pictus while possessing an intestine implies that this species is affiliated to groups that had branched off earlier than basal teleosts. Inc.

  15. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.

  16. Sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the treatment of biliary and digestive tract diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, A; Menunni, G; Petraccia, L; Fontana, M; Nocchi, S; Grassi, M

    2010-01-01

    The authors point out the therapeutic properties of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters. After summarizing the general mechanism of action of mineral waters, the main indications of such waters in thermal treatment are examined including: biliary sand, biliary dyskinesia, functional dyspepsia, irritable colon, chronic primitive constipation. The dysfunctions of biliary and digestive tracts are growing, mainly in the affluent world, because of the increase for stress, dietary habits, modern life style. Now they affect from 2,4% of general population to 7% of men and 20% of women, according to different studies. Mineral waters can improve symptoms and care some physiopathological underlying mechanisms. Authors stress the efficacy of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the therapy of biliary dyskinesias, namely gallbladder hypokinesia and Oddi's sphincter spasm, caused by their content in SO4 = anion and Mg++ cation and related effects on paracrine-endocrine gastrointestinal system. In addition, they report the effects of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters in the lithogenic bile (sand bile), because of their diluting and washing activity. Among the sulphate-bicarbonate mineral waters, the Authors outline the well-documented therapeutic activity of Acqua Santa and Fucoli of Chianciano Terme. Acqua Santa has stimulating effect on cholecystis's motility, as proved by controlled clinical trials. Finally, the therapeutic use of sulphate-bicarbonate mineral water is discussed in functional dyspepsia, chronic primitive constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

  17. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  18. Morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract in carnivorous freshwater Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Claudemir Kuhn; Chedid, Renata Alari; do Amaral, Antônio Carlos; Franceschini Vicentini, Irene Bastos; Vicentini, Carlos Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the morphology and histochemistry of the digestive tract of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, a freshwater carnivorous catfish found in Neotropical region, using gross anatomy, light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This species presented a short and tubular esophagus with thick longitudinal folds. The esophageal mucosa was lined by stratified squamous epithelium containing epithelial cells, club cells and also numerous goblet cells, which secreted acidic and neutral mucins to protect and lubricate the epithelium. The stomach was a J-shaped saccular organ consisting of the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. The cardiac and fundic regions contained tubular gastric glands, whereas these glands were absent in the pyloric region. The gastric epithelial cells presented apical secretions that predominantly consisted of neutral mucins. The gastric musculature was, therefore, likely designed for retaining prey and the mechanical preparation of food. The intestine consisted of four regions: anterior, middle, posterior and rectal. The anterior intestine possessed thick folds to increase the surface area for absorption, the middle intestine was coiled and the posterior intestine presented thin folds and a thick musculature. The intestinal epithelium consisted mainly of enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes were columnar cells with a PAS-positive brush border that contained lysosomes in the posterior intestine. Goblet cells were more numerous in the posterior intestine and secreted acidic and neutral mucins important for lubricating and protecting the epithelium. The rectum was lined by columnar epithelium with goblet cells and epithelial cells containing apical acidic and neutral mucins.

  19. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  20. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD): is the game worth the candle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, Einar H R; de Jonge, Evert

    2011-04-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is an infection prevention strategy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients by topical administration of antibiotics to the mouth and stomach to eradicate potentially pathogenic bacteria and yeast that may cause infections. It also includes a short course of intravenous antibiotics to treat incubating infections at the time of ICU admission. Several randomized, controlled studies, all performed in ICUs with low rates of antibiotic resistance, have shown that SDD prevents ventilator-associated pneumonia and improves survival. Surprisingly, SDD was also associated with lower rates of colonization with resistant gram-negative bacteria and no effect on methicillin-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Selective oral decontamination (SOD) consisting of oral antibiotics only, without systemic antibiotics or antibiotics given in the stomach, may also increase survival. In areas with low prevalence of MRSA and VRE, SDD should be considered the standard of care in ICUs. In countries where colonization with MRSA and VRE is frequent, resistance may increase, and SDD should be considered experimental therapy. Future research should focus on the effects of SDD compared with SOD on resistance and on SDD-like strategies in areas where MRSA and VRE are endemic.

  1. Inositol hexaphosphate increases mucin loss from the digestive tract of ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Adeola, O

    2012-06-01

    The effects of different forms of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytate) on mucin excretion from the digestive tract of ducks were investigated. Forty-eight ten-wk-old male ducks were grouped by weight into eight blocks of six cages with one bird per cage. On the first day of experimentation, birds received by intubation six dextrose-based diets arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial consisting of phytase (0 or 1000 units) and a form of IP6 (no IP6, free phytic acid or magnesium-potassium phytate). During the 54 h following feeding, excreta were continuously collected and frozen until analysed. The amount of mucin and amino acids, threonine, valine and tyrosine, in excreta increased in ducks fed with either magnesium-potassium phytate or free phytic acid. The increase in mucin excretion was more in birds fed with magnesium-potassium phytate than those fed with free phytic acid. The loss of arginine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and phenylyalanine in excreta was reduced by the presence of microbial phytase. It is concluded that the form of IP6 fed to ducks affects the extent of mucin excretion and also the extent and nature of endogenous amino acid losses in the excreta. Supplementation with exogenous microbial phytase reduced some of the IP6 feeding-induced endogenous intestinal amino acid losses.

  2. Neurogenic inflammation in the upper digestive tract of the mule duck: effect of a chemical algogen and force-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servière, J; Carriere, M; Duvaux-Ponter, C; Guy, G; Roussel, S

    2011-12-01

    1.The objectives were to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in 4 regions of the upper digestive tract of anaesthetised ducks (post-pharynx, pseudo-crop, transition between the pseudo-crop and the proventriculus, and proventriculus) after application of HCl stimulation of up to 4 M in the pseudo-crop. 2.The second objective was to quantify the presence of neurogenic inflammation in the same digestive tract regions as mentioned above during 4 feeding periods of foie gras production (rearing, preparation to force-feeding, and second and last meals of the force-feeding period). 3. Extravasation increased above a HCl stimulation threshold of 2 M. Furthermore, more extravasation was observed in the proventriculus compared to the other regions (P forced meal, compared with the rearing period (P force-feeding. 5.Such a kinetic could be indicative of a relative mildness of the irritant components associated with this feeding practice.

  3. Radiologic findings of submucosal tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak; You, Jin Jong [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Gastrointestinal submucosal tumors originate from submucosal histologic structures such as muscles, lymph nodes, nerves, fibers and vessels. Most patients are asymptomatic. Lesions that are large or ulcerated may cause abdominal pain or upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and those that grow intraluminally sometimes become pedunculated and occasionally prolapse to cause intussusception. Adenocarcinoma is the most common primary gastrointestinal tumor, accounting for approximately 90-95% of such lesions, while submucosal tumors account for approximately 2-6% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Because their overlying mucosa appears normal, submucosal tumors age after difficult to visualize endoscopically, and for this reason, barium studies or CT scans are helpful for diagnosis. In this paper, variable CT and barium study findings of the different types of gastrointestinal submucosal tumor are demonstrated, and a brief discussion of the respective disease entities is included. (author)

  4. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...

  5. Emergence of Colistin Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae after the Introduction of Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination in an Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Halaby, Teysir; al Naiemi, Nashwan; Kluytmans, Jan; van der Palen, Job; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) selectively eradicates aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (AGNB) by the enteral administration of oral nonabsorbable antimicrobial agents, i.e., colistin and tobramycin. We retrospectively investigated the impact of SDD, applied for 5 years as part of an infection control program for the control of an outbreak with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an intensive care unit (ICU), on resistance among AGNB...

  6. Classification of submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Graves Ponsaing; Katalin Kiss; Mark Berner Hansen

    2007-01-01

    This review is part two of three, which will present an update on the classification of gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Part one treats of the diagnosis and part three of the therapeutic methods regarding gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. In the past there has been some confusion as to the classification of gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Changes in classifications have emerged due to recent advances in mainly immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.The aim of this paper is to update the reader on the current classification. Literature searches were performed to find information related to classification of gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on these searches the twelve most frequent submucosal tumor types were chosen for description of their classification.The factors that indicate whether tumors are benign or malignant are mainly size and number of mitotic counts.Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are defined mainly by their CD117 positivity. In the future, there should be no more confusion between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and other types of submucosal tumors.

  7. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Angela; Magliocco, Anthony M; Duan, Quili; Duggan, Máire A

    2010-09-01

    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract. WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) is both a tumor suppressor gene and oncogene overexpressed in the nuclei of some gynecologic carcinomas. Expression in MMMT is incompletely described. Whole sections from 16 MMMTs were stained with WT1 (N terminus) using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. There were 7 heterologous and 9 homologous tumors and 10 were endometrial, 5 were ovarian, and 1 was of peritoneal origin. The tissue and cell staining pattern and score (intensity by amount) were evaluated and correlated with the tumor subtype and anatomic location. Among the 16 tumors, 81.3% showed mostly stromal and cytoplasmic staining and a score of 3 or 6. Staining was positive in 80% of the endometrial and ovarian tumors and the 1 peritoneal tumor and in all heterologous and 66.7% of the homologous tumors. The immunoprofile correlated with tumor subtype but not with anatomic location. Stromal and epithelial staining was more frequent (83.3%) in homologous tumors and differed significantly (P=0.009) from the heterologous types where stromal staining prevailed (85.7%). MMMT is another genital tract malignancy which can over express WT1 and the immunoprofile may assist in tumor subtyping.

  8. Structural classifications in the digestive tract of short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1865 from Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was the first attempt on the classification of the gross anatomy with histological structures of the digestive tract in the Rastrelliger brachysoma. Based on gross anatomical analysis, the digestive tract (65.68±7.06 cm, n = 25 is distinctly composed of four parts; oesophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine, respectively. Base on the histological analysis of the digestive tract, it is composed of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The epithelial lining of anterior oesophagus was shown to be a simple squamous epithelium whereas posterior oesophagus, stomach and intestine were simple columnar epithelium. The surface of this epithelium positively stained with both Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB. The posterior oesophagus exclusively showed high longitudinal fold with numerous gastric glands in the mucosal layer, which is similar to the stomach structure (cariac and pylorus. Numerous pyloric caeca about 220-225 pieces, were detected between the stomach and intestine regions. Finally, the intestinal coefficient (IC was 3.69±0.47 cm. The anterior intestine presented either various longitudinal folds or various goblet cells. The short longitudinal folds of posterior intestine were in the higher number of goblet cell than the previous part.

  9. Molecular mechanisms for thyroid hormone-induced remodeling in the amphibian digestive tract: a model for studying organ regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2005-12-01

    During amphibian metamorphosis the digestive tract is extensively remodeled under the control of epithelial-connective tissue interactions. At the cellular level, larval epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, while a small number of stem cells appear, actively proliferate, and then differentiate to form adult epithelium that is analogous to its mammalian counterpart. Therefore the amphibian digestive tract is a unique model system for the study of postembryonic organ regeneration. As amphibian intestinal remodeling can be triggered by thyroid hormone (TH), the molecular mechanisms involved can be studied from the perspective of examining the expression cascade of TH response genes. A number of these genes have been isolated from the intestine of Xenopus laevis. Recent progress in the functional analysis of this cascade has shed light on key molecules in intestinal remodeling such as matrix metalloproteinase-11, sonic hedgehog, and bone morphogenetic protein-4. These genes are also thought to play key roles in organogenesis and/or homeostasis in both chick and mammalian digestive tract, suggesting the existence of conserved mechanisms underlying such events in terrestrial vertebrates. In this article, we review our recent findings in this field, focusing on the development of adult epithelium in the X. laevis intestine.

  10. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of digestive tract lesions; Biopsia percutanea de lesiones del tubo digestivo guiada por ecografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, S.; Martin, I.; Ballesteros, J. M.; Gomez, C. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (Spain); Marco, S. F.; Fernandez, P. [Hospital Gneral de Castellon (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To present our experience in ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of lesions located in the digestive tract. We performed ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy in 14 patients (10 men and 4 women) ranging in age from 7 to 71 years (mean; 519 years). The lesions were located throughout the digestive tract, from the pyriform sinus to the sigmoid colon. The biopsy was carried out with a 5 MHz convex probe equipped with a device to direct the needle. An 18G automatic needle or a 20G Chiba needle was used to obtain specimens for histological study in every case, and additional samples were collected with a 22G needle for cytological examination in 13 of the patients. The ultrasound images corresponded to pseudokidney in 9 cases and extrinsic masses in 5. The diagnosis was obtained from the histological examination in every case (100%) and from cytology in 6 (44.4%), the latter results were less specific. The only complication corresponded to a case of bilioperitoneum. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy is a suitable technique for the histological diagnosis of those lesions of the digestive tract that are visible in ultrasound images, but that for some reason can not be examined by endoscopic biopsy. (Author) 20 refs.

  11. Utility of models of the gastrointestinal tract for assessment of the digestion and absorption of engineered nanomaterials released from food matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefebvre, D.E.; Venema, K.; Gombau, L.; Valerio, L.G.; Raju, J.; Bondy, G.S.; Bouwmeester, H.; Singh, R.P.; Clippinger, A.J.; Collnot, E.M.; Mehta, R.; Stone, V.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered metal/mineral, lipid and biochemical macromolecule nanomaterials (NMs) have potential applications in food. Methodologies for the assessment of NM digestion and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract are nascent and require refinement. A working group was tasked by the

  12. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  13. [Tumor of upper urinary tract in renal polycystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; el Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Querfani, Baderdine; Joual, Abdenbi; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Upper urinary tract tumours are exceptional in the context of renal polycystic disease. The authors report the case of Mrs B. F., 56 years old, who presented with left loin pain associated with haematuria. Clinical examination was normal and ultrasound examination revealed bilateral renal polycystic disease with a mass in the left renal sinus. CT urography showed a tumour arising from the renal pelvis suggestive of an upper urinary tract tumour. The laboratory assessment revealed normal renal function and normal urine cytology. Treatment consisted of radical nephroureterectomy with resection of a bladder cuff. Histological examination revealed a urothelial tumour of the renal pelvis with negative surgical margins. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the diagnostic difficulties and specificities, the treatment and the outcome of this unusual clinical association.

  14. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Graves Ponsaing; Katalin Kiss; Annika Loft; Lise Ingemann Jensen; Mark Berner Hansen

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally.Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade.The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined.Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fiuorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools.

  15. Anomaly and tumor of the kidney and urinary tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008469 Diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carci-noma with tumor thrombi of renal vein and inferior vena cava.QI Jun(齐隽), et al.Dept Urol, Xinhua Hosp, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Med Sch, Shanghai 200092. Shanghai Med J 2008;31(6):388-390. Objective To report our experience on diagnosis and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) complicated with tumor thrombi of renal vein or inferior vena cava, so as to assess the diagnosis,

  16. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  17. Digestive tract microbiota in healthy volunteers Microbiota no trato digestivo em voluntários saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zilberstein

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to standardize the methods of sample collection of mucus from the digestive tract and to determine the microbiota in healthy volunteers from Brazil, collecting samples from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. METHODS: Microbiota of selected healthy volunteers from the oral cavity (n=10, the esophagus (n=10, the upper digestive tract (n=20, and the lower digestive tract (n=24 were evaluated through distinct collection methods. Collection methods took into account the different sites, using basic scraping and swabbing techniques, stimulated saliva from the oral cavity, irrigation-aspiration with sterile catheters especially designed for the esophagus, a probe especially designed for upper digestive tract, and a special catheter for the lower digestive tract. RESULTS: (i Mixed microbiota were identified in the oral cavity, predominantly Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic cocci; (ii transitional flora mainly in the esophagus; (iii Veillonella sp, Lactobacillus sp, and Clostridium sp in the stomach and duodenum; (iv in the jejunum and upper ileum, we observed Bacteroides sp, Proteus sp, and Staphylococcus sp, in addition to Veillonella sp; (v in the colon, the presence of "nonpathogenic" anaerobic bacteria Veillonella sp (average 10(5 UFC indicates the existence of a low oxidation-reduction potential environment, which suggests the possibility of adoption of these bacteria as biological markers of total digestive tract health. CONCLUSIONS: The collection methods were efficient in obtaining adequate samples from each segment of the total digestive tract to reveal the normal microbiota. These procedures are safe and easily reproducible for microbiological studies.OBJETIVO: Padronizar os métodos de coleta do muco do trato digestivo e determinar a microbiota, em voluntários saudáveis no Brasil, coletando amostras da boca, esôfago, estômago, duodeno, jejunos e íleo, c

  18. Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov., from the digestive tract of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, J; Votavová, A; Valterová, I; Vlková, E; Rada, V; Hroncová, Z

    2014-08-01

    Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus were isolated from the digestive tracts of laboratory-reared bumblebee queens (Bombus terrestris) using MRS agar under anaerobic conditions. The isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as undescribed members of the genus Lactobacillus, with the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.9 %) to the uncharacterized bacterial strain Lactobacillus sp. Mboho2r2 isolated from the stomach of a European honeybee (Apis mellifera). Lactobacillus tucceti was found to be the closest related species with a validly published name, with 92.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain. However, phylogenetic analyses based on different markers revealed that this species is phylogenetically very distant from the novel strains. The DNA G+C content of the proposed type strain BTLCH M1/2(T) is 37.8 mol%. The fatty acids C(19 : 1)ω6c and/or C(19 : 0) cyclo ω10c/19ω6, C(18 : 1)ω9c and C(16 : 0) were predominant in all strains. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, seven glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids were detected in the novel strains. Growth was observed at 47 °C. The peptidoglycan type A4α L-Lys-D-Asp was determined for strain BTLCH M1/2(T). Genotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analyses based on the phylogenetic markers hsp60, pheS, rpoA and tuf as well as phenotypic characteristics and the results of chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed that the new isolates belong to a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus bombi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BTLCH M1/2(T) ( = DSM 26517(T) = CCM 8440(T)).

  19. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  20. Therapeutic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Graves Ponsaing; Mark Berner Hansen

    2007-01-01

    This review is part three of three and will present an update on the therapeutic options and procedures concerning gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). The aim of this paper is to investigate the treatments of GI SMTs and to present a case of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Literature searches were performed to find information on therapy for GI SMTs. Based on these searches, the optimal therapeutic procedures could be outlined. The choice of treatment of localized tumors is endoscopic resection if possible or, alternatively, laparoscopic resection or surgical resection by an open procedure. However,benign SMTs should only be excised if symptoms are present, and GISTs should be treated with particular precautions. Irresectable or recurrent GISTs may be successfully treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor,imatinib.

  1. OBSTRUCTION OF RIGHT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW TRACT CAUSED BY INTRACAVITARY METASTATIC DISEASE OF PANCREATIC TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-tao Li; Wen-ling Zhu

    2005-01-01

    @@ THE pericardium (90%) is the most common loca tion of cardiac involvement by secondary tumor,followed by myocardium and endocardium (10%).1 Cases of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction caused by intracavitary metastatic tumor growth were rarely reported, al though clinical presentation were unique. We herein reported such a case with literature review in order to improve the understanding of malignant cardiac metastasis.

  2. Examination of the stability of hydrophobic (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in the digestive tract of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabanovas, Vitalijus; Zakarevicius, Eugenijus; Sukackaite, Angele; Streckyte, Giedre; Rotomskis, Ricardas

    2008-06-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots show promise as alternatives to organic dyes for biological labelling because of their bright and stable photoluminescence. The typical quantum dots is CdSe because colloidal synthesis for nanocrystals of this semiconductor is well established. CdSe is usually passivated with zinc sulfide. While the cytotoxicity of bulk CdSe is well documented, questions about (CdSe)ZnS potential toxicity and behaviour in vivo remain unanswered. The distribution and stability of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots in Wistar line rats' digestive tract were investigated. Hydrophobic quantum dots were mixed with fat or sonificated in water and administered orally. The distribution and stability of quantum dots moving through the digestive system of rats was followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. In both ways prepared quantum dots were degraded in the digestive tract of animals. Quantum dots mixed with fat were more stable and degraded more slowly than quantum dots sonificated in water. The data obtained suggest possible toxicity of (CdSe)ZnS quantum dots due to the liberation of Cd(2+).

  3. Insights into bread melanoidins: fate in the upper digestive tract and impact on the gut microbiota using in vitro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Cynthia; Denis, Sylvain; Spatz, Madeleine; Marier, David; Rame, Véronique; Alric, Monique; Tessier, Frédéric J; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    Bread melanoidins are heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing, brown macromolecules generated during the last stages of the Maillard reaction in bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact and fate of these bread melanoidins in the human gastrointestinal tract using in vitro systems. Batch systems as well as the TNO gastrointestinal tract were used for studying the digestion of various bread samples. These samples included bread crumb, bread crust and two bread-crust-simulating models: a fiber-free model (gluten, starch and glucose heated together) and its control, free of Maillard reaction products (gluten heated separately than starch and glucose). Furthermore, the impact of these two bread-crust-simulating models on the gut microbiota was assessed using a static anaerobic batch system. Bread melanoidins from bread crust and its model were shown to be partially digested by amylases and proteases, suggesting that these melanoidins have peptidic as well as glycosidic bonds in their skeleton. The impact of bread melanoidins from the bread-crust-simulating models and their digestion products on the gut microbiota revealed an individual-dependent response for most flora except for enterobacteria. This flora decreased by -22%, -48% & -100% depending on the individual. Thus, bread melanoidins seem to exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting enterobacteria.

  4. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  5. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of gastrointestinal tract: case report and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, B.; Wang, C.; Zhang, Junxiao; Kuiper, R.P.; Song, M.; Zhang, X.; Song, S.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Iwamoto, A.; Wang, J; Liu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of gastrointestinal tract (GI PEComas) are exceedingly rare, with only a limited number of published reports worldwide. Given the scarcity of GI PEComas and their relatively short follow-up periods, our current knowledge of their biologic behavior, molecular gene

  6. Multimodal treatment of gastrointestinal tract tumors: consequences for surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, J Rüdiger; Stein, Hubert J; von Rahden, Burkhard H A

    2005-08-01

    Formerly an exclusive business of surgery, gastrointestinal (GI) tumors are nowadays increasingly approached with multimodal strategies. Neoadjuvant concepts have had a particularly far-reaching impact on surgery and have contributed to improved survival. Modern pre-treatment staging and risk assessment provide the basis for decision on one of three general treatment concepts (1) Early cancers, confined to the mucosal/submucosal layers, are approached with primary surgery, without prior antineoplastic therapy. (2) Systemically metastasized tumors receive merely palliative treatment. (3) Locally advanced cancers are increasingly approached with neoadjuvant strategies. The benefit from these preoperative protocols is proven for diverse entities, but is evidently confined to a specific subgroup patients, i.e., the responders to neoadjuvant treatment. These are the ones benefiting most from subsequent surgical resection, which is required to ensure complete removal of the residual tumor tissue, as complete tumor regression occurs very rarely and cannot be proven without a specimen. The fact that responders will benefit and non-responders will not benefit or will even deteriorate during the neoadjuvant treatment makes early response prediction most demanding. An amazing new approach is the use of position emission tomography with fluro-desoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to assess the "metabolic response," which is possible as early as 14 days after initiation of the neoadjuvant protocol. This strategy offers the chance for modulating the surgical approach in accord i.e., with such metrobolic response termination of the protocol and proceeding to resection in the case of nonresponse. The future of GI cancer surgery is multimodal therapy in a response-based fashion and requires reponse-based trials for further evaluation.

  7. Adenomatoid tumor of the female genital tract: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz BOLAT

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumors are benign proliferations that are most often encountered in the female and male genital tracts. The mesothelial phenotype of these unusual tumors has been established by a variety of ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies, although their histogenesis is by no means certain. In this paper we report three cases that were diagnosed as genital tract adenomatoid tumors and discussed the clinical signs, origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the this type of tumor. Immunohistochemical expression of calretinin, HBME-1, vimentin, pancytokeratin, EMA, and CD31 were analyzed in three ATs, using formaline-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues. The age of the patients were ranging from 40 to 46 years with a median of 43.3. Tumors were located in uterus (one, and fallopian tube (two. Tumor sizes were ranging between 0.6-5 cm. Immunohistochemically all tumors exhibited strong and diffuse positivity for pancytokeratin, calretinin, HBME-1 and vimentin, but negativity for EMA, and CD31. The immunohistochemical results support histogenetic theories of the adenomatoid tumor that claim it as a type of benign mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical phenotypes can play an important role in the differential diagnosis.

  8. [Endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Novozhilova, A V; Kurushkina, N A

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered to be the leading method of diagnostic of the submucous gastrointestinal tumors. Results of diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract in 38 patients were analyzed. EUS was performed in 37 (97,4%) of patients, which allowed to detect the origin, size and localization of the tumor. The differential diagnostic algorithm was suggested together with certain indications for various surgical treatment modalities. Thereby, endoscopic ablation is reasonable when the tumor invades not deeper than muscle plate of mucosa or the submucose layer. Laparoscopic full-layer resection of the organ wall is necessary when the tumor invades the muscle layer. Larger tumors or those of any size, but with preoperative signs of high malignancy must be eradicated through laparotomy, meeting all principles of oncology.

  9. Narrow band imaging and high definition television in the endoscopic evaluation of upper aero-digestive tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, C; Cocco, D; Del Bon, F; Mangili, S; Nicolai, P; Peretti, G

    2011-04-01

    Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by white light and narrow band imaging ± high definition television endoscopy, both in the pre-/intra-operative setting and during follow-up. Tumour resection was performed taking into account narrow band imaging and high definition television information to obtain histopathologic confirmation of their validity. Endoscopic and pathologic data were subsequently matched to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy. Overall, 110 (25%) patients showed adjunctive findings by narrow band imaging ± high definition television when compared to standard white light endoscopy. Of these patients, 98 (89%) received histopatological confirmation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy for white light-high definition television were 41%, 92%, 87%, 82%, and 67%, for narrow band imaging alone 75%, 87%, 87%, 74%, and 80%, and for narrow band imaging-high definition television 97%, 84%, 88%, 96%, and 92%. The highest diagnostic gain was observed in the oral cavity and oropharynx (25%). Narrow band imaging and high definition television were of value in the definition of superficial tumour extension, and in the detection of synchronous lesions in the pre-/intra-operative settings. These technologies also played an important role during post-treatment surveillance for early detection of persistences, recurrences, and metachronous tumours.

  10. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Hammer, Sven; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-10-01

    The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and seven Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classified as having either a 'cattle-type' or 'moose-type' digestive system. The digestive anatomy of the blackbuck resembled that of 'cattle-type' ruminants, which corresponds to their feeding ecology and previous studies of solute and particle retention time; however, a surprising exception was the remarkably small omasum in this species, which makes the blackbuck stand out from the general rule of a relatively large omasum in grazing ruminants. Sand gazelles had morphological features that corresponded more to the 'moose type' or an intermediate position, although previous studies of solute and particle retention time had led to the expectation of a more 'cattle-type' anatomy. The results show that outliers to general morphological trends exist, that findings on physiology and anatomy do not always match completely and that differences in the digestive morphology among ruminant species are more difficult to demonstrate at the lower end of the body mass range.

  11. Smoking and the Risk of Upper Aero Digestive Tract Cancers for Men and Women in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Woodward

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although smoking is an established causal factor for upper aero digestive tract cancer (UADTC, most of the evidence originates from the West. Thus, we analysed data from 455,409 subjects in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Over a median of around six years follow-up, 371 deaths from UADTC were observed. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval for current smokers, compared with those who had never smoked, was 2.36 (1.76 – 3.16, adjusted for age and alcohol drinking. Tobacco control policies are urgently required in Asia to prevent millions of deaths from UADTC that smoking will otherwise cause.

  12. Morphological and histochemical characterization of the digestive tract of the puffer fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758 (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAINÃ R.C. FAGUNDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological analysis of the digestive tract of Sphoeroides testudineus showed an esophagus with an anterior and a posterior portion, the abdominal pouch. No stomach was observed between the abdominal pouch and the intestine. The intestine was arranged in three segments and two loops, and the distal portion had the rectum opening into the anus. Histochemical analyses showed that the esophagus secreted acid mucosecretions, and that there was a qualitative increase in goblet cells from the proximal to distal area of the intestine. The rectum showed cells secreting acid and neutral mucus. Given these features, this species presents a morphology which creates a link between its ecology and behavior.

  13. Digestive tract morphology of the Neotropical piscivorous fish Cichla kelberi(Perciformes: Cichlidae introduced into an oligotrophic Brazilian reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most well-known cichlid fish of importance to artisanal and sport fishing, and among the largest fishes in the Neotropics, data on digestive tract anatomy of peacock basses (Cichla spp. are largely lacking, especially for non-native populations. in this paper, we describe for the first time the digestive tract morphology of Cichla kelberi, a voracious piscivore that was introduced in the 1950s into an oligotrophic and physically low-complex impoundment in Brazil. Peacock basses were collected between 1994 and 2002 in Lajes Reservoir, through gillnets (25 to 55mm mesh; 20-50x2m, seines (10x2.5m; 8.0mm mesh, cast nets and angling. All the fishes were kept on ice in the field and then transferred to the laboratory, where they were identified, measured, weighed and dissected for digestive tract analyses. The index of Relative importance-IRI was calculated for diet characterization while linear and non-linear regressions were performed to assess growth patterns of four morphological characters related to feeding (e.g. mouth width, mouth height, stomach length and intestine length and the number of gill rakers during the C. kelberi ontogeny. Most digestive tract structures were directly related to the piscivorous diet of C. kelberi, indicating that peacock bass is a diurnal, bathypelagic and gape-size limited predator that feeds largely on shallow-water prey species within the littoral zone. Mouth width and height grew allometrically (b>1 with the size of peacock bass, broadening the size range in which prey can be eaten, but especially for predators smaller than ~400mm of total length. Differently, stomach and intestine lengths increased isometrically (b=1, which could constrain prey consumption for adult C. kelberi, especially those at advanced stages of gonadal maturation. The presence of longer-drawn, sharp and furcated gill rakers in C. kelberi may be related to increased prey retention in the resource-limited Lajes

  14. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut

  15. Histology of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifer Compagno and Roberts, 1982 (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchavalvanich, Kannika; Marcos, Ricardo; Poonpirom, Jintana; Thongpan, Amara; Rocha, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the histology and histochemistry (of carbohydrates and proteins) of the digestive tract of the freshwater stingray Himantura signifier. The alimentary tract consists of a mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (with a descending cardiac and ascending pyloric part), anterior intestine (with an initial portion and a spiral intestine) and posterior intestine, ending in a cloaca. Histologically, three layers--mucosa, muscularis and adventitia/serosa--were defined from the mouth to esophagus and in the posterior intestine, whereas in the stomach and anterior intestine four layers were present, including a submucosa. The epithelial lining of mouth, pharynx and cloaca was of the stratified cuboidal type, whereas that of the esophagus and posterior intestine was stratified columnar. The stomach and anterior intestine were lined by a simple columnar epithelium with microvilli. Goblet cells were observed along the alimentary tract, except in the stomach. In the descending cardiac portion of this organ, gastric glands composed of oxyntic, oxyntic-peptic and peptic cells were observed. The anterior intestine presented a spiral valve with 11 folds, formed by mucosa and submucosa. The posterior intestine was particular in displaying a three-layered muscularis. Mucosubstances secreted along the alimentary tract contained both neutral and acid mucins, but in the stomach only neutral mucins were detected. The stomach presented intense protein content in the epithelial lining of the gastric pits. Enteroendocrine cells were identified in the stomach and intestine. Overall, our data offer a baseline for comparative purposes and future detailed ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies.

  16. Ki67 proliferation index, hepatic tumor load, and pretreatment tumor growth predict the antitumoral efficacy of lanreotide in patients with malignant digestive neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Maxime; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cadiot, Guillaume; Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Rebours, Vinciane; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre; Couvelard, Anne; Hentic, Olivia; Ruszniewski, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    An antiproliferative effect of somatostatin analogs was recently demonstrated. To identify factors associated with tumor control in a group of patients with well-differentiated malignant digestive neuroendocrine tumors treated with lanreotide. A retrospective study was conducted in 68 patients treated with lanreotide alone, with progression-free survival as the primary endpoint. The role of the following factors was searched for by univariate and multivariate analyses: age, sex, mode of discovery, site of the primary tumor, metastatic spread, Ki67 proliferation index, uptake on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, pretreatment tumor growth, extent of liver involvement, resection of primary tumor, previous treatments, and tumor markers. Tumor progression was observed in 39/68 patients (57.4%). Median progression-free survival was 29 months. On multivariate analysis, a Ki67 proliferation index of up to 5% [hazard ratio (HR)=0.262, P=0.009], pretreatment stability (HR=0.241, P=0.008), and hepatic tumor load of up to 25% (HR=0.237, P=0.004) were significantly associated with disease stability under lanreotide therapy. In patients with well-differentiated malignant digestive neuroendocrine tumors, Ki67 proliferation index of up to 5%, stable disease before treatment, and low-to-moderate hepatic tumor involvement (≤ 25%) are associated with tumor control during lanreotide treatment. These data if confirmed in prospective trials will help in rationalizing the use of somatostatin analogs with antiproliferative intent.

  17. Controversies in the treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Rinzivillo; Francesco Panzuto; Gianfranco Delle Fave

    2016-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have an incidence of 2.39 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, and a prevalence of 35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; the gap between these rates is due to the relatively long survival time of these tumors, which can be thus considered as chronic oncological diseases. Recently, more therapeutic options have become available, but criteria for deifning timing, priority and sequence of different therapeutic options are still debated. This review offers an overview of pancreatic and small bowel NETs, critically underlining the issues that still need to be clariifed and some controversial issues on the therapeutic approach for NET patients.

  18. Dry matter and digesta particle size gradients along the goat digestive tract on grass and browse diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Fritz, J; Tschuor, A; Braun, U; Hummel, J; Codron, D

    2017-02-01

    Physical properties of the digesta vary along the ruminant digestive tract. They also vary within the forestomach, leading to varying degrees of rumen contents stratification in 'moose-type' (browsing) and 'cattle-type' (intermediate and grazing) ruminants. We investigated the dry matter concentration (DM) and the mean digesta particle size (MPS) within the forestomach and along the digestive tract in 10 goats fed grass hay or dried browse after a standardized 12-h fast, euthanasia and freezing in the natural position. In all animals, irrespective of diet, DM showed a peak in the omasum and an increase from caecum via colon towards the faeces and a decrease in MPS between the reticulum and the omasum. Both patterns are typical for ruminants in general. In the forestomach, there was little systematic difference between more cranial and more caudal locations ('horizontal stratification'), with the possible exception of large particle segregation in the dorsal rumen blindsac on the grass diet. In contrast, the typical (vertical) contents stratification was evident for DM (with drier contents dorsally) and, to a lower degree, for MPS (with larger particles dorsally). Although evident in both groups, this stratification was more pronounced on the grass diet. The results support the interpretation that differences in rumen contents stratification between ruminants are mainly an effect of species-specific physiology, but can be enhanced due to the diet consumed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875, (Characiformes: Anostomidae: An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tracts of 44 specimens of Schizodon knerii were studied using anatomical, histological and histochemical techniques. The mouth has terminal position, the lip epithelium is squamous stratified with mucous, claviform cells and taste buds, teeth have an incisive form and the tongue has a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The oropharynx cavity is formed by gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth. The oesophagus presented pleated mucosa, a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells, oesophageal glands and taste buds. The stomach presented cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions, simple prismatic epithelium with tubular glands, with none in the pyloric region. The intestine contains 11-15 pyloric caeca, a simple prismatic epithelium with brush border, goblet cells and lymphocytes. Mucosal cells, oesophageal glands and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. Gastric prismatic cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, but only those in the pyloric region reacted positively to Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. The results improve the understanding of the anatomy of S. knerii feeding habits and the presence of mucosubstances in the epithelium, highlights the importance of glycoproteins for passing food through the digestive tract.

  20. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations in the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakici, Özlem

    2014-08-01

    In this study, histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 hr were investigated in the digestive tract of Levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Adult frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/g. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. Esophageal cells showed vacuolization, cellular swelling, nuclear pyknosis, karyolysis, and necrosis. Additionally, esophageal glandular atrophy and infiltration of inflammatory cells around esophageal glands were observed at medium and high doses. In the stomach, there were prominent histopathologic defects such as cellular swelling and necrosis in gastric glands, necrotic cells within the interstitial spaces, separation of epithelial cell layer, congested vessels, and hemorrhage at medium and high doses. In the intestine, detachment of epithelial layer, epithelial cell disorganization, inflammation, and necrosis were detected at medium and high doses. The results of this study showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of the Levantine frog, P. bedriagae.

  1. Modified Radiology-Guided Percutaneous Gastrostomy (MRPG) for Patients with Complete Obstruction of the Upper Digestive Tract and Who are without Endoscopic or Nasogastric Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Siu Cheung; Liu, Kar Wai; Liao, Chun Ta; Lee, Tsung Shih; Ng, Shu Hang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Medical Center and Keelung Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chu, Winnie Chiu Wing [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-04-15

    We wanted to report on our experience with modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy (MRPG) without endoscopic or nasogastric access for treating patients with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract. Fourteen oncology patients (13 had hypopharyngeal cancer and 1 had upper esophageal cancer) with complete obstruction of the upper digestive tract were recruited. Conventional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and radiologic (fluoroscopy-guided) percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG) were not feasible in all the patients. An MRPG technique (with a combination of ultrasound, an air enema and fluoroscopic guidance) was performed in these patients. We achieved successfully percutaneous gastrostomy using the modified technique in all patients without any major or minor complications after the procedure. A modified radiology-guided percutaneous gastrostomy technique can be safely performed in patients who failed to receive conventional PEG or RPG due to the absence of nasogastric access in the completely obstructed upper digestive tract

  2. Endosymbiotic and host proteases in the digestive tract of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata: diversity, origin and characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín S Godoy

    Full Text Available Digestive proteases of the digestive tract of the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata were studied. Luminal protease activity was found in the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Several protease bands and their apparent molecular weights were identified in both tissue extracts and luminal contents by gel zymography: (1 a 125 kDa protease in salivary gland extracts and in the crop content; (2 a 30 kDa protease throughout all studied luminal contents and in extracts of the midgut gland and of the endosymbionts isolated from this gland; (3 two proteases of 145 and 198 kDa in the coiled gut content. All these proteases were inhibited by aprotinin, a serine-protease inhibitor, and showed maximum activity between 30°C and 35°C and pH between 8.5 and 9.5. Tissue L-alanine-N-aminopeptidase activity was determined in the wall of the crop, the style sac and the coiled gut and was significantly higher in the coiled gut. Our findings show that protein digestion in P. canaliculata is carried out through a battery of diverse proteases originated from the salivary glands and the endosymbionts lodged in the midgut gland and by proteases of uncertain origin that occur in the coiled gut lumen.

  3. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract; Multimodale Bildgebung neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Eiber, Matthias; Rummeny, Ernst J. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gaertner, Florian C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2014-03-15

    Neuroendocrine tumors (neuroendokrine Tumoren) are rare entities. They can be found in all organs and show substantial biologic heterogeneity depending on involved organ, clinical symptoms and histopathologic morphology. Involvement of organs like larynx, cervix uteri, ovary, gallbladder, liver or kidney is extensively rare. The majority of neuroendokrine Tumoren are found in gastrointestinal tract and lung and are classified as neuroendokrine Tumoren of foregut (stomach, duodenum, pancreas, lung), midgut (jejunum, ileum, appendix, right side of the colon) and hindgut (left side of the colon, rectum). The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of neuroendokrine Tumoren radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of neuroendokrine Tumoren of the gastrointestinal tract. (orig.)

  4. Time of Occurrence and Age Distribution of Digestive Tract Cancers in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohebbi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies indicate a high incidence of digestive cancers along southern parts of Caspian Sea including Ma­zandaran Province. The present study was conducted to further investigate time to occurrence, age distribution and pos­sible risks associated with the incidence time of digestive cancers in the above regions. Methods: For this purpose the data of digestive cancer incidence of 3723 cases during a five-year period of 2001 to 2005 col­lected from Babol Cancer Registry Center in Iran. Almost all cancer cases residence of Mazandaran Province is included in this study and so the results could be considered a population-based conclusion. In order to modify the mortality due to other causes before digestive cancers, and to adjust the effect of digestive cancers correlations, a competing risks model was used. The Cox regression model was used for study of risk factors on cancer incidence. Results: Although incidence of colorectal cancer was relatively low, however, unfortunately the age of onset was at the age cate­gory of 15-19, much sooner than occurrence of stomach cancer which was at 20-24 yr (P< 0.0001, and esophageal can­cer at age category of 30-34 yr (P< 0.0001. Conclusion: Life tables of all digestive cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach and colorectal cancers were presented in this pa­per. Risks related to these cancers are significantly higher in men and residences of urban areas than their baseline coun­terparts. (P< 0.0001 More studies needed to identify risk factors and high risk cases for screening and prevention programs.

  5. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urogenital tract in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-cheng; SUN Ning; ZHANG Wei-ping; HUANG Cheng-ru

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of urogenital tract is a rare condition with non-specific clinical presentations,which can make it difficult to diagnose.In this study,we summarize the clinical presentation,pathological features,therapeutic strategies,and prognosis of ES/PNET.Methods Clinical information on two cases of ES/PNET in the penis and ureter was analyzed,and relevant literature was reviewed.Results ES/PNET was confirmed pathologically,immunohistochemically and via molecular biology techniques in the penis (n=1) and ureter (n=1).In one case,a tumor was found at the base of penis,which had invaded the corpus cavernosum,and resulted in a massive enlargement of the penis.This tumor was initially diagnosed as an endocrine disorder.However,a confirmed diagnosis was made 11 months later when massive metastases in both lungs were noted.A tumor biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis,and chemotherapy with a CAV (cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin+vincristine) + IE (ifosfamide+ etoposide) regimen for 9 months was prescribed.In the second case,a child was admitted due to abdominal pain and a hydroureter in the right kidney,as determined by ultrasonography.A tumor was found in the right ureter at the level of iiiac vessels.Removal of the tumor and ureteral anastomosis were performed,and chemotherapy with CAV+IE for 8 months were prescribed.Both patients are currently being followed-up closely.Conclusions ES/PNET is a highly malignant tumor and has poor prognosis.Pre-operative diagnosis of ES/PNET of urogenital tract is difficult and largely depends on pathology,immunohistochemistry,and,if applicable,molecular biology.Comprehensive therapy may include surgery,chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  6. Quantitative macroscopic anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) digestive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Lund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative data on digestive anatomy of the world’s largest ruminant, the giraffe, are scarce. Data were collected from a total of 25 wild caught and 13 zoo housed giraffes. Anatomical measures were quantified by dimension, area or weight, and analyzed by allometric regression. The majority of ...

  7. Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoi, Ankur R; McKenney, Jesse K; Schwartz, Erich J; Rouse, Robert V; Longacre, Teri A

    2009-09-01

    Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts are well characterized as mesothelial in origin, but a detailed histological and immunohistochemical analysis comparing both traditional and newer mesothelial markers across gender and site has not been formally conducted. A variety of morphologic features previously described as characteristic of adenomatoid tumors were evaluated in 44 adenomatoid tumors from the male and female genital tracts. Immunohistochemical analysis with pankeratin (AE1/CAM5.2), WT-1, calretinin, CK5/6, D2-40, and caldesmon was also performed. The extent and intensity of staining were scored semiquantitatively on one representative section per case and mean value for each parameter was calculated. All (n=44) the adenomatoid tumors from both the female and male genital tracts demonstrated a distinctive thread-like bridging strand pattern. Lymphoid aggregates were seen in all 12 adenomatoid tumors of male patients, but in only 4 of 32 (13%) tumors in female patients (Pgenital tract adenomatoid tumors. Adenomatoid tumors expressed WT-1 in 11/12 (92%) male patients and in 31/32 (97%) female patients. In male patients, reactivity for CK5/6 and caldesmon was found in 1/12 (8%) and 0/12 (0%) adenomatoid tumors (respectively), whereas reactivity in female patients was found in 5/32 (16%) and 1/32 (3%); respectively. Female tumors differ from their male counterparts by the frequent absence of lymphoid aggregates and the presence of a circumscribed margin when occurring in the fallopian tube. Of the putative mesothelial markers evaluated, calretinin, D2-40, and WT-1 show a similar immunoprofile and have a higher sensitivity than CK5/6 and caldesmon in genital tract adenomatoid tumors. However, the presence of additional, often strong expression of WT-1 in normal tissues of the female genital tract limits the utility of WT-1 in this setting.

  8. Impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on quality of life and cellular immunity changes in patients with digestive tract cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Ling Zhou; Wang-Gang Zhang; Yong-Chang Wei; Kang-Ling Xu; Ling-Yun Hui; Xu-Sheng Wang; Ming-Zhong Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: A study was performed to investigate the impact of comorbid anxiety and depression (CAD) on quality of life (QOL) and cellular immunity changes in patients with digestive tract cancers.METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six cases of both sexes with cancers of the digestive tract admitted between March 2001 and February 2004 in the Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University were randomly enrolled in the study. Depressive and anxiety disorder diagnoses were assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Ⅳ. All adult patients were evaluated with the Hamilton depressive scale (HAMD, the 24-item version), the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA, a modified 14-item version), quality of life questionnaire-core 30 (QLQ-C30), social support rating scale (SSRS), simple coping style questionnaire (SCSQ), and other questionnaires, respectively. In terms of HAMD ≥ 20 and HAMA ≥ 14, the patients were categorized, including CAD (n = 31) in group A, anxiety disorder (n = 23) in group B,depressive disorder (n = 37) in group C, and non-disorder (n = 65) in group D. Immunological parameters such as T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cell activities in peripheral blood were determined and compared among the four groups.RESULTS: The incidence of CAD was 21.15% in patients with digestive tract cancers. The average scores of social support was 43.67±7.05 for 156 cases, active coping 20.34±7.33, and passive coping 9.55±5.51. Compared with group D, subjective support was enhanced slightly in group A, but social support, objective support, and utilization of support reduced, especially utilization of support with significance (6.16 vs 7.80, P<0.05); total scores of active coping decreased, while passive coping reversed; granulocytes proliferated, monocytes declined,and lymphocytes declined significantly (32.87 vs 34.00,P<0.05); moreover, the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8and CD56 in T lymphocyte subsets was in lower

  9. Influence of prepelleting inclusion of whole corn on performance, nutrient utilization, digestive tract measurements, and cecal microbiota of young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Molan, A L; Ravindran, G

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of prepelleting inclusion of graded levels of whole corn on performance, digestive tract measurements, nutrient utilization, and cecal microbiota in broiler starters. Five diets, containing 600 g/kg of ground corn or 150, 300, 450, and 600 g/kg of whole corn replacing (wt/wt) ground corn, were formulated and cold-pelleted at 65°C. Each diet was offered ad libitum to 6 replicates (8 birds per replicate cage) from d 1 to 21 posthatch. The proportion of coarse particles (>1 mm) increased with increasing prepelleting inclusion of whole corn. Pellet quality, measured as pellet durability index, increased (quadratic effect, P feed intake decreased (linear effect, P Feed per gain (quadratic effect, P feed intake. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Morphallactic regeneration as revealed by region-specific gene expression in the digestive tract of Enchytraeus japonensis (Oligochaeta, Annelida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Makoto; Yoshida-Noro, Chikako; Tochinai, Shin

    2008-05-01

    Enchytraeus japonensis is a small oligochaete, which primarily reproduces asexually by fragmentation and regeneration. For precise analysis of the pattern formation during regeneration, we isolated three region-specific genes (EjTuba, mino, and horu) expressed in the digestive tract. In growing worms, the expression of EjTuba in the head and mino in the trunk region just posterior to the head were observed in defined body segments, while the expression areas of EjTuba in the trunk and horu were proportional to the total number of body segments. In the regeneration process, expression of these genes disappeared once and recovered to their original pattern by day 7. In abnormal regeneration such as a bipolar head, mino was still expressed in the region next to both the normal and the ectopic heads. These results suggest that there is morphallactic as well as epimorphic or inductive regulation of the body patterning during regeneration of E. japonensis.

  11. Community diversity of bacteria in digestive tract of mud snail (Bullacta exarata Philippi) and its rearing shoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国良; 郑天伦; 陆彤霞; 王一农; 於宏; 金珊

    2002-01-01

    The bacterial flora in the digestive tract of B. exarata Philippi and its rearing shoal were investigated, respectively. A total of 107 strains of heterotrophic bacteria, isolated from crop, stomach and intestine, mainly belong to genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. Varieties of bacteria in crop were significantly more than that in stomach and in intestine. A total of 173 strains of bacteria were isolated from the rearing shoal, belonging to 13 genera. The 5 predominant genera are Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and some genera of Enterobacteriaceae. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio in rearing shoal changed in line with the alteration of the temperature, and were significantly affected by the use of pesticide.

  12. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: Case reports and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; J; Salyers; Kenneth; J; Vega; Juan; Carlos; Munoz; Bruce; W; Trotman; Silvio; S; Tanev

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors(NET)previously called carcinoid tumors are neoplasms of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin which display neurosecretory capacity that may result in the carcinoid syndrome.The annual incidence of patients with NET is 8.4 per 100000;yet many NET remain asymptomatic and clinically undetected.A majority of NET follows a benign course;however,some will display malignant characteristics.NET most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal tract(67%)and bronchopulmonary system(25%).Gastrointestinal NET occur within the stomach,small intestine,liver,and rectum.We report a retrospective study of 11 subjects:Eight with benign carcinoid tumors:duodenal bulb(n=2),terminal ileum(n=1),sigmoid colon(n=2),and rectum(n=3);three with malignant carcinoid:liver(n=1)and intra-abdominal site(n=2).The diagnosis,endoscopic images,outcome,treatment and review of the literature are presented.

  13. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  14. Digestibility of nutrients in growing-finishing pigs is affected by Aspergillus niger phytase, phytate and lactic acid levels. 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium and ileal degradation of phytic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Kogut, J.; Beynen, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    In growing-finishing pigs, the effects of supplemental microbial phytase, lactic acid and Na phytate in a maize-soybean meal based diet on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ash, total P, Ca and Mg and the ileal degradation (AID) of phytic acid were studied. The experimental design was

  15. Identification of Iron and Heme Utilization Genes in Aeromonas and their Role in the Colonization of the Leech Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eMaltz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or genes for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mTn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to acquire iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant with an antibiotic resistance cassette, yielding a hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A.veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a role as a possible virulence factor in other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed the heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. In addition, aeromonads posses a suite of genes involved in iron acquisition. These data further confirm symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar mechanisms for interacting with

  16. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  17. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P supplements. Regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, the ATTD of P was greater ( Ppigs fed basal, MCP, or DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( Ppigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co-product. Regardless of Ca source, inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P supplements used in this experiment, followed by DCP. Basal, MCP, and DCP diets had greater ATTD of P than the other diets, and inclusion of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the diets.

  18. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  19. SELECTIVE DECONTAMINATION OF THE DIGESTIVE-TRACT PREVENTS SECONDARY INFECTION OF THE ABDOMINAL-CAVITY, AND ENDOTOXEMIA AND MORTALITY IN STERILE PERITONITIS IN LABORATORY RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROSMAN, C; WUBBELS, GH; MANSON, WL; BLEICHRODT, RP

    1992-01-01

    Background and Methods. This study was undertaken to find out whether translocation of bacteria to the abdominal cavity and endotoxemia in rats with sterile peritonitis could be prevented by selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Sterile peritonitis was caused by the intraperitoneal

  20. SELECTIVE DECONTAMINATION OF THE DIGESTIVE-TRACT PREVENTS SECONDARY INFECTION OF THE ABDOMINAL-CAVITY, AND ENDOTOXEMIA AND MORTALITY IN STERILE PERITONITIS IN LABORATORY RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROSMAN, C; WUBBELS, GH; MANSON, WL; BLEICHRODT, RP

    1992-01-01

    Background and Methods. This study was undertaken to find out whether translocation of bacteria to the abdominal cavity and endotoxemia in rats with sterile peritonitis could be prevented by selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Sterile peritonitis was caused by the intraperitoneal injec

  1. Macroscopic digestive tract anatomy of two small antelopes, the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Hammer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The digestive tract anatomy of 14 blackbucks (Antilope cervicapra) and 7 Arabian sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica) was quantified by dimensions, area and weight. Data from the two small-sized antilopinae were evaluated against a larger comparative data set from other ruminants classifie...

  2. Expression patterns suggest that despite considerable functional redundancy, galectin-4 and -6 play distinct roles in normal and damaged mouse digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzelstein, Denis; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Maurer, Marie; Netter, Pierre; Higuet, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    The galectin-4 protein is mostly expressed in the digestive tract and is associated with lipid raft stabilization, protein apical trafficking, wound healing, and inflammation. While most mammalian species, including humans, have a single Lgals4 gene, some mice have two paralogues: Lgals4 and Lgals6. So far, their significant similarities have hindered the analysis of their respective expression and function. We took advantage of two antibodies that discriminate between the galectin-4 and galectin-6 proteins to document their patterns of expression in the normal and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-damaged digestive tract in the mouse. In the normal digestive tract, their pattern of expression from tongue to colon is quite similar, which suggests functional redundancy. However, the presence of galectin-4, but not galectin-6, in the lamina propria of the DSS-damaged colon, its association with luminal colonic bacteria, and differences in subcellular localization of these proteins suggest that they also have distinct roles in the normal and the damaged mouse digestive tract. Our results provide a rare example of ancestral and derived functions evolving after tandem gene duplication.

  3. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  4. Effects of selective decontamination of digestive tract on mortality and acquisition of resistant bacteria in intensive care : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, E; Schultz, MJ; Spanjaard, L; Bossuyt, PMM; Vroom, MB; Kesecioglu, J

    2003-01-01

    Background Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) is an infection-prevention regimen used in critically ill patients. We assessed the effects of SDD on intensive-care-unit (ICU) and hospital mortality, and on the acquisition of resistant bacteria in adult patients admitted to intensi

  5. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SP

  6. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P

    2015-03-07

    Oral immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations are prime examples of medicinal nutrition from natural sources. Plasma products containing Ig have been used for decades in animal feed for intestinal disorders to mitigate the damaging effects of early weaning. These preparations reduce overall mortality and increase feed utilization in various animal species leading to improved growth. Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. In infants, children, and adults, the amount of intact IgG recovered in stool ranges from trace amounts up to 25% of the original amount ingested. It is generally understood that IgG can only bind to antigens within the GI tract if the Fab structure is intact and has not been completely denatured through acidic pH or digestive proteolytic enzymes. This is a comprehensive review of human studies regarding the survivability of orally-administered Ig preparations, with a focus on IgG. This review also highlights various biochemical studies on IgG which potentially explain which structural elements are responsible for increased stability against digestion.

  7. Impact of reference geosorbents on oral bioaccessibility of PAH in a human in vitro digestive tract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Kons, Sandra; Achten, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Former studies on human oral bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from natural soil samples using human in vitro digestive tract models (physiologically based extraction tests, PBET) show highly variable results (0-100% of mobilized PAH). Apart from other factors, the type and amount of present geosorbents are assumed to be significant for the degree of desorption/release of PAH into the digestive juice. Therefore, in this study, the reference geosorbents pure quartz sand, Na-montmorillonite clay, Pahokee peat, and charcoal "Sommerhit" were spiked with selected deuterated PAH and employed as single materials in a PBET. Lowest bioaccessibility was determined in charcoal, representing black carbon (0.1 ± 0.1 % for ∑10 PAH-d) in contrast to higher bioaccessibility in peat (6.4 ± 2.2%) and clay (4.8 ± 1.1%). Highest bioaccessibility was determined in sand (26.9 ± 7.5%). The results show a systematic impact of heterogeneous geosorbents on human oral bioaccessibility of PAH and particularly black carbon acting as a very strong geosorbent that reduces human health risk.

  8. Effect of soaking, germination, and enzyme treatment of whole barley on nutritional value and digestive tract parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Newman, R K; Newman, C W

    1997-09-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of soaking at 0 degrees C, soaking at room temperature, germination, or enzyme treatment of whole barley on feeding value and digestive tract parameters of 2- to 4-week old broiler chickens given diets with 700g/kg whole barley. 2. Soaking or germination decreased the soluble and total beta-glucan content (P enzymes produced the lowest beta-glucan content and viscosity. 3. Except for soaking in cold water, the soaking, germination and enzyme treatments increased weight gain and decreased food:gain ratio (P enzyme treatment or germination. 4. Chickens fed on enzyme-treated or germinated barley diets had intestinal contents with a greater proportion of dry matter and lower viscosity than chickens fed on untreated barley (P cleaner (P < 0.05) and the weight of digestive organs as proportion of live weight was lower. 5. Particle size analysis of excreta revealed that whole barley was efficiently ground by the gizzards of 16-d-old chickens, and very few whole kernels were found.

  9. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  10. An insight into the transcriptome of the digestive tract of the bloodsucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M C Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7-8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the segments using pyrosequencing technology. Comparison of transcript frequency in digestive libraries with a whole-body library was used to evaluate expression levels. All classes of digestive enzymes were highly expressed, with a predominance of cysteine and aspartic proteinases, the latter showing a significant expansion through gene duplication. Although no protein digestion is known to occur in the anterior midgut (AM, protease transcripts were found, suggesting secretion as pro-enzymes, being possibly activated in the posterior midgut (PM. As expected, genes related to cytoskeleton, protein synthesis apparatus, protein traffic, and secretion were abundantly transcribed. Despite the absence of a chitinous peritrophic membrane in hemipterans - which have instead a lipidic perimicrovillar membrane lining over midgut epithelia - several gut-specific peritrophin transcripts were found, suggesting that these proteins perform functions other than being a structural component of the peritrophic membrane. Among immunity-related transcripts, while lysozymes and lectins were the most highly expressed, several genes belonging to the Toll pathway - found at low levels in the gut of most insects - were identified, contrasting with a low abundance of transcripts from IMD and STAT pathways. Analysis of transcripts related to lipid metabolism indicates that lipids play multiple roles, being a major energy source, a substrate for perimicrovillar membrane formation, and a source for hydrocarbons possibly to produce the wax layer of the hindgut. Transcripts related to amino acid metabolism showed an unanticipated

  11. An Insight into the Transcriptome of the Digestive Tract of the Bloodsucking Bug, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José M. C.; Genta, Fernando A.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Logullo, Raquel; Mesquita, Rafael D.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.; Majerowicz, David; Medeiros, Marcelo; Koerich, Leonardo; Terra, Walter R.; Ferreira, Clélia; Pimentel, André C.; Bisch, Paulo M.; Leite, Daniel C.; Diniz, Michelle M. P.; Junior, João Lídio da S. G. V.; Da Silva, Manuela L.; Araujo, Ricardo N.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Brosson, Sébastien; Salmon, Didier; Bousbata, Sabrina; González-Caballero, Natalia; Silber, Ariel Mariano; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Gondim, Katia C.; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto C.; Atella, Georgia C.; Araujo, Helena; Dias, Felipe A.; Polycarpo, Carla; Vionette-Amaral, Raquel J.; Fampa, Patrícia; Melo, Ana Claudia A.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.; Balczun, Carsten; Oliveira, José Henrique M.; Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Lazoski, Cristiano; Rivera-Pomar, Rolando; Diambra, Luis; Schaub, Günter A.; Garcia, Elói S.; Azambuja, Patrícia; Braz, Glória R. C.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    The bloodsucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus is a vector of Chagas' disease, which affects 7–8 million people today in Latin America. In contrast to other hematophagous insects, the triatomine gut is compartmentalized into three segments that perform different functions during blood digestion. Here we report analysis of transcriptomes for each of the segments using pyrosequencing technology. Comparison of transcript frequency in digestive libraries with a whole-body library was used to evaluate expression levels. All classes of digestive enzymes were highly expressed, with a predominance of cysteine and aspartic proteinases, the latter showing a significant expansion through gene duplication. Although no protein digestion is known to occur in the anterior midgut (AM), protease transcripts were found, suggesting secretion as pro-enzymes, being possibly activated in the posterior midgut (PM). As expected, genes related to cytoskeleton, protein synthesis apparatus, protein traffic, and secretion were abundantly transcribed. Despite the absence of a chitinous peritrophic membrane in hemipterans - which have instead a lipidic perimicrovillar membrane lining over midgut epithelia - several gut-specific peritrophin transcripts were found, suggesting that these proteins perform functions other than being a structural component of the peritrophic membrane. Among immunity-related transcripts, while lysozymes and lectins were the most highly expressed, several genes belonging to the Toll pathway - found at low levels in the gut of most insects - were identified, contrasting with a low abundance of transcripts from IMD and STAT pathways. Analysis of transcripts related to lipid metabolism indicates that lipids play multiple roles, being a major energy source, a substrate for perimicrovillar membrane formation, and a source for hydrocarbons possibly to produce the wax layer of the hindgut. Transcripts related to amino acid metabolism showed an unanticipated priority for

  12. Immunolocalization of aromatase, estrogen and estrogen receptor α and β in the epithelium of digestive tract and enteric neurons of amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yongqiang; WENG Youzhu; YE Rongzhong; LIU Lili

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of aromatase, estrogen and estrogen receptor in the digestive tract and enteric neurons of amphioxus is investigated. It was found that immunoreactive proteins of aromatase, estrogen and ER-α and β are expressed in hepatic diverticulum, epithelial cells of anterior and posterior region of midgut, as well as in enteric neurons, while hindgut showed immunonegative. The results suggest that digestive tract of amphioxus may be able to synthesize estrogen and possess endocrine function, like rat gastric epithelium and enteric neurons in mammals. The present study provides authentic morphological evidence for explaining the action mechanism of estrogen in regulating the digestive function of gut and the functional evolution of estrogen, which has important theoretical significance in amphioxus.

  13. Utility of models of the gastrointestinal tract for assessment of the digestion and absorption of engineered nanomaterials released from food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, David E; Venema, Koen; Gombau, Lourdes; Valerio, Luis G; Raju, Jayadev; Bondy, Genevieve S; Bouwmeester, Hans; Singh, R Paul; Clippinger, Amy J; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Mehta, Rekha; Stone, Vicki

    2015-05-01

    Engineered metal/mineral, lipid and biochemical macromolecule nanomaterials (NMs) have potential applications in food. Methodologies for the assessment of NM digestion and bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract are nascent and require refinement. A working group was tasked by the International Life Sciences Institute NanoRelease Food Additive project to review existing models of the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease, and the utility of these models for the assessment of the uptake of NMs intended for food. Gastrointestinal digestion and absorption could be addressed in a tiered approach using in silico computational models, in vitro non-cellular fluid systems and in vitro cell culture models, after which the necessity of ex vivo organ culture and in vivo animal studies can be considered. Examples of NM quantification in gastrointestinal tract fluids and tissues are emerging; however, few standardized analytical techniques are available. Coupling of these techniques to gastrointestinal models, along with further standardization, will further strengthen methodologies for risk assessment.

  14. Tumor growth effects of rapamycin on human biliary tract cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuer Matthias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver transplantation is an important treatment option for patients with liver-originated tumors including biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs. Post-transplant tumor recurrence remains a limiting factor for long-term survival. The mammalian target of rapamycin-targeting immunosuppressive drug rapamycin could be helpful in lowering BTC recurrence rates. Therein, we investigated the antiproliferative effect of rapamycin on BTC cells and compared it with standard immunosuppressants. Methods We investigated two human BTC cell lines. We performed cell cycle and proliferation analyses after treatment with different doses of rapamycin and the standard immunosuppressants, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. Results Rapamycin inhibited the growth of two BTC cell lines in vitro. By contrast, an increase in cell growth was observed among the cells treated with the standard immunosuppressants. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that rapamycin inhibits BTC cell proliferation and thus might be the preferred immunosuppressant for patients after a liver transplantation because of BTC.

  15. Manipulation of the repertoire of digestive enzymes secreted into the gastrointestinal tract of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J; Ali, S; Surani, M A; Hazlewood, G P; Clark, A J; Simons, J P; Hirst, B H; Gilbert, H J

    1993-03-01

    In non-ruminant livestock the energy which can be derived from dietary cellulose and xylan is limited by the inefficient microbial fermentation of these polymers in the hind-gut. Furthermore, in poultry, cereal-derived plant structural polysaccharides impair normal digestive function through the formation of gel-like structures, which trap nutrients rendering them unavailable to the animal. The nutrition of non-ruminant livestock could be significantly improved by the depolymerization of plant structural polysaccharides, through the introduction of cellulase activity into the small intestines of these animals. Here we describe the expression of Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase E in the exocrine pancreas of transgenic mice. A non-glycosylated active enzyme is secreted into the small intestines, and is resistant to proteolytic inactivation, demonstrating the feasibility of generating non-ruminant animals with the endogenous capacity to depolymerize plant structural polysaccharides in the small intestines.

  16. Histopathological changes in the upper digestive tract of pigeons infected with Hadjelia truncata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Kamali, S Amir; Taebi Pour, Mohammad Jafar

    2016-09-01

    Thirty-five pigeons from ten different farms in Fars area, southern Iran were submitted for post mortem inspection. Based on the clinical observations and gross pathological examinations, all the birds showed severe weight loss, diarrhea and to some extent ventricular enlargement. Furthermore, all the cases demonstrated large numbers of nematodes attached to the mucosa and submucosa of the ventriculus. Parasitological examinations revealed that the recovered parasites were Hadjelia truncata. The histopathological changes showed necrosis of the mucosal cells with moderate infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, heterophils and eosinophils in the lamina properia and muscularis mucosa in the infected animals. Based on the parasitological and pathological findings it can be concluded that the nematode H. truncate could be assigned as a pathogenic agent in the upper tract of pigeons.

  17. Endocannabinoids and the Digestive Tract and Bladder in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Angelo A; Muccioli, Giulio G; Ruggieri, Michael R; Schicho, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Components of the so-called endocannabinoid system, i.e., cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, as well as enzymes involved in endocannabinoid synthesis and degradation, have been identified both in the gastrointestinal and in the urinary tract. Evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system is implicated in many gastrointestinal and urinary physiological and pathophysiological processes, including epithelial cell growth, inflammation, analgesia, and motor function. A pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid system might be beneficial for widespread diseases such as gastrointestinal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, cystitis, and hyperactive bladder. Drugs that inhibit endocannabinoid degradation and raise the level of endocannabinoids, non-psychotropic cannabinoids (notably cannabidiol), and palmitoylethanolamide, an acylethanolamide co-released with the endocannabinoid anandamide, are promising candidates for gastrointestinal and urinary diseases.

  18. Expression and Clinical Significance of APC Protein in Adenoma and Adencarcinoma Tissues of Digestive Tract%APC蛋白在消化道腺瘤-癌组织中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永刚; 杜选峰; 郑倩; 赵倩; 周围; 李先平; 王瑞玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察家族性腺瘤样息肉病蛋白( adenomatous polyposis col, APC)在消化道腺瘤-癌组织中的表达,探讨其在消化道肿瘤发生、发展中的作用。方法收集2012年3月—2015年3月的胃组织标本83例,包括正常胃黏膜组织25例,胃腺瘤40例(高级别上皮内瘤变18例,低级别上皮内瘤变22例),胃腺癌18例;结肠组织标本87例,包括正常结肠黏膜组织25例,结肠腺瘤42例(高级别腺瘤22例,低级别腺瘤20例),结肠腺癌20例。检测APC蛋白的表达情况。结果胃、结肠腺瘤和胃、结肠腺癌组织APC蛋白阳性表达率均分别低于正常胃、结肠黏膜组织(P0.05)。结论 APC基因表达失活在消化道肿瘤的发生、发展中起重要作用,APC蛋白的检测有助于消化道早期癌的诊断。%Objective To observe expression of familial adenomatous polyposis col ( APC) protein in adenoma and adencarcinoma tissues of digestive tract, and to study effect on carcinogenesis and development of digestive tract tumor. Methods A total of 83 samples of gastric tissues during March 2012 and March 2015 were collected, including 25 samples of normal gastric mucosa tissues, 40 samples of gastric adenoma (18 with high-grade and 22 with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia) and 18 samples of gastric adenocarcinoma. A total of 87 samples of colorectal tissues were col-lected, including 25 samples of normal colorectal mucosa tissues, 42 samples of colorectal adenoma tissues ( 22 with high-grade and 20 with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia) and 20 samples of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Expression of APC protein was detected. Results Positive expression rates of APC protein in gastric and colorectal adenoma and aden-carcinoma tissues of digestive tract were respectively lower than those in normal gastric and colorectal mucosa tissues (P0. 05 ) . Conclusion Inactivation of APC protein expression plays an important role in carcinogenesis and development of digestive tract

  19. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  20. Use of remifentanil to reduce propofol injection pain and the required propofol dose in upper digestive tract endoscopy diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nadal Uliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The introduction of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol as a sedative agent has transformed the area of sedation for endoscopic procedures. However, a major drawback of sedation with the use of propofol is its high incidence of injection pain. The most widely used technique in reducing propofol injection pain is through the association of other drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of remifentanil-propofol combination on the incidence of propofol injection pain and its influence on the total dose of propofol required for sedation in upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDE diagnostic tests. METHOD: One hundred and five patients undergoing upper digestive tract endoscopy were evaluated and randomly divided into 3 groups of 35 patients each. The Control Group received propofol alone; Study-group 1 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.2 mg/kg combined with propofol; Study-group 2 received remifentanil at a fixed dose of 0.3 mg/kg combined with propofol. The incidence of propofol injection pain and the total dose of propofol required for the test were evaluated. The sample was very similar regarding age, weight, height, sex, and physical status. Statistical analysis was performed according to the nature of the evaluated data. Student'st-test was used to compare the mean of age, weight, height (cm, and dose (mg/kg variables between groups. The χ2 test was used to compare sex, physical status, and propofol injection pain between groups. The significance level was a < 0.05. RESULTS: There was significant statistical difference between the study groups and the control group regarding the parameters of propofol injection pain and total dose of propofol (mg/kg used. However, there were no statistical differences between the two study groups for these parameters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the use of remifentanil at doses of 0.2 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg was effective for reducing both the propofol injection pain and

  1. Detection of serum anti- Helicobacter pyloriimmunoglobulin G in patients with different digestive malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xia Wang; Xue-Feng Wang; Jiang-Long Peng; Yu-Bao Cui; Jian Wang; Chao-Pin Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with different digestive malignant tumors.METHODS: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody in 374 patients with different digestive malignant tumors and 310 healthy subjects (normal control group).RESULTS: The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was 61.50 %(230/374) and 46.77 % (145/310),respectively, in patients with digestive tumors and normal controls (P<0.05). The seroprevalence was 52.38 % (33/63),86.60 % (84/97), 83.14 % (84/101), 45.24 (19/42),51.13 % (18/35) and 44.44 % (16/36), respectively in patients with carcinomas of esophagus, stomach, duodenum,rectum, colon and liver (P<0.01). In patients with intestinal and diffuse type gastric cancers, the seroprevalence was 93.75 % (60/64) and 72.73 % (24/33), respectively (P<0.05).In patients with gastric antral and cardiac cancers, the seroprevalence was 96.43 % (54/56) and 73.17 % (30/41),respectively (P<0.05). In patients with ulcerous and proliferous type duodenal cancers, the seroprevalence of H pylori infection was 91.04 % (61/67) and 52.27 % (23/44),respectively (P<0.05). In patients with duodenal bulb and descending cancers, the seroprevalence was 94.20 % (65/69) and 45.20 % (19/42), respectively (P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Hpyloriinfection is associated with occurrence and development of gastric and duodenal carcinomas.Furthermore, it is also associated with histological type and locations of gastric and duodenal carcinomas.

  2. Microbial colonization induces dynamic temporal and spatial patterns of NF-κB activation in the zebrafish digestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanther, Michelle; Sun, Xiaolun; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Mackey, Lantz C.; Flynn, Edward J.; Bagnat, Michel; Jobin, Christian; Rawls, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims The nuclear factor κ-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription factor pathway is activated in response to diverse microbial stimuli to regulate expression of genes involved in immune responses and tissue homeostasis. However, the temporal and spatial activation of NF-κB in response to microbial signals have not been determined in whole living organisms, and the molecular and cellular details of these responses are not well understood. We used in vivo imaging and molecular approaches to analyze NF-κB activation in response to the commensal microbiota in transparent gnotobiotic zebrafish. Methods We used DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses to study the effects of the commensal microbiota on gene expression in gnotobiotic zebrafish. Zebrafish PAC2 and ZFL cells were used to study the NF-κB signaling pathway in response to bacterial stimuli. We generated transgenic zebrafish that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under transcriptional control of NF-κB, and used them to study patterns of NF-κB activation during development and microbial colonization. Results Bacterial stimulation induced canonical activation of the NF-κB pathway in zebrafish cells. Colonization of germ-free transgenic zebrafish with a commensal microbiota activated NF-κB and led to up-regulation of its target genes in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues of the digestive tract. Colonization with the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sufficient to activate NF-κB, and this activation required a functional flagellar apparatus. Conclusions In zebrafish, transcriptional activity of NF-κB is spatially and temporally regulated by specific microbial factors. The observed patterns of NF-κB-dependent responses to microbial colonization indicate that cells in the gastrointestinal tract respond robustly to the microbial environment. PMID:21439961

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of autofluorescence distribution in digestive organ for unstained metabolism-based tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Hidenobu; Iwata, Atsushi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Sanomura, Yoji; Yoshida, Shigeto; Kawahito, Shoji; Tanaka, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Auto fluorescence distribution of coenzymes NADH and FAD is investigated for the unstained tumor detection using an [?] originally designed confocal spectroscope. The tumor region in digestive organ can be determined by evaluating the redox index which is defined as the raio of NADH and FAD concentration. However, the redox index is largely influenced by the presence of collagen in the submucosal layer because its auto fluorescence spectrum overlaps considerably with that of NADH. Therefore, it is necessary to know in advance the distribution of NADH, FAD, and collagen in the mucosal layer. The purpose of our study is to investigate the vertical distribution of the redox index in tissue using depth-sensitive auto fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental procedure and the results are presented.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OFENTEROBACTERIACEAE SPECIES AND LACTOBACILLUS SPP. ISOLATED FROM HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play important role in agricultural environment as main pollinators. Its important for many agricultural and wild plants. Also honey bee are producers of honey, which is consumed directly and it should be not a heat treatment. Many bacteria can be survive in honey for long time. Some of these bacteria are human and animal facultative pathogens, including Enterobactericaeae genera. If these bacteria contain antibiotic resistant genes than it can to leads to troubles in healing of some of bacterial infections. Lactobacillus spp. can be a reservoir of resistant genes for pathogenic bacterial strains. In this study we isolated Enterobacteriaceae strains from digestive tracts of honey bees. These strains was tested to the eight selected antibiotics by disc diffusion method and strains were indentified by MALDI TOF MS Biotyper. From this study we determined resistance to piperacillin in the highest level. Equally, we determined that Citrobacter gillenii was resistant to three antibiotics (piperacillin, chloramphenicol and levofloxacin from eight. Resistance to other antibiotics were determined in low levels and other indentified bacteria were resistant to one antibiotic, if any. Also we detected resistance in Lactobacillus spp. and determined MICs distribution for some selected antibiotics. For absence of similar studies we could not to discuss our results and we think that further experiments and studies are needed.

  5. Isolation and Identification of a Bacterium from Marine Shrimp Digestive Tract: A New Degrader of Starch and Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiqiu; TAN Beiping; MAI Kangsen

    2011-01-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits.Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study.In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein,an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)intestines by using multiple selective media.The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological,physiological,and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses.Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein.The isolate STE was aerobic,Gram-negative,rod-shaped,motile and non-sporeforming,and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity.Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources,only Tween40,alanyl-glycine,aspartyl-glycine,and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE.Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and,in the phylogenetic tree,grouped with P.ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%).In conclusion,the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas.This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  6. Modification and application of an in vitro assay to examine inositol phosphate degradation in the digestive tract of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Vera; Schollenberger, Margit; Hemberle, Luca; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-09-01

    An in vitro assay was modified to study the disappearance of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 ) and the formation of lower inositol phosphate (InsP) isomers in the poultry digestive tract, and three experiments investigated the influence of diets with different ingredients and additives. Using the poultry diet as a matrix, the assay simulated the conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, proteolytic enzymes, water content, and retention time) of the crop, stomach, and small intestine, and extraction and analysis of InsP isomers were immediately conducted. The assay produced highly reproducible results with coefficients of variation ≤10% for an InsP isomer concentration ≥0.4 µmol g(-1) DM (n = 3), and it was sensitive to the factors that varied in the three experiments. The described assay is a suitable tool that can be used to screen feed enzymes and to investigate the effects of supplements in the absence of endogenous phytases. The ease of handling and high reproducibility of the assay indicated that the assay is a rapid and feasible method that can be used to examine the degradation pathway of phytate in feed under gastrointestinal conditions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL SCREENING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DIGESTIVE TRACT OF NATIVE AND BROILER CHICKEN FOR PROBIOTIC CANDIDATE PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his research was to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB from gastrointestinal digestive tract (GIT of chickens for probiotic candidate purposes. LAB was isolated from GIT of broiler and native chickens on selective medium (MRS+0.2% CaCO3. Screening method based on microbiological and biochemical characteristics, antibacterial properties, growth on various temperature, aeration, and agitation, antibiotic sensitivity, and viability on acid pH, gastric juice and bile salt. Thirty nine of LAB isolates was selected from native chicken and 18 isolates from broiler chicken. The selected LAB inhibited Escherichia coli FNCC 0091 growth and grown on 30, 39 and 45oC of temperature, aerobic, anaerobic and agitation conditions. Biochemical identification using API 50 CHL kit revealed that I72 from native chicken ileum as Lactobacillus salivarius and Db9 from broiler chicken duodenum as Pediococcus pentosaceus. All LAB were resistant to Erythromicin, Penicillin G and Streptomycin as tested antibiotics. Both of them have non significantly different of viability on acid pH (1, 2 and 3, gastric juice pH 2 and bile salt which were 91.78% for L. salivarius I72 and 94.48% for P. pentosaceus Db9 (P<0.05. Based on characteristics, both the selected LAB have potentiality as chicken probiotic candidates.

  8. Spread of an Enterococcus faecalis sequence type 6 (CC2) clone in patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruzábal-Lecumberri, Izaskun; Girbau, Cecilia; Canut, Andrés; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a common cause of nosocomial infection in immunocompromised patients. The presence and dissemination of high-risk clonal complexes, such as CC2, is an ongoing problem in hospitals. The aim of this work was to characterize 24 E. faecalis isolates from ICU patients undergoing selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) by phenotypical (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypical (presence of virulence genes, RAPD-PCR and MLST) methods. Our results showed high prevalence of the ST6 E. faecalis clone (91.6%), especially adapted to the hospital environment, with a multidrug resistance pattern and a multitude of putative virulence genes. In addition, ST179 (4.2%) and ST191 (4.2%) were detected. By RAPD-PCR analysis, the 22 isolates identified as ST6 showed six different DNA patterns, while the two remaining isolates, ST179 and ST191, showed two additional profiles. CC2 is a known clonal complex with high adaptability to hospital environment and worldwide distribution. The high prevalence of the ST6 clone in the studied population could be related to the presence of gentamicin in the SDD mixture since most strains were gentamicin resistant. Consequently, strict surveillance should be applied for rapid detection and control of this clone to prevent future spread outside the ICU.

  9. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  10. A study of the anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae Steindachner, 1897.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suíçmez, Menderes; Ulus, Emel

    2005-01-01

    The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner, 1897) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological structure consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated basal epithelial cells, mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. It was observed that the J-shaped stomach had a meshwork of folds in the cardiac region, and longitudinal folds in the fundic and pyloric regions. A single layer of columnar cells, PAS positive only in their apical portions, forms the epithelium. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells, which have microvilli at the apical surface. The wall of the esophagus and stomach are thicker than that of the intestine because of the thick muscle layer. There were numerous goblet cells in the intestine. There were numerous gastric glands in the submucosa layer ofthe cardiac stomach, but none were present in the pyloric region of the stomach. There were no pyloric caeca between the stomach and intestine. The enterocytes with microvilli contained rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and rounded bodies, and the gastric cells contained a well-developed Golgi apparatus.

  11. Occurrence, absorption and metabolism of short chain fatty acids in the digestive tract of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaut, M

    1987-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) also named volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate, propionate and butyrate, are the major end-products of the microbial digestion of carbohydrates in the alimentary canal. The highest concentrations are observed in the forestomach of the ruminants and in the large intestine (caecum and colon) of all the mammals. Butyrate and caproate released by action of gastric lipase on bovine milk triacylglycerols ingested by preruminants or infants are of nutritional importance too. Both squamous stratified mucosa of rumen and columnar simple epithelium of intestine absorb readily SCFA. The mechanisms of SCFA absorption are incompletely known. Passive diffusion of the unionized form across the cell membrane is currently admitted. In the lumen, the necessary protonation of SCFA anions could come first from the hydration of CO2. The ubiquitous cell membrane process of Na+-H+ exchange can also supply luminal protons. Evidence for an acid microclimate (pH = 5.8-6.8) suitable for SCFA-protonation on the surface of the intestinal lining has been provided recently. This microclimate would be generated by an epithelial secretion of H+ ions and would be protected by the mucus coating from the variable pH of luminal contents. Part of the absorbed SCFA does not reach plasma because it is metabolized in the gastrointestinal wall. Acetate incorporation in mucosal higher lipids is well-known. However, the preponderant metabolic pathway for all the SCFA is catabolism to CO2 except in the rumen wall where about 80% of butyrate is converted to ketone bodies which afterwards flow into bloodstream. Thus, SCFA are an important energy source for the gut mucosa itself.

  12. Profiling of proteins and proteases in the products of the salivary gland, digestive tract and excretions from larvae of the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator (Clark).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Hesham A; Afify, Amira; Meguid, Afaf Abdel; Hassan, Hany M

    2015-07-01

    Proteins and proteolytic activities in the contents of the salivary gland (SGc), digestive tract (DTc) and excretory-secretory products (ESP) from larvae of the camel nasal botfly Cephalopina titillator were separated electrophoretically, and characterized. The protein profiles of the different samples were qualitatively quite similar in the larval stages L2 and L3. Zymogram analysis of proteases in the samples indicated that the digestive tract contained a greater variety of proteases than the salivary gland or the excretory-secretory products. They are mainly serine proteases. Proteases of ESP and DTc (especially of 3rd instar) contain trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like serine proteases, while the serine proteases of SGc are not of the trypsin- or chemotrypsin-type.

  13. Cllnical analysis on 80 cases with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage compllcating upper digestive tract hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Y1chao; Wang Jian; Ye Bin; Li Honghong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To irrvestigate the treatment and prognosis of the hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH)With upper dgest tract hemorrhage (UDDIH). Scence:I a surey of 760 cases randomely with HCH in nerve department betweem Jaruarry 1995 and October 1999, including 80 cases wuth UDTH (9.5%). Of the 80 cases 55 were males and25 were fenales, mean age of 60.2 years andrange of 45 to 80 years. Methods:To analyze the clinical materials of 80 cases with HCH complicating UDTH and HCH without UDTH for the same time. Results: Of the 80 cases 52 were cled during the treatment, death rate was 65%, but the death rate of cases without UDTH was 30.2% at the sane time. The death rate of HCH complicating UDTH was significantly ligher than that without UDTH Discussion The nosogeny of HCH complicating UDTH was more likely related to thalanic and brain-stem Lew is thought that thalemric and brain-stem were stimulated to secret CRF and made pituitany gland release ACTH, futhet secret advencortirn These factors gave rise to UDTH by incriesed to secretion of gastic acid Therefore, original ciseases wre Primarily be predcted and treated Patients with intracranial lypenrtension should be inmediately treated by using manniol or glyceric co, and antiacid, anticholinergic drugs. If all kinds of methods shouldn′t control UDTH, thrombin and noradrenaline bitarlrate with cold Natrii Chlori de would be giwn by nostril There have bettertherapeutic efficiency. Conclusion: HCH with UDTH belongs to severe cases, death rates are higher, original diseases and complication should be actively treated

  14. Effect of microbial phytase on phytate P degradation and apparent digestibility of total P and Ca throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherfurd, S M; Chung, T K; Moughan, P J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a dietary microbial phytase on mineral digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the growing pig was studied. Thirty-two entire male pigs (~22 kg BW) were allocated equally to 4 corn-soybean meal diets. One diet was adequate in total P and Ca, the second diet was deficient in total P and Ca (low-P diet), and the third and fourth diets were the low-P diet with microbial phytase added at 1,107 U/kg or 2,215 U/kg, respectively. Titanium dioxide (3 g/kg) was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. The pigs were fed their respective diets for 42 d. Fecal samples were collected from d 38 to 41 and stomach chyme, terminal jejunal, and terminal ileal digesta samples were collected after euthanasia on d 42. Phytate P degradability and apparent total P and Ca digestibility were determined at the gastric, jejunal, ileal, and total tract levels. Phytate P degradation and apparent total P and Ca digestibility were not significantly different between the 2 microbial phytase inclusion levels. Across both microbial phytase-low-P diets, phytase supplementation increased (P phytase-supplemented, low-P (26% units greater) diets. The latter result was not reflected by the apparent total P digestibility estimate, which was not significantly different between the ileal and total tract levels for both the unsupplemented and phytase-supplemented, low-P diets. Consequently, there appeared to be considerable phytate degradation in the hindgut, presumably due to the action of hindgut microbes, but the phytate P released in the hindgut did not appear to be absorbed. Apparent Ca digestibility was not significantly different among jejunal, ileal, and total tract levels for any of the dietary treatments, but apparent Ca digestibility was greater (P phytase-supplemented diets compared with the unsupplemented diets. Overall, dietary microbial phytase supplementation led to greater phytate degradation to the end of the jejunum. Because the phytate P

  15. Advance in Ecosystem of Digestive Tract Bacteria and Detection Methods%消化道菌群及检测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建钗; 刘彦威; 白福娟; 刘月

    2015-01-01

    Microflora in the digestive tract is an important regulatory role in maintaining the function of di-gestive system.These methods of detection are generally divided into two method-microbiological method (traditional culture method)and molecular biology technique(genetic analysis).Both techniques have ad-vantages and disadvantages.The microbiological technique is only able to detect identifiable bacteria that can be grown on available substrates.Nevertheless,the culture is still a fundamental and widely used method for detection of digestive tract microorganisms.However,for an accurate quantitative and qualita-tive investigation of the microbiology of the entire gastrointestinal tract,genetic method is required.The combination of both methods may become a critical element for understanding the ecosystem of digestive tract bacteria.This paper reviewed the functions,kinds,distribution and methods of detection in digestive tract microorganism to establish the basis for gastrointestinal tract microflora.%消化道菌群对维持消化道机能有重要的调节作用。消化道菌群研究方法可分为两种,即微生物方法(分离培养)和分子生物学方法(基因分析),这两种方法各有利弊,分离培养仍然是基本和广泛使用的方法,但只能够检测生长在培养基上的细菌。对于整个消化道的微生物准确的定量和定性分析还有赖于基因分析方法。因此,这两种方法结合将成为了解消化道细菌的生态系统的关键。论文综述了消化道菌群的种类、分布、作用和研究方法,为消化道菌群研究提供参考。

  16. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract.

  17. Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M

    2009-10-01

    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  18. Glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition does not improve intestinal permeability, nitrogen balance, or outcome in newborns and infants undergoing digestive-tract surgery: results from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); F.W.J. Hazebroek (Frans); M. Mourik; G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); T. Rietveld (Trinet); J.G.M. Huijmans (Jan); D. Tibboel (Dick); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Glutamine supplementation in critically i

  19. Glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition does not improve intestinal permeability, nitrogen balance, or outcome in newborns and infants undergoing digestive-tract surgery - Results from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, MJIJ; Steyerberg, EW; Hazebroek, FWJ; Mourik, M; Borsboom, GJJM; Rietveld, T; Huijmans, JGM; Tibboel, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. Summary Background Data: Glutamine supplementation in critically ill and surgical adults may nor

  20. Histology of the digestive tract of Satanoperca pappaterra (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae=Histologia do trato digestivo de Satanoperca pappaterra (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel Marçal Natali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to locate, describe and characterize the esophagus, stomach and intestine of Satanoperca pappaterra using histological techniques. The species presents detritivore-invertivore feeding habit and is widely distributed in Neotropical continental waters. The esophagus is short, the stomach is small with saccular form and the intestine is long. The histological sections were stained using hematoxylin/eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff. Throughout the digestive tract, the gastric wall is composed by four different tunicae: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa, besides distinct intrinsic innervation represented by the submucosal and myenteric ganglionated plexuses. Depending on the organ, several characteristics were peculiar such as the external muscle layer of the esophagus that permeates the submucosa; a single sphincter between the stomach and intestine; stomach without differentiated regions; intestine histologically and physiologically divided into two regions (proximal and distal, considering the villi height and spacing besides the density of the goblet cells.Este estudo teve por objetivo localizar, delimitar e caracterizar histologicamente o esôfago, estômago e intestino de Satanoperca pappaterra. A espécie possui hábito alimentar detritívoro-invertívoro e é amplamente distribuída em águas continentais neotropicais. Macroscopicamente, o esôfago é curto, o estômago é pequeno e com formato sacular e o intestino é longo. Os cortes histológicos foram corados com hematoxilina/eosina e ácido periódico de Schiff. Ao longo de todo o tubo digestório, nota-se quatro túnicas distintas compondo a parede: mucosa, submucosa, muscular externa e serosa e distinta inervação intrínseca representada pelos plexos ganglionados submucoso e miontérico. Dependendo do órgão ficaram evidentes características peculiares, tais como, a muscular externa do esôfago que permeia a submucosa; um único esfíncter entre o est

  1. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  2. Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) from the digestive tract of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Châari; Hela, Derbel; Lassâd, Neifar

    2013-03-01

    Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) specimen were collected from the digestive tract of Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae) caught off the eastern coast of Tunisia. L. tylosuri is very similar to its closest relatives, L. retroflexus and L. nitens. It can be easily distinguished from L. retroflexus (Molin, 1859) in having a more extensive vitellarium, with follicles reaching from the posterior margin of the acetabulum and extending beyond the posterior margin of the testes and a coiled seminal vesicle. L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as illustrated by Linton 1898, in having a longer cirrus pouch (0.7 mm vs 0.36 mm, respectively) overlapping the anterior edge of the ventral sucker and a submarginal genital pore (submedian in L. nitens). It's also different from L. nitens as described by Manter 1947 in the vitelline disposition and in having the greater sucker ratio (1: 1.3-2.1 vs 1: 1.3-1.6, respectively). L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as reported by Machida and Kuramochi 2000 by the absence of variations in the vitellarium disposition in all specimens. L. tylosuri is more similar to L. nitens from group A (considered synonym of L. ahaaha Yamaguti, 1970 = L. nitens by Bray 1987) by having vitelline follicles extending beyond the testes. L. tylosuri can be distinguished from L. ahaaha by its pedunculate rather than prominent acetabulum and its larger body size (4.10-7.85 mm long and 0.75-1.2 mm large vs 2.1-6 mm long and 0.45-1.1 mm large, respectively). The prevalence of L. tylosuri sp. nov. was negatively correlated with host length (decreasing with host size increasing). Host sex does not seem to affect infection parameters.

  3. Emergence of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae after the introduction of selective digestive tract decontamination in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaby, Teysir; Al Naiemi, Nashwan; Kluytmans, Jan; van der Palen, Job; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2013-07-01

    Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) selectively eradicates aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (AGNB) by the enteral administration of oral nonabsorbable antimicrobial agents, i.e., colistin and tobramycin. We retrospectively investigated the impact of SDD, applied for 5 years as part of an infection control program for the control of an outbreak with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in an intensive care unit (ICU), on resistance among AGNB. Colistin MICs were determined on stored ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates using the Etest. The occurrence of both tobramycin resistance among pathogens intrinsically resistant to colistin (CIR) and bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and CIR were investigated. Of the 134 retested ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, 28 were isolated before SDD was started, and all had MICs of SDD, MICs ranged between 0.5 and 24 mg/liter. Tobramycin-resistant CIR isolates were found sporadically before the introduction of SDD, but their prevalence increased immediately afterward. Segmented regression analysis showed a highly significant relationship between SDD and resistance to tobramycin. Five patients were identified with bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae before SDD and 9 patients thereafter. No bacteremia caused by CIR was found before SDD, but its occurrence increased to 26 after the introduction of SDD. In conclusion, colistin resistance among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates emerged rapidly after SDD. In addition, both the occurrence and the proportion of tobramycin resistance among CIR increased under the use of SDD. SDD should not be applied in outbreak settings when resistant bacteria are prevalent.

  4. Digestive tract morphology of the Neotropical piscivorous fish Cichla kelberi(Perciformes: Cichlidae introduced into an oligotrophic Brazilian reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most well-known cichlid fish of importance to artisanal and sport fishing, and among the largest fishes in the Neotropics, data on digestive tract anatomy of peacock basses (Cichla spp. are largely lacking, especially for non-native populations. in this paper, we describe for the first time the digestive tract morphology of Cichla kelberi, a voracious piscivore that was introduced in the 1950s into an oligotrophic and physically low-complex impoundment in Brazil. Peacock basses were collected between 1994 and 2002 in Lajes Reservoir, through gillnets (25 to 55mm mesh; 20-50x2m, seines (10x2.5m; 8.0mm mesh, cast nets and angling. All the fishes were kept on ice in the field and then transferred to the laboratory, where they were identified, measured, weighed and dissected for digestive tract analyses. The index of Relative importance-IRI was calculated for diet characterization while linear and non-linear regressions were performed to assess growth patterns of four morphological characters related to feeding (e.g. mouth width, mouth height, stomach length and intestine length and the number of gill rakers during the C. kelberi ontogeny. Most digestive tract structures were directly related to the piscivorous diet of C. kelberi, indicating that peacock bass is a diurnal, bathypelagic and gape-size limited predator that feeds largely on shallow-water prey species within the littoral zone. Mouth width and height grew allometrically (b>1 with the size of peacock bass, broadening the size range in which prey can be eaten, but especially for predators smaller than ~400mm of total length. Differently, stomach and intestine lengths increased isometrically (b=1, which could constrain prey consumption for adult C. kelberi, especially those at advanced stages of gonadal maturation. The presence of longer-drawn, sharp and furcated gill rakers in C. kelberi may be related to increased prey retention in the resource-limited Lajes

  5. Polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and survival of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Burke, Rita V; Jeon, Christie Y; Chang, Shen-Chih; Chang, Po-Yin; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P; Mao, Jenny; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M; Rao, Jianyu; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cancer growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer outcomes. Nonetheless, there are no published studies of the relationship between PPARs gene polymorphisms and survival of patients with lung cancer or UADT cancers. 1212 cancer patients (611 lung, 303 oral, 100 pharyngeal, 90 laryngeal, and 108 esophageal) were followed for a median duration of 11 years. We genotyped three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Taqman - rs3734254 of the gene PPARD and rs10865710 and rs1801282 of the gene PPARG - and investigated their associations with lung and UADT cancer survival using Cox regression. A semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach was used to reduce the potential for false positive findings when examining multiple associations. The variant homozygote CC (vs. TT) of PPARD rs3734254 was inversely associated with mortality of both lung cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42, 0.96) and UADT cancers (aHR=0.51, 95% CI=0.27, 0.99). Use of the semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach yielded a posterior aHR for lung cancer of 0.66 (95% posterior limits=0.44, 0.98) and a posterior aHR for UADT cancers of 0.58 (95% posterior limits=0.33, 1.03). Our findings suggest that lung-cancer patients with the CC variant of PPARD rs3734254 may have a survival advantage over lung-cancer patients with other gene variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A cooperative study on the standardized total-tract digestible phosphorus requirement of twenty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Azain, M J; Carter, S D; Crenshaw, T D; Estienne, M J; Kerr, B J; Lindemann, M D; Maxwell, C V; Miller, P S; Shannon, M C; van Heugten, E

    2015-12-01

    A cooperative study comprising growth performance, bone mineralization, and nutrient balance experiments was conducted at 11 stations to determine the standardized total-tract digestible (STTD) P requirement of 20-kg pigs using broken-line regression analysis. Monocalcium phosphate and limestone were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet at the expense of cornstarch to establish 6 concentrations of STTD P from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg in increments of 0.62 g/kg at a constant Ca:total P of 1.52:1.0. Diets were fed to 936 pigs (average initial BW of 19 kg) in 240 pens for 20 replicate pens of barrows and 20 replicate pens of gilts per diet. As STTD P increased from 1.54 to 5.15 g/kg of the diet for d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, and 0 to 28, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased ( < 0.01). Barrows gained and ate more ( < 0.05) than gilts during d 14 to 28 and 0 to 28. There was no interaction between sex and STTD P concentration for any of the growth performance response criteria. There were both linear and quadratic increases ( < 0.05) in mineral density and content of ash, Ca, and P in the femur expressed as a percentage of dry, fat-free metacarpal as dietary STTD P increased. Furthermore, the maximum load of the femur and mineral density and content and maximum load as well as the Ca and P expressed as a percentage of metacarpal ash linearly increased ( < 0.01) with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. There were both linear and quadratic increases ( < 0.01) in apparent digestibility and retention of P with increasing concentrations of STTD P in the diets. Digestibility and retention of Ca linearly ( < 0.01) increased with increasing dietary concentrations of STTD P. Breakpoints determined from nonlinear broken-line regression analyses revealed estimates of 4.20 ± 0.102, 3.20 ± 0.036, or 3.87 ± 0.090 g/kg for ADG during d 0 to 14, 14 to 28, or 0 to 28, respectively. Corresponding estimates using G:F as the response criterion were 4.34 ± 0.146, 3.38 ± 0.139, or 4.08 ± 0

  7. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  8. 12.DIGESTIVE TRACT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    12.2.Stomach and duodenum930685 Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori insome inhabitants of Beijing district.ZHANG Qiboet al.1st Teach Hosp,Beijing Med Univ,Bei-jing,100034.Beijing Med J 1993;15(4):212-214.With the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay(ELISA),we estimated 200 healthy blood

  9. 消化道肿瘤与微生物感染%Gastrointestinal tract tumors and microbial infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 马军

    2013-01-01

    An increasing amount of data suggests the association of gastrointestinal tract tumor with microbial infections (bacterial colonization, virus and parasitic infection) . It is crucial importance to consider these inducers in cancer development, cell differentiation and transformation, cell cycle deregulation and the expression of tumor-associated genes. In this paper, the pathogen-induced tumorigenesis in gastrointestinal tract tumor were reviewed and to provide new insights into novel gastrointestinal tract tumor treatments.%越来越多的数据表明,胃肠道肿瘤与微生物感染(细菌定植、病毒和寄生虫感染)有关.这些诱导因素在消化道肿瘤的发生发展、细胞分化和转化、细胞周期失调和肿瘤相关基因表达中的作用值得重视.本文对细菌、病毒和寄生虫在消化道肿瘤(胃癌、结直肠癌和肝细胞癌)致癌机制的研究进展作一概述,旨在为消化道肿瘤的治疗提供新见解.

  10. Tumor markers for diagnosis, monitoring of recurrence and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal tract cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jie-Xian; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Ting; Tian, Bao-Guo; Du, Li-Li; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Han, Cun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the value of combined detection of serum CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS for the clinical diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) cancer and to analyze the efficacy of these tumor markers (TMs) in evaluating curative effects and prognosis. A total of 573 patients with upper GIT cancer between January 2004 and December 2007 were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were examined preoperatively and every 3 months postoperatively by ELISA. The sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, CA24-2, AFP, CA72-4, SCC, TPA and TPS were 26.8%, 36.2%, 42.9%, 2.84%, 25.4%, 34.6%, 34.2% and 30.9%, respectively. The combined detection of CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 had higher sensitivity and specificity in gastric cancer (GC) and cardiac cancer, while CEA+CA199+CA242+SCC was the best combination of diagnosis for esophageal cancer (EC). Elevation of preoperative CEA, CA19-9 and CA24-2, SCC and CA72-4 was significantly associated with pathological types (pdiagnosis of EC; CEA+CA199+CA242+CA724 proved to be a better evaluation indicator for cardiac cancer and GC. CEA and CA19-9, CA24-2, CA72-4 and SCC, examined postoperatively during follow-up, were useful to find early tumor recurrence and metastasis, and evaluate prognosis. AFP, TPA and TPS have no significant value in diagnosis of patients with upper GIT cancer.

  11. 方格星虫消化道发育与摄食研究%Study on Sipunculus nudus Digestive Tract Development and Food Intake Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童潼; 邹杰; 蔡德建; 彭慧婧; 杨家林; 文雪

    2011-01-01

    观察研究室内育苗、池塘中间培育和海区养殖过程中的方格星虫的消化道发育和摄食特点。结果表明,方格星虫消化道结构由"C"环结构发育成双肠环结构,变态7~10d后,发育完善;消化道随体长和生长日龄增加而增大,成体方格星虫消化道约为其体长的4倍;摄食饵料由单胞藻转变为底栖藻类和有机碎屑,幼体摄食最大沙粒径小于翻吻触手基径;方格星虫具有沙表进食习性。%By observing the Sipunculus nudus from indoor nursery,pond culture and sea farming,the digestive tract development and food intake behaviors were studied.The result showed that the digestive tract of Sipunculus nudus changed to forming a double helix and composed of two coiled loops developed from the shape "C" circle.The complete structure development needed 7~10 days after metamorphosis.The length of digestive tract grew longer and wider,which was about 4 times as long as the body length of the mature one.The food intake changed from unicellular algae to benthic algae and organic detritus.The sand size that the larve could eat was smaller than the diameter length of tentacle base,which indicated that the Sipunculus nudus searched food from the sand surface.

  12. Site Specific Effect of Tobacco Addiction in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Tumors: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An institutional study was carried out in 102 patients to investigate the site specific effect of addictions, that is, tobacco smoking and tobacco chewing (smokeless, both independently and synergistically in development of malignancies in upper aerodigestive tract through retrograde questionnaire. The histopathologically proven cases were interviewed regarding different forms of addictions followed by clinical examination and investigations for grading (according to Modified Broadmann’s method and TNM staging (according to UICC according to the tumor site. Statistical analysis was done by Pearson test. Out of all proven cases of cancers, 29.4% were only tobacco chewers (smokeless, 25.5% were only smokers, 42.2% were having both types of tobacco addictions (smoke and smokeless, and only 2.9% were having no addiction. Out of only tobacco chewers (smokeless, 83.3% were of oral cavity cancers, 6.7% were of oro- and hypopharynx and the rest were of others. Among only smokers, 69.2% cases were of laryngeal and oro- and hypopharynx as compared to 11.5% of oral cavity cancers (nearly 6 times. Tobacco (smokeless chewing is associated with oral cancers whereas tobacco smoking is associated with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco act in synergy with each other.

  13. The influence of grinding and pelleting of feed on the microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, R M; Hedemann, M S; Jensen, B B

    2002-09-01

    1. The influence of feed grinding (coarsely or finely ground feed) and feed form (mash or pellets) on the intestinal environment was investigated in a growth experiment with broiler chickens taking the intestinal microflora, intestinal viscosity, and the activities of pancreatic digestive enzymes into consideration. 2. As compared to mash the feeding of pellets was associated with a significantly higher body weight due to increased feed intake and improved feed utilisation. 3. Pellet-fed birds had significantly decreased gizzard weights, a higher gizzard pH and a lower intestinal pH than mash-fed birds. 4. Pellet-fed birds had significantly lower relative pancreas weights and lower activities of pancreatic digestive enzymes (amylase, lipase, chymotrypsin), which indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism, which may have been triggered by the intestinal concentration of enzymatically hydrolysed products or of the respective digestive enzymes. 5. Pellet-fed birds had larger numbers of coliform bacteria and enterococci in the ileum and a reduced number of Clostridium perfringens and lactobacilli in the distal end of the digestive tract (caeca and rectum). Microbial fermentation in terms of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was found to be significantly higher in the caeca of pellet-fed birds than in mash-fed birds.

  14. Cereal β-glucan alters nutrient digestibility and microbial activity in the intestinal tract of pigs, and lower manure ammonia emission: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Zebeli, Q

    2013-07-01

    Cereal β-glucan may be detrimental in pig production because of negative effects on nutrient digestibility, but they may act as functional ingredients by stimulating the intestinal microbiota. This study primarily aimed to investigate relations between dietary β-glucan and nutrient digestibility, intestinal fermentation, and manure NH3 emission in weaned, growing, and finishing pigs. Effects of dietary xylose, NDF, and CP, and pig BW on animal responses were also evaluated. A meta-analytical approach, accounting for inter- and intraexperiment variations, was used to compute prediction models. Data from 26 studies including 107 different dietary treatments with appropriate dietary and physiological measurements were used to parameterize these models. Dietary β-glucan inclusion ranged from 0 to 6.7%. Increasing dietary β-glucan reduced apparent ileal (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP and energy (R(2) = 0.12 to 0.29; P pigs counteracted (P Pig BW also enhanced effects of β-glucan on cecal total VFA, colonic iso-butyrate, ileal butyrate, and NH3 emission (P < 0.05). Dietary CP potentiated (P < 0.01) the β-glucan effects on cecal total VFA, cecal butyrate, and colonic iso-butyrate. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-glucan can stimulate cecal butyrate and ameliorate manure NH3 emission, thereby decreasing nutrient digestibility. Because greater BW ameliorates β-glucan effects, finishing diets may be formulated to contain more β-glucan than weaner diets.

  15. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  16. True total-tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal for fifteen-kilogram pigs are additive in corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the additivity of true total-tract P digestibility (TPD) in corn and soybean meal (SBM) for 15-kg pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an average initial BW of 14.7±1.6 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of 6 diets. Three P sources included corn, SBM, and their mixture at a ratio of 2:1. Each P source was provided at low or high level. The diets were fed for a 5-d adjustment period followed by a total collection period of 7 d with ferric oxide as a marker to determine the initiation and termination of fecal collection. The results showed the high P level of each P source increased (P<0.001) P intake, fecal P output, and digested P compared with the low P level. The respective apparent total-tract digestibility of P were 35.66 and 40.57% for low and high P levels in corn, 35.72 and 38.04% for low and high P levels in SBM, and 41.85 and 38.53% for low and high P levels in the corn-soybean meal mixture without significant difference between P levels within P sources. Regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TPD was estimated at 40.53, 35.96, and 37.52% for corn, SBM, and their mixture, respectively. The expected TPD in corn and SBM mixture was calculated to be 37.92% based upon the P contribution coefficient calculated to be 0.428 for corn and 0.572 for SBM. The determined TPD (37.52%) in the mixture was not statistically different from the expected (37.92%). In conclusion, the TPD in corn and SBM are additive in corn-soybean meal diet for pigs.

  17. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp. or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.. Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors.

  18. Influence of diet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility, and nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggum, B O; Thorbek, G; Beames, R M

    1982-01-01

    1. Balance trials with respiration measurements were performed with twelve rats and twelve pigs given either low- or high-crude-fibre diets. There were six collection periods with the rats over a live-weight range of 86-264 g and three collection periods with the pigs over a live-weight range of 30...... microflora. 4. For rats on low-crude-fibre diets, a reduction in microflora reduced digestibility of all nutrients and energy and metabolizability of digestible energy by approximately 5.4%. All differences were highly significant. On high-crude-fibre diets the decrease was approximately 5.9%. In pigs...... a maximum when the rats were approximately 60 d old and thereafter decreased with increasing age. However, for pigs daily N retention increased with age. The retained N: digested N value decreased linearly with age in the rats, but varied little with age over the range (104-146 d) studied in the pigs. 6...

  19. Controle neuronal e manifestações digestórias na paralisia cerebral Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Liubiana A.; Silva, Luciana R; Mendes,Fabiana A.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Abordar as peculiaridades do controle neuronal digestório e descrever as principais manifestações digestórias na paralisia cerebral, atentando-se à importância do diagnóstico precoce para intervenção interdisciplinar eficaz. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática de 1997 a 2012 das bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO e Cochrane Library. Incluem-se 70 artigos, como revisões relevantes, estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos e estudos de prevalência. Excluíram-se pesquisas qualit...

  20. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae = Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ziliani Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pósflexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origemanimal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no períodonoturno.The aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night.

  1. Endoscopic laser surgery of patients with pretumoral diseases and tumors of the organs of respiration and gastro-intestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Boris K.; Ungiadze, G. V.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Efimov, Oleg N.; Mazurov, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    The result of treatment of 566 patients with precancerous diseases, cancer and benign tumors of respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract are presented. The `Raduga-1' as a source of laser radiation has been used. The wavelength of radiation 1060 nm. The maximum of basic radiation at the end of lightguide is 50 W. It is shown that the method of endoscopic laser destruction is a highly effective one and may be recommended for radical treatment.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast at two dosages on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J

    2012-07-01

    The experimental objective was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast (LCY; Procreatin-7, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Milwaukee, WI) at 2 dosages in high-starch (HS) diets [30% starch in dry matter (DM)] on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows compared with HS or low-starch (LS; 20% starch in DM) non-LCY diets. Sixty-four multiparous Holstein cows (114 ± 37 d in milk and 726 ± 74 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to 32 electronic gate feeders (2 cows per feeder), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design. A 2-wk covariate adjustment period with cows fed a 50:50 mixture of the HS and LS diets was followed by a 12-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diets. The HS diets were fed without (HS0) and with 2 (HS2) or 4 (HS4) g/cow per day of LCY. The LS diet did not contain LCY (LS0) and was formulated by partially replacing dry ground shelled corn with soy hulls. Cows fed LS0 consumed more DM than cows fed HS diets during wk 3, 10, 11, and 12. Yields of actual (44.5 kg/d, on average), fat-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content tended to be greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS2 but not different from HS4. Milk urea nitrogen contents were greater for cows fed LS0 than for cows fed the HS diets. Feed conversion (kg of milk/kg of DM intake) was numerically greater for HS diets than for LS0. Ruminal pH was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate was greater, whereas that of propionate was lower, for LS0 compared with HS diets. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were greater for HS2 and HS4 than for HS0. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater for HS4 than for HS0 and HS2. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were greater for LS0 than for HS diets; starch digestibility was

  3. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  4. 三氧化二砷在消化系恶性肿瘤治疗中的作用%Role of arsenic trioxide in the treatment of malignant tumors of the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常圆; 杨甜; 关景明

    2012-01-01

    三氧化二砷(arsenic trioxide,As2O3),中药名为砒霜,在临床上的应用有悠久的历史,经过多年的实验室研究和临床应用,AS2O3在抗肿瘤方面有确切的疗效,他是治疗急性早幼粒细胞白血病的有效药物之一,且不良反应较小,其主要机制为诱导细胞凋亡.目前As2O3已用于多种实体肿瘤的治疗,且在消化系肿瘤如肝癌的临床治疗中,疗效确切.近年来,在消化系统肿瘤的体外细胞系和体内动物模型的研究中均发现,As2O3能够诱导胃癌、胰腺癌、肝癌和结肠癌细胞凋亡,同时对癌细胞的生长起抑制作用.因此,研究As2O3在消化系恶性肿瘤防治中的作用具有重要意义.本文结合国内外文献对As2O3在治疗消化系恶性肿瘤中的作用作一综述.%Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), also named arsenic, is a main ingredient of numerous traditional Chinese herbal recipes and has a long history of clinical application. It has positive anticancer effects and is effective in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia without toxic and side effects. As2O3 can induce apoptosis of cancer cells. In recent years, it has been found that As2O3 has an apoptosis-promoting effect on tumor cells in many human solid tumors, including liver cancer. Many in vitro and in vivo studies using digestive tract tumor cell lines or animal model have found that As2O3 can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of digestive tract cancer cells. Therefore, As2O3 may have an important role in the prevention of malignant tumors of the digestive system. In this article, we discuss the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms by which As2O3 induces apoptosis of digestive tract cancer cells.

  5. Continuation Study of Entinostat in Combination With Pembrolizumab in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Bronchial Neoplasms; Lung Neoplasms; Respiratory Tract Neoplasms; Thoracic Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Endocrine Gland Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Lung Diseases; Breast Diseases; Renal Neoplasm; Solid Tumors

  6. Positron emission tomography in digestive neuroendocrine tumors: choice of the tracer; Apport de la tomographie par emission de positons dans les tumeurs endocrines digestives: choix du traceur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de La Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2009-11-15

    Digestive endocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasm sharing common characteristics such as their high density of peptide receptors, their ability to take up amino acids and de-carboxylate them into biogenic amines and their low glycolytic activity. These features are used for nuclear imaging targeting. To date, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is considered the 'gold standard' imaging procedure of well-differentiated tumors. Despite the significant contribution of SPECT/CT, the use of positron emission tomography imaging (PET) is growing rapidly. Three PET imaging modalities are currently available: {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs PET, {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine PET ({sup 18}F-DOPA) and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose PET ({sup 18}F-F.D.G.). This article focuses on the current targets of molecular imaging and highlights the potential clinical applications of new targets. (authors)

  7. Severe Bone Marrow Suppression Accompanying Pulmonary Infection and Hemorrhage of the Digestive Tract Associated with Leflunomide and Low-dose Methotrexate Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Caihong; Lu, Ying; Liu, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    A 60-year-old male patient developed hyperpyrexia, cough, expectoration with blood-stained sputum, mouth ulcers, and suppurative tonsillitis after receiving 35 days of combination treatment with leflunomide (LEF) and low-dose methotrexate (MTX) for active rheumatoid arthritis. On admission, routine blood tests showed severe thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and decreased hemoglobin concentration compared with the relatively normal results of 1 month previously during the first hospitalization. Chest radiography revealed inflammation in both lungs, and a fecal occult blood test was positive. Given this presentation, severe bone marrow suppression accompanying pulmonary infection and hemorrhage of the digestive tract associated with LEF and MTX combination therapy was diagnosed. After 28 days of symptomatic treatment, the patient's complications subsided gradually. This case highlighted that bone marrow suppression associated with MTX and LEF combination therapy could be very serious, even at a normal dose or especially at the beginning of treatment. MTX and LEF combination therapy should be used with caution or be limited in those with a history of pulmonary disease, hemorrhage of the digestive tract, or other relevant diseases.

  8. Effects of fasting and refeeding on the digestive tract of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a high protein feed source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Calabrò, Concetta; Bertuccio, Clara; Paterniti, Irene; Palombieri, Deborah; Calò, Margherita; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Gabriella Denaro, Maria

    2017-01-03

    In the present work, morphological and molecular effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on zebrafish digestive tract were determined. Once elucidated the proximate composition of Spirulina feed, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of peptide transporter (PepT1) and cholecystokinin (CCK8) were carried out in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish, previously morphologically investigated. Two and five fasting days caused not only morphostructural alterations, but also the downregulation of PepT1 and CCK8 proteins. Conversely, the recovery of normal morphological conditions, along with an increased PepT1 and CCK8 expression, were observed after refeeding with Spirulina. The increase of PepT1 expression in zebrafish may be responsible for the enhanced CCK8 secretion, so that both proteins may contribute to an improved digestion process during refeeding. These observations could be supported not only by compensatory mechanisms induced by fasting and refeeding but also by an higher protein quality of Spirulina-based diet.

  9. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-05-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  10. 上消化道出血的临床护理体会%The Clinical Nursing Experience of Upper Digestive Tract Bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿洪霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical nursing of upper digestive tract bleeding is to be investigated.Methods Analyze the clinical nursing data selected from 24 patients of upper digestive tract bleeding who are treated in hospital from January 2012 to June 2014.Results Of al 24 patients,18 patients are cured and 5 patients have an improvement in health state,and other one patient has been transferred to special surgery clinic after treatment and attendance. Conclusion With the aid of intervention nursing and attendance,patients’ haematemesis and hematochezia times and hemorrhage amount have been reduced greatly or stopped. And patients’ vital signs are within the normal range.%目的:探讨上消化道大量出血的临床护理。方法选取2012年1月~2014年6月收治的上消化道出血患者24例临床护理资料进行分析。结果经治疗及护理,24例患者中治愈18例,好转5例,专外科1例。结论通过进入治疗及护理,使呕血、便血的次数及出血量减少,或停止,患者的生命体征维持在正常范围。

  11. Production of tumor necrosis factor-a is increased in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Susilaningsih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common source of bacteriemia. The most common cause of UTI is Escherichia coli (E. coli. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-á gene polymorphism has been reported to be responsible for an excessive production of TNF-á and eventual disruption of pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation. The aim of this study was to compare TNF-á serum levels and TNF-á allele polymorphisms in patients with UTI due to E.coli and in non- UTI controls. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Kariadi Central Hospital and the Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang. In 68 patients with UTI the TNF-á serum levels were determined by means of ELISA and compared to those of non-UTI controls (n=55. TNFá- 308G>A gene polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length using the NcoI enzyme. Fragments were visualized on polyacrylamide gel with silver staining. RESULTS TNF-á serum level in patients with UTI had a median of 8.9 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than the median of 3.7 pg/mL in the control group (pA gene polymorphisms found in the patient group were G/G=61 (90%, G/A=7(10% and A/A=0, while in the control group were G/G=48 (87%, G/A=7 (13% and A/A =0. There was no significant differences (p=0.578 in gene polymorphisms between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS TNF-á serum levels in patients with UTI due to E. coli were significantly higher than in non-UTI controls, but for the TNF-á-380 gene polymorphisms no significant difference was found between the two groups. There are presumably more important factors than host genotype that influence UTI pathogenesis.

  12. Herpes simplex virus lower respiratory tract infection in patients with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Gabriel M; Aisenberg, Galbiel; Torres, Harrys A; Torres, Harrys; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Safdar, Amar; Bodey, Gerald; Chemaly, Roy F

    2009-01-01

    The clinical significance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolated in lower respiratory tract specimens (LRTS) of patients with solid tumors (ST) is unknown. In the current study, the authors attempted to determine the clinical relevance of this finding among ST patients. The authors reviewed records of ST patients admitted to the study institution between April 2000 and April 2004 with clinical and radiologic evidence of pneumonia, and HSV identified in LRTS by culture alone or culture and cytology. Patients were categorized as having proven (HSV identified by culture and cytology from the LRTS), probable (HSV as the sole pathogen by culture alone), and possible (HSV along with copathogens identified by culture) HSV pneumonia. Forty-five ST patients with either proven (6 patients), probable (25 patients), or possible (14 patients) HSV pneumonia were identified. When compared with patients with probable or possible HSV pneumonia, more patients with proven infection were on mechanical ventilation (40% vs 50% vs 100%, respectively; P=.03), and had longer length of stay in the intensive care unit (12 days vs 13 days vs 26 days, respectively; P=.05). The overall mortality rate was 22% (10 patients). Four of 25 (16%) patients who received HSV-directed antiviral therapy died during their hospital stay versus 6 of 20 (30%) who were not treated (P=.3). None of the 6 patients with proven HSV pneumonia who were treated with acyclovir died. On univariate analysis, risk factors for mortality included underlying breast cancer, an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score>15, admission to the intensive care unit, and use of mechanical ventilation and vasopressors (all P15 being found to be independent predictors of death by multiple logistic regression analysis (all P

  13. Production of tumor necrosis factor-á is increased in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Susilaningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common source of bacteriemia. The most common cause of UTI is Escherichia coli (E. coli. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-á gene polymorphism has been reported to be responsible for an excessive production of TNF-á and eventual disruption of pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation. The aim of this study was to compare TNF-á serum levels and TNF-á allele polymorphisms in patients with UTI due to E.coli and in non-UTI controls. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dr. Kariadi Central Hospital and the Center for Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University, Semarang. In 68 patients with UTI the TNF-á serum levels were determined by means of ELISA and compared to those of non-UTI controls (n=55. TNF-á-308G>A gene polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length using the NcoI enzyme. Fragments were visualized on polyacrylamide gel with silver staining. Results TNF-á serum level in patients with UTI had a median of 8.9 pg/mL, which was significantly higher than the median of 3.7 pg/mL in the control group (pA gene polymorphisms found in the patient group were G/G=61 (90%, G/A=7(10% and A/A=0, while in the control group were G/G=48 (87%, G/A=7 (13% and A/A =0. There was no significant differences (p=0.578 in gene polymorphisms between the two groups. Conclusions TNF-á serum levels in patients with UTI due to E. coli were significantly higher than in non-UTI controls, but for the TNF-á-380 gene polymorphisms no significant difference was found between the two groups. There are presumably more important factors than host genotype that influence UTI pathogenesis.

  14. [Oncological outcomes of laparoscopic and open treatment (nephroureterectomy) for urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotrecchiano, Giuseppe; Delle Cave, Aldo; Tripodi, Vincenzo; De Fortuna, Enrico; Quaranta, Antonio; Attanasi, Franco; Salzano, Luigi

    2012-12-30

    Currently, the treatment of choice in urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract is nephroureterectomy (NU) as an Open procedure (ONU), though the laparoscopic treatment is now routinely performed as a minimally invasive therapy (LNU). LNU has demonstrated oncologic safety at least equivalent to open, but some issues dealing with cancer still remain. We retrospectively analyzed data from 36 LNU performed between 2006 and 2010, compared with data of 32 ONU performed in 2002-2005 (pre-laparoscopy era). The mean follow-up was 23 months in patients undergoing LNU and 42 months for those treated with ONU. In particular, we evaluated cancer recurrence, the site of recurrence and survival rates. We had local recurrence in 3 patients (8.3%) after LNU and 2 after ONU (6.25%). 2 patients who underwent LNU (5.5%) died of metastatic disease at 9 and 12 months; 3 patients who underwent ONU (9.3%) died of metastasis at 12, 16 and 23 months, respectively. Bladder recurrence was observed in 3 patients after ONU and in 4 after LNU. The most frequent sites of cancer recurrence were: local recurrence (3 LUN, 2 ONU), 1 laparoscopic port recurrence, 3 regional lymph node recurrences (2 LNU, 1ONU), bladder recurrences (3 LNU, 4 ONU). There were no significant differences in disease recurrence and even survival rates at 1 and 3 years were not very different between the two techniques. The grade and stage of cancer affecting the incidence of metastatic disease, as well as the localization of early disease (pelvis-ureter-both) is a negative prognostic factor, rather than the surgical technique used. Therefore, there is no evidence that the control is compromised in cancer patients treated with LNU rather than with ONU.

  15. Morfometria do trato digestório da tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa criada em sistema comercial Digestive tract morphometric of tartaruga-da-Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa kept in commercial captive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira Luz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de parâmetros morfométricos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestórios dos alimentos no organismo animal e indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Foram amostrados, bimensalmente, 100 filhotes capturados aleatoriamente em oito criadouros no município de Diorama, Goiás. O experimento foi conduzido com animais entre 23 a 29 meses de idade, que tiveram seus desempenhos avaliados por medidas biométricas do comprimento retilíneo da carapaça e do peso. Para o cálculo das relações corporais dos órgãos tomou-se como base o peso vivo individual de cinco tartarugas, em cada idade estudada, perfazendo um total de quatro colheitas com 20 exemplares de cada criadouro. As análises de comparação de médias foram realizadas pelo teste de Duncan. Os resultados indicaram que o estômago representou maior percentual do trato digestório, com 44,20%, seguido pelo intestino delgado, 28,48%, e o intestino grosso, com 20,93%, baseados na relação corporal com o TGI vazio. O TGI cheio apresentou comprimento médio de 72,75 cm. Para o intestino delgado foi obtida a média de 46,68 cm e para o intestino grosso 14,00 cm. As análises das relações corporais indicaram que o estômago e o intestino delgado apresentaram maior capacidade de armazenamento, sugerindo que desempenham importante função na digestão de alimentos consumidos.It is necessary to carry out a study that focuses on the morphometrical parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (TGI, which can provide subsidies for getting knowledge about the digestive processes that happen into the animal organism. Bimontly, it was sampled 100 P. expansa hatchlings, which were randomly captured from eight commercial flocks located at the county of Diorama, State of Goiás/Brazil. The experiment was conducted with animals of 23 to 29 months of ages, from which the biometrical measures were taken, in order to evaluate their growth

  16. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  17. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  18. Effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot, Scophthalmus maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Muyan; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang; CHEN Chao

    2006-01-01

    The protease activity in digestive tract of young turbot Scophthalmus maximum was studied, and the optimal pH, temperature and NaCl concentration were determined for different portions of the fish's internal organs. The optimal activity in the fish's stomach was at pH of 2.2, while that in the intestinal extracts was within the alkaline range from 9.5 to 10.0. In hepatopancreas, the optimal pH was in low alkalinity at 8.5. The optimal reaction temperature was above 40℃ in stomach, intestine and hepatopancreas. With increasing temperature, the pH value increased in stomach, while in the intestine, an opposite tendency was observed due to combined effect of pH and temperature. NaCl concentration showed inhibitory impact on protein digestion in hepatopancreas. The main protease for protein digestion in turbot seemed to be pepsin. Moreover, the maximum protease activity in different segments of intestine existed in the hindgut.

  19. Determination of the major compounds in the extract of the subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus Hagen digestive tract by GC-MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Subekti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of woody components by termites is associated with symbionts inside their digestive tract. In this study, the major compounds were determined in the extract of the termite guts by GC-MS method. Macrotermes gilvus Hagen (worker caste termites were collected and their dissected guts underwent methanol extraction. It was found that the gut of the termites has an alkaline environment (pH 8.83 ± 0.31 that supports the digestion of lignocellulose biomass and also helps to solubilize phenolic and recalcitrant compounds resul­ting from the depolymerization of woody components. The GC-MS analysis showed that termite guts contained hydrophobic organosilicon components including dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, tetradecamethylcyclohexa­siloxane, hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane, and octasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11,13,13,15,15-hexa­decamethyl. The guts also contained a phytosterol, which was identified as β-sitosterol. Further analysis of these water-insoluble compounds is needed to reveal their importance in termite digestion.

  20. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2012-12-01

    The working hypothesis was that a minor postprandial caecal pH decline would affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of the fibre fraction in horses and, hence, that soluble fibre would amplify fermentation and consequently increase ATTD of fibre. This study was a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (Group H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (Group OB) or barley (Group BB) and hay plus loose chaff based concentrate (Group M). Four horses fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and collection harnesses were used. A pH electrode with logger was inserted through the cannula and caecal pH was recorded at 1 min intervals for 8 h. The mobile nylon bag technique was used to quantify pre-caecal loss (PCL) of individual feedstuffs. Fibre was analysed as dietary fibre (DF), non-starch polysaccharides, soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP), insoluble non-cellulosic polysaccharide (I-NCP) and neutral detergent fibre. The ATTD of the S-NCP fraction was above 0.8, which was 60% higher than for the I-NCP fraction. The PCL of starch were 0.98 (oats) and 0.75 (barley). The BB diet lowered (p NCP (r = -0.66; p = 0.005). In conclusion, this study successfully measured the in vivo digestibility of individual fibre fractions and found that S-NCP was more digestible than the I-NCP, and that a single meal of unprocessed barley was sufficient to decrease caecal pH to such an extent that the fibre digestibility of the whole diet was negatively affected.

  1. Influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2010-10-01

    1. The influence of conditioning temperature on the performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on maize- and wheat-based diets was examined up to 21 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two grain types (maize and wheat) and three conditioning temperatures (60°C, 75°C and 90°C). Broiler starter diets, each based on one grain (maize or wheat), were formulated and pelleted at the three temperatures. 2. Increasing conditioning temperature decreased the body-weight gain and feed intake in wheat-based diets, but birds fed on maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C had higher body-weight gain and feed intake than those fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C. Increasing conditioning temperature increased feed per body-weight gain in both grain-type diets but improved pellet durability index (PDI) only in wheat-based diets; PDI was unaffected in maize-based diets. 3. In wheat-based diets, increasing conditioning temperature decreased the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. Ileal nitrogen digestibility of maize-based diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C was higher than at 75°C. Starch digestibility was unaffected by conditioning temperature in maize-based diets. No effect of conditioning temperature was found for apparent metabolisable energy (AME). Increasing conditioning temperature decreased digestible protein and AME intakes in wheat-based diets but, in maize-based diets, birds fed on the diet conditioned at 75°C had lower digestible protein and AME intakes compared to those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C and 90°C. 4. Small intestine was longer in birds fed on diets conditioned at 75°C and 90°C compared with those fed on diets conditioned at 60°C. 5. Overall, the data suggest that while the effects of conditioning temperature on body-weight gain and feed intake of broilers to 21 d of age differed depending on the grain type, feed per body-weight gain

  2. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse

  3. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and

  4. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and Have

  5. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and Have

  6. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  7. Histology of the digestive tract of Satanoperca pappaterra (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.8956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Segatti Hahn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available the esophagus, stomach and intestine of Satanoperca pappaterra using histological techniques. The species presents detritivore-invertivore feeding habit and is widely distributed in Neotropical continental waters. The esophagus is short, the stomach is small with saccular form and the intestine is long. The histological sections were stained using hematoxylin/eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff. Throughout the digestive tract, the gastric wall is composed by four different tunicae: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa, besides distinct intrinsic innervation represented by the submucosal and myenteric ganglionated plexuses. Depending on the organ, several characteristics were peculiar such as the external muscle layer of the esophagus that permeates the submucosa; a single sphincter between the stomach and intestine; stomach without differentiated regions; intestine histologically and physiologically divided into two regions (proximal and distal, considering the villi height and spacing besides the density of the goblet cells. 

  8. Effects of some organic acids and salts on microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets estimated using an in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used to screen different organic acids (formic, propionic, lactic, citric, and fumaric acid, organic salts (calcium formate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate, and inorganic phosphoric acid for their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. For the incubation, 40 ml of culture medium (53% buffer, 45% frozen ileal digesta, and 2% fresh faeces was dispensed in vessels containing 5 ml of buffer, 0.5 g of feed, and 20 ìl of liquid or 20 mg of solid acidifiers. Gas production was measured every 15 min during the 24 h incubation at 39°C, and a Gompertz bacterial growth model was applied to the gas production data. Formic acid was the only acid that reduced the maximum rate of gas production (ìm compared to that in the control treatment (P 0.05. When investigating formic-acid-based mixtures that contained 1–5% of potassium sorbate and/or sodium benzoate, the estimated parameters for the Gompertz growth model did not differ from those for treatments with plain formic acid (P > 0.05. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were reduced by all the mixtures (P 0.05. In conclusion, organic acids and salts were found to differ in their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. Mixing formic acid with potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate changed fermentation patterns, and the possibility to use them to enhance the antimicrobial effect of formic acid should be investigated further in vivo.;

  9. Brevibacillus laterosporus isolated from the digestive tract of honeybees has high antimicrobial activity and promotes growth and productivity of honeybee's colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Jamal M; Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Alzaharni, Khalid E; Sharafaddin, Anwar H; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alobaidi, Ahmed S; Bayaqoob, Noofal I; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-09-09

    The development of novel antimicrobial drugs, as well as the discovery of novel compounds able to promote honeybee's growth, represents major challenges for modern entomology. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether Brevibacillus laterosporus isolated from the digestive tract of Saudi honeybees, Apis mellifera, was able to stimulate colony strength parameters of honeybees and to evaluate its ability to produce antimicrobial agents. Honeybees were collected in Dirab, Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia, and microorganisms were isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Microscopic identification of the microorganism in its native state was facilitated by atomic force microscopy at high-resolution imaging. Active biological compounds were produced by submerged fermentation with B. laterosporus. The fermented broth was subjected to extraction and purification, and then semi-pure compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effectiveness of the crude extract and semi-pure compounds as antimicrobial agents was evaluated by susceptibility assays. More than 22% of the microorganisms isolated from the digestive tract of healthy honeybees have been identified as B. laterosporus, this kind of species has a unique shape and morphological structure. The cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Leu-Pro) produced by B. laterosporus showed biological activity against several pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the total counts of workers, closed brood, and open brood, as well as the production of bee pollen and honey, were better in honeybees treated with a B. laterosporus suspension. The data indicated that the B. laterosporus strain isolated from a healthy honeybee might be a novel probiotic and a producer of important biological compounds.

  10. 消化道浅表性瘤变的巴黎分型(更新版)%Update on the Paris Classification of Superficial Neoplastic lesions in the Digestive Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Endoscopic Classification Review Group

    2011-01-01

    Background and Study Aims:Neoplastic lesions in the digestive-tract mucosa are termed “superficial” when the depth of invasion is limited to the mucosa and submucosa.The endoscopic appearance has a predictive value for invasion into the submucosa,which is critical for the risk of nodal metastases.

  11. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  12. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  13. Use of whey protein beads as a new carrier system for recombinant yeasts in human digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Eric; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel; Alric, Monique

    2006-12-15

    A new immobilizing protocol using whey protein isolates was developed to entrap recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The model yeast strain expresses the heterologous P45073A1 that converts trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Beads resulted from a cold-induced gelation of a whey protein solution (10%) containing yeasts (7.5 x 10(7)cells ml(-1)) into 0.1M CaCl(2). The viability and growth capability of yeasts were not altered by our entrapment process. The release and activity of immobilized yeasts were studied in simulated human gastric conditions. During the first 60 min of digestion, 2.2+/-0.9% (n=3) of initial entrapped yeasts were recovered in the gastric medium suggesting that beads should cross the gastric barrier in human. The P45073A1 activity of entrapped yeasts remained significantly higher (pwhey protein beads. The main potential medical applications include biodetoxication or the correction of digestive enzyme deficiencies.

  14. Effect of Dietary Protein Level and Origin on the Redox Status in the Digestive Tract of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Le

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of high protein (soybean protein or casein on the balance between production of free radicals and antioxidant level in digestive organs of mice. For this purpose, male (C57BL/6J mice were adapted to experimental diets containing soybean protein or casein with 20% (normal protein diets, NPDs or 60% (high protein diets, HPDs, and HPDs supplemented with 0.06g/kg cysteamine. After two weeks of feeding, oxidative and antioxidative parameters in duodenum, liver and pancreas were measured. The results show that ingestion of high protein markedly increased contents of superoxide anion and malondialdehyde (MDA, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and Na+ K+-ATPase, and content of reduced glutathione (GSH in digestive organs of mice (P<0.05. Levels of oxidative parameters were lower and antioxidant capacity of both enzyme and non-enzyme was higher in mice fed with soybean protein than those fed with casein. In groups fed HPDs supplemented with cysteamine, oxidative stress was mitigated. However, oxidative parameter levels were still higher than those of NPD-fed groups. The present study indicates that ingestion of high protein diets could result in an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant, and thus induce oxidative stress in digestive organs of mice. The oxidative damage was smaller in mice fed with high level of soy protein in comparison with casein.

  15. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p phytic acid, but decreased (p phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  17. Modes of transmission of Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) via the skin and digestive tract in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S-J; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2004-08-01

    Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) is a significant cause of economic loss in cultured ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, in Japan, due to the unsightly appearance of infected fish harbouring xenomas in the body cavity. Modes of transmission of G. plecoglossi via the skin and digestive tract were studied in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Combined with Uvitex 2B and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays, the early development of G. plecoglossi was successfully traced. Following a bath exposure of fish Uvitex 2B-labelled G. plecoglossi spores were observed to attach to microscopic injuries (trypan blue-positive sites) of fish skin, after which ISH-positive sporoplasms were found to invade the epidermis as early as 5 min post-infection (PI), migrating rapidly to the subdermis. It was also shown that G. plecoglossi entering via the skin does not spread into the internal organs but develops into subdermal xenomas. After rainbow trout were exposed to G. plecoglossi spores by oral intubation, spores germinated in the intestinal lumen, followed by penetration of sporoplasms into the gut mucosal epithelium 5 min PI. In vitro trials determining stimulation factors (fish mucus, changes in pH, digestive enzymes) for the extrusion of the polar tube were inconclusive. The present study indicates that skin wounds and the gut epithelium can be portals of entry of G. plecoglossi and that natural infection in fish seems to occur perorally rather than via the skin.

  18. Shift of the pyramidal tract during resection of the intraaxial brain tumors estimated by intraoperative diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Norihiko; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hori, Tomokatsu; Iseki, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated the shift of the pyramidal tract during resection of 17 proximal intraaxial brain tumors. In each case intraoperative diffusion-weighted (iDW) magnetic resonance imaging with a motion-probing gradient applied in the anteroposterior direction was performed using a scanner with a 0.3 T vertical magnetic field. The position of the white matter bundles containing the pyramidal tract was estimated on the coronal images before and after resection of the neoplasm, and both quantitative and directional evaluation of its displacement was done. In all cases iDW imaging provided visualization of the structure of interest. The magnitude of the pyramidal tract displacement due to removal of the neoplasm varied from 0.5 to 8.7 mm (mean 4.4 +/- 2.5 mm) on the lesion side and from 0 to 3.6 mm (mean 1.3 +/- 1.1 mm) on the normal side (p iDW imaging with updated neuronavigation.

  19. Protozoa and digestive tract parameters in blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), with description of Entodinium taurinus n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A

    2012-11-01

    Rumen contents from four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and six black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou) were collected from two locations during two winter culling seasons. A total of 16 species of protozoa were found in blue wildebeest with Dasytricha ruminantium, Opisthotrichum janus and Ostracodinium gracile occurring in all four animals. In black wildebeest, 23 species of protozoa were observed with only Diplodinium bubalidis (caudal spine morphotype) and Ostracodinium damaliscus being present in all animals. In the blue wildebeest, the total number of species in an individual animal varied from 9 to 11 and in the black wildebeest, the number ranged from 4 to 14. Concentrations of cells per ml ranged from 1110 to 5880 in the blue wildebeest and 3120 to 6240 in the black wildebeest. This study is the first report on protozoa species in the blue and black wildebeest. A new species of Entodinium is described, Entodinium taurinus n. sp., observed in the rumen contents of three blue wildebeest. Several physical parameters of the digestive tract were also measured, including distribution, pH and density of gastrointestinal contents in different sections of the total tract. In vitro gas production was estimated for rumen, cecum and colon contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katherine M; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Cottam, Yvette H; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was calculated from the analyses of fecal samples collected from each cub (n = 4 on formula 1, and n = 2 on formula 2). Mean apparent total tract digestibility for both formulas was >90% for all nutrients analyzed (crude protein, amino acids, crude fat (CF), and dry matter). However, the total CF content and the concentration of the essential fatty acids, such as α-linolenic, linolenic, and arachidonic acid, of both formulas was lower than reported for maternal cheetah milk. Additionally, one formula contained a comparatively high amount of carbohydrate, at the expense of protein. Although data were lacking for cheetah maternal milk, comparison with domestic cat milk revealed high concentrations of a number of minerals (K, Fe, Zn, and Cu), while vitamin D(3) was not detected in one formula. Both formulas were low in the majority of essential amino acids compared with domestic cat maternal milk. Despite their apparently high digestibility, neither formula was complete or balanced in terms of nutrient concentrations and ratios when maternal cheetah milk and/or the requirements established for growth in domestic cats were used as estimates of ideal. On this basis, although all cubs in this study were healthy and maintained good body conditions for the duration of the trial, the results of dietary analyses indicate that these milk replacers may not provide optimal nutrition for growth in cheetah cubs when used for extended periods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract as seen in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... 14. da Lilly‑Tariah OB, Somefun AO, Adeyemo WL. Current evidence on the ... Muir C, Weiland L. Upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Cancer 1995 ... Adoga AS, John EN, Yiltok SJ, Echejoh GO, Nwaorgu OG. The pattern of ...

  2. 消化道炎性纤维性息肉14例临床病理分析%Inflammatory fibroid polyps in digestive tract:a clinical and pathological analysis of 14 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文婷; 林燕青; 曲利娟

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical and pathological features of inflammatory fibroid polyps ( IFPs) and to discuss its diag-nosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods Clinicopathological data of 14 cases of IFPs were collected and analyzed retro-spectively. Results Most of the 14 cases were found to have submucosal polyps of the digestive tract protruding growing into the cavi-ty. Perivascular onion skinning which formed by spindle fibrocytes around vascular proliferation and eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates were present as the characteristic feature of lesions. ABC results demonstrated that the lesions showed fibroblastic, myofibroblastic and dendritic cell signs. Conclusions IFPs are rare, benign tumors that can arise throughout the digestive tract, with unique histological changes in pathology. Surgical excision or endoscopic removal is the main treatment.%目的:探讨消化道炎性纤维性息肉( inflammatory fibroid polyps, IFPs)的临床病理学特征、诊断、鉴别诊断及临床治疗。方法回顾性分析14例消化道IFPs的临床病理学特征并复习相关文献。结果14例IFPs中大体表现多为黏膜下息肉样或半球形隆起性肿物,光镜下以增生的梭形纤维细胞围绕血管形成“洋葱皮样”外观及间质较多嗜酸性粒细胞浸润为主要组织学特征,免疫组化标记肿瘤细胞表达纤维和肌纤维母细胞及树突细胞表型。结论 IFPs是消化道少见的良性间叶性肿瘤,具有独特的病理组织学改变,手术或内镜下肿物完整切除是主要的治疗方法。

  3. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  4. Dauricine can inhibit the activity of proliferation of urinary tract tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Yuan Li; Xiong-Bing Zu; Min-Feng Chen; Lin Qi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of asiatic moonseed rhizome extraction-dauricine on bladder cancer EJ cell strain, prostate cancer PC-3Mcell strain and primary cell culture system. Methods: The main effective component-phenolic alkaloids of Menispermum dauricum was extracted and separated from asiatic moonseed rhizome by chemical method. MTT method was used to detect dauricine anti-tumor effect. Results: Dauricine had an obvious proliferation inhibition effect on the main tumor cells in urinary system. The minimum drug sensitivity concentration was between 3.81-5.15 μg/mL, and the inhibition ratio increased with the increase of concentration. Conclusions: Dauricine, the main effective component extracted from asiatic moonseed rhizome, had a good inhibition effect on tumor cells in urinary system. At the same time, Dauricine has certain inhibition effects on the primary cultured tumor cell.

  5. Perioperative nutritional support in patients with digestive ;tract cancer%消化道肿瘤患者围手术期的营养支持治疗措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淼; 朱珍; 律方

    2016-01-01

    Tumor patients are high -risk group of malnutrition, and the characteristics of pathophysiology of digestive tract tumor can aggravate the malnutrition , so the perioperative nutritional support should be planed and implemented for these patients. However, the understanding of nutritional support is still insufficient. Reducing preoperative fasting time, reasonable preoperative nutritional support, early postoperative enteral nutrition and multiple forms in combination are the optimal strategy of the perioperative nutritional treatment and management. As the condition of cancer patients is always complicated, in the practice of clinical implementation, medical guidelines, patients condition and clinical experience of the medical practitioners should be combined to accelerate the effect of nutritional support and to improve the outcome of the patients.%肿瘤患者是营养不良的高危人群,消化道肿瘤的病理生理特殊性会加重营养不良,因此,对于此类患者应实施围手术期营养支持治疗。然而,临床对围手术期营养支持治疗的认识仍有不足。减少术前禁食时间、术前合理应用营养支持、术后早期肠内营养及多形式联动是围手术期营养支持治疗的趋优组合策略。由于患者病情复杂多变,在临床实施过程中,医务工作者应结合指南、病情和临床经验,努力改善营养支持治疗的效果。

  6. Plastic debris in the digestive tract of sheep and goats: an increasing environmental contamination in Birjand, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Naeemipoor, Hossein; Hosseini, Mahdi

    2012-05-01

    A total of 230 goats and 185 sheep were evaluated in this cross-sectional observational study. After emptying the gastrointestinal tract, the size, location, adhesion and obstruction were examined. Twenty seven and half percent of sheep and 24 point 3 % of goats had foreign bodies. Most foreign bodies were plastic materials in sheep and goats. Forty percent of pregnant animals had foreign bodies. Drought and lack of adequate pastures in the past years have been a major cause of the swallowing of foreign objects by sheep and goats.

  7. [Study of various factors affecting the colonization of the digestive tract in white mice by Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P; Joly, J

    1976-03-01

    This paper deals with the quantitative localization of Candida albicans in different parts of white micr gastrointestinal tract after oral inoculation of the yeast. Animals are previously treated with ampicillin, cortisone, or estradiol. Female pregnant and normal adult mice are also used. Our results show that the number of yeasts increases respectively in small intestine, stomach, caecum, and sigmoid. As compared with normal adult mice, C. albicans is more abundant in mice treated wtih ampicillin or cortisone whereas the yeast growth is lower in pregnant animals or in mice receiving estradiol. Moreover, male animals ordinarily show higher values than those found in female mice.

  8. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315095,SRX315094,SRX315096,SRX315101,SRX315100 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315095,SRX315094,SRX315096,SRX315101,SRX315100 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  15. 皇冠沙鳅消化道组织学观察%Histological Observation on Digestive Tract of Chromobotia Macracanthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史晋绒; 杨琴; 王永明; 谢碧文

    2016-01-01

    采用解剖和光镜技术对皇冠沙鳅消化道的结构进行了详细观察.结果表明:皇冠沙鳅的消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃、肠及肛门5个部分组成,肠道系数为(0.53±0.02),为典型的肉食性鱼类.口咽腔及食道粘膜层上皮为复层扁平上皮,内含杯状细胞、粘液细胞,偶见味蕾分布;胃“U”形,粘膜层上皮为单层柱状上皮,无杯状细胞,贲门部及胃体部具丰富胃腺,幽门部稀少甚至消失,幽门部肌肉层发达.肠由前肠、中肠和后肠3个部分组成.前肠粘膜褶皱数最多,中肠粘膜褶皱最高,后肠杯状细胞最多且肌肉层最厚.皇冠沙鳅消化道的组织结构特点与其消化和吸收作用关系密切.%In order to investigate the relationship between histological structure of the digestive tract and the feeding habits of C .macracanthus ,morphology and histology of the digestive tract in C .macracanthus have been observed by vivisection and microscope technology . T he results are as follow s :the digestive tract of C . macracanthus is composed of buccopharyngeal cavity , oesophagus , stomach , intestine and anus .The relative gut length of these specific species is (0 .53 ± 0 .02) .There are a lot of goblet cells ,mu‐cous secretory cells and a few of taste buds in the stratified squamous epithelia of buccopharyngeal cavity and oesophagus .The stomach is “U” shaped and the mucosa epithelia is simple columner epithelium . There are no goblet cells in the mucosa epithelia ,but gestric glands in the cardiac and the fundic portion of stomach are abundant .The muscular coats of the pylorus portion is well‐developed .The intestine is com‐posed of cranial intestine ,mid intestine and retral intestine .With changes from cranial intestine to retral intestine ,the number of mucosal flods is reduced ,the number of goblet cells and the thickness of muscular coats are increased .Meanwhile ,the mucosal flods of

  16. 系统性硬化症的消化道X线表现%X-ray Features of the Digestive Tract in Sytemic Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宏生; 李卓; 李建龙; 蒋向农

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore X-ray features of systemic sclerosis's digestive tract. Methods The clinical and gastrointestinal X-ray angiogram materials of 23 patients with systemic sclerosis were retrospectively analysed. Results 20 cases of 23( 87% )patients with systemic sclerosis gastrointestinal X-ray were abnormal. Among of them,6 cases were esophageal mild diastole and peristalsis were slowed; 12 cases were esophageal apparent expansion ; peristalsis was ahate or disappear completely ; barium was stranded , and mucosa of esophageal segment was unclear;5 cases were gastroesophageal reflux; gastric peristalsis of 2 cases were abate and emptying delay. Small intestinal tension of 6 patients was reduced, peristalsis became weak ,harium pass through small intestine prolonged, mucosal became disappear or added thick to show a spring shape and parts of enteric cavity were narrow. Conclusion Correct understanding of the digestive tract imaging features of systemic sclerosis ,has an important guiding significance for prompt understanding its gastrointestinal involvement of the incidence , degree and its efficacy evaluation , improvemend and prognosis which.%目的 探讨系统性硬化症(SSc)的消化道X线表现.方法 回顾性分析23例SSc的临床及消化道X线资料.结果 23例SSc消化道X线异常者20例(87%),6例食管轻度舒张,蠕动减慢,黏膜正常;12例食管明显扩张,蠕动微弱或完全消失,钡剂长时间在食管内停留,食管下段黏膜不清;5例有胃食管反流;2例胃的蠕动功能减弱,排空延迟;6例小肠张力降低,蠕动变弱,钡剂通过时间延长,黏膜消失或增粗呈弹簧状弛张,部分管腔狭窄.结论 正确认识SSc的消化道造影表现,对于及时了解其消化道受累的发生、程度及其疗效评价、改善预后,具有重要的指导意义.

  17. [Revision of of the subfamily of Metaracoelophryinae de Puytorac 1972 (Oligohymenophora: Hoplytophryida: Hoplytophryidae), astome ciliates of the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms of Africa: description of five new species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokam, Z; Ngassam, P; Nana, P A; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Sime Ngando, T

    2012-02-01

    Five new species belonging to the astome ciliates, living in the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms belonging to the genus Alma from Cameroon, have been described. The techniques used are: vital staining, staining of the nucleus with Diamidino Phenyl Indol (DAPI), scanning electron microscopy and silver staining method (Fernandez Galiano, 1976, 1994). This work confirms the presence of the genus Paracoelophrya and Dicoelophrya in the digestive track of the oligochaete Alma from Gabon and Cameroon; it helps to understand the general taxonomy of this Metaracoelophryinae subfamily. Moreover, the homogeneity of this group is confirmed and the phylogenetic relationship inside the Hoplitophryida order need more studies to be solved.

  18. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  19. Hot topic: apparent total-tract nutrient digestibilities measured commercially using 120-hour in vitro indigestible neutral detergent fiber as a marker are related to commercial dairy cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, A; Meyer, L; Meyer, Z; Onetti, S; Schultz, A; Goeser, J

    2012-09-01

    Measuring individual feed nutrient concentration is common practice for field dairy nutritionists. However, accurately measuring nutrient digestibility and using digestion values in total digestible nutrients models is more challenging. Our objective was to determine if in vivo apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility measured with a practical approach was related to commercial milk production parameters. Total mixed ration and fecal samples were collected from high-producing cows in pens on 39 commercial dairies and analyzed at a commercial feed and forage testing laboratory for nutrient concentration and 120-h indigestible NDF (iNDF) content using the Combs-Goeser in vitro digestion technique. The 120-h iNDF was used as an internal marker to calculate in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities. Two samples were taken from each dairy and were separated in time by at least 3 wk. Samples were targeted to be taken within 7d of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herd testing. Approved DHI testers measured individual cow milk weights as well as fat and protein concentrations. Individual cow records were averaged by pen corresponding to the total mixed ration and fecal samples. Formulated diet and dry matter intake (DMI) records for each respective pen were also collected. Mixed model regression analysis with dairy specified as a random effect was used to relate explanatory variables (diet nutrient concentrations, formulated DMI, in vivo apparent nutrient digestibilities, and fecal nutrient concentrations) to milk production measures. Dry matter intake, organic matter (OM) digestibility, fecal crude protein (CP) concentration, and fecal ether extract concentration were related to milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat yields. Milk protein concentration was related to CP digestibility, and milk protein yield was related to DMI, OM digestibility, CP digestibility, and ether extract digestibility. Although many studies have related DMI and OM digestibility to milk production

  20. 条石鲷消化道发育的组织学观察%Histological study of the ontogeny of the digestive tract in Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马道远; 于道德; 肖永双; 刘清华; 徐世宏; 李军; 肖志忠

    2011-01-01

    Under artificial culture conditions, the developments of the digestive system and its associated glands were examined histologically in Oplegnathus fasciatus from the first day until the 45th day post hatching (dph).The digestive tube of the first hatching larva was undifferentiated and straight. On the 1st dph, the rudimentary digestive lumen formed as the larve developed. On the second dph (TL, 2.61~2.98 mm), the intestine began to connected with the oesophagus. On the third dph (TL, 2.56~2.89 mm), the upper and lower jaw moved with the mouth and anus opening, indicated the first external feeding. At this time, the digestive tract, consisting of buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach anlage, intestine and rectum, and the digestive glands, including liver and pancreas, being accompanied by the gas bladder anlage, formed. On the 4th dph (TL, 2.73~3.05 mm), the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed, with residual oil globule, and the acidophilic supranuclear vesicles were seen in the rectum. On the 22 dph, the the gastric gland began to differentiate and was not functional until the 45th dph.%对人工养殖的条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)仔、幼稚鱼消化道及消化腺的发育过程进行了系统的组织学观察。研究表明: 初孵仔鱼 (体长1.66~2.20 mm)的消化道完全处于未分化状态。1 日龄仔鱼全长1.83~2.32 mm, 消化道中部开始形成空腔, 为初始的消化道腔。2 日龄仔鱼全长2.61~2.98 mm, 小肠与食道打通。3 日龄仔鱼全长2.56~2.89 mm, 上下颌开启, 口和肛门与外界开通, 部分仔鱼开口摄食。此时消化道已经分化为口咽腔、食道、胃前体、肠和直肠, 消化器官肝脏和胰腺及鳔原基出现。4 日龄仔鱼全长2.73~3.05 mm, 卵黄囊吸收殆尽, 油球残存, 鳔原基进一步增生, 后肠已经出现嗜伊红囊。22日龄, 胃腺开始分化, 至45 日龄, 大部分胃腺结构上分化成熟。本研究结果将为优

  1. The Antiproliferative Effect of Chakasaponins I and II, Floratheasaponin A, and Epigallocatechin 3-O-Gallate Isolated from Camellia sinensis on Human Digestive Tract Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niichiro Kitagawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1 and II (2, floratheasaponin A (3, and their analogs, together with catechins—including (–-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4, flavonoids, and caffeine—have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of “tea flower”, the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae, which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the saponins (1–3, IC50 = 4.4–14.1, 6.2–18.2, 4.5–17.3, and 19.3–40.6 µM, respectively were more potent than those of catechins, flavonoids, and caffeine. To characterize the mechanisms of action of principal saponin constituents 1–3, a flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V/7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD double staining in HSC-2 cells was performed. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 activation were also detected after 48 h. These results suggested that antiproliferative activities of 1–3 induce apoptotic cell death via activation of caspase-3/7.

  2. [A pharmacological analysis of the central control of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons during stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers of the digestive tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itina, L V; Posniak, V A

    1995-12-01

    In acute experiments on cats, effect of adrenergic brain neurons on impulse activity of preganglionic fibers of the left splanchnic nerve was studied. Afferent fibers of nerves innervating the stomach, duodenum, ileum and ileocecal angle were electrically stimulated. Phenoxybenzamine, obsidan, amizyl, iprazid, nuredal, dalargine, and morphine were used for pharmacological analysis. Nerves, stimulation at 20 Hz of different segments of the digestive tract was accompanied by different inhibition of preganglionic neurons. Sympathetic-stimulating effects were observed more frequently at 5 Hz stimulation. After vagotomy, alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor block, central cholinoreceptor and monoamine oxidase (MAO) block, and after dalargine (0.1 and 0.01 mg/kg) nerves stimulation at 20 Hz was followed by sympathetic-stimulating effect. A weak regulatory effect of morphine (1 and 10 mg/kg) on ileal nerve stimulation effects was shown. It is suggested that excitation from afferent neurons of the vagus is transmitted to central cholinergic neurons which, in their turn, excite adrenergic neurons of the brain, and the latter inhibit impulsation of preganglionic fibers. MAO block increased the balance of excitatory effect of serotonin on spinal reflexes. Morphine and dalargine intracentrally may block adrenergic and cholinergic transmissions, as well as decrease the release of substance P from afferent neurons. Their regulatory action is revealed when different frequencies of stimulation are used.

  3. Effect of polyethylene glycol on rumen volume and retention time of liquid and particulate matter along the digestive tract in goats fed tannin-rich carob leaves (Ceratonia siliqua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, N; Gilboa, N; Nitsan, Z

    2001-04-01

    The present work studied the effects of tannins in carob leaves (CL) on rumen volume and kinetics, and on the retention time of fluid and particulate components of the digesta along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in goats. The experimental design was a two factor crossover experiment, i.e. in phase 1, two goats were fed CL and 2 CL and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and in phase 2, the treatments were switched. The main effects of tannins were depression of the rumen fluid and particulate content of the rumen, acceleration of the passage of liquid from the abomasum, and delay of the passage of digesta in the intestine. The overall effect was a delay in the passage of fluid and particulate matter throughout the entire GIT. It is hypothesised that these responses are largely the consequence of the interaction of tannins with digestive enzymes and the epithelium lining of the digestive tract.

  4. 新生儿颅内高压伴消化道大出血1例的护理体会%Nursing experience of neonatal intracranial hypertension complicated with hemorrhage of digestive tract of 1 case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭睿

    2015-01-01

    Based on 1 case of nursing of neonatal intracranial hypertension complicated with hemorrhage of digestive tract,we analyzed the nursing experience of massive hemorrhage of digestive tract caused by intracranial hypertension with stress ulcer,to accumulate experience in order to improve the cure rate of the rescue success rate and disease in children.%通过对1例新生儿颅内高压伴消化道大出血的护理,分析颅内高压引起应激性溃疡导致消化道大出血患儿的护理体会,为提高患儿的救护成功率及疾病的治愈率积累经验。

  5. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  7. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-six barrows (initial BW: 27.4 ± 2.8 kg) were used to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM) without or with exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 11 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a generalized randomized block design. Five diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch and sugar with CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM. Five additional diets, which were identical to the initial 5 diets but supplemented with 800 units of phytase, were also formulated. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of P by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. Analyzed total P in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM was 0.52, 0.51, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.67%, respectively. Phytate P was 0.22, 0.35, 0.38, 0.32, and 0.44% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P from 60.6 to 80.8, 27.3 to 56.5, 32.6 to 59.9, 48.9 to 64.1, and 41.1 to 72.2% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. The ATTD of P in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in any of the other ingredients. The ATTD of P in SBM and PKM was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKE-IN, with PKE-CR being intermediate. The STTD of P increased (P < 0.05) from 70.6 to 90.3, 37.6 to 66.4, 43.2 to 69.9, 57.9 to 73.5, and 49.6 to 81.1% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively, when microbial phytase was added to the diets. When expressed as a percentage of total P, phytate P concentration in the ingredient negatively affected (P < 0.05) the ATTD of P (107.09 - 1.0564 × % phytate P; R(2) = 87.1) and the STTD of P (116.3 - 1.0487 × % phytate P; R(2) = 89.4). In conclusion, microbial phytase increased P

  8. Tumors of the respiratory tract observed at the German Primate Center, 1978-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, M; Schwartz, P; Heinrichs, T; Schultz, M; Fuchs, E

    1996-12-01

    Eight spontaneous pulmonary tumors (four bronchiolar tubular adenomas, two bronchiolar adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas) occurred in a total of 54 adult tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) of the GPC colonies between 1978 and 1994. The adenomas and adenocarcinomas consisted of tubularly or trabecularly arranged cuboidal to cylindrical cells interspersed with some PAS-positive goblet cells, thus resembling the epithelial lining of respiratory bronchioles of tree shrews. The two squamous-cell carcinomas probably originated from the pulmonary alveoles. Three more pulmonary tumors (one small-cell carcinoma, one bronchial adenoma, one squamous-cell carcinoma) developed in 409 adult callitrichids of the GPC colonies during the same period, and one more bronchial adenoma was observed in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) of another colony located in Göttingen. With regard to the adenomas and squamous-cell carcinomas, a similar cellular origin with the three shrews is assumed. The small-cell carcinoma possibly developed from the bronchial epithelium, provided a pathogenesis parallel to that of human small-cell carcinoma is suggested. Four of the tree shrew pulmonary adenomas/adenocarcinomas and the small-cell Ca were macroscopically visible as yellowish-grey nodules of 1 mm x 1 mm to 15 mm x 15 mm diameter, predominantly involving the main lobes (2 x right main lobes, 2 x left main lobes, 1 x all lobes). The pulmonary tumors of the other animals were below macroscopical detectability.

  9. Cancer-testis antigen expression in digestive tract carcinomas: frequent expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Tseng; Panarelli, Nicole C; Piotti, Kathryn C; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2014-05-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are attractive tumor antigens for cancer immunotherapy. They comprise a group of proteins normally expressed in germ cells and aberrantly activated in a variety of human cancers. The protein expression of eight cancer-testis antigens [MAGEA, NY-ESO-1, GAGE, MAGEC1 (CT7), MAGEC2 (CT10), CT45, SAGE1, and NXF2] was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 61 esophageal carcinomas (40 adenocarcinoma and 21 squamous cell carcinoma), 50 gastric carcinomas (34 diffuse and 16 intestinal type), and 141 colorectal carcinomas. The highest frequency of expression was found in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas: Positive staining for MAGEA, CT45, CT7, SAGE1, GAGE, NXF2, NY-ESO-1, and CT10 was observed in 57%, 38%, 33%, 33%, 29%, 29%, 19%, and 14% of squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Similar staining patterns were observed in squamous dysplasias. Expression frequencies of cancer-testis antigens were seen in 2% to 24% of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and were not significantly different between adenocarcinomas of the stomach versus the esophagus, or between diffuse and intestinal types of gastric adenocarcinomas. Colorectal cancers did not express NY-ESO-1, CT7, CT10, or GAGE, and only infrequently expressed SAGE1 (0.7%) MAGEA (1.4%), CT45 (3.5%), and NXF2 (8.5%). We conclude that cancer-testis antigens are frequently expressed in esophageal squamous neoplasms. Although cancer-testis antigens are generally considered to be expressed later in tumor progression, they are found in squamous dysplasias, suggesting a potential diagnostic role for cancer-testis antigens in the evaluation of premalignant squamous lesions.

  10. In vitro and in vivo studies with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejjari, Mimoun [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Kryza, David [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Poncet, Gilles [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Roche, Colette [Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Perek, Nathalie [Departement de Biophysique, Faculte de Medecine J. Lisfranc, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Chayvialle, Jean-Alain [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Le Bars, Didier [Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); CERMEP, 59 Boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron Cedex (France); Scoazec, Jean-Yves [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Janier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Inserm U664, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France)], E-mail: francoise.borson-chazot@chu-lyon.fr

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine ([{sup 18}F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH and that of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [{sup 18}F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC{sub 50} values calculated with the [{sup 18}F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [{sup 18}F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [{sup 18}F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded.

  11. Morphometric parameters comparisons of the digestive tract of four teleosts with different feeding habits Comparações de parâmetros morfométricos do trato digestório de quatro teleósteos com diferentes hábitos alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared some morphometric parameters of the digestive tract of four teleosts with different feeding habits: traira (Hoplias malabaricus, carnivore, silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, omnivore, hassar (Hoplosternum littorale, omnivore, and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, herbivore. The digestive tract was removed from fish collected from nature and fixed for some morphometric analyses, such as: intestinal quotient, intestinal area quotient, vilosity height, digestive somatic index, and hepatosomatic index. Grass carp showed the highest values of intestinal quotient and height vilosity. On the other hand, the intestinal area quotient was higher in traira than in the other species. The intestinal quotient can be used to estimate the feeding habit, and the intestinal area quotient, vilosity height and the relationships between digestive tract length and fish weight or digestive tract weight can provide important additional information to analyze the feeding habits.O presente estudo comparou alguns parâmetros morfométricos do trato digestório de quatro teleósteos com diferentes hábitos alimentares: traira (Hoplias malabaricus, carnivoro, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, omnivoro, tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale, omnivoro e carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, herbivoro. O trato digestório foi removido dos peixes coletados da natureza e em seguida fixado para algumas análises morfométricas, tais como: quociente intestinal, quociente da área intestinal, altura da vilosidade, índice digestivo somático e índice hepatossomático. Os maiores valores para o quociente intestinal e a altura das vilosidades foram encontrados em carpa capim. Por outro lado, o quociente da área intestinal foi maior na traira do que nas outras espécies. O quociente intestinal pode ser utilizado para estimar o hábito alimentar, e o quociente da área intestinal, a altura da vilosidade e as relações entre o comprimento do trato digestório e o peso

  12. Comparison of direct and indirect estimates of apparent total tract digestibility in swine with effort to reduce variation by pooling of multiple day fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Lindemann, M D; Agudelo-Trujillo, J H; Escobar, C S; Kerr, B J; Inocencio, N; Cromwell, G L

    2014-10-01

    The intent of this study was to establish a fecal sampling procedure for the indicator method (IM) to provide digestibility values similar to those obtained by the total collection (TC) method. A total of 24 pigs (52.6 ± 1.5 kg) were fed 1 of 4 diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of virginiamycin and phytase (PHY) added to a corn-soybean meal diet with no inorganic P supplement. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d TC period after 7 d of adaptation. Immediately after the TC, a fecal collection period followed, using the IM by including 0.25% of Cr2O3 in the feed for 10 d. Fecal collection for the IM started the day after diets containing Cr2O3 were first fed, and continued for 9 consecutive days with a single grab sample per day. Similar portions of feces from d 5 to 9 were also composited into 4 samples to evaluate multi-day pooling combinations. Highly variable means and CV among samples for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were observed at d 1 and 2 using the IM. The mean ATTD for DM, GE, and nutrients appeared to be stabilized by d 5 or 6 in all dietary treatments. The TC data seemed to have lower CV than the IM data for many components. Based on the linear broken-line analysis, fecal Cr concentration plateaued at d 3.75 (P < 0.001) after the first feeding of Cr. Mean ATTD values by the IM were lower than those by the TC method for DM (P < 0.05), GE (P < 0.01), P (P < 0.01), and Ca (P < 0.001). The PHY supplementation improved ATTD of P (P < 0.001) and Ca (P < 0.001) in both collection methods, whereas the PHY effect on ATTD of DM was observed only for the IM (P < 0.05). Differences related to PHY effect on ATTD were detected from d 4 to 9 in a single grab sample for P and DM but the ATTD of DM had inconsistent P-values by day. Fecal sampling after 4 d of initial feeding of marker always allowed detection of treatment effects on ATTD of P but not on ATTD of DM. Results indicated that the IM results in lower digestibility values than

  13. Cooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig's Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelaert, Christine; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne; Beckers, Yves; Francis, Frédéric; Portetelle, Daniel; Soyeurt, Hélène; Théwis, André; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2017-01-18

    This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig's gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility.

  14. [A new concept in surgery of the digestive tract: surgical procedure assisted by computer, from virtual reality to telemanipulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, J; Clément, J M; Vix, M; Russier, Y; Tassetti, V; Mutter, D; Cotin, S; Ayache, N

    1998-02-01

    Surgical simulation increasingly appears to be an essential aspect of tomorrow's surgery. The development of a hepatic surgery simulator is an advanced concept calling for a new writing system which will transform the medical world: virtual reality. Virtual reality extends the perception of our five senses by representing more than the real state of things by the means of computer sciences and robotics. It consists of three concepts: immersion, navigation and interaction. Three reasons have led us to develop this simulator: the first is to provide the surgeon with a comprehensive visualisation of the organ. The second reasons is to allow for planning and surgical simulation that could be compared with the detailed flight-plan for a commercial jet pilot. The third lies in the fact that virtual reality is an integrated part of the concept of computer assisted surgical procedure. The project consists of a sophisticated simulator which must include five requirements: a) visual fidelity, b) interactivity, c) physical properties, d) physiological properties, e) sensory input and output. In this report we describe how to obtain a realistic 3D model of the liver from bi-dimensional 2D medical images for anatomical and surgical training. The introduction of a tumor and the consequent planning and virtual resection is also described, as are force feedback and real-time interaction.

  15. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  16. Impacts of dietary calcium, phytate, and phytase on inositol hexakisphosphate degradation and inositol phosphate release in different segments of digestive tract of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Brady, K; Yu, S; Plumstead, P W

    2017-10-01

    A total of 720 straight-run Heritage 56 M × fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler chickens was fed from 11 to 13 d of age to determine the impacts of dietary calcium (Ca), phytate phosphorus (PP), and phytase concentrations on inositol phosphate (IP3-6) profile in different digestive tract (GI) segments. The experiment was a 2 × 2 × 3 randomized block design with 2 Ca (0.7 and 1.0%) and 2 PP (0.23 and 0.34%) concentrations and 3 doses of Buttiauxella sp. phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg). The experiment was replicated in time (block) with 3 replicates per treatment (Trt) of 10 birds per block. Concentrations of IP3-6 in the crop, proventriculus (Prov) plus (+) gizzard (Giz), and distal ileum, as well as the ileal IP6 and P disappearance were determined at 13 d of age. The detrimental impact of Ca on IP6 and P disappearance was observed only in the ileum, where 11% reduction in both IP6 and P disappearance was seen when Ca increased from 0.7 to 1.0% (P IP6 concentrations were seen in both the crop and Prov+Giz at 0.34% PP as compared to birds fed to 0.23% PP diets, regardless of Ca or phytase (P  0.05). Inclusion of phytase, at both 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, resulted in lower IP6 and the accumulation of lower IP ester (IP3-5) concentrations in all GI segments (P IP6 and P disappearance was seen as a result of phytase inclusion, despite the degree of improvement affected by PP (P IP6 was observed with 500 and 1,000 FTU phytase/kg inclusion, respectively, resulting in 41 and 64% greater P digestibility, respectively. In conclusion, phytase can effectively degrade IP6 to lower esters and increase P utilization. However, the efficacy of phytase can be affected by diet Ca and PP concentrations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  17. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p soya beans for EE (p soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected

  18. Diffusion tensor tractography of pyramidal tracts in patients with brainstem and intramedullary spinal cord tumors: Relationship with motor deficits and intraoperative MEP changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernicki, Tomasz; Maj, Edyta; Podgórska, Anna; Kunert, Przemysław; Prokopienko, Marek; Nowak, Arkadiusz; Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Marchel, Andrzej

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether pyramidal tracts course alterations observed in diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in cases of brainstem and intramedullary spinal cord tumors reflect patient clinical status and prognosis. For this purpose, we assessed in 17 patients relationships between pyramidal tracts course alterations observed in DTT (classified into four categories: unaffected; displaced or interspaced; partially disintegrated and completely disintegrated) performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner and the presence of preoperative motor deficits, changes observed in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) records at the beginning of the operation, deterioration of the MEPs records during the operation, and perioperative deterioration of muscle strength. We found that, if the picture of pyramidal tracts in DTT was worse, motor deficit was more common (P = 0.062). This observation was even more evident (P = 0.027), when cases with at least partially destroyed pyramidal tracts were compared with cases with normal or at most displaced or interspaced by tumor but still preserved pyramidal tracts. Significant relationships were also found between changes in DTT and abnormal MEP records at the beginning of the operation (P = 0.032) and perioperative deterioration of muscle strength (P = 0.0058). A close relationship was found between pyramidal tracts course alterations in DTT imaging and preoperative motor status and especially with changes in the MEP records at the beginning of the operation. DTT may be a method that allows the better planning of brainstem and intramedullary spinal cord tumors operations and may help in the risk assessment of postoperative motor deficits. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:715-723. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Adenosquamous carcinoma in the biliary tract: association of the proliferative ability of the squamous component with its proportion and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshimoto, Sojun; Hoshi, Sayuri; Hishinuma, Shoichi; Tomikawa, Moriaki; Shirakawa, Hirofumi; Ozawa, Iwao; Wakamatsu, Saho; Hoshi, Nobuo; Hirabayashi, Kaoru; Ogata, Yoshiro

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the proliferative ability of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) component with its proportion and tumor progression in adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) in the biliary tract. Nine patients with ASC in the biliary tract (four each in the gallbladder and the extrahepatic bile duct and one in the ampulla of Vater) who underwent surgical resection were retrospectively reviewed. The proportion of the SCC component in the primary sites ranged from 30% to 95%. The Ki-67 index of the SCC component was higher than that of the adenocarcinoma component in all cases, regardless of the component ratio in the patients' primary lesions. Predominance of the SCC component in the advancing region of the tumor, in angiolymphatic invasion and in perineural invasion was observed in most of the cases. The component ratio in metastatic lymph nodes differed from that in the corresponding primary lesions in all six cases with lymph node metastasis. Among these cases, the proportion of the SCC component was increased in the metastatic lymph nodes compared with that in the corresponding primary lesion in two cases, whereas the proportion was decreased in four cases. The SCC component of ASC in the biliary tract displayed a relatively higher proliferative ability, which might be associated with local invasiveness. However, not only the high proliferative ability of the SCC component but also other biological factors might contribute to tumor progression and metastasis in ASC of the biliary tract.

  20. Effect of a grain challenge on ruminal, urine, and fecal pH, apparent total-tract starch digestibility, and milk composition of Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, S; Cowles, K; Murphy, M R; Cardoso, F C

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a grain challenge on ruminal, urine, and fecal pH, apparent total-tract starch digestibility, and milk composition were determined. Six Holstein cows, 6 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows, and 6 Jersey cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (10 d) were divided into 4 stages (S): S1, d 1 to 3, served as baseline with regular total mixed ration ad libitum; S2, d 4, served as restricted feeding, with cows offered 50% of the total mixed ration fed on S1 (dry matter basis); S3, d 5, a grain challenge was performed, in which cows were fed total mixed ration ad libitum and not fed (CON) or fed an addition of 10% (MG) or 20% (HG) pellet wheat-barley (1:1) top-dressed onto the total mixed ration, based on dry matter intake obtained in S1; S4, d 6 to 10, served as recovery stage with regular total mixed ration fed ad libitum. Overall, cows had a quadratic treatment effect for milk yield where CON (22.6 kg/d) and HG (23.5 kg/d) had lower milk yield than cows in MG (23.7 kg/d). Jersey cows had a quadratic treatment effect for dry matter intake where cows in CON (13.2 kg/d) and HG (12.4 kg/d) had lower dry matter intake than cows in MG (14 kg/d). Holstein cows had a linear treatment effect for dry matter intake (17.7, 18.4, and 18.6 kg/d for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Rumen pH for the rumen-cannulated cows had a linear treatment effect (6.45, 6.35, and 6.24 for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Cows in HG spent more time with rumen pH below 5.8 (4.33 h) than MG (2 h) or CON (2.17 h) as shown by the quadratic treatment effect. Holstein cows in HG (8.46) had lower urine pH than MG (8.51) or CON (8.54) as showed by the linear treatment effect for urine pH. Apparent total-tract starch digestibility had a tendency for a linear treatment effect on S3 (97.62 ± 1.5, 97.47 ± 1.5, and 91.84 ± 1.6%, for CON, MG, and HG, respectively). Fecal pH was associated with rumen pH depression as early as 15 h after

  1. 美洲黑石斑鱼消化道的形态结构%The morphology of the digestive tract of Centropristis striata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 竺俊全; 陈飞; 丁理法

    2011-01-01

    The morphological and histological structures of the digestive tract in Centropristis striata were observed by optical microscopes. The digestive tract includes the orol-pharyngeal cavity , esophagus , stomach and intestines. The orol-pharyngeal cavity is big;there are jaw teeth, palato-teeth and vomerine teeth; tongue consists of basihyoid covered by mucosa. The esophagus, stomach and intestines stratified into mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscularis and outer membrane. Esophageal mucosa layer villi fell into columnar epithelium and squamous epithelium; the surface of the squamous epithelium was the goblet cell layer; there are esophagealgland in the submucosa of esophagus. V-shaped stomach comprises cardia, bady of stomach and pylorus ; stomach mucosa epithelium is simple columnar epithelium; gastric gland locates in the lamina propria of cardia and bady of stomach. Intestines are schilfig and Sshaped, which are consisted by foregut, midgut and hindgut; mucous membrane layer protuberates to the gut cavity and forms volume villi; epithelium is simple columnar epithelium; the epithelial free surface contains a dense array of microvilli which form striated border; epithelium contains goblet cells whose quantity decreases from front to back; the average ratio between the length of the intestine and the body length is 1. 6. Conjunctive sites of stomach and intestine contain 3 pairs multi-finger pyloric caecum whose histologic structure is the same as intestines'.%采用解剖和光镜技术观察了美洲黑石斑鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构.消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃、肠构成.口咽腔较大,具颌齿、腭齿及犁齿;舌由基舌骨突出部分覆盖粘膜构成.食道、胃及肠均由粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层及外膜构成.食道粘膜层绒毛分柱状上皮区及扁平上皮区,扁平上皮区表面为杯状细胞层;食道粘膜下层中有食道腺.胃呈V形,由贲门部、胃体部及幽门部组成,胃壁粘膜层上

  2. Morphology of the digestive tract and liver of Plecoglossus altivelis%香鱼消化道及肝脏的形态结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明明; 李海燕; 竺俊全; 李明云

    2012-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of the digestive tract and liver in Plecoglossus altivelis were observed by paraffin section and photomicrography techniques. The digestive tract includes the orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus, stomach and intestine. The orol-pharyngeal cavity is big, long and narrow; in the front of its bottom wall there are a pair of mucous plait; on the edge of the two jaws there are broad flat pectinate jaw teeth; there are teeth on the palate bone and hyoid bone, but no teeth on the vomer. Tongue is formed by the projecting part of basihyoid covered by mucosa. Tongue mucosa epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium, and contains many goblet cells and taste buds. The esophagus, stomach and intestines all consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscularis and outer membrane. The mucosa of esophagus is stratified squamous epithelium with developed goblet cells. V-shaped stomach comprises cardia, body of stomach and pylorus. Stomach mucosa epithelium is simple columnar epithelium. There are gastric glands in the lamina propria of cardia and body of stomach. Intestine is short and consists of foregut, midgut and hindgut. The mucous epithelium of intestinal wall is simple columnar epithelium and the free surface of it contains a dense array of microvilli. Lots of goblet cells are distributed in the intestinal epithelium. Conjunctive sites of intestines and pylorus contain 350 — 400 pyloric caecums whose histological structure is the same as intestines. The liver is singular and coated by the serosa. The shape of hepatocyte is irregular and the boundaries of hepatic lobules are inconspicuous.%采用解剖及石蜡切片显微技术观察了香鱼消化道及肝脏的组织学结构.香鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃及肠构成.口咽腔大且狭长,其底壁前部有一对粘膜褶,两颌边缘着生宽扁梳状齿,腭骨及舌骨具齿,犁骨无齿;舌由基舌骨突出部分覆盖粘膜构成,舌粘膜上皮为复层扁平上

  3. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  4. Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele; Graf, Joerg

    2015-03-01

    Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3(T), M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3(T), M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3(T) was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99 % similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922(T) (87.3 % similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437(T) (87.4 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3(T), M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2553(T) = DSM 27344(T)).

  5. Long-Term Alcohol Consumption and Breast, Upper Aero-Digestive Tract and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Room, Robin; English, Dallas R

    2016-05-01

    Cancers of female breast, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and colorectum are causally related to alcohol consumption. Although alcohol consumption is likely to vary during life, the few studies that have explicitly measured lifetime consumption or intake over time have not been summarised. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies were identified by searching the Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) and Scopus databases through January 2015 using broad search criteria. Studies reporting relative risks (RR) for quantitatively defined categories of alcohol consumption over time for breast, UADT or colorectal cancer were eligible. A two-stage random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and each cancer site. RRs were also calculated for the highest relative to the lowest intake category. Sixteen articles for breast, 16 for UADT and 7 for colorectal cancer met the eligibility criteria. We observed a weak non-linear dose-response relationship for breast cancer and positive linear dose-response relationships for UADT and colorectal cancer. The pooled RRs were 1.28 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.07, 1.52) for breast, 2.83 (95% CI: 1.73, 4.62) for UADT, 4.84 (95% CI: 2.51, 9.32) for oral cavity and pharynx, 2.25 (95% CI: 1.49, 3.42) for larynx, 6.71 (95% CI: 4.21, 10.70) for oesophageal and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.27, 1.74) for colorectal cancer. Our findings confirm dose-dependent associations between long-term alcohol intake and breast, UADT and colorectal cancer. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  7. Colorectal tumors from APC*I1307K carriers principally harbor somatic APC mutations outside the A8 tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zauber

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: APC*I1307K (c.3920T>A is an inherited variant associated with colorectal tumour risk found almost exclusively in those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. A single nucleotide substitution creates an oligo-adenine tract (A8 that appears to be inherently prone to further mis-pairing and slippage. The reported multiple tumor phenotype of carriers is not easily reconciled with molecular and population genetics data. We postulated that some c.3920T>A carriers with multiple adenomas have other unidentified APC germ line or somatic mutations. METHODS: DNA from 82 colonic tumours and accompanying normal tissue collected from 29 carriers with multiple colorectal tumors was directly sequenced between codons 716 and 1604. We also assessed APC gene loss of heterozygosity. RESULTS: One patient (3.4% was found to have an additional APC germ line mutation. Twenty-five of the tumours showed no significant somatic molecular change, 36 showed one change, 20 showed two, and one tumour showed more than 2 changes. Our data suggest a correlation between advancing histology and fewer beta-catenin binding sites remaining in the mutant proteins. CONCLUSIONS: There were no other common germ line variants identified within the region of the APC gene examined, suggesting that any effect from this region on tumour production is attributable to the c.3920T>A allele. Our findings further suggest the only somatic genetic change clearly attributable to the c.3920T>A mutation is the c.3924_3925insA.

  8. Colorectal Tumors from APC*I1307K Carriers Principally Harbor Somatic APC Mutations outside the A8 Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauber, Peter; Bishop, Timothy; Taylor, Claire; Sabbath-Solitare, Marlene; Marotta, Stephen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose APC*I1307K (c.3920T>A) is an inherited variant associated with colorectal tumour risk found almost exclusively in those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. A single nucleotide substitution creates an oligo-adenine tract (A8) that appears to be inherently prone to further mis-pairing and slippage. The reported multiple tumor phenotype of carriers is not easily reconciled with molecular and population genetics data. We postulated that some c.3920T>A carriers with multiple adenomas have other unidentified APC germ line or somatic mutations. Methods DNA from 82 colonic tumours and accompanying normal tissue collected from 29 carriers with multiple colorectal tumors was directly sequenced between codons 716 and 1604. We also assessed APC gene loss of heterozygosity. Results One patient (3.4%) was found to have an additional APC germ line mutation. Twenty-five of the tumours showed no significant somatic molecular change, 36 showed one change, 20 showed two, and one tumour showed more than 2 changes. Our data suggest a correlation between advancing histology and fewer beta-catenin binding sites remaining in the mutant proteins. Conclusions There were no other common germ line variants identified within the region of the APC gene examined, suggesting that any effect from this region on tumour production is attributable to the c.3920T>A allele. Our findings further suggest the only somatic genetic change clearly attributable to the c.3920T>A mutation is the c.3924_3925insA. PMID:24416237

  9. Abnormalities of digestive tract innervation in rat fetus treated with ethylenethiourea Anomalias da inervação do trato digestório de fetos de ratas expostas à etilenotioureia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Pereira Pinto Lemos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of abnormalities associated with myenteric plexus lesions remains imperfectly understood. Such abnormalities have been correlated with subocclusive intestinal conditions in children with Hirschsprung's disease, cases of chronic constipation and, postoperatively, in cases of anorectal anomalies. This study evaluated abnormalities of the myenteric plexus in fetus from female rats that received ethylenethiourea. METHODS: Female rats were exposed to ethylenethiourea on the 11th day of pregnancy (experimental group or to 0.9% physiological solution (control group. Abnormalities were only found in the experimental group. The digestive tract muscle layer was analyzed morphometrically and changes to the frequencies of nerve plexus cells and interstitial cells of Cajal were evaluated, using hematoxylin-eosin, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase and C-Kit, respectively. RESULTS: Muscle and skeletal abnormalities were observed in 100%, anorectal anomalies in 86%, absent tail in 71%, short tail in 29%, duodenal atresia in 5%, esophageal atresia in 5% and persistent omphalomesenteric duct in 5%. Histopathological analysis showed a thinner muscle layer associated with lower frequencies of ganglion cells and interstitial cells of Cajal, in all gastrointestinal tract. CONCLUSION: Severe nerve plexus abnormalities associated with muscle layer atrophy were observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract in newborn rats exposed to ethylenethiourea.OBJETIVO: As anomalias associadas a lesões dos plexos mioentéricos permanecem sem plena compreensão da sua fisiopatologia. Alterações nos plexos nervosos têm sido correlacionadas com quadros suboclusivos intestinais em crianças portadoras de doença de Hirschsprung, em constipação crônica e no pós-operatório de anomalias anorretais. Este estudo avaliou as anomalias do plexo mioentérico em fetos de ratos fêmea que ingeriram etilenotioureia (ETU. MÉTODOS: Ratos fêmea foram

  10. Influence of low protein diets on gene expression of digestive enzymes and hormone secretion in the gastrointestinal tract of young weaned piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-mei TIAN; Xian-yong MA; Xue-fen YANG; Qiu-li FAN; Yun-xia XIONG; Yue-qin QIU; Li WANG; Xiao-lu WEN; Zong-yong JIANG‡

    2016-01-01

    中文概要题目:低蛋白日粮对断奶仔猪胃肠道消化酶表达及激素分泌的影响目的:研究蛋白日粮水平对断奶仔猪消化的影响机制。创新点:从营养物质消化及激素变化方面研究低蛋白日粮对仔猪胃肠道消化吸收的影响,探究低蛋白日粮饲养的可行性。方法:18头28日龄断奶仔猪经过7天适应期后平均体重为(9.57±0.64) kg。仔猪随机分为三组,每组6头,分别饲喂20%、17%和14%粗蛋白日粮并自由采食45天。根据国家研究委员会(NRC)2012年的标准,通过添加赖氨酸、蛋氨酸、半胱氨酸、苏氨酸及色氨酸等理想蛋白模型满足仔猪生长需求。实验结束后,进行颈静脉采血并屠宰取样。结论:结果表明基于蛋白日粮水平对内分泌及消化酶影响,与14%及20%粗蛋白组相比,17%蛋白日粮更有利于胃肠道和胰腺等组织中三种主要营养物质的消化。因此,17%粗蛋白水平更适合断奶仔猪的营养需求,证实了低蛋白日粮对断奶仔猪饲养的可行性。%To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differ-ences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum. In the je-junum, amylase expression in pigs fed 20% CP was much higher than that in pigs fed other diets (P0.05), there was a trend towards higher expression of various proteases in pigs fed 17% CP. The duodenal expression of en-teropeptidase in diets with 14% and 17% CP was significantly higher than that with 20% CP (P0.05). The expression of GPR93 as

  11. Digestive enzyme activities in the alimentary tract of pedunculate cirripede Capitulum mitella%龟足成体的5种消化酶活力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林岗; 饶小珍; 陈宁; 郭世群; 许友勤

    2011-01-01

    龟足是一种营养价值高,具有多种生理功能和保健作用的优质海产品,开展其消化生理的研究,可以为其规模化养殖提供理论依据.用酶学分析方法测定了龟足Capitulum mitella成体消化道5种消化酶的活力并探讨了温度、pH因子对5种消化酶活力的影响.结果表明,龟足的消化道能检测出类胰蛋白酶、胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶和脂肪酶的活力,其中类胰蛋白酶活力最高,胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶、脂肪酶活力均较高,纤维素酶活力极低,类胰蛋白酶活力>胃蛋白酶活力,淀粉酶活力>纤维素酶活力.类胰蛋白酶、胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶的最适温度均为55℃,纤维素酶、脂肪酶的最适温度分别为45℃、35℃;类胰蛋白酶、胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶、脂肪酶的最适pH分别为10.8、2.5、5.9、4.2—5.5、7—7.5.最适温度、pH下测得胰蛋白酶、胃蛋白酶、淀粉酶、纤维素酶、脂肪酶活力分别为:(267.07--13.69)U、(72.21±6.1)U、(28.62±1.6)U、(1.46±0.02)U、(65.24±1.8)U.淀粉酶(A)与类胰蛋白酶(T)活力的比值(A/T值)表明龟足是以动物食性为主的甲壳动物.%Goose barnacle Capitulum mitella is a seafood with high nutrition and multiple biological and health benefits. To study its digestive functionality can provide theoretical foundation for its breeding. Five major digestive enzyme activities of the adult goose barnacle (Rostral-carinal length > 11 mm) and the effects of different temperature and pH values on activitiesof the digestive enzymes were studied by enzyme analysis. The results indicate that the activities of trypsin-like protease, pepsin, amylase, cellulase, and lipase were determined in alimentary tract and affected obviously by temperature and pH val-ues. The optimal temperatures for the activities of trypsin-like protease, pepsin, and amylase were 55℃, and 45℃ for cellu-lose, and 35℃ for lipase, respectively. The optimal pH values

  12. Digestibilidade, desempenho e características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório de leitões desmamados sob dietas com mananoligossacarídeo Digestibility, performance and morphophysiological characteristics of the digestive tract of weaned piglets under diets with mannanoligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Maia dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição do prebiótico mananoligossacarídeo (MOS nas dietas de leitões sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, o desempenho e as características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 16 leitões com peso de 24,8±2,79 kg. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de fezes para determinar a digestibilidade das rações controle e com 0,5% de prebiótico. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se o desempenho e a incidência de diarreia em 30 leitoas com idade entre 22 e 63 dias e peso inicial de 6,28±1,40 kg. No terceiro experimento, foram avaliados a morfometria intestinal, os pesos relativos do fígado e do pâncreas e o pH dos conteúdos do estômago, intestino delgado e ceco em 15 leitoas com idade entre 22 e 63 dias e peso inicial de 5,74±0,93 kg. No segundo e terceiro experimentos, os tratamentos foram: controle positivo (dieta basal + sulfato de neomicina; controle negativo (dieta basal e os tratamentos dieta basal acrescida de 0,25, 0,50 ou 0,75% de MOS. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso. A utilização de diferentes níveis de mananoligassacarídeo nas dietas dos leitões não promove melhorias na digestibilidade dos nutrientes, no desempenho ou nas características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding mannanoligosaccharides (MOS to piglet diets on digestibility of nutrients, performance and morphophysiological characteristics of the digestive tract. In the first experiment, 16 piglets with a weight of 24.8±2.79 kg were used. Total feces were collected to determine the digestibility of the control feed and feed with 0.5% prebiotic. In the second experiment, 30 gilts with ages ranging from 22 to 63 days and a mean weight of 6.28±1.40 kg were used to evaluate diarrhea performance and incidence. In the third experiment, 15 gilts ranging from 22 to 63 days in age and a

  13. Detection and localisation of the abalone probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and its extracellular protease, VmproA, within the digestive tract of the South African abalone, Haliotis midae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Huddy

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished by inserting a promotorless gfp gene into the chromosome of the bacterium which was incorporated in an artificial, fishmeal-based abalone feed. In situ histological comparison of abalone fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with V. midae SY9::Tn10.52 using a cocktail of DNA probes to the gfp gene localised the probiont to the crop/stomach and intestinal regions of the H. midae digestive tract. Generally, the ingested probiotic bacterium occurred in association with feed and particulate matter within the crop/stomach and intestinal regions, as well as adhered to the wall of the crop/stomach. Histological immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal anti-VmproA antibodies localised an extracellular protease produced by V. midae SY9 to the H. midae crop/stomach and intestine where it appeared to be associated with feed and/or other particulate matter in the abalone gut. Thus the data suggests that V. midae SY9 colonises and/or adheres to the mucous lining of the abalone gut. Furthermore, the close association observed between the bacterium, its extracellular protease and ingested feed particles supports the theory that V. midae SY9 elevates in situ digestive enzyme levels and thus enhances feed digestion in farmed abalone.

  14. STUDY ON THE HISTOCHEMICAL PROPERTY OF THE MAST CELLS IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF NILE TILAPIA%尼罗罗非鱼消化道肥大细胞的组化性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林旋; 林树根; 王全溪; 陈梅芳; 严美姣; 王寿昆

    2011-01-01

    . From the above, the distribution characteristics of creatural mast cells were closely bound up with the function of cell, which maybe provide handy positional foundation for the exertion of autoimmune function in a sense. The experiment also found that the location of mast cells in connective tissue of mucosa in digestive tract of nile tilapia were similar with most of the vertebrate, of which the location was intended to be around blood vessels. It meant that teleostean mast cells were closely related to blood vessels as mammals were.It was reported that the growth of vascular endothelial cells and constitute of blood circulation were affected by histamine and heparin released from mast cells. The vascular endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, which could watch blood stream by attracting lymphocyte adhere to the inner wall of blood vessels, could be induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) released from mast cells in human skin. It was obviously that the mast cells around blood vessels played an important role in reaction of blood vessels.

  15. [Micronutrients intake and urinary tract tumors in Córdoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, María Dolores; Roqué, Florencia Inés; Muñoz, Sonia Edith; Andreatta, Maria Marta; Navarro, Alicia; Díaz, María del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los micronutrientes contenidos en los alimentos de consumo habitual integran el modelo de red causal del cáncer aunque su evaluación conjunta es compleja debido a la interdependencia en el consumo habitual. Diversos estudios reportaron que ciertos nutrientes pueden modificar el riesgo de desarrollar tumores de vías urinarias (TVU), aunque dicha evidencia es aún limitada. Objetivo: Identificar asociaciones entre el consumo de vitaminas A, E, B6, C, fósforo, selenio y zinc procedentes de la dieta, y la presencia TVU en Córdoba, Argentina, entre 1999 y 2008, considerando la multicolinealidad entre sus consumos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio caso-control que incluyó 129 casos con TVU confirmados histopatológicamente y 257 controles. Se administró a cada sujeto un formulario de frecuencia alimentaria previamente validado. La ingesta de vitaminas A, E, B6 y C, fósforo, selenio y zinc fueron las variables de interés, presentando alta correlación entre sí y provocando colinealidad. Por ello, fueron ajustados modelos de regresión logística múltiple y su adaptación ante la presencia de correlación vía estimación Ridge, para la obtención de los odds ratio (OR), previa inclusión de las covariables sexo, edad, índice de masa corporal (IMC), estrato socioeconómico, exposición ocupacional a carcinógenos, consumo de tabaco y consumo calórico. Resultados: Las vitaminas E y B6 evidenciaron un leve efecto protector (OR: 0,943, IC 95% 0,897-0,998 y OR: 0,730, IC 95% 0,457-1,167). El selenio resultó ligeramente promotor (OR: 1,012, IC 95% 1,001-1,023). Conclusión: Considerando la multicolinealidad es posible detectar de manera más precisa la modulación que algunos micronutrientes ejercen sobre el riesgo de TVU.

  16. 华北大黑鳃金龟成虫消化道组织形态学研究%Anatomical structure of the digestive tract of Holotrichia oblita Fald.(Coleoptera: Melolonthidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋月芹; 董钧锋; 孙会忠; 刘顺通

    2012-01-01

    The paper aimed to explore the anatomical structure of digestive tract of female and male adults of Holotrichia oblita Fald. through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the foregut of digestive tract consists of mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and proventriculus. The crop was well developed and cylinder shaped with its inner surface showing ruffling structure. The proventriculus had hair-like structure on the inner membrane. The mid gut was long with rich microvilli and spherical micro-protrusions on the inner surface, besides, small amount of goblet cells also distributed on the inner surface. The hindgut includes ileum, colon and rectum. The rectum had well developed rectal pads. No difference was found in characteristics of digestive tract between the male and the female adults. The results provide evidence that the structure features of digestive tract of Holotrichia oblita Fald. are adapted to its digestion, feeding behavior and inhabiting habit.%运用光学显微镜和扫描电子显微镜对华北大黑鳃金龟(Holitrica oblita Fald.)雌、雄成虫消化道进行了解剖观察.结果表明:华北大黑鳃金龟雌、雄成虫消化道组织形态学特征无明显差异,消化道前肠包括口、咽喉、食道、嗉囊和前胃,其中嗉囊分化发达,圆柱状,内表面皱褶状,前胃内膜特化形成毛状结构;中肠较长,内表面具有发达的微绒毛和圆球形微型突起,另外还有少量杯状细胞分布;后肠包括回肠、结肠和直肠三部分,直肠具有发达的直肠垫,华北大黑鳃金龟消化道组织形态学特征与其消化、取食、栖居等生理特征和生活习性相适应.

  17. Can we improve the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors? Single-center preliminary results of a new biopsy forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M; Legraverend, Dorian; Gil-Diez de Medina, Sixtina; Sibony, Mathilde; Traxer, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma with a new biopsy forceps (BIGopsy®, Cook Medical) compared to a classic biopsy forceps (Piranha®, Boston Scientific). From December 2009 to December 2011, 20 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma underwent conservative treatment endoscopically. All lesions were evaluated and biopsied with 3 Fr cup forceps using both types of forceps (BIGopsy and Piranha). A single pathologist blindly analyzed the specimens in order to determine the optimal biopsy for each patient. Specimen histopathology results were graded; however, they were staged if the lamina propria was not invaded (T1) or if the tumor was detected at the lamina propria (T1+). Of the 20 upper urinary tract lesions, 12 (60%) were in the renal pelvis, 3 (15%) in the upper calyx, 1 (5%) in the middle calyx, 1 (5%) in the lower calyx, 1 (5%) in the upper third of the ureter and 2 (10%) in the middle third of the ureter. We did not detect T1 in all biopsies. One patient had no valid biopsies by both forceps. A diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma was made in 17 BIGopsy biopsies compared to 7 Piranha biopsies. Despite the limited number of cases, our study demonstrated the advantage of the new forceps (BIGopsy) in obtaining a valid biopsy of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. Therefore, we recommend it in evaluating this pathology for optimal treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The Class Design for Gastrointestinal Tract Dissection Combined with Digestive Endoscopy Technology%结合消化内镜技术的胃肠道解剖课堂设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖美忠

    2011-01-01

    With the development of digestive endoscopy technology,the structure of gastrointestinal tract dissection becomes more and more intuitive,so the writer thinks that some changes should be made in class design for gastrointestinal tract dissection to reach the goal of closing teaching and practice.Based on this and combine with digestive endoscopy technology,this paper probes into the teaching of gastrointestinal tract dissection structure,providing some references for the reform of dissection teaching.%随着消化内镜技术的发展,胃肠道的解剖结构显得日益直观,因此笔者认为胃肠道的解剖课堂设计应该进行相应的改变,以达到教学与实践更加贴近的目的。为此,本文结合消化内镜技术,对胃肠道的解剖结构授课进行探讨,为解剖教学改革提供一些参考。

  19. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration.

  20. 胆道肿瘤:过去、现在和未来%Biliary tract tumors:past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela Lamarca; Enrique Espinosa; Jorge Barriuso; Jaime Feliu

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the biliary tract (gallbladder tumors, cholangiocarcinomas and ampullary carcinomas) are low incidence tumors with poor prognosis. The five-year overall survival is 50% for stage I, 30% stage II, 10% stage III and 0% stage IV. Treatment is based on surgery for potentially resectable tumors. Chemotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy is the treatment of choice when surgery is not amenable, however it has not achieved encouraging results. These patients use to have very few symptoms, which is the reason for the delay in diagnosis and the poor prognosis. They frequently develop biliary obstruction:obstructive jaundice, right upper quadrant pain and weight loss. Ampullary carcinomas are frequently related to steatorrhea due to malabsorption. The most effective chemotherapy drugs used in monotherapy are 5FU (response rate 20%) and gemcitabine (response rate of 13%-60%), so they have been selected for further development in multiple phase II clinical trials to explore their efficacy and safety in combination with other agents. In a phase III clinical trial, combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin has been selected as the schedule of choice. Target therapies are also being developed in this malignancy. The present work reviews the most current knowledge of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and natural history of biliary tract tumors. Further, review of surgery, current adjuvant treatment and therapies for unresectable and advanced disease is provided. The most recent understanding for target therapies and molecular biology is also summarized.

  1. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Content Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ... Irritable Bowel Syndrome GER and GERD in Adults Lactose Intolerance Celiac Disease Related News There are currently no ...

  2. New Principles In Operating Gastro-Intestinal Tract With CO2 Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelkin, O. K.; Litwin, G. D.; Smoljaninov, M. V.; Brehov, E. I.; Rjabov, V. I.; Kirpitchev, A. G.

    1988-06-01

    Laser devicea are becoming morn popular in surgery. They are mainly used for controling hemorrages through an endoscope, for radicalevaporating benign and small malignant tumors in esophagus, stomach, colon, and for palliative destruction of inoperable tumors to recanalize the lumen. According, to literature operations on abdominal parenchymal organs with laser are rather seldom. And the operations with laser on hollow organs of digestive tract are being mainly performed in the USSR, and they being rather effective.

  3. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  4. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  6. Investigation on the Infection and Prevention of Nematodes in Digestive Tract%山羊消化道寄生虫感染情况调查及防制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍; 周思旋; 刘辉; 徐健; 徐洪忠; 董凤仙; 钟虎

    2012-01-01

    本研究对贵阳市某种羊场的山羊进行消化道寄生虫检查,结果表明,该羊场山羊消化道寄生虫的感染率达100%.寄生种类有线虫、吸虫、绦虫、球虫,分别是捻转血矛线虫( Haemonchus contortus)、毛圆线虫(Trichostrongylus)、夏伯特线虫(Chabertia)、乳突类圆线虫(Strongyloides papillosus)、仰口线虫(Bunostomum)、食道口线虫(Oesophagostomum)、马歇尔线虫(Marshallagia)、钝刺细颈线虫(Nematodirus spathiner)、肝片吸虫(Fasciola hepatica)、胰阔盘吸虫(Eurytrema pancreaticum)、槽盘吸虫(Ogmocoty)、莫尼茨绦虫(Moniezia)、曲子宫绦虫(Helictometra)、艾美耳球虫(Eimeria)等,为多种虫混合感染.根据调查结果采取了相应的综合防制措施.%Nematodes in digestive tract of one breeding goat farm were examined, the results showed that the infection rate of nematodes in digestive tract was 100% and nematodes, trematode, tapeworm and coccidia were included. There were Hae-monchus contortus ,Trichostrongylus, Chabertia, Strongyloides papillosus , Bunostomum, Oesophagostomum, Marshallagia, Nematodirus spathiner, Fasciola hepatica , Eurytrema pancreaticum , Ogmocoty, Moniezia, Helictomelra and Eimeria , etc. The integrated measures to prevent and control nematodes in digestive tract were made according to the survey results.

  7. 64层螺旋CT在消化道穿孔的诊断价值%The Value of 64 Slice Spiral CT in the Diagnosis of Digestive Tract Perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓霞; 郭强强; 兰国宾; 路凯; 李宝栋; 郭福庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the value of 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of digestive tract perforation.Method:A retrospective analysis was conducted in imaging information of 76 cases confirmed by surgery in patients with digestive tract perforation.Result:In the 76 patients,the main CT signs were peritoneal effusion,free gas,surrounding cellulites or peritonitis change around the perforation and gastrointestinal wall thickening. Preoperative diagnostic accuracy was 92.0%. The correct localization rate was 81.2%.Conclusion:64 slice spiral CT in gastrointestinal perforation can timely,accurate diagnosis. It also has high value in judging the digestive tract perforation location.%目的:探讨64层螺旋CT在消化道穿孔诊断中的价值。方法:回顾性分析76例经手术证实的消化道穿孔患者的影像资料。结果:76例患者中,CT主要征象为腹腔积液、游离气体、穿孔处周围蜂窝组织炎或腹膜炎改变、胃肠壁增厚,术前正确诊断穿孔92.0%,定位正确诊断81.2%。结论:64层螺旋CT用于消化道穿孔中能够及时、准确地作出诊断,在判断消化道穿孔位置具有较高的价值。

  8. 鱼类消化道内分泌细胞概述及研究方法%Current status of research and methods of endocrine cells in digestive tracts in fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐革锋; 刘洋; 牟振波

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine cell could produced many kinds of gut hormones with the function of regulating stomach and intestine.Besides promoting the digestion and absorption of nutrient substance in stomach and intestine,these hormones could controlled feeding behavior,regulated the movement of digestive tract and trophic action of cell,even influenced the activity of other endocrine glands.Understanding the basic overview of endocrine cell in intestine was conducive to progress the penetrating research on digestive physiology of fishes.Histochemistry immunocytochemistry and electron microscope technique were important ways to study the identification,location and morphology of endocrine cell in digestive tract.Using these techniques could revealed biological function and mechanism of action of endocrine cell in digestive tract,which has meaning to research the physiological mechanism of ingestion,digestion and absorption of fishes.Thus,aimed to offer reference for digestive physiology,endocrinology and nutriology of fishes,we overviewed the progress and main methods in internal and overseas studies of endocrine cell in digestive tract of fishes for the past few years.%消化道内分泌细胞能产生多种具有调节胃肠功能的胃肠激素。该类激素除了能促进胃肠对营养物质的消化与吸收外,还能控制摄食行为、调控消化道运动以及细胞营养作用,甚至能够影响其他一些内分泌腺的活动。了解肠道内分泌细胞的基本概况有助于深入地研究鱼类的消化生理,组织化学、免疫细胞化学和电子显微镜等技术是研究消化道内分泌细胞鉴别、定位以及形态学的重要方法,利用这些技术能够揭示鱼类消化道内分泌细胞的生物功能及作用机理,对研究鱼类摄食、消化和吸收等生理机制有重要意义。因此,本文综述了近年来国内外鱼类消化道内分泌细胞的研究进展及主要研究手段,旨在为鱼类消化生理学、内分泌学和营养学提供参考资料。

  9. Is photodynamic therapy a selective treatment? Analysis of local complications after endoscopic photodynamic therapy of early stage tumors of gastrointestinal, tracheobronchial, and urinary tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea

    1995-03-01

    Selectivity is the most emphasized advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, at drug and light doses used for clinical applications, response from normal tissue surrounding the tumor reduces the real selectivity of the drug-light system and increases the surface of the area responding to the treatment. It is now evident that light irradiation of a sensitized patient produces damage at a various degree not only in the tumor but also in non-neoplastic tissues included in the field of irradiation. We report our experience in endoscopic PDT of early stage tumors in tracheobronchial, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, describing early and late local complications caused by the damage of normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and included in the field of light irradiation. Among 44 patients treated, local complications, attributable to a poor selectivity of the modality, occurred in 6 patients (14%). In particular, the rate of local complications was 9% in patients treated for esophageal tumors, 14% in patients with gastric tumors, 9% in patients with tracheobronchial tumors, and 67% in bladder cancer patients. Clinical pictures as well as endoscopic findings at various intervals from treatment showed that mucositis is a common event following endoscopic PDT. It causes exudation and significant tissue inflammatory response, whose consequences are different in the various organs treated. Photoradiation must be, as much as possible, limited to the malignant area.

  10. 消化道溃疡穿孔85例诊治体会%Diagnosis and treatment of digestive tract perforation in 85 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文渊; 孙占彬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the best way of diagnosing and treating the digestive tract perforation.Methods Clinical pathological and follow-up information of patients in Anze county people' s hospital from January 2006 to December 2011 were collected.Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 17.0 software.Results All 85 patients were received operations.The main symptoms for medical in the first time:intense abdominal pain,tenderness,and rebound teneer-ness 58 cases (68.2%).Nausea and vomiting with anemia or bloody stool in 15 cases (17.6%),shock in 9 cases (10.6%),fever in 3 cases(3.5%).Three-dimensional abdominal plain X-ray with free air occured in 68 cases.Duodenal ulcer perforation in 23 cases (27 %),gastric ulcer perforation in 57 cases (67 %),gastric cancer perforation in 5 cases(5.9%)after postoperative pathology.The patients who received gastroduodenal perforation repair or ulcer resection were 58 cases (68.2%),who received subtotal gastrectomy were 23 cases(27.1%),who received radical surgery for gastric cancer were 4 cases(4.7%).Postoperative ulcer recurrence rate:perforation repair or ulcer resection with 15 cases(26.8%),2 cases died,subtotal gastrectomy with 4 cases(14.8%),1 cases died.The recurrence rate had statistical significance between two groups (x2 =4.078,P < 0.05).Conclusions The main symptoms of upper digestive tract perforation patients are,tenderness,and rebound tender-nsee.Shock signs occurs in the 24 hours later after perforation.X-ray with free air should be concerned.The simple perforation repair or ulcer excision repair Combined with acia inhibitory drugs can decrease the recurrence rate,subtotal gastrectomy is the radical therapy.%目的 探讨消化道溃疡穿孔最佳的诊治途径与方法.方法 回顾性分析2006年1月至2011年12月安泽县人民医院外科收治的85例消化道溃疡穿孔患者的临床病理及随访资料.结果 85例患者均经手术治疗,首次就诊最主要的症

  11. Respiratory tract tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010336 Study on the association between DNA double-strand break repair gene NBS1 polymorphisms and susceptibility on lung cancer. FAN Lihui(樊丽辉),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Public Health Sch,Fujian Med Univ,Fuzhou 350004.Chin J Epidemiol 2010;31(2):213-217.

  12. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  13. Cerebral white matter fractional anisotropy and tract volume as measured by MR imaging are associated with impaired cognitive and motor function in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckriegel, Stefan M; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich W; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    Disease and therapy cause brain damage and subsequent functional loss in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors. Treatment-related toxicity factors are resection in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and, additionally, cranio-spinal irradiation together with chemotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma (MB). We tested whether damage to white matter (WM) as revealed by diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) correlated with specific cognitive and motor impairments in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Eighteen MB (mean age ± SD, 15.2 ± 4.9 y) and 14 PA (12.6 ± 5.0 y) survivors were investigated with DTI on a 3-Tesla-MR system. We identified fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM, the volume ratio of WM to gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (WM/GM + CSF), and volume of specific frontocerebellar tracts. Ataxia was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), while the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children determined full-scale intelligence quotients (FSIQ). Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) was used to assess processing speed. Handwriting automation was analyzed using a digitizing graphic tablet. The WM/GM + CSF ratio correlated significantly with cognitive measures (IQ, P = 0.002; ANT baseline speed, P = 0.04; ANT shifting attention, P = 0.004). FA of skeletonized tracts correlated significantly with FSIQ (P = 0.008), ANT baseline speed (P = 0.028) and ANT shifting attention (P = 0.045). Moreover, frontocerebellar tract volumes correlated with both the FSIQ (P = 0.011) and ICARS (P = 0.007). DTI provides a method for quantification of WM damage by tumor and by therapy-associated effects in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. DTI-derived WM integrity may be a representative marker for cognitive and motor deterioration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Multiple primary malignant tumors of upper gastrointestinal tract:A novel role of ~(18)F-FDG PET/CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the capacity of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) for detecting multiple primary cancer of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. METHODS: Fifteen patients (12 without cancer histories and 3 with histories of upper GI tract cancer) were investigated due to the suspicion of primary cancer of UGI tract on X-ray barium meal and CT scan. Subsequent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was carried out for initial staging or restaging. All the patient...

  15. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...

  16. Advances in the enteral nutritional support treatment for patients after digestive tract reconstruction%消化道重建术后的肠内营养支持治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞晓洁; 王萌; 葛卫红(综述); 管文贤(审校)

    2014-01-01

    消化道重建术后患者存在营养不良及吸收障碍风险,肠内营养支持能更有效地维持和改善机体的营养状态,缩短住院时间以及减少并发症的发生,是术后首选的营养支持方式。本文将消化道重建术后患者肠内营养支持开始的时机、营养支持途径、营养制剂、输注方式的选择,以及并发症的治疗等方面进行综述。%Postoperative patients who underwent digestive tract reconstruction have a high risk of malnutrition and absorbing bar-rier. Enteral nutrition support can effectively maintain and improve the nutritional status of the human body, shorten hospital stay, and reduce complications. Therefore, the enteral approach is the preferred postoperative means of nutrition support. This article retrospec-tively summarizes the appropriate time to start enteral nutrition support therapy after digestive tract reconstruction, the proper selection of the mode of enteral nutrition support, the different enteral nutrition preparations, and the treatment of postoperative complications.

  17. Selective decontamination of the oral and digestive tract in surgical versus non-surgical patients in intensive care in a cluster-randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, W.G.; Smet, A.M. de; Kluytmans, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.; Pickkers, P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) are effective in improving survival in patients under intensive care. In this study possible differential effects in surgical and non-surgical patients were investigated. METHODS: This was a post

  18. Research progress of thalidomide in the treatment of digestive tumors%沙利度胺治疗消化系统肿瘤的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高东; 李玲

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of thalidomide is complex in the treatment of solid tumors,mainly including the inhibition of new solid tumor angiogenesis,synergistic activation of T-lymphocytes,immunosuppressive action.At present,clinical studies have demonstrated that thalidomide has a potential treatment effect on digestive tumor.In this paper,the new research progress of thalidomide in the treatment of digestive tumors is reviewed.%沙利度胺治疗实体肿瘤的作用机制是多方面的,主要是抑制实体肿瘤新生血管生成,协同激活T淋巴细胞,调节免疫抑制作用.目前有多项临床研究已经确定沙利度胺治疗晚期消化道肿瘤的治疗作用.本文就沙利度胺治疗消化系统恶性肿瘤的最新研究进展作一综述.

  19. Effects of dietary lipid sources on performance and apparent total tract digestibility of lipids and energy when fed to nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, S M; van Heugten, E

    2014-02-01

    Acidulated fats and oils are by-products of the fat-refining industry. They contain high levels of FFA and are 10% to 20% less expensive than refined fats and oils. Two studies were designed to measure the effects of dietary lipid sources low or high in FFA on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of lipids and GE in nursery pigs. In Exp. 1, 189 pigs at 14 d postweaning (BW of 9.32 ± 0.11 kg) were used for 21 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet without added lipids and 6 diets with 6% inclusion of lipids. Four lipid sources were combined to create the dietary treatments with 2 levels of FFA (0.40% or 54.0%) and 3 degrees of fat saturation (iodine value [IV] = 77, 100, or 123) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Lipid sources were soybean oil (0.3% FFA and IV = 129.4), soybean-cottonseed acid oil blend (70.5% FFA and IV = 112.9), choice white grease (0.6% FFA and IV = 74.8), and choice white acid grease (56.0% FFA and IV = 79.0). Addition of lipid sources decreased ADFI (810 vs. 872 g/d; P = 0.018) and improved G:F (716 vs. 646 g/kg; P pigs at 7 d postweaning (BW of 7.0 ± 0.2 kg) were used for 28 d with 9 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Diets included a control diet without added lipids and 6 treatments with 2.5%, 5.0%, or 7.5% of lipids from either poultry fat (1.9% FFA) or acidulated poultry fat (37.8% FFA) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Addition of lipids increased (P < 0.001) final BW (19.9 vs. 18.4 kg) and ADG (460 vs. 405 g/d) regardless of source. Fat increased (P < 0.001) ADFI when added at 2.5% and then decreased ADFI with each further increment (663, 740, 681, and 653 g for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively). Inclusion of lipids linearly (P < 0.001) improved G:F (615, 615, 688, and 692 g/kg for 0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5% fat, respectively) and ATTD of lipids (17.8%, 50.2%, 71.0%, and 77.3% for 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% fat, respectively

  20. Morphological Studies of Digestive Tract and Its Argyrophil Cells in Sunken Ear Frog%凹耳蛙消化道组织学和嗜银细胞形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪泷; 唐鑫生; 吴仁红; 马亚军; 张蕾

    2012-01-01

    为了揭示凹耳蛙( Odorrana tormota)消化道的基本特征,运用石蜡切片法和龙桂开银浸法对凹耳蛙消化道组织学结构及嗜银细胞的形态与分布密度进行了观察.结果显示:①凹耳蛙的胃壁具明显的纵行皱襞和胃小凹,胃腺发达,小肠可分为十二指肠和回肠,杯状细胞分散在十二指肠上皮细胞之间,十二指肠中未见十二指肠腺分布.②凹耳蛙嗜银细胞见于消化道全长,呈毛笔头样、锥体形、梭形、椭圆形和长条形等;幽门腺上皮和十二指肠绒毛上皮中的嗜银细胞具指向腺泡腔或肠腔的突起,提示其可能具有腔分泌的功能.嗜银细胞的分布密度胃幽门部最高,十二指肠和胃体其次,食道最低.据此认为胃既是凹耳蛙的主要消化器官,也是消化道中主要的内分泌器官;十二指肠是凹耳蛙消化道中的主要吸收部位,同时也具有内分泌功能;消化道嗜银细胞具有内分泌的功能,还可能具有腔分泌的功能.%To reveal the basic characteristics of the digestive tract of Sunken Ear Frog( Odonana tormota) , paraffin section and Longguikai's silver staining were used to observe histological characteristics and distribution density of argyrophil cells in the digestive tract. Longitudinal plica and gastric pits were obviously observed on the gastric wall and glands were well developed. The small intestine could be divided into duodenum and ileum, with goblet cells scattered among the duodenum epithelial cells,while no glands were found in the duodenum. Argyrophil cells in various shapes, such as brush-headed, conical, spindle-like, elliptical and rectangular, were observed along the whole digestive tract, and these cells in gland epithelium of pilori and villus epithelium of duodenum had apophysis pointing to the acinar lumen or intestine, indicating the possible luminal secretion function of these cells. Pylorica part of suomach had the highest density of argyrophil cells

  1. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  2. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig. 1. Studies with administration of isomalt in the feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerden, E J; Huisman, J

    1993-03-01

    In a study with twelve pigs of 60-70 kg live weight provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and twelve intact, non-cannulated pigs, the fate of dietary doses of 100 and 200 g isomalt/kg during gastrointestinal passage was examined. From sugar analyses in ileal chyme it was calculated that 0.43 and 0.30 of the isomalt consumed was digested in the small intestine with the 100 and 200 g/kg doses of isomalt respectively. From findings on ileal energy digestibility it was calculated that, because of a secondary effect of isomalt on the digestion of the basal diet, isomalt digestibility in the small intestine was distinctly lower. In faeces no sugars were found, so faecal digestibility of isomalt was 1.00 for both doses. The bacterial fermentation in the large intestine of the isomalt not digested in the small intestine caused an increase in the faecal excretion of nitrogen and energy. This increased faecal excretion was hardly (nitrogen) or not (energy) compensated by a decreased urinary excretion.

  3. Monitoring of the Parasite Load in the Digestive Tract of Rhodnius prolixus by Combined qPCR Analysis and Imaging Techniques Provides New Insights into the Trypanosome Life Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Almeida Dias

    Full Text Available Here we report the monitoring of the digestive tract colonization of Rhodnius prolixus by Trypanosoma cruzi using an accurate determination of the parasite load by qPCR coupled with fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging (BLI. These complementary methods revealed critical steps necessary for the parasite population to colonize the insect gut and establish vector infection.qPCR analysis of the parasite load in the insect gut showed several limitations due mainly to the presence of digestive-derived products that are thought to degrade DNA and inhibit further the PCR reaction. We developed a real-time PCR strategy targeting the T. cruzi repetitive satellite DNA sequence using as internal standard for normalization, an exogenous heterologous DNA spiked into insect samples extract, to precisely quantify the parasite load in each segment of the insect gut (anterior midgut, AM, posterior midgut, PM, and hindgut, H. Using combined fluorescence microscopy and BLI imaging as well as qPCR analysis, we showed that during their journey through the insect digestive tract, most of the parasites are lysed in the AM during the first 24 hours independently of the gut microbiota. During this short period, live parasites move through the PM to establish the onset of infection. At days 3-4 post-infection (p.i., the parasite population begins to colonize the H to reach a climax at day 7 p.i., which is maintained during the next two weeks. Remarkably, the fluctuation of the parasite number in H remains relatively stable over the two weeks after refeeding, while the populations residing in the AM and PM increases slightly and probably constitutes the reservoirs of dividing epimastigotes.These data show that a tuned dynamic control of the population operates in the insect gut to maintain an equilibrium between non-dividing infective trypomastigote forms and dividing epimastigote forms of the parasite, which is crucial for vector competence.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and multiple primary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract Carcinoma epidermoide do esôfago e múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses RIBEIRO Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is frequently associated with other, synchronous or metachronous tumors, in the upper aerodigestive tract. All 264 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, treated in the Gastrointestinal Surgery, Esophagus section, of the "Hospital das Clínicas" (São Paulo University Medical School, Brazil, between 1979 and 1989 were analyzed retrospectively with regards to the occurrence of multiple primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Multiple primary tumors were encountered in 10 (3.8% patients. All patients were male and the mean age at the time of the first primary was 52.2 years. Tobacco smoke and alcohol were the principal carcinogens in these patients (n = 10. The sites of the tumors were: larynx (n = 4, tongue (n = 4, lung (n = 2, and oral cavity (n = 1. Two simultaneous, three synchronous and five metachronous multiple primary carcinomas were detected. The esophagus was the second primary tumor in nine patients. The mean overall survival after the diagnosis of the second primary was 2.8 months (SD = 0.89. Inquiry regarding other malignancies, associated with panendoscopy should be carry out prior to the treatment of the first primary to diagnose simultaneous or synchronous primary tumors, and careful follow-up should be performed after treatment of the first primary to detect new tumors in these high-risk patients.Carcinoma epidermóide do esôfago está freqüentemente associado a outros, sincrônicos ou metacrônicos tumores do trato aerodigestivo alto. Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 264 pacientes com carcinoma de esôfago tratados na Disciplina de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo, Divisão de Cirurgia do Esôfago, do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, entre 1979 e 1989, com o intuito de se observar a ocorrência de múltiplos tumores primários do trato aerodigestivo alto. Observaram-se 10 (3.8% pacientes com múltiplos tumores

  5. Qualitative feed restriction for heavy swines: effect on digestibility and weight of organs of digestive tract, and environmental impact of feces Restrição alimentar qualitativa para suínos pesados: efeito sobre digestibilidade e peso dos órgãos do trato digestório e impacto ambiental das fezes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Fraga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 50 barrows were used to evaluate qualitative feed restriction on digestibility of dietary components, weight of organs of digestive tract, and composition and production of feces. Five experimental diets, with increasing levels of qualitative feed restriction of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% were used. There was linear reduction (PForam utilizados 50 suínos machos castrados para avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar qualitativa sobre a digestibilidade dos componentes dietéticos, os órgãos do trato digestório, a composição e a produção fecal. Foram utilizadas cinco dietas experimentais, com níveis de restrição qualitativa de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20%. Houve redução linear (P<0,001 para todos os coeficientes de digestibilidade, com exceção da fibra em detergente ácido, que apresentou resposta quadrática (P<0,05. Os teores de sólidos totais (P<0,01 e voláteis (P<0,05, e minerais totais (P<0,001 nas fezes aumentaram com os níveis de restrição alimentar, enquanto os níveis de K (P<0,05, Cu (P<0,01 e de N, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe e Zn (P<0,001, apresentaram resposta quadrática. A excreção diária de fezes, sólidos totais e voláteis, minerais totais, N, P, K, Mn e Cu (P<0,001, Ca, Na, Mg e Fe (P<0,05 apresentaram aumento em função do nível da restrição alimentar qualitativa. A restrição qualitativa pode ser alternativa para destinação de resíduos da agroindústria, conferindo boas propriedades às fezes suínas, no que diz respeito à utilização para adubação de culturas.

  6. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec); Xerostomie tardive apres radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers des voies aero-digestives superieures: etude 2004-03 du Groupe oncologie et radiotherapie de la tete et du cou (Gortec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Graff, P. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Serre, C. [Centre Val d' Aurelle, 34 - Montpellier (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU La Miletrie, 86 - Poitiers (France); Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Calais, G. [CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Alfonsi, M. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Giraud, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Racadot, S. [Centre Leon-Berrard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  7. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig. 2. Studies with administration of isomalt as a sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerden, E J; Huisman, J

    1993-03-01

    In a study with ten pigs of 60-70 kg live weight, provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and sixteen intact, non-cannulated pigs, the digestion and absorption of a dietary dose of 100 g isomalt/kg, and isomalt given between the meals as a 'sweet' on the basis of 50 and 100 g/kg feed consumption, were examined. In all three isomalt treatments slightly less than 0.40 of the isomalt consumed was digested in the small intestine when the calculations were based on ileal sugar passage. However, when basing the calculations on energy contents of ileal chyme, only approximately 0.10 was digested in the small intestine. The bacterial fermentation of the isomalt flowing into the large intestine was indicated by a decreased faecal energy digestibility and a slight reduction in faecal dry matter and nitrogen digestibility. The retention of the minerals sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus was not influenced to any measurable extent when isomalt was fed.

  8. 消化道肿瘤患者受教育程度与营养支持治疗认知度的相关性分析%Relationship of Cognition of Nutritional Support Treatment and Education Level in Patients with Digestive Tract Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝素华

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the of nutritional support treatment in patients with digestive tract tumor.[Methods] Two hundred thirty cases with digestive tract tumor preoperation and 238 cases postoperation from November 2009 to February 2010 in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were investigated.The cognition degree of the nutritional support treatment were investigated by questionnaire.[Results] The awareness rate of nutritional support treatment in postoperative patients with education level was 9.1% in illiteracy,4.3% in primary school or junior high school,12.3% in senior high school,46.4%in undergraduate and 75% in postgraduate (x2=42.394,P<0.001).The awareness rate of nutritional support treatment in postoperative patients was significant difference among different education level (x2=40.631,P<0.001).[Conclusions] Education is an influence able factor for nutrition support treatment.The pertinency health education should be carried out.%[目的]探讨消化道肿瘤患者受教育程度对营养支持治疗认知度的影响.[方法]选择2009年11月至2010年2月在山西省肿瘤医院住院的消化道肿瘤术前患者230例,术后患者238例,采用问卷调查的方法评价不同教育程度的消化道肿瘤患者术前、术后营养支持治疗认知度.[结果]术前消化道肿瘤患者文化程度文盲、初中/小学、高中、专科/本科和研究生者对营养支持治疗知晓率分别为9.1%(1/11),4.3% (4/94),12.3%(8/65),46.4% (26/56)和75.0%(3/4)(x2=42.394,P<0.001).术后消化道肿瘤患者不同文化程度者的知晓率也有统计学差异(x2=40.631,P<0.001).[结论]教育程度是营养支持治疗认知度的影响因素,应分人群进行不同的健康教育.

  9. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders;

    2012-01-01

    fibre (DF), non-starch polysaccharides, soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP), insoluble non-cellulosic polysaccharide (I-NCP) and neutral detergent fibre. The ATTD of the S-NCP fraction was above 0.8, which was 60% higher than for the I-NCP fraction. The PCL of starch were 0.98 (oats) and 0.......75 (barley). The BB diet lowered (p NCP (r = -0.66; p = 0.005). In conclusion, this study successfully measured the in vivo digestibility of individual fibre fractions...... and found that S-NCP was more digestible than the I-NCP, and that a single meal of unprocessed barley was sufficient to decrease caecal pH to such an extent that the fibre digestibility of the whole diet was negatively affected....

  10. Distribution and morphological characteristics of argyrophilic cells in digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus%版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家洲; 李桂芬; 苏福来; 蒙绍权; 贝永建; 谢文海

    2011-01-01

    目的:对我国特有的濒危珍稀两栖动物版纳鱼螈(Ichthyophis bannanicus)消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态进行研究.方法:取各消化管段,除十二指肠和直肠由于很短全取外,其余的食管、胃、空肠和大肠均分别取始段、中段和末段,应用龙桂开浸银法染色处理,观察嗜银细胞的形态、分布,并测量各消化管段嗜银细胞的分布密度.结果:版纳鱼螈消化道除食管和大肠未见嗜银细胞外,其他部位均有嗜银细胞分布.在胃体和空肠中段有明显的分布密度高峰,其中空肠中段分布密度最高;十二指肠和直肠分布密度较低,以十二指肠分布密度最低;嗜银细胞形态多样,有圆形、锥体形、梭形、椭圆形、柱形和梨形等.结论:版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布特征与中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)的相似.%Objective: To determine the distribution and morphology of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus, which is an endangered Amphibia species in China.Methods: Every segment of the digestive tract was taken.The beginning, middle and end segments of the esophagus, stomach, jejunum and large intestine were taken, except the duodenum and rectum which are too short.Guikai Long silver impregnation method was used to observe the distribution and morphology of the argyrophilic cells, and then the distribution density of the argyrophilic cells in each digestive tract segment was determined.Results: Excluding the esophagus and large intestine, the argyrophil cells were found within the gastrointestinal tract.Among these parts, the argyrophilic cells exhibited its peak distribution within the middle segment of the jejunum, and followed by body of the stomach.Additionally, the argyrophilic cells distributed lower within the rectum and lowest in the duodenum.The appearances of argyrophilic cells varied, including round, cone, spindle, ellipse, column and pear.Conclusion: The distributed feature of

  11. Morfologia do trato digestório e dieta de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059 Morphology of Digestive tract and diet of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae (Boulenger, 1887 (Osteichthyes, Characidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i1.1059

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshiyu Nakatani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar alguns aspectos da alimentação de larvas de Bryconamericus aff. iheringii, capturadas nos meses de julho e novembro de 2001, nas regiões limnética e litorânea do reservatório de Santa Maria, rio Piquiri, Estado do Paraná. As larvas apresentaram boca subterminal durante todo o seu desenvolvimento. O tubo digestório se diferenciou em estômago e intestino apenas no estágio de pós-flexão. As larvas consumiram, principalmente, algas e microcrustáceos, o que permitiu caracterizá-las como planctófagas. A intensa modificação morfológica no trato digestório nos indivíduos em pós-flexão coincidiu com o aumento na abundância de algas em relação aos itens de origem animal; porém, de forma geral, a ocorrência aumentou para todos os itens. A análise do grau de digestão dos itens alimentares sugeriu que indivíduos em pré-flexão alimentaram-se, possivelmente, durante o dia, e os mais desenvolvidos, durante o entardecer e no período noturnoThe aim of this study was to analyze some feeding treats of Bryconamericus aff. iheringii larvae, sampled in both the limnetic and littoral regions of the Piquiri River, in Santa Maria reservoir, between July and November 2001. The larvae presented sub-terminal mouth in larval period. The digestive tract differentiated in terms of stomach and intestine only in the postflexion larvae. The larvae fed mainly on algae and microcrustacea allowing to characterize them as planktivorous. The intense morphologic shift in the digestive tract in the postflexion larvae coincided with an increase in the abundance of algae in relation to animals items; however, in general, all the items had their occurrence increased. Analysis of the digestion stage suggested that preflexion larvae, possibly, fed themselves during the day, and those more developed, at dusk and night

  12. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  13. 内镜下黏膜剥离术治疗消化道病变的临床研究%Clinical study of endoscopic mucosal dissection treating digestive tract diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王葳; 王宏光; 王晓燕; 杨光辉

    2014-01-01

    目的 证明内镜下黏膜剥离术(ESD)治疗消化道病变的临床意义.方法 选取行ESD治疗患者112例,术前经消化道超声内镜检查定位提示病变尚未侵及肌层后行ESD.结果 112例中96例完整剥离并切除病变组织,术后病理显示基底部和切缘未见病变组织且被膜完整,完整切除率85.7%(96/112).术中未出现难以控制的大出血,也未出现钛夹无法夹闭消化道穿孔、腹腔感染、皮下气肿等情况.对于12例早期癌症的患者进行术后1年的随访,未出现残留和复发现象.结论 ESD对于消化道病变是一种安全、有效、痛苦小、可以将病变组织一次性完整切除的手术.%Objective To demonstrate the clinical significance of endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of digestive tract diseases.Methods A total of 112 patients with ESD treatment were selected.Preoperative localization endoscopy gastrointestinal ultrasound showed the lesion had not yet invaded muscular layer by ESD.Results Ninety-six cases had complete stripping and removal of lesions,postoperative pathology showed basal and margin had no lesions and membrane was intact integrity,complete resection rate was 85.7%(96/112).Surgery did not appear to uncontrollable bleeding without titanium clip,also not be clipped digestive tract perforation,abdominal infection,subcutaneous emphysema etc.There was no uncontrollable bleeding,digestive tract perforation that couldn't be clipped by titanium clip,abdominal infection,subcutaneous emphysema etc in surgery.For 1 year in 12 patients with early stage cancer of postoperative follow-up,no residual and recurrence.Conclusion ESD is a safe,effective,less painful,can be a one-time operation lesions complete resection for gastrointestinal lesions.

  14. 达芬奇机器人手术系统行胰腺手术消化道吻合的要点%Key points of digestive tract anastomosis in pancreatic surgery assisted by da Vinci robotic surgical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈柏用; 叶靳华; 詹茜

    2013-01-01

    达芬奇机器人手术系统具有三维立体视野、高度精确性、灵活性和可重复性等优点,特别是在完成胰腺消化道吻合操作时,有着明显的优势.本文详细介绍了达芬奇机器人手术系统在胰腺手术中完成消化道吻合的可行性、吻合原则以及胰肠吻合、胰胃吻合手术步骤,从中分析出达芬奇机器人手术系统在胰腺手术消化道吻合时的特点,旨在提高吻合质量,减少术后胰腺吻合口相关并发症的发生.与开腹手术比较,在达芬奇机器人手术系统下完成胰腺消化道吻合简化了操作,减轻了创伤,是安全可行的.其具体吻合方式的选择应综合考虑局部组织条件、手术方式与外科医师的手术经验.%The da Vinci robotic surgical system has the advantages of three-dimensional vision and high degree of accuracy,flexibility and repeatability,which makes surgical procedures such as digestive tract anastomosis easier to conduct under minimally invasive conditions.In this article,the feasibility and principle of digestive tract anastomosis and the procedures of pancreaticojejunostomy and pancreaticogastrostomy by the da Vinci robotic surgical system are introduced,so as to improve the quality of anastomosis and reduce the incidences of postoperative complications.Compared with traditional laparotomy,da Vinci robotic surgical system simplified the surgical procedures and reduced the trauma,which is suitable for digestive tract anastomosis in pancreatic surgery.The method of pancreatic anastomosis should be selected in consideration of the condition of patients,surgical procedure and the experience of surgeons.

  15. Study on Omeprazole Medication Effect in Treatment of Upper Digestive Tract Hemorrhage Caused by Gastritis%奥美拉唑治疗胃炎致上消化道出血的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟春艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究胃炎致上消化道出血应用奥美拉唑治疗的临床效果。方法选取我院2013年12月~2014年12月间收治的胃炎致上消化道出血患者47例,对照组应用常规剂量的奥美拉唑静滴治疗,研究组应用大剂量的奥美拉唑静滴治疗,对比两组临床效果。结果研究组总有效率(92.31%)与对照组(76.19%)比较相对较高,输血量少,两组治疗效果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论胃炎致上消化道出血应用大剂量的奥美拉唑治疗疗效确切,安全可靠,切实可行。%Objective Clinical efficacy of omeprazole medication in treatment of upper digestive tract hemorrhage caused by gastritis is to be studied. Methods Selected 47 patients of upper digestive tract hemorrhage caused by gastritis that were treated in hospital from December 2013 to December 2014,patients in control group were given omeprazole intravenous injection treatment with routine dosage,while patients in study group were given omeprazole intravenous injection treatment with excessive dosage,and then compared clinical treatment effects between two groups. Results Treatment efficacy in study group(92.31%)was much higher than that in control group(76.19%),and patients’blood transfusion amount in study group was less,there was a differential between two groups and such a differential had statistic valu(P<0.05). Conclusion Omeprazole medication is of efficacy and safety in treatment of upper digestive tract hemorrhage caused by gastritis.

  16. 心理护理及健康教育对消化道肿瘤化疗患者的影响%Influence of psychological care and health education on patients with digestive tract cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付淑云; 曹安香; 王庆红; 林美雄

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究心理护理及健康教育对消化道肿瘤化疗患者异常情绪的影响.方法 回顾性分析2005年7月至2009年7月收治的消化道恶性肿瘤病例245例,对147例恶性消化道肿瘤化疗患者进行常规治疗的同时实施心理护理及健康教育.列为干预组,并以进行基本护理的98例为对照组,对2组化疗前后焦虑、抑郁指数为指标分析其临床疗效.结果 化疗后干预组的SAS、SDS评分均显著低于基本护理组,而生存时间显著高于基本护理组.结论 心理护理及健康教育干预使肿瘤化疗患者异常情绪程度明显减轻,生存时间也得到显著延长.%Objective To study the impact of psychological care and health education on patients with digestive tract cancer and abnormal emotion receiving chemotherapy. Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out in 245 patients with malignant digestive tract cancer from July 2005 to July 2009 treated in our hospital, 147 cases of these patients received psychological care and health education besides conventional therapy were set as the intervention group, 98 cases given only basic nursing care were set as the control group. The clinical efficacy was analyzed in the two groups before and after chemotherapy using anxiety and depression indexes as indicators. Results After chemotherapy, SAS and SDS scores were significantly lower, while the survival time was significantly higher in the intervention group than those of the control group. Conclusions Psychological care and health education can reduce abnormal emotion in patients with malignant digestive tract cancer receiving chemotherapy and prolonged their survival time.

  17. Cognition of nutrition knowledge in patients with digestive tract cancer: a qualitative study%消化系统肿瘤患者对营养知识认知的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 王维利; 章新琼; 张森; 张璟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨消化系统肿瘤患者对营养知识的认知现状及教育需求,为开展营养知识健康教育提供参考.方法 采用目的抽样法抽取安徽省某综合性三甲医院的15例消化系统肿瘤患者,运用半结构式深入访谈法收集资料,采用Colaizzi内容分析法分析资料.结果 经分析,提取出4个主题:学习营养知识的态度;营养知识的储备;营养知识的应用;营养知识的获取方式.结论 消化系统肿瘤患者学习营养知识态度良好,但营养知识水平及行为有待提高.医护人员应采取灵活多样的营养知识教育方法,满足患者的需求.%Objective To explore cognition of nutrition knowledge in patients with digestive tract cancer and their education needs,and to provide information for nutrition education.Methods Fifteen patients with digestive tract cancer were chosen in a general tertiary hospital in Anhui province.Data were collected by using semi-structured in-depth interviews and were analyzed with the Colaizzi analysis of phenomenological method.Results Four themes were identified:attitudes toward learning nutrition knowledge,nutrition knowledge reserve,application,and access.Conclusion Patients with digestive tract cancer have positive attitudes toward learning nutrition knowledge,but their nutrition knowledge and behaviors should be improved.Healthcare workers should take flexible and diverse methods for nutrition education to meet needs of patients.

  18. Clinical analysis of 29 cases of fetal digestive tract malformation diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound%产前超声诊断胎儿消化道畸形29例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓娜; 段清; 张晖; 田晶; 孙彤

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨产前超声检查诊断胎儿消化道发育畸形的临床意义。方法对孕期30~32周于本院检查出存在先天性消化道发育畸形的29例胎儿根据超声图像的不同特点进行分类分析,探讨其不同超声表现。结果29例中无胃泡或小胃泡11例(37.93%),合并多发畸形4例,合并羊水过多9例。管扩张、肠管多囊泡有7例(24.14%),其中合并多发畸形3例,羊水过多3例。双泡征有8例(27.58%),其中合并多发畸形1例,羊水过多7例。另3例无明显超声影像特征。结论30~32周胎儿进行产前超声检查对发现胎儿消化道发育畸形有很高的诊断价值,值得在临床推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of prenatal ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of fe⁃tal digestive tract development. Methods Twenty-nine cases of congenital digestive tract malformation were examined in according to the different characteristics of their different fetal ultrasound images. Results There were 11 cases with non-magenblase or less magenblase (37.93%), 4 cases with combination of multiple malformations, and 9 cases with combination of amniotic fluid in the 29 cases. There were 7 cases (24.14%) with dilatation of intestine and intestinal vesicles, in which 3 with multiple malformations and 3 with polyhydramnios. There were 8 cases (27.58%) with double bubbles, in which 1 case with multiple malformations and 7 cases with amniotic fluid. Conclusion The prenatal ultrasound examination in 30 to 32 weeks of pregnancy is very valuable in diagnosis of fetal digestive tract development, which is worthy of clinical application.

  19. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility and comparison to maternal cheetah milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Cottam, Y.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was

  20. Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus): nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility and comparison to maternal cheetah milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, K.M.; Rutherfurd, S.M.; Cottam, Y.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined. Using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker, nutrient digestibility was

  1. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16:0)...

  2. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  3. Study of Plant Polysaccharide on Mucosal Immunity in Animal Digestive Tract%植物活性多糖对动物消化道黏膜免疫影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶浩; 魏炳栋; 于维; 陈群

    2011-01-01

    The study of plant polysaccharides has been a hot research field both in China and abroad,for they have the ability to enhance biological activities of body immunity, anti-bacterial, anti-virus, anti-oxidation, and molecular recognition.Author reviewed the effects of plant polysaccharides on intestinal mucosal immunity in animal digestive tract from the cellular and molecular levels.%植物多糖因其具有增强机体免疫力、抗菌、抗病毒、抗氧化、分子识别等多种生物活性,已成为国内外研究的热点之笔者就植物多糖从细胞和分子水平对畜禽肠道黏膜免疫的影响进行综述.

  4. 马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征%Morphological and Histological Structural Feature of Digestive Tract in Opsariichthys bidens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母丹利; 袁思平; 薛聪顺; 吴仲宁; 王建平; 竺俊全

    2016-01-01

    为了解马口鱼消化道的形态结构特点,采用解剖学、石蜡切片-显微技术及扫描电镜技术观察研究了马口鱼消化道的形态及组织学结构特征.结果显示:马口鱼消化道由口咽腔、食道、肠道组成,无胃;口咽腔无颌齿,具咽齿;舌短小,被覆复层扁平上皮,具少量味蕾及较多圆形粘液细胞.食道及肠道均由粘膜层、粘膜下层、肌层及外膜构成.食道粘膜层主要由复层扁平上皮构成,杯状细胞较多,肌层发达,内层环肌、外层纵肌.肠道分前、中、后三段,呈“S”形盘曲,肠长指数0.86~1.50;肠内面皱褶发达,粘膜上皮为单层柱状上皮,其游离面有微绒毛密集排列形成的纹状缘,后肠微绒毛密集程度略小于前中肠;上皮细胞间分布有杯状细胞,杯状细胞的数量前、中肠较多,后肠后段较少,肠管直径、肠绒毛数量及其高度由前到后渐减.马口鱼消化道的结构特征与其肉食性相适应.%In order to study the morphological and histological features of the digestive tract inOpsariichthys bidens,we observed the structure of the digestive tract using methods of anatomy, paraffin secyion- photomicrography and scanning electron microscope. The results show that the digestive tract is composed of orol-pharyngeal cavity, esophagus and intestines, but without stomach. There is no jaw teeth found, but instead pharyngeal teeth in orol-pharyngeal cavity. A small number of taste buds and a large number of mucous cells are identified in stratified squamous epithelium on short tongue. The esophagus and intestine consist of mucous membrane layer, submucosa, muscular and the outer membrane. The mucous membrane of the esophagus with numerous mucous cells is composed of the stratified squamous epithelium cells. The thick muscle layer is composed of ring muscle and longitudinal muscle. The bent ‘S’-shaped intestine can be divided into foregut, midgut and

  5. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  6. Early upper digestive tract side effects of zidovudine with tenofovir plus emtricitabine in West African adults with high CD4 counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ouattara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tenofovir (TDF with emtricitabine (FTC and zidovudine (ZDV is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. Clinical studies comparing TDF+FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods: Participants in a trial of early ART in Côte d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136 started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine. We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3–4 AEs or persistent grade 1–2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results: A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3 started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p<0.0001, including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p<0.0001. In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1–4. Plasma ZDV (Cmax distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX prophylaxis. Conclusions: We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in Côte d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever

  7. 上皮向间质转化在消化道肿瘤中的研究进展%Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in digestive system tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春红; 邹晓平

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that tumor cells get rid of the connections between cells,and induce tumor invasion and metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).EMT becomes an important way to invasion,metastasis and chemotherapy resistance of epithelial cell carcinoma which accounting for more than 90% of malignant carcinomas.Members of Snail family,especially Snail is regarded as important adjustment factor of EMT,which induce the transformation from epithelial cell to mesenchymal phenotype through competitive inhibition E-calcium protein gene expression.Many researches show that EMT exists widely in digestive system tumors,which is closly related to the invasion,metastasis and chemotherapy resistance of digestive system tumors.%近年研究发现,肿瘤细胞发生上皮向间质转化(EMT)摆脱细胞与细胞间连接而发生转移侵袭,已成为上皮细胞癌转移侵袭以及化疗耐药的一个重要途径.Snail家族成员,尤其是Snail被认为是肿瘤EMT发生的重要调节因子,它可以通过竞争性抑制E-钙黏蛋白基因的表达,引起上皮细胞向间质细胞表型的转变,最终引起EMT.多项研究显示,在消化系统肿瘤中普遍存在EMT现象,并与这些肿瘤的侵袭转移及化疗耐药密切相关.

  8. 西伯利亚鲟消化道形态学和组织学的初步研究%On morphology and histology of the digestive tract in Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁宁; 章龙珍; 庄平; 张涛; 赵峰; 黄桂云

    2011-01-01

    对人工养殖2龄西伯利亚鲟消化道的形态解剖学和显微组织学结构进行了观察.研究结果表明,西伯利亚鲟的消化道从前至后分为口咽腔、食道、胃、幽门盲囊、十二指肠、瓣肠和直肠,食道与胃的分界不明显,形成一个"食道-胃过渡区",胃分为贲门部、胃体部和幽门部.组织学研究显示:西伯利亚鲟的消化道由内向外一般分为粘膜、粘膜下层、肌层和浆膜四层.其中食道粘膜上皮为复层扁平上皮,含杯状细胞和粘液细胞."食道-胃过渡区"已有腺体存在.胃上皮细胞为单层柱状上皮细胞,无杯状细胞,胃的粘膜表面有许多上皮凹陷形成的胃小凹,幽门部的胃小凹较贲门部和胃体部深;贲门部和胃体部中含有大量的胃腺,幽门部无胃腺.幽门盲囊的管腔内被向内深入的肌层分割成许多完全或不完全的囊腔;粘膜褶皱和褶皱上的绒毛纵横交错,形成网状.肠上皮均为单层柱状上皮,上皮细胞间分布有大量的杯状细胞;粘膜褶皱的高度和数量、杯状细胞的数最从前至后递减:十二指肠粘膜褶皱细而高,上有许多绒毛;瓣肠粘膜和粘膜下层向管腔内突出并卷曲,形成螺旋瓣;直肠的粘膜褶皱矮且宽.%Morphological and histological studies on the digestive tract of 2-year-old Siberian sturgeon,Aeipenser baerii was carried out. Results showed that the Siberia sturgeon' s digestive tract had stomatopharyngeal cavity, esophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca, duodenum, valvula intestine and rectum from the front to the back. There was no obvious dividing line between the esophagus and the stomach, so it formed an “esophagus - stomach transition region”. The stomach could be divided into three parts: the cardiac part, the fundic part and the pyloric part. The histological structure of digestive tract was studied using light microscopy. It demonstrated that: the digestive tract of Siberian sturgeon was generally divided

  9. The digestion process of the sugar alcohol isomalt in the intestinal tract of the pig: 2 Studies with administration of isomalt as a sweet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerden, E.J. van; Huisman, J.

    1993-01-01

    In a study with ten pigs of 60-70 kg live weight, provided with a re-entrant cannula at the end of the ileum, and sixteen intact, non-cannulated pigs, the digestion and absorption of a dietary dose of 100 g isomalt/kg, and isomalt given between the meals as a 'sweet' on the basis of 50 and 100 g/kg

  10. Apparent total tract digestibility of dietary calcium and phosphorus and their efficiency in bone mineral retention are affected by body mineral status in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Lovatto, P A; Pomar, C

    2014-09-01

    Improving dietary P utilization without modifying pig performance is crucial for production sustainability. A feeding program comprising three 28-d phases (20 to 40, 40 to 70, and 70 to 100 kg) was used to feed 72 pigs with an initial BW of 20 kg. The ability of the pigs to modify the digestive and metabolic utilization of P when fed either a control (CON) diet or a low-P (LOW) diet providing 40% less digestible P with a constant Ca:digestible P was studied using different sequences of dietary P and Ca restriction (i.e., depletion [LOW]) and recovery (i.e., repletion [CON]), namely CON-CON-CON, CON-CON-LOW, CON-LOW-LOW, LOW-CON-CON, LOW-LOW-CON, and LOW-LOW-LOW. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the lumbar region (L2-L4) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of each feeding phase. Total feces and urine were collected during phases 2 and 3. At the end of phase 1, BMC was lower in the LOW pigs than in the C pigs (29%; P pigs than in the CON-CON pigs (16%; P pigs absorbed 26% more Ca (P pigs did. Digestive and metabolic adaptations allowed the LOW-LOW-CON and LOW-CON-CON pigs to reach BMC similar to that of the CON-CON-CON pigs. These metabolic adaptations are promising, but practical applications of these results requires a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms to fine-tune the degree of depletion, pig age, and the duration of P and Ca depletion and repletion periods.

  11. Clinical components and associated behavioural aspects of a complex healthcare intervention: Multi-methods study of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in critical care

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrowski, S.U.; Prior, M. E.; Duncan, E. M.; Cuthbertson, B H; Bellingan, G; Campbell, M. K.; Rose, L; Binning, A. R.; Gordon, A C; Wilson, P.; Shulman, R; Francis, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to identify and describe the clinical and behavioural components (e.g. the what, how, when, where and by whom) of ‘selective decontamination of the digestive tract’ (SDD) as routinely implemented in the care of critically ill patients. Methods Multi-methods study, consisting of semi-structured observations of SDD delivery, interviews with clinicians and documentary analysis, conducted in two ICUs in the UK that routinely deliver SDD. Data were analysed w...

  12. Upon exposure to Cu nanoparticles, accumulation of copper in the isopod Porcellio scaber is due to the dissolved Cu ions inside the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golobič, Miha; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2012-11-06

    The fate of nanoparticles in organisms is of significant interest. In the current work, we used a test system with terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber) fed with food spiked with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt for 14 days. Two different doses were used for spiking to yield final concentrations of 2000 and 5000 μg Cu/g dry food. After the exposure period, part of the exposed group of animals was transferred to clean food to depurate. Cu content was analyzed in the digestive glands, gut, and the 'rest' of the body. Similar patterns of (i) assimilated and depurated amounts of Cu, (ii) Cu body distribution, and (iii) effect on isopods feeding behavior were observed regardless of whether the animals were fed with Cu NPs or soluble Cu salt spiked food. Thus, Cu ions and not Cu NPs were assimilated by the digestive gland cells. Solubilization of the Cu NPs applied to the leaves was also analyzed with chemical methods and recombinant Cu-sensing bacteria. The comparison of the in vitro data on solubilization of Cu NPs and in vivo data on Cu accumulation in the animal tissues showed that about 99% of accumulated copper ions was dissolved from ingested Cu NPs in the digestive system of isopods.

  13. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  14. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a greater ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio. However, these differences were not evident for the other 2 diets. Energetically efficient animals do not have a lower ruminal methanogenic potential compared with their more inefficient counterparts and, indeed, some evidence to the contrary was found, which may reflect the greater nutrient digestive potential observed in low-RFI cattle.

  15. Influence of polymer-coated slow-release urea on total tract apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation and performance of Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gardinal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of coated slow-release urea on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, blood glucose and urea concentration (Exp 1, and average daily gain (ADG; Exp 2 of steers. Methods Exp 1: Eight ruminally fistulated steers [503±28.5 kg body weight (BW] were distributed into a d 4×4 Latin square design and assigned to treatments: control (CON, feed grade urea (U2, polymer-coated slow-release urea A (SRA2, and polymer-coated slow-release urea B (SRB2. Dietary urea sources were set at 20 g/kg DM. Exp 2: 84 steers (350.5±26.5 kg initial BW were distributed to treatments: CON, FGU at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (U1 and U2, respectively, coated SRA2 at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRA1 and SRA2, respectively, and coated SRB at 10 or 20 g/kg diet DM (SRB1 and SRB2, respectively. Results Exp 1: Urea treatments (U2+SRA2+SRB2 decreased (7.4%, p = 0.03 the DM intake and increased (11.4%, p<0.01 crude protein digestibility. Coated slow-release urea (SRA2+SRB2 showed similar nutrient digestibility compwared to feed grade urea (FGU. However, steers fed SRB2 had higher (p = 0.02 DM digestibility compared to those fed SRA2. Urea sources did not affect ruminal fermentation when compared to CON. Although, coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.01 concentration of NH3-N (−10.4% and acetate to propionate ratio than U2. Coated slow-release urea showed lower (p = 0.02 urinary N and blood urea concentration compared to FGU. Exp 2: Urea sources decreased (p = 0.01 the ADG in relation to CON. Animals fed urea sources at 10 g/kg DM showed higher (12.33%, p = 0.01 ADG compared to those fed urea at 20 g/kg DM. Conclusion Feeding urea decreased the nutrient intake without largely affected the nutrient digestibility. In addition, polymer-coated slow-release urea sources decreased ruminal ammonia concentration and increased ruminal propionate production. Urea at 20 g/kg DM, regardless of source

  16. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  17. 局部热疗联合最佳支持治疗改善消化系统肿瘤恶病质临床观察%Clinical observation of local hypeythermia combined with best support treatments on cancer cachexia of digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓久德; 郭本成

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察局部热疗联合最佳支持治疗改善消化系统肿瘤患者恶病质的有效性,为晚期肿瘤患者恶病质的姑息治疗提供有价值的临床数据.方法 58例消化系统癌性恶病质患者随机分为对照组和治疗组,对照组仅行最佳支持治疗;治疗组同时接受局部热疗治疗.进行1月前、后两组主观综合性营养评价(SGA)及实验室检查(血清白蛋白、前白蛋白、淋巴细胞总数).结果 SGA评估结果两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗组治疗前、后血清白蛋白、前白蛋白、淋巴细胞总数比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 局部热疗治疗改变了消化系统肿瘤患者恶病质的预后,有利于遏制恶病质的进展.%Objective To investigate the effect of local hypeythermia combined with best support treatments ( BSC) on cancer cachexia of digestive tract and to offer value clinical data for palliative treatments of patients with advanced malignant tumor. Methods Fifty-eight patients with cancer cachexia of digestive tract were randomly divided into two groups, the patients in the study group ( n = 30) were given local hypeythermia plus BSC,and the patients in the control group(n =28) were given BSC alone. The subjective global assessment of nutritional status (SGA) and lab examnations ( ALB, pre-ALB and TLC) after 1 month were evaluated. Results The evaluation of the SGA and ALB, pre-ALB and TLC in both groups had significant difference ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Local hypeythermia can change the prognosis and prohibit the progressing of cancer cachexia.

  18. [Complications of acute lesions of the digestive tract as a direct cause of mortality in patients with advanced forms of neoplasms in palliative and symptomatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaremchuk, O Ia; Zotov, O S; Bielik, O O; Mil'hram, S S

    2001-09-01

    There were analyzed an autopsy protocols of 117 patients with oncological disease, in whom during performance of pathomorphological investigation an acute erosive-ulcerative affection (AEUA) of digestive channel (DCH) was revealed, of them in 69 patients palliative and/or symptomatic treatment for extended forms of cancer was conducted. Structure of principal complications as well as their significance in pathogenesis, localization of affection, influence of different methods of palliative treatment on AEUA DCH occurrence. The data obtained must be taken in account during planning of palliative therapy in such patients.

  19. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

  20. 大眼鳜和斑鳜消化道组织结构的比较研究%Histological studies and comparison on the digestive tract in Siniperca kneri and Siniperca scherzeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲德永; 黄小琪; 魏刚

    2013-01-01

    The samples of Siniperca kneri and Siniperca scherzeri were collected from the Jaling River from Match to June 2010. The digestive systems of S. kneri and S. scherzeri were studied and compared by dissection and histology with HE dyeing. The results indicated that the digestive tract of two fish consisted of mucosa, submucosa, muscular coat and sero-sa. Esophagus mucosal epithelium mainly consisted of stratified squamous epithelium, simple columnar epithelium and a small amount of goblet cells. The digestive system was better developed in S. kneri than in S. scherzeri. Histological observations showed that thickness of submucosa, muscular layers and goblet cell in esophagus, submucosa of stomach, thickness of villus of pyloric caeca were betler developed in S. kneri. than in S. scherzeri The general rule of the change of digestive tract of these two fishes was that the thickness of the mucosa, submuosa increased gradually from esophagus to stomach, while decreased from stomach to foregut. The density of goblet cell in the front, middle and post section of gut, as well as the size and development of goblet cell in the intestinal villus epithelium of 5. kneri were larger than those of S. scherzeri. Meanwhile, because the intestinal structure of .S. kneri was better developed than S. scherzeri, S. kneri had better physical digestion than S. scherzeri. Furthermore, the study provided a theoretical basis for protection and breeding of S. kneri and S. scherzeri.%大眼鳜(Siniperca kneri)和斑鳜(Siniperca scherzeri)的标本于2010年3-6月采集于嘉陵江合川段,用组织学方法和H.E染技术比较研究了大眼鳜和斑鳜消化道的组织结构.结果表明:消化道由黏膜、黏膜下层、肌层和浆膜组织所构成,食道上皮主要为复层扁平上皮、单层柱状上皮和少量杯状细胞组成.大眼鳜的消化道较斑鳜的发达,如食道的黏膜下层及杯状细胞、胃黏膜下层的厚度、幽门盲囊绒毛密集程度.两种鱼

  1. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  2. Evaluating the Possibility of Defining Cut-Off Points for ΔFA% in Order to Differentiate Four Major Types of Peri-Tumoral White Matter Tract Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and its different scalar values such as fractional anisotropy (FA have recently been used for evaluation of peri-tumoral white matter (WM involvement to help define safer surgical excision margins. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of defining diagnostic cut-off points for differentiating four major types of peri-tumoral WM involvement using FA. Patients and Methods DTI was performed in 12 patients with high presumption of having brain tumors, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. DTI data was processed by MedINRIA software. Two-hundred region of interests (ROI were evaluated: 100 in the lesion zone and the rest in the normal WM in the contralateral hemisphere. FA value related to each ROI was measured, and the percentage of FA decrement (ΔFAs% was calculated. Results Of the 100 ROIs on the lesion side, 74 were related to high-grade lesions, 23 to low-grade ones, and three to “gliosis”. There were 54 “infiltrated”, 22 “displaced”, 15 “disrupted”, and 9 “edematous” tracts. The major type of fiber involvement, both in low-grade and high-grade tumors was “infiltrated, whereas “edematous” fibers comprised the minority. ΔFA% was more than -35 for “displaced” and “edematous” fibers, and less than -35 for the majority of “disrupted” ones, but “infiltrated” fibers had scattered distribution. Mean ΔFA% was the least for “disrupted”, followed by “infiltrated”, “edematous” and “displaced” parts. Conclusion Introducing definite diagnostic cut-points was not possible, due to overlap. Based on the fact that “disruption” is the most aggressive process, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for “disrupted” fibers for several presumptive cut-off points.

  3. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  4. Effects of Exogenous NSP Enzymes(Xylanase, β-glucanase and Cellulase) on Morphology and Functions of Digestive Tract in Growing Pigs Fed with Paddy-Based Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zi-rong; LU Jian-jun

    2003-01-01

    Ninety Landrace X Jia 35±0.40 kg weight growing pigs were randomly allotted to three treatments, each of which was replicated three times with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs were reared on either a conventional corn-based diet (control Ⅰ ) or a paddy-based diet (control Ⅱ ) or a paddy diet supplemented with 0.2% NSP enzymes (test group). All pigs were given ad libitum access to both feed and water. The results of feeding trial showed that supplementation of NSP enzymes significantly increased ADG by 8.78 % (P<0.05) and decreased F/G by 9.42% (P<0.05) over the control group Ⅱ. No significant differences were found in ADG and F/G between control group I and the test group. The digestive trial showed that adding NSP enzymes significantly improved apparent digestibility of CP, EE and CF by 18.76 (P<0.01), 16.04 (P <0.05) and 108.57%(P<0.05), respectively, compared to control Ⅱ. The activities of proteolytic enzyme and α-amylase in duodenal contents were increased by 99.07 (P<0.01) and 18.41% (P<0. 05) with the addition of NSP enzymes. No significant differences between test and control Ⅱ group were found in activities of the pepsin in the gastric content, the trypsin and lipase in duodenal contents, the disaccharidase and γ-glutany transferase (γ-GT) in intestinal mucosa, but there was a tendency towards higher activities associated with the NSP enzymes diet (P>0. 05). The lengths of the villi within the duodenal, jejunal and ileal sections of the small intestine of pigs receiving the NSP enzymes diet were increased by 23.68 (P<0. 05), 56.00 (P<0. 01)and 76.90%(P<0.01) respectively, relative to the pigs in control Ⅱ.

  5. 8713例消化系统恶性肿瘤统计分析%Epidemiological Analysis of 8713 Cases of Digestive System Malignant Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚; 艾尼瓦尔·艾木都拉; 张月芬; 张华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the distribution of digestive system malignant tumor in a hospitalduring 2008 and 2013,and to provide the materials for the government.Methods Retrospectively study the clinical data of digestive systemmalignant tumor in the hospital in xinjiang from 2008 to 2013 and analyze the total cases,sex,age,nations and the type of tumor.Results Nearly six years,the top three of the digestive system malignant tumor disease has begun to change,from liver cancer,gastric cancer,esophageal cancer gradually transition to the stomach,colon cancer,and rectal cancer.Esophageal cancer over 60 years old in the majority 6 years ago,and now half under the age of 60,the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer and other tumors age also reduced.The proportion of esophageal cancer in kazak pelple are higher than other nationalities people,and a high incidence of gastric cancer in the han Chinese and uighurs.Conclusion Gastrointestinal malignant tumor rise year by year.There are genders,location,age,ethnic differences in characteristics.We should strengthen the prevention and control work for high-risk groups,as far as possible early detection,early diagnosis and treatment.%目的:分析某院2008年-2013年8713例消化系统恶性肿瘤构成比,为疾病预防和控制提供依据。方法回顾性分析2008年-2013年新疆某医院消化系统恶性肿瘤患者的临床资料,统计患者人数、性别、年龄、族别及肿瘤分布类型。结果六年间消化系统恶性肿瘤排前三位的疾病谱已开始发生变化,从肝癌、胃癌、食管癌逐渐过渡到胃癌、结肠癌、直肠癌。食管癌由60岁以上占多数,转变为60岁以下占半数,胰腺癌等其他肿瘤的发病年龄也有所降低。恶性肿瘤中哈萨克族的食管癌构成比相对于汉族明显偏高,而胃癌在汉族和维吾尔族中高发。结论消化道恶性肿瘤呈现逐年上升趋势,存在性别、部位、年龄、民族特征的差异,对高

  6. 家蚕的消化管与桑叶的协同进化研究%The Coevolution Study of Digestive Tract and Mulberry Leaf in Bombyx Mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兰英; 刘再群; 王子茹; 杨汾芬; 吴文青

    2011-01-01

    With silver staining to stain the Bombyx mori, the results show that mulberry leaves in Bombyx mori's digestive tract include epidermis, mesophyll and vein. Epidermis includes upper epidermis and lower epidermis. Mesophyll includes palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma. Upper epidermis cells can be divided into three types: eystolith cells, green epidermal cells and yellow epidermal cells. There are stomas in lower epidermis. Mesophyll tissue includes crystals, most of them are in the spongy tissue. The digestive tract of Bombyx mori, can be divided into foregut, midgut and hindgut from fl'ont to back; Also, it can be divided into muscularis, basement membrane, epithelium and intima from outside to inside. One of the most developments is midgut. The developed epithelial cells of midgut go inside surface to make many large finger-shaped folds of prominency. Epithelial cells can be divided into two types: cylindrical cell, gobeh cell and regenerative cell. There are some differences in their shapes, functions and argyrophilics. Bombyx mori's digestive tract have different absorption efficiencies on the different organizations of mulberry leaves: the upper epidermis's is the first, the lower epidermis and palisade tissue's are the second, the spongy tissue's is the third. We used a method of staining animal cells to apply on plant cells and compared it with routine botany staining methods. Cells in upper epidermis of mulberry leaves can be divided into two subtypes depend on ditference of cells" argyrophilic.%通过银染法对家蚕整体染色,结果表明:家蚕消化管内的桑叶由叶表皮、叶肉和叶脉组成。叶表皮包括上表皮和下表皮。上表皮细胞可分为三种:钟乳体细胞、绿色表皮细胞和黄色表皮细胞;下表皮内含有气孔;叶肉组织内含有晶体,其中海绵组织内的最多。家蚕消化管由前向后可分为前肠、中肠和后肠,由外向内依次为肌层、底膜、

  7. Experience of Laparoscopic Technology in the Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Digestive Tract Perforation%腹腔镜技术在消化道穿孔早期诊断和治疗中的应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮; 翁晓晖; 孔晓武; 陆逸庭

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experience of laparoscopic technique in the diagnosis and treatment of acute perforation of digestive tract . Methods A retrospective analysis was made on 122 cases of acute gastrointestinal perforation treated by laparoscopic surgery in our hospital from January 2009 to January 2013, 95 of which were definitely diagnosed as digestive tract perforation before surgery and 27 of which were suspected as acute gastrointestinal perforation for laparoscopic exploration . Results There were 72 cases of gastric ulcer perforation , 38 cases of duodenal ulcer perforation , 3 cases of gallbladder perforation , 2 cases of intra-abdominal hernia , 3 cases of small bowel perforation , 1 case of malignant neoplasm perforation of transverse colon , 1 case of spontaneous perforation of sigmoid colon , and 2 cases of appendiceal perforation .The perforation diameter was 0.3-1.3 cm ( mean, 0.6 cm).All the operations were successful without complications .Mild postoperative pain was noted in patients without use of analgesics.Postoperative hospital stay was 5-9 days (mean, 6.5 days).Follow-up observations in 110 patients for 3-18 months (mean, 16 months) showed no recurrence and complications such as perforation or bowel obstruction . Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer is safe and reliable .For unconfirmed perforation of digestive tract , early abdominal exploration is applicable .%目的:总结腹腔镜技术诊治急性消化道穿孔的临床经验。方法回顾性分析2009年1月~2013年1月122例术前考虑急性消化道穿孔施行腹腔镜手术的临床资料,其中术前95例明确诊断为消化道穿孔,27例考虑急性消化道穿孔行腹腔镜探查。结果胃溃疡穿孔72例,十二指肠球部溃疡穿孔38例,胆囊穿孔3例,腹内疝2例,小肠穿孔3例,横结肠恶性肿瘤穿孔1例,乙状结肠自发性穿孔1例,阑尾穿孔2例;穿孔直径0

  8. 消化道肿瘤患者术前PG-SGA评分与人体成分的相关性研究%The correlation between PG-SGA and body composition in preoperative patients with digestive tract cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟泽民; 郭剑; 张蓓蕾; 张燕忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) and the index of body composition in nutritional assessment of patients with digestive tract cancer.Methods The nutritional status of 101 patients with digestive tract cancer were evaluated by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), and in the meantime, the body composition was measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, then take correlation analysis on the result.Results 65 cases were malnutrition, the rate is 64.36%. The incidence of gastric cancer patients with PG-SGA scores more than 4 was 76%, signiifcantly higher than 52.95% of patients with colorectal cancer (P0.05). The correlation between PG-SGA score and body mass, BMI, body fat mass and body fat percentage was higher than other body composition indexes.Conclusions The incidence of malnutrition was high in digestive tract cancer patients especially in gastric cancer patients. The body weight , body fat mass ,lean body mass and other indexes were signiifcantly decreased in the patients with malnutrition. There was a good correlation between PG-SGA score and body composition index, the combination of them can provide a more accurate assessment of preoperative nutritional status in order to provide the exact evidence for nutritional support.%目的探讨患者主观整体评估(PG-SGA)与人体成分指标在消化道肿瘤患者营养评估中的相关性。方法对101例消化道肿瘤患者应用PG-SGA进行术前营养状况评估,同时应用多频生物电阻抗分析法测定人体成分,将结果进行相关性分析。结果术前营养不良(PG-SGA≥4分)患者65例占64.36%。胃癌患者营养不良的发生率为76%,明显高于结直肠癌患者的52.95%(P<0.05)。营养不良组患者体重、BMI、体脂肪量、体脂百分比、瘦体组织、身体水分含量、细胞外液均低于非营养不良组(P<0.05),两组蛋

  9. 非消化道首发症状的原发性肝癌56例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Extra-Digestive Tract Symptoms as Early Symptoms in Patients with Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭秋平; 冯青青; 柯传庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨以消化道外症状为首发表现的原发性肝癌临床特点,以提高对原发性肝癌的诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析解放军第九四医院自1996年1月-2011年10月间收治的56例以消化道外症状为首发表现的原发性肝癌患者的临床资料.结果 56例原发性肝癌首发症状分别为:肩背痛13例,腰痛9例,咳嗽、胸痛、胸闷、血痰18例,昏迷10例,头痛4例,发热2例,均存在不同程度的延误诊断.误诊为肩周炎或颈椎骨质增生13例,腰椎骨质增生或腰肌劳损9例,原发性肺癌4例,肺部感染4例,肺结核4例,胸膜炎4例,心肌炎2例,脑血管意外5例,低血糖昏迷5例,神经性头痛或偏头痛4例,发热待查2例.25例患者经皮肝脏穿刺活检或手术病理证实为PHC,其余31例患者根据影像学检查与血AFP值确定诊断.结论 以消化道外症状为首发表现的原发性肝癌临床表现多样,临床医师应提高认识,避免误诊及漏诊.%Objective To discuss the clinical characteristics of PHC patients with extra-digestive tract symptoms as the early symptoms and improve diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma ( PHC). Methods A total of 56 PHC patients with extra-digestive tract symptoms as the early symptoms from January 1996 to October 2011 in our hospital were collected, and the clinical data were studied retrospectively. Results The early symptoms of these 56 cases were shoulder pain( 13 cases) , waist pain(9 cases) , cough, chest pain, chest tightness, blood phlegm (18 cases) , coma ( 10 cases ), headache ( 4 cases) and fever (2 cases). There were diagnosis delays in these patients. These patients were misdiagnosed as shoulder periarthritis or cervical bone hyper-plasia( 13 cases),lumbar bone hyperplasia or lumbar muscle strain(9 cases),primary lung cancer(4 cases) ,lung infection(4 cases),tuberculosis(4 cases),pleurisy(4 cases),myocarditis(2 cases),cerebrovascular accident(5 cases),hypoglycemic coma(5 cases

  10. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  11. Feeding and morphological analysis of the digestive tract of four species of fish (Astyanax altiparanae, Parauchenipterus galeatus, Serrasalmus marginatus and Hoplias aff. malabaricus from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peretti

    Full Text Available The present study is inspired by the great wealth of species exhibited by the ichthiofauna. Not only concepts and techniques of ecology deserve attention, but also knowledge in other biological areas, such as zoology and anatomy, are necessary. The intention of the present work is to discover the morphology of fish through the study of the digestive tract morphology, associating it to diet data, in order to better understand the biology of four fish species of the upper Paraná River floodplain. The samples were collected quarterly in the year 2000 with gillnets of different meshes. The stomach content was analyzed under a stereoscopic microscope and the frequencies of occurrence (FO and volumetric (FV and the alimentary index (IAi were calculated. Various morphologic characteristics were analyzed and schematized using a light chamber. The species were grouped into two trophic guilds - insectivores (Astyanax altiparanae and Parauchenipterus galeatus and piscivores (Serrasalmus marginatus and Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The first two, although consumers of insects, preyed on different alimentary groups, notably Hymenoptera in the case of A. altiparanae and Coleoptera in the case of P. galeatus. Serrasalmus marginatus and H. aff. malabaricus consumed mainly fishes. However, only pieces of prey were usually found in the stomach content of the first species, whereas whole fishes were found in the stomach content of the second. Astyanax altiparanae exhibited characteristics that allowed it to obtain food in several compartments of the water column. Similarly P. galeatus consumed food resources that were available in all aquatic compartments, although the abilities to capture, to manipulate and to absorb food differed, as shown by the importance of teeth plates and pharyngeal teeth. Serrasalmus marginatus and H. aff. malabaricus, although resembling each other in many aspects of the digestive tract morphology, differed in the strategies used to capture

  12. Analysis of digestive tract content of the larvae of Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae Análise do conteúdo do trato digestivo das larvas de Polybia scutellaris (White (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lilian Fernández Corujo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 is a social wasp of biological interest for its role as pollinator and maybe as biological control agent of sanitary and agricultural pests. This study examines the digestive tract contents of the larvae of P. scutellaris from four nests in Magdalena (Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Contents included both animal (arthropod parts and plant (pollen, leaf and fruit epidermis parts. The pollen content analysis showed that the wasps visited 19 different taxa of plants during the last active period of the colony before the nests had been collected. The range of sources used by P. scutellaris allows us characterizing the species as a generalist flower visitor. Wasps visited both native and exotic plants located nearby the nest. Most of the epidermal plant remains found in the larval digestive tract belonged to Malvaceae, a family not exploited by the studied colonies as pollen source.Polybia scutellaris (White, 1841 é uma vespa social de interesse biológico devido ao seu papel como polinizador e possível agente de controle biológico de pragas sanitárias e agrícolas. O presente estudo analisou o conteúdo do trato digestivo de larvas de P. scutellaris de quatros ninhos em Magdalena (província de Buenos Aires, Argentina. O conteúdo inclui restos animais (partes de artrópodos e vegetais (pólen, epiderme de folhas e frutos. A análise do conteúdo polínico mostrou que as vespas visitaram 19 táxons durante o último período ativo da colônia antes dos ninhos serem coletados. A diversidade de recursos utilizados por P. scutellaris permite caracterizá-la como um visitante generalista de flores. As vespas visitaram plantas nativas e exóticas localizados nas proximidades do ninho. A maioria dos restos de epiderme encontradas no trato digestivo das larvas pertence às Malvaceae, uma família não explorada pelas colônias estudadas como fonte de pólen.

  13. Cry1Ie蛋白的模拟胃肠液消化稳定性及热稳定性分析%Analysis of Digestive Stability in Simulative Digestive Tract Fluid and Heat Stability of Cry1Ie Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣竹; 耿丽丽; 高继国; 张杰

    2015-01-01

    Cry1Ie蛋白对亚洲玉米螟(Ostrinia furnacalis)具有高毒力,cry1Ie基因已经应用于转基因抗虫玉米的种质创制。为评价Cry1Ie蛋白的食用安全性,开展了Cry1Ie蛋白的消化及热稳定性研究。利用实验室已经构建的表达载体,在大肠杆菌中表达了分子量为81 kD的可溶性Cry1Ie蛋白,经过Ni-NTA亲和层析和Superdex-75分子筛层析获得纯度达91%蛋白。模拟消化液实验结果表明,Cry1Ie蛋白在模拟胃肠液中15 s内即被消化,SDS-PAGE未检测到蛋白残留。热稳定性实验中,Cry1Ie蛋白在玉米粉提取液中不稳定,100℃30 min内蛋白基本降解。对样品进行了生物活性测定发现,经模拟胃肠液消化处理和热处理后的Cry1Ie蛋白对亚洲玉米螟无杀虫活性。Cry1Ie蛋白在胃肠液系统中和热处理条件下均不稳定,并丧失了对亚洲玉米螟的杀虫活性。%Due to the high virulence to Asian corn borer(Ostrinia furnacalis)of Cry1Ie, this protein had applied into the germplasm creating of transgenic insect-resistant maize. To evaluate the food safety of Cry1Ie protein, this study carried out the digestion and heat stability assays. Using the expressing vector which the laboratory has constructed, the Cry1Ie protein(81 kD)was expressed inEscherichia coli, and the high purity protein was obtained using Ni-NTA chromatography and Superdex-75 size-exclusion chromatography. The results of artificial digestion assay showed that Cry1Ie was degraded rapidly within 15 s in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid, without any peptide left in SDS-PAGE. In the heat stability assay, Cry1Ie was not stable in the extracting solution of maize meal, and most was degraded within 30 min under 100℃. In the bioassay of the Asian corn borer(Ostrinia furnacalis), it suggested that Cry1Ie lost the bio-activity after the treatment of digestion and heat. In conclusion, Cry1Ie was not stable in the gastrointestinal fliud and the

  14. Experiment of Ivermection Expelling Digestive Tract Nema in Grazing Goats%伊维菌素对放牧山羊消化道线虫的驱治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危万福; 闵昌博; 兰祖尚

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the expelling effects of Ivermectin.Sixty seriously infected with tract nema lambs were selected from 300 lambs which had similar weight,management and pasturing condition through fecal examination and weighing.The infection degree was used to match experimental groups.Twenty lambs in each group were fed with Ivermectin premix feed.The results indicated that for experimental group and drug control group,reduction rates of egg were 96.4% and 88.7%,egg negative rates were 100% and 85%,respectively.The effects of Ivermectin expelling digestive tract nema was better than Levamisole.%验证放牧条件下伊维菌素驱虫效果,从饲养管理、放牧条件相同的一群300多只羔羊中通过粪便检查、称重从中选出体重相差不大、感染消化道线虫较为严重60只,根据感染程度均匀搭配,分为三组进行试验,每组20只用伊维菌素预混剂拌料饲喂放牧山羊,试验结果是试验组、药物对照组驱虫后3 d虫卵减少率分别是96.4%和88.7%,虫卵转阴率分别为80%和25%;驱虫后10d两组羊的虫卵减少率分别为100%和97.8%,虫卵转阴率分别为100%和85%,伊维菌素对放牧山羊消化道线虫驱虫效果优于药物左旋咪唑。

  15. Effect of the rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium ecaudatum and Eudiplodinium maggii, and combinations thereof, on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitz, Johanna O; Amelchanka, Sergej L; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Wereszka, Krzysztof; Meile, Leo; Hartnack, Sonja; Kreuzer, Michael; Soliva, Carla R

    2012-06-01

    The quantitative importance of individual ciliate species and their interaction in the rumen is still unclear. The present study was performed to test whether there are species differences in the influence on ruminal fermentation in vivo and if combinations of ciliates act additive in that respect. Six adult wethers fed a hay-concentrate diet were defaunated, then refaunated either with Entodinium caudatum (EC), Epidinium ecaudatum (EE) or Eudiplodinium maggii (EM) alone, then progressively with all possible species combinations. Feed, faeces, urine, ruminal fluid and gas were sampled for eight days always after at least 21 days of adaptation. With a linear mixed model, accounting for the 2 x 2 x 2 full factorial study design, mean marginal effect sizes, i.e., the magnitude of change in variables as caused by the presence of each ciliate species or of combinations of them, were estimated. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre remained unaffected. The apparent N digestibility increased by 0.054 with EM (0.716 with defaunation). Ruminal ammonia increased by 1.6, 4.0 and 8.7 mmol/l in the presence of EM, EC and EE, respectively, compared to defaunation (6.9 mmol/l). In the EM + EE combination, ruminal ammonia was lower than would have been expected from an additive effect. With EE, total short-chain fatty acids increased by 23 mmol/l (100 mmol/l with defaunation), but not when EE was combined with EM. The acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased by 0.73 units in the presence of EE (4.0 with defaunation), but only when EE was the sole ciliate species in the rumen. In the presence of any ciliate species, the 16S rDNA copies of total Bacteria and major fibrolytic species decreased to 0.52- and 0.22-fold values, respectively of that found without protozoa. Total Archaea were unaffected; however, Methanobacteriales copies increased 1.44-fold with EC. The CH4-to-CO2 ratio of ruminal gas decreased by 0.036 with EM and 0.051 with EE (0.454 with

  16. Effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement on milk production and apparent total-tract digestibility in high- and low-milk yield dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a high-palmitic acid fat supplement was tested in 12 high-producing (mean = 42.1 kg/d) and 12 low-producing (mean = 28.9 kg/d) cows arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 21 d, with 18d of diet adaptation and 3 d of sample collection. Treatments were (1) control (no supplemental fat), (2) high-palmitic acid (PA) supplement (84% C16:0), and (3) Ca salts of palm fatty acid (FA) supplement (Ca-FA). The PA supplement had no effect on milk production, but decreased dry matter intake by 7 and 9% relative to the control in high- and low-producing cows, respectively, and increased feed efficiency by 8.5% in high-producing cows compared with the control. Milk fat concentration and yield were not affected by PA relative to the control in high- or low-producing cows, although PA increased the yield of milk 16-C FA by more than 85 g/d relative to the control. The Ca-FA decreased milk fat concentration compared with PA in high-, but not in low-producing cows. In agreement, Ca-FA dramatically increased milk fat concentration of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (>300%) compared with PA in high-producing cows, but not in low-producing cows. No effect of treatment on milk protein concentration or yield was detected. The PA supplement also increased 16-C FA apparent digestibility by over 10% and increased total FA digestibility compared with the control in high- and low-producing cows. During short-term feeding, palmitic acid supplementation did not increase milk or milk fat yield; however, it was efficiently absorbed, increased feed efficiency, and increased milk 16-C FA yield, while minimizing alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation commonly observed for other unsaturated fat supplements. Longer-term experiments will be necessary to determine the effects on energy balance and changes in body reserves.

  17. Syndrome-Associated Tumors by Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Raul S; Riddle, Nicole D

    2016-06-01

    Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted endoscopic resection of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Resección endoscópica asistida por ecoendoscopia de tumores carcinoides del aparato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: usually found in the gastrointestinal tract, carcinoids are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors. Most of these lesions are located in areas that are difficult to access using conventional endoscopy (small intestine and appendix; carcinoid tumors found in the gastroduodenal tract and in the large intestine can be studied endoscopically; in these cases, if localized disease is confirmed, local treatment by endoscopic resection may be the treatment of choice. Since endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be the technique of choice for the study of tumors exhibiting submucosal growth, the selection of patients who are candidates for a safe and effective local resection should be based on this technique. Patients and method: we selected patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors who were endoscopically treated between 1997 and 2002. Those patients with tumors measuring less than 10 mm, which had not penetrated the muscularis propria, and those with localized disease were considered candidates for endoscopic resection. The endpoints of this study were to assess the effectiveness (complete resection and safety (complications of the technique. Follow-up consisted of eschar biopsies performed one month and twelve months after the resection. Results: during the aforementioned period, we resected endoscopically 24 tumors in 21 patients (mean age: 51.7 years; 71.5% males. Most lesions were incidental discoveries made during examinations indicated for other reasons. Resection was indicated in most cases as a result of the suspected presence of a carcinoid tumor after endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasonography also enabled us to clearly identify the layer where the lesion had originated, as well as the size of the lesion. The carcinoid tumor was removed in 13 cases (54.2% by using the conventional snare polypectomy technique, in 9 cases (37.5% assisted by a submucosal injection of saline solution and/or adrenaline, and

  19. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented garlic powder on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, blood characteristics and faecal microbial concentration in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Kim, I H

    2013-06-01

    A total of 144 weanling pigs (5.5 ± 0.42 kg) were used in a 5-week trial to evaluate the effect of fermented garlic powder (FGP) supplementation in weaning pigs. Pigs were randomly allocated to the following four dietary treatments: (i) control (CON; basal diet), (ii) FGP0.5 (CON + 0.5 g/kg FGP), (iii) FGP1 (CON + 1 g/kg FGP), (iv) FGP2 (CON + 2 g/kg FGP). There were six replications with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. Pigs fed FGP0.5 treatments increased (p dietary FGP throughout the experiment. Pigs fed FGP1 and FGP2 treatments increased the lymphocyte concentration (p Dietary FGP decreased the blood total cholesterol (p Pigs fed FGP1 and FGP2 treatments had a lower number of Escherichia coli in faeces on 21 (p dietary fermented garlic powder (0.5 g/kg) can improve ADG and ADFI in weanling pigs, but not at higher levels (1 and 2 g/kg). Dietary fermented garlic powder can also increase the nutrient digestibility, lymphocytes and RBC concentrations, but decrease the faecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  1. 氨基酸螯合锌在奶山羊肠道消化吸收规律的研究%Digestion and Absorption of Zinc Amino Acid Chelate in the Intestinal Tract of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨改青; 朱河水; 王林枫; 贺翠婷; 张振; 高建伟; 邵其斌; 冯亚强; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究氨基酸螯合锌(Zn-AA)在奶山羊体内的消化吸收规律及其在饲粮中的适宜添加水平.试验选取2.5~3.0岁,体重40~45 kg的关中奶山羊母羊6只,安装永久性瘤胃、十二指肠及回肠瘘管,首先从瘤胃灌注40 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,分别在灌注后的24、48、72、96、120、144和168 h采集十二指肠食糜、回肠食糜、粪样和血样,测定样品中锌含量,计算锌在小肠和全肠道消化率,检测血清锌水平,确定最佳采样时间.在此基础上,分别灌注0、20、60、80、100和200 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,测定不同水平的Zn-AA在小肠和全肠道的消化率及血清锌水平.结果表明,Zn-AA全肠道消化率在48和96 h分别出现吸收高峰,120 h后Zn-AA在小肠、全肠道的消化率和血清锌水平基本平衡并保持稳定;不同时间和水平的Zn-AA在全肠道的消化率均高于小肠,小肠是Zn-AA吸收的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也有不同程度地吸收;60 mg/kg时Zn-AA在全肠道消化率和血清中水平均达到最大值.研究得出,成年奶山羊饲粮中Zn-AA的最适宜添加水平为60 mg/kg,小肠是Zn-AA消化的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也表现出较强的消化吸收能力.%This trial was conducted to study the digestion and absorption of zinc amino acid chelate (Zn-AA) in intestinal tract of dairy goats and to determine the optimal supplemental level of Zn-AA in the diet. Six Guanzhong daffy goats aged 2. 5 to 3.0 years old with the body weight of 40 to 45 kg were selected and fixed with permanent fistulas in rumen, duodenum and ileum. At the beginning of the trial, 40 mg/kg Zn-AA solution was infused into the rumen, and samples were collected at 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h after infusion. Digesta samples from the duodenum and ileum, and feces samples were collected to detect the zinc levels and calculate the digestibility in the small intestine, entire intestine and large intestine. At the same time, blood samples were

  2. Meta-analysis of endoscopic submucosal dissection versus endoscopic mucosal resection for tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Liao, C; Tan, A; Gao, Y; Mo, Z; Gao, F

    2009-09-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). We aimed to compare the outcomes of these two methods. Databases, including Pubmed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library, were searched to identify studies comparing ESD with EMR for premalignant and malignant lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. In a meta-analysis, primary end points were the en bloc resection rate and the curative resection rate; secondary end points were operation time, and rates of bleeding, perforation, and local recurrence. 15 nonrandomized studies (seven full-text and eight abstracts) were identified. Meta-analysis showed higher en bloc and curative resection rates (odds ratio [OR] 13.87, 95 %CI 10.12 - 18.99; OR 3.53, 95 %CI 2.57 - 4.84) irrespective of lesion size. Subgroup analysis showed higher en bloc and curative resection rates with ESD for esophageal, gastric, and colorectal neoplasms, and for lesions of size 20 mm. Local recurrence was lower with ESD (OR 0.09, 95 %CI 0.04 - 0.18). But ESD was more time-consuming than EMR (weighted mean difference [WMD] 1.76; 95 %CI 0.60 - 2.92), and showed high procedure-related bleeding and perforation rates (OR 2.20, 95 %CI 1.58 - 3.07; OR 4.09, 95 %CI 2.47 - 6.80). ESD showed better en bloc and curative resection rates and local recurrence compared with EMR, but was more time-consuming and had higher rates of bleeding and perforation complications. These results need to be confirmed by high quality trials and further studies in the west. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  3. A protease-resistant exo-polygalacturonase from Klebsiella sp. Y1 with good activity and stability over a wide pH range in the digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Bai, Yingguo; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Polygalacturonases are important feed and food additives. In the present study an exo-polygalacturonase gene (pgu B) was cloned from Klebsiella sp. Y1 CGMCC 4433 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). pgu B encodes a 658-amino acid polypeptide belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 28. The optimal pH and temperature of exo-PGU B activity were 6.0 and 40-50°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited >35% of maximum activity within the pH range of 2.0-12.0. Exo-PGU B or an exo-PGU B/ endo-polygalacturonase mixture reduced the viscosity of polygalacturonic acid (1.0%, w/v) by 15.6 and 39.4%, respectively. Under simulated alimentary tract conditions, exo-PGU B was very stable (>25% activity from pH 1.5 to 6.8) and active, releasing 53.7 and 109.6μg of galacturonic acid from 400 to 800μg of polygalacturonic acid, respectively. These properties make exo-PGU B a potentially valuable additive for applications in feed and food. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  5. Navegation system for tubular upper digestive tract Sistema de navegación tubular para vías digestivas altas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Rojas Cifuentes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present endoscopy is an uncomfortable experience because these instruments are great size and magnitude, generating feelings of discomfort to the patient during the operation. It’s designed a device to scale, allowing counteract this effect improving the mechanism of endoscopy, being this a more effective and flexible, compared with capsule endoscopy and endoscopy equipment present because will include a biopsy system for analyzing gastroenterological diseases or gastric cancers, with bluetooth communication for visualization of real-time space tract.La endoscopia actual es una experiencia incómoda ya que su instrumental es de gran tamaño y magnitud, generando sensación de molestia al paciente durante el manejo que realiza el especialista de los dispositivos que se operan en el proceso. Se diseña un dispositivo a escala, que permita contrarrestar tal efecto mejorando el mecanismo de endoscopia; siendo éste un sistema más efectivo y ágil, comparado con la cápsula endoscópica y el equipo actual, por lo cual incluirá un sistema de toma de biopsias para analizar enfermedades gastroenterológicas o cánceres, con comunicación Bluetooth para la visualización del espacio digestivo en tiempo real.

  6. Morbimortalidade dos ferimentos penetrantes toracoabdominais associados ao trauma diafragmático e do trato digestório Morbimortality of penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries associated to diaphragmatic and digestive tract trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Cirilo Lucena da Fonseca-Neto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A importância das lesões toracoabdominais resulta no incremento dos traumas originados por lesões penetrantes, acidentes automobilísticos e contusões nos dias atuais. A lesão diafragmática é incomum, mas é entidade clínica com potencial risco de vida e com alta incidência de lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Comparar a lavagem pleural por toracotomia e a drenagem pleural simples nos pacientes vítimas de ferimentos toracoabominais com lesão diafragmática associada à injúria do trato gastrointestinal. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado em pacientes admitidos entre abril de 2004 e setembro de 2006. Todos eram acima de 13 anos e vítimas de ferimento penetrante toracoabdominal associado à lesão diafragmática e do trato digestório. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos segundo o tratamento cirúrgico da contaminação pleural pelas secreções gastrobileoentéricas: lavagem torácica por toracotomia e drenagem torácica. RESULTADOS: Noventa e dois pacientes foram selecionados sendo quatro do sexo feminino. A idade média foi 26,6 anos. Quanto à origem do ferimento, as agressões por arma de fogo superaram os de arma branca (73 x 19. O Escore de Trauma Revisado (RTS variou de 7,28 a 7,55. Lavagem torácica por toracotomia ocorreu em 13 pacientes. Quarenta e seis pacientes (50% sofreram lesão no hemidiafragma direito, 37 (40,21% no hemidiafragma esquerdo e nove pacientes tiveram injúria diafragmática bilateral (9,78%. Atelectasia, derrame pleural e mediastinite ocorreram com mais freqüência no grupo sem lavagem torácica. Insuficiência respiratória, encarceramento pulmonar e empiema pleural foi mais freqüente no grupo de lavagem pleural com toracotomia. O único óbito ocorreu no grupo sem lavagem torácica. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com lavagem pleural através da toracotomia ântero-lateral evoluíram com maior morbidade, quando comparados com aqueles que realizaram apenas drenagem torácica sob selo d

  7. TFF与消化系统肿瘤关系的研究进展%Research on Relations between Trefoil Factor and Digestive Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽英; 马丽; 秦玉彩

    2011-01-01

    Trefoil factor (TFF) peptides are a family of small molecular regulatory protein which is mainly expressed in gastrointestinal mucus membrane,including TFF1 (PS2), TFF2 (SP)and TFF3(ITF). Its main function is to keep the integrity of mucous membranes and promote the repair of epithelial damage. Recent studies have found that trefoil factor family has connection with the occurrence and development of digestive tumors. At the same time it has a certain impact on cell proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore further study on mechanism of trefoil factor family in gastrointestal tumor will provide new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestal cancer.%TFF是一族主要表达于胃肠道黏膜的小分子多肽,包括乳腺癌相关肽、解痉多肽和肠三叶因子,其主要功能是维持黏膜的完整性和促进损伤黏膜的修复.近年研究发现TFF与消化系统肿瘤的发生、发展有关,同时对细胞的增殖和凋亡有一定的影响,因此,进一步研究TFF在消化系肿瘤中的作用机制,将为消化系肿瘤的诊断与治疗开辟新的途径.

  8. A Meta-analysis of tubular stomachversus whole stomach for digestive tract reconstruction%管状胃与全胃相比较行消化道重建的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰波; 齐海; 郑实谊

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Over the past 10 years, scholars have proposed the tubular stomach as an alternative to the whole stomach for digestive tract reconstruction; however, its occurrence rate of postoperative complications has been controversial. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of tubular stomach versus whole stomach for digestive tract reconstruction in the resection of esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: The randomized controled trials about tubular stomach for digestive tract reconstruction in the resection of esophageal carcinoma were searched from PubMed, OVID, CNKI, EBSCO, Science online, Wangfang, Super Star Digital Library, CMB, Baidu and Google search engines. Two searchers screened studies based on the included criteria strictly. Literature quality and bias risk were assessed according to the criteria of Cochrane Colaboration, GRADEprofiler3.6.1 software was used for evaluation of the quality grade, and Revman5.3 for data management and statistical analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Totaly 12 randomized controled trials including 4 137 patients were enroled. Compared with the whole stomach group, in the tubular stomach group, the incidences of reflux esophagitis and thoracic stomach syndrome were significantly lower, but there was no difference in the incidences of anastomotic leakage and anastomotic stenosis between the two groups. These findings indicate that the tubular stomach as a substitute of the whole stomach for digestive tract reconstruction in the resection of esophageal carcinoma is a safe and effective. However, the literatures included are only in English and Chinese, and there is publication bias and smal sample size. Therefore, the large-sample high-quality clinical randomized controled trials are stil needed for further confirmation.%背景:近10年来国内外学者提出了管状胃替代食管行消化道重建的方法,然而其术后并发症的发生率却一直存在争议。目的:评价食管癌根治术中管状胃代全胃

  9. Model Analysis of Upper Digestive Tract Cancer and Environmental Pollution in Huaihe River Watershed%淮河流域上消化道肿瘤与环境污染的模型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚晓鹏; 计伟; 任红艳; 郭岩; 周脉耕; 杨功焕; 庄大方

    2012-01-01

    自20世纪70年代后期以来,淮河流域不断遭受工业点源污染和其他面源污染,媒体也陆续报道了淮河流域“癌症村”的出现.本文探讨了淮河流域14个监测县5810个行政村的消化道肿瘤与环境因子之间的空间分布规律.作者从流域和行政区划等多维空间角度出发,通过全局的最小二乘法线性回归和稳健回归对环境因子进行筛选分析,以局部地理加权回归方法探测各类环境因子,在不同地区对贝叶斯调整的上消化道肿瘤死亡率的影响程度,建立了消化道肿瘤死亡的风险评估模型,其中,包括地表水水质等级、浅层地下水质量分级、河网密度、土壤多环芳烃含量分级、化肥施用量和经济密度等6类环境危险因素.根据局部回归模型中各监测点环境因子的回归系数和统计学检验结果,提取出当地主要的环境影响因素.从14个监测县区总体上看,地表水水质等级和GDP与肿瘤呈负相关,其他环境因子均与肿瘤死亡存在正相关.但从局部角度看,不同地区环境影响因子种类和影响强度有较大差别.其中淮河流域江苏段以化肥施用量、土壤多环芳烃含量、GDP和河网密度为主要影响因子,安徽段以土壤多环芳烃含量和化肥为主,河南段主要是以地下水质量分级、河网密度和化肥为主,同时河南沈丘县地表水水质等级对当地影响较大.山东段虽然也探测出来部分环境危险因子的存在,但没有发现其与肿瘤死亡的关联关系,尚需进一步深化研究.%The Huaihe River watershed has been suffering from industrial point pollution and other non-point pollution since 1970s. The media has reported the emergence of 'cancer village'. Spatial distribution pattern on upper digestive tract cancer and environmental factors was studied in 14 pilot counties including 5810 villages in Huaihe River watershed. From the multiple perspectives such as watershed and jurisdic

  10. Morphological and Histological Study on the Digestive Tract of Wild and Cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Sparus latus)%野生与养殖黄鳍鲷消化道形态组织结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永翠; 李加儿; 区又君; 苏慧

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and histology of the digestive tract of wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy (Spams Lotus ) were studied using routine method of paraffin tissue section. The results showed that there were some differences between the two populations. Morphological observations showed that oesophagus was crude and short, and the V-shaped stomach was divided into three portions; cardiac stomach, fundic stomach and pyloric stomach. There were four pyloric caeca, and intestine was detoured two inflections in the body cavity. In wild fish, the teeth were harder and sharper, the fat in the body cavity was less, and the digestive tract was cruder and shorter. The average intestinal coefficients of the wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were 0.71 ±0.03 and 0.94 ±0.12, respectively. Histological observations showed that mucous epithelium of oesophagus was composed of pinacocyte layer and goblet cell layer with rich goblet cells. Stomach had a single-layered columnar epithelium, without goblet cells. The gastric gland was developed in the cardiac stomach and fundic stomach. The histological features of pyloric caeca were similar to those of intestine, with columnar epithelium and less goblet cells. Meanwhile the distribution trend of goblet cells in the whole intestine was; foregut > midgut > hindgut and cultivated fish > wild fish. There were more goblet cells in rectum than in intestine. The major histological differences between wild and cultivated Yellowfin Black Porgy were that there were more goblet cells in the same part of digestive tract in cultivated fish than in wild fish, while the muscular coat was thicker in wild fish than in cultivated fish. It could be concluded that the differences of digestive tract between the two populations relied on their different living conditions and foods.%采用常规石蜡组织切片的方法对野生和养殖黄鳍鲷(Sparus latus)消化道的形态组织结构进行了比较观察.结果表明,野生和养殖黄

  11. Absence of lactobacilli containing glycolipids with the α-galactose epitope and the enhanced fucosylation of a receptor glycolipid GA1 in the digestive tracts of immune-deficient scid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamori, Masao; Tanaka, Kyoko; Adachi, Shigeki; Aoki, Daisuke; Nomura, Taisei

    2015-07-01

    The Lactobacillus species in the digestive tracts of immune-deficient scid mice was distinct from that in control mice, i.e. Lactobacillus murinus in scid and L. johnsonii in control mice, according to their 16S-rRNA, indicating that a symbiotic relationship between lactobacilli and a host is established under pressure from the immune system. The caecal and colonal contents rich in L. murinus of scid mice were loose with a strong sour smell, resulting in diarrhoea, and those with L. johnsonii in control mice included abundant solid materials. Lactobacillus glycolipids were revealed to be recognized by the immune system, and by TLC-immunostaining, LacTetH-DG (Galα1-6Galα1-6Galα1-2Glcα1-3'DG) of L. johnsonii was detected in the stomach, caecum and colon of control mice, but not in those of scid ones, in which fucosylation of a receptor GA1 for L. johnsonii was enhanced more than 4-fold compared with in the control mice. Thus, structural modification of receptor glycolipids was revealed to occur in the process of establishment of a symbiotic relationship between lactobacilli and a host. LacTetH-DG was also immunogenic to human, because of the presence of natural antibodies against it, and the antibody binding to it was comparable to that of blood group- and species-related glycosphingolipids.

  12. Intestinal concentrations of free and encapsulated dietary medium-chain fatty acids and effects on gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the digestive tract of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Jürgen; Buchheit-Renko, Susanne; Männer, Klaus; Pieper, Robert; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2012-02-01

    The influence of low dietary levels of free and encapsulated medium-chain fatty acids on their concentrations in the digesta, the gastric microbial ecology and bacterial metabolic products in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in weaned piglets was studied. Starting after weaning, 36 piglets were fed a diet without (Control) or with medium-chain fatty acids uncoated (MCFA) or coated with vegetable fat and lecithin (MCFAc). After 4 weeks, the animals were killed, and digesta from the stomach and different sections of the GIT were collected. The concentrations of caprylic (p < 0.001) and capric (p = 0.001) acids were higher in the stomachs of piglets fed diets MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control group. The concentrations dropped rapidly along the GIT, regardless of encapsulation, and tended to be higher in groups MCFA and MCFAc compared to the Control. Compared to the Control group, ingestion of diet MCFAc led to an increase in the number of eubacteria (p = 0.001), enterobacteriaceae (p < 0.001), clostridial clusters I (p = 0.001) and IV (p = 0.019), Lactobacillus johnsonii (p < 0.001) and Lactobacillus amylovorus (p = 0.001) in gastric contents. A similar trend was seen with diet MCFA. Relative concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were characterised by lower propionic acid levels (p = 0.045), numerically (p < 0.1) higher acetic, lower n-butyric and i-valeric acid concentrations in the small intestine. Lactic acid concentrations were not significantly changed in the GIT, but ammonia concentrations increased (p < 0.001) in the distal small intestine in the MCFA and MCFAc groups. In conclusion, medium-chain fatty acids affected microbial ecology parameters in the gastric contents and bacterial metabolites in the small intestine. At low dietary levels, medium-chain fatty acids may be regarded as modulators of the gastric microbiota in weaned piglets.

  13. Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008479 Preliminary study of MR elastography in brain tumors. XU Lei(徐磊), et al.Neurosci Imaging Center, Beijing Tiantan Hosp, Capital Med Univ, Beijing 100050.Chin J Radiol 2008;42(6):605-608. Objective To investigate the potential values of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for evaluating the brain tumor consistency in vivo. Methods Fourteen patients with known solid brain tumor (5 male, 9 female; age range: 16-63 years)

  14. High-grade ureteroscopic biopsy is associated with advanced pathology of upper-tract urothelial carcinoma tumors at definitive surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Thomas; Messer, Jamie C; Terrell, John D; Herman, Michael P; Ng, Casey K; Scherr, Douglas S; Scoll, Benjamin; Boorjian, Stephen A; Uzzo, Robert G; Wille, Mark; Eggener, Scott E; Lucas, Steven M; Lotan, Yair; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Raman, Jay D

    2012-04-01

    Accurate assessment of upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) pathology may guide use of endoscopic vs extirpative therapy. We present a multi-institutional cohort of patients with UTUC who underwent surgical resection to characterize the association of ureteroscopic (URS) biopsy features with final pathology results. URS biopsy data were available in 238 patients who underwent surgical resection of UTUC. Biopsies were performed using a brush biopsy kit, mechanical biopsy device, or basket. Stage was classified as a positive brush, nonmuscle-invasive (biopsy, 88/238 (37%) patients had a positive brush, 140 (59%) had a diagnosis of non-MI, and 10 (4%) had MI disease. Biopsy results showed low-grade cancer in 140 (59%) and high-grade cancer in 98 (41%). Pathologic evaluation at surgical resection demonstrated non-MI tumors in 140 (59%) patients, MI in 98 (41%), and high-grade disease in 150 (63%). On univariate analysis, high URS biopsy grade was associated with high-grade (positive predictive value [PPV] 92%, Pbiopsy stage, however, was associated with surgical pathology grade (P=0.005), but not MI (P=0.16) disease. On multivariate analysis, high URS grade, but not biopsy stage, was associated with high final pathology grade (hazard ratio [HR] 16.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-39.5, Pbiopsy grade, but not stage, is associated with adverse tumor pathology. This information may play a valuable role for risk stratification and in the appropriate selection of endoscopic management vs surgical extirpation for UTUC.

  15. Effects of dietary combinations of organic acids and medium chain fatty acids on the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and bacterial metabolites in the digestive tract of weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, J; Ferrara, F; Pieper, R; Tedin, L; Meyer, W; Vahjen, W

    2013-07-01

    Organic short and medium chain fatty acids are used in diets for piglets because they have an impact on the digestive processes and the intestinal microbiota. In this study, 48 pens (2 piglets/pen) were assigned randomly to 4 diets, without additive (control), with organic acids (OA; 0.416% fumaric and 0.328% lacti