Sample records for digestive system physiological phenomena

  1. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai


    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  2. Evolution of holometabola insect digestive systems: physiological and biochemical aspects

    Walter R. Terra


    Full Text Available This review takes into account primarily the work done in our laboratory with insects from the major Holometabola orders. Only the most significant data for each insect will be presented and a proposal on the evolution of Holometabola insect digstive systems will be advanced.

  3. Ontogeny and physiology of the digestive system of marine fish larvae

    Zambonino, Jose-luis; Gisbert, E; C. Sarasquete; Navarro, I.; Gutiérrez, J.; Cahu, Chantal


    The ontogeny of the digestive tract of marine fish larvae has been the subject of many studies these last twenty years. Beyond the scientific interest for such animal species, particularly for developmental aspects, most of these studies aimed to come up with the expectations of commercial hatcheries by reducing the bottlenecks in larvae culture and weaning processes (switch from live preys to compound diet feeding sequence). Consequently, the profile and dietary adaptation of digestive enzym...

  4. The Digestive System [and] Instructor's Guide. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit wlth instructor's guide provides materials on important aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the digestive system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human digestive system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to familiarize the student with some…

  5. Biomedical Signals and Sensors I Linking Physiological Phenomena and Biosignals

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus


    This two-volume set focuses on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. Today numerous biomedical sensors are commonplace in clinical practice. The registered biosignals reflect mostly vital physiologic phenomena. In order to adequately apply biomedical sensors and reasonably interpret the corresponding biosignals, a proper understanding of the involved physiologic phenomena, their influence on the registered biosignals, and the technology behind the sensors is necessary. The first volume is devoted to the interface between physiologic mechanisms and arising biosignals, whereas the second volume is focussed on the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. The physiologic mechanisms behind the biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level during sleep. The arising biosignals are discussed within the scope of vital physiologic phenomena to foster their understanding and comprehensive analysis.

  6. Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae

    Hur, Sang-Woo; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Bae-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Hwang, Hyung-Gyu; Jun, Je-Cheon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don


    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out. PMID:27796002

  7. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D


    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  8. Genetic Analysis of Digestive Physiology Using Fluorescent Phospholipid Reporters

    Farber, Steven A.; Pack, Michael; Ho, Shiu-Ying; Johnson, Iain D.; Wagner, Daniel S.; Dosch, Roland; Mullins, Mary C.; Hendrickson, H. Stewart; Hendrickson, Elizabeth K.; Halpern, Marnie E.


    Zebrafish are a valuable model for mammalian lipid metabolism; larvae process lipids similarly through the intestine and hepatobiliary system and respond to drugs that block cholesterol synthesis in humans. After ingestion of fluorescently quenched phospholipids, endogenous lipase activity and rapid transport of cleavage products results in intense gall bladder fluorescence. Genetic screening identifies zebrafish mutants, such as fat free, that show normal digestive organ morphology but severely reduced phospholipid and cholesterol processing. Thus, fluorescent lipids provide a sensitive readout of lipid metabolism and are a powerful tool for identifying genes that mediate vertebrate digestive physiology.

  9. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.


    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  10. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo


    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  11. Complex Phenomena in Nanoscale Systems

    Casati, Giulio


    Nanoscale physics has become one of the rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics because of its direct relevance to newly emerging area, nanotechnologies. Nanoscale devices and quantum functional materials are usually constructed based on the results of fundamental studies on nanoscale physics. Therefore studying physical phenomena in nanosized systems is of importance for progressive development of nanotechnologies. In this context study of complex phenomena in such systems and using them for controlling purposes is of great practical importance. Namely, such studies are brought together in this book, which contains 27 papers on various aspects of nanoscale physics and nonlinear dynamics.

  12. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E


    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids.

  13. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes.

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos


    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22-30°C) and sub-tropical (15-24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species.

  14. Simulation of phenomena occurring during digestion of foods

    Bakalis, Serafim; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R.; Fryer, Peter


    The increasing incidence of dietary related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, emphasize the importance to understand digestion and absorption of nutrients and to develop models that could be able to predict the food behavior through the gastrointestinal tract. In order to achieve this, an in vitro Small Intestine Model (SIM) was used to build starch digestion and glucose absorption as function of food viscosity. The effect of mixing and food formulation was evaluated and correlated to changes on glucose absorption. Significant differences on glucose delivery rates were found between the control and fluids containing viscous biopolymers. Results showed that the segmentation motion significantly increases (up to 30%) glucose rate of absorption across the membrane and that the influence of segmentation decreases as viscosity increases. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that addition of about 0.5 % (w/v) guar gum can result in a threefold decrease of absorption rate and mass transfer. Velocity fields obtained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) showed the effect of segmentation on nutrients absorption. Velocities profiles indicated that concentric contractions results in an increasing of micromixing and thus enhances mass transfer. This in vitro behaviour could be correlated within blood glucose levels in humans to understand the mechanisms by which biopolymers improves glucose tolerance.

  15. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    Chappell, Michael


    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  16. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W


    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  17. High throughput techniques to reveal the molecular physiology and evolution of digestion in spiders.

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R


    Spiders are known for their predatory efficiency and for their high capacity of digesting relatively large prey. They do this by combining both extracorporeal and intracellular digestion. Whereas many high throughput ("-omics") techniques focus on biomolecules in spider venom, so far this approach has not yet been applied to investigate the protein composition of spider midgut diverticula (MD) and digestive fluid (DF). We here report on our investigations of both MD and DF of the spider Nephilingis (Nephilengys) cruentata through the use of next generation sequencing and shotgun proteomics. This shows that the DF is composed of a variety of hydrolases including peptidases, carbohydrases, lipases and nuclease, as well as of toxins and regulatory proteins. We detect 25 astacins in the DF. Phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding transcript(s) in Arachnida suggests that astacins have acquired an unprecedented role for extracorporeal digestion in Araneae, with different orthologs used by each family. The results of a comparative study of spiders in distinct physiological conditions allow us to propose some digestion mechanisms in this interesting animal taxon. All the high throughput data allowed the demonstration that DF is a secretion originating from the MD. We identified enzymes involved in the extracellular and intracellular phases of digestion. Besides that, data analyses show a large gene duplication event in Araneae digestive process evolution, mainly of astacin genes. We were also able to identify proteins expressed and translated in the digestive system, which until now had been exclusively associated to venom glands.

  18. Stability and Restoration phenomena in Competitive Systems

    Uechi, Lisa


    A conservation law and stability, recovering phenomena and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to biological and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations with external perturbations. In this paper, competitive systems described by 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the {\\it standard rhythm} of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and balance of a system. The {\\it standard rhythm} of population density ...

  19. Critical Phenomena in Finite Systems

    Bonasera, A; Chiba, S


    We discuss the dynamics of finite systems within molecular dynamics models. Signatures of a critical behavior are analyzed and compared to experimental data both in nucleus-nucleus and metallic cluster collisions. We suggest the possibility to explore the instability region via tunneling. In this way we can obtain fragments at very low temperatures and densities. We call these fragments quantum drops.

  20. Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems


    This book contains a thorough treatment of neural networks, cellular-automata and synergetics, in an attempt to provide three different approaches to nonlinear phenomena in complex systems. These topics are of major interest to physicists active in the fields of statistical mechanics and dynamical systems. They have been developed with a high degree of sophistication and include the refinements necessary to work with the complexity of real systems as well as the more recent research developments in these areas.

  1. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J


    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  2. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...




    Beam coupling phenomena have been observed in most fast kicker systems through out Brookhaven Collider-Accelerator complex. With ever-higher beam intensity, the signature of the beam becomes increasingly recognizable. The beam coupling at high intensity produced additional heat dissipation in high voltage modulator, thyratron grids, thyratron driver circuit sufficient to damage some components, and causes trigger instability. In this paper, we will present our observations, basic coupling mode analysis, relevance to the magnet structures, issues related to the existing high voltage modulators, and considerations of the future design of the fast kicker systems.


    M. Ćurić


    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  5. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: detection of dietary glutamate via gut-brain axis.

    Bannai, M; Torii, K


    Gustatory and visceral stimulation from food regulates digestion and nutrient use. Free L-glutamate (Glu) release from digested protein is responsible for umami taste perception in the gut. Moreover, monosodium Glu (MSG) is widely used as a flavor enhancer to add umami taste in various cuisines. Recent studies indicate that dietary Glu sensors and their signal transduction system exist in both gut mucosa and taste cells. Oral Glu sensing has been well studied. In this review, we focus on the role of Glu on digestion and absorption of food. Infusion of Glu into the stomach and intestine increase afferent nerve activity of the gastric and the celiac branches of the vagus nerve, respectively. Luminal Glu also evokes efferent nerve activation of the abdominal vagus nerve branches simultaneously. Additionally, intragastric infusion of Glu activates the insular cortex, limbic system, hypothalamus, nucleus tractus solitaries, and amygdala, as determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and is able to induce flavor-preference learning as a result of postingestive effects in rats. These results indicate that Glu signaling via gustatory and visceral pathways plays an important role in the processes of digestion, absorption, metabolism, and other physiological functions via activation of the brain.

  6. Noise-driven phenomena in hysteretic systems

    Dimian, Mihai


    Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems provides a general approach to nonlinear systems with hysteresis driven by noisy inputs, which leads to a unitary framework for the analysis of various stochastic aspects of hysteresis. This book includes integral, differential and algebraic models that are used to describe scalar and vector hysteretic nonlinearities originating from various areas of science and engineering. The universality of the authors approach is also reflected by the diversity of the models used to portray the input noise, from the classical Gaussian white noise to its impulsive forms, often encountered in economics and biological systems, and pink noise, ubiquitous in multi-stable electronic systems. The book is accompanied by HysterSoft© - a robust simulation environment designed to perform complex hysteresis modeling – that can be used by the reader to reproduce many of the results presented in the book as well as to research both disruptive and constructive effects of noise in hysteret...

  7. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Lili Ding


    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  8. [Autoimmune Diseases of Digestive System].

    Ivashkinl, V T; Sheptulina, A F; Raĭkhelson, K L; Losik, E A; Ivashkin, K V; Okhlobystin, A V; Baranskaia, E K; Polouvektova, E A; Shifrin, O S


    Autoimmune diseases of digestive system refer to pathological conditions, caused by autoimmune mechanisms, and their etiology remains unknown. This is a group of relatively rare diseases, however, during the last years a marked tendency towards the raise in incidence andprevalence is observed, which led to an increase in number of clinical investigations on etiology, pathogenesis, and, accordingly, development of new diagnostic methods and therapies. Results of such trials shown, for example, that the pathogenesis of chronic cholestatic liver diseases is associated with nuclear receptors function, while the main etiological and pathogenic factor of inflammatory bowel diseases represents gut microbiota. Despite new achievements in autoinmune diseases of digestive system research, therapies are low effective and are accompanied by a huge number of adverse events. The fact that these diseases may lead to malignant tumors is also worth noting. For example, patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have a 160 times higher risk of cholangiocellular carcinoma, while 10-14% ofpatients with celiac disease may develop malignancies of esophagus, small and large intestine. Thus, these diseases require further investigation with a purpose of more accurate diagnostic methods for the detection of disease at early stages and new effective and safe therapies development.

  9. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena.

    Asmolov, A.G.


    Full Text Available In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”. Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide in Physiology and Diseases of the Digestive Tract

    Sudha B. Singh


    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a Janus-faced molecule. On one hand, several toxic functions have been attributed to H2S and exposure to high levels of this gas is extremely hazardous to health. On the other hand, H2S delivery based clinical therapies are being developed to combat inflammation, visceral pain, oxidative stress related tissue injury, thrombosis and cancer. Since its discovery, H2S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and health. H2S is a gasotransmitter that exerts its effect on different systems, such as gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. In the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to H2S production by mammalian cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE, H2S is also generated by the metabolic activity of resident gut microbes, mainly by colonic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB via a dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR pathway. In the gut, H2S regulates functions such as inflammation, ischemia/ reperfusion injury and motility. H2S derived from gut microbes has been found to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. This underscores the importance of gut microbes and their production of H2S on host physiology and pathophysiology.

  11. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas


    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  12. Transient magneto-peristaltic flow of couple stress biofluids: a magneto-hydro-dynamical study on digestive transport phenomena.

    Tripathi, Dharmendra; Anwar Bég, O


    Magnetic fields are increasingly being utilized in endoscopy and gastric transport control. In this regard, the present study investigates the influence of a transverse magnetic field in the transient peristaltic rheological transport. An electrically-conducting couple stress non-Newtonian model is employed to accurately simulate physiological fluids in peristaltic flow through a sinusoidally contracting channel of finite length. This model is designed for computing the intra-bolus oesophageal and intestinal pressures during the movement of food bolus in the digestive system under magneto-hydro-dynamic effects. Long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations have been employed to reduce the governing equations from nonlinear to linear form, this being a valid approach for creeping flows which characterizes physiological dynamics. Analytical approximate solutions for axial velocity, transverse velocity, pressure gradient, local wall shear stress and volumetric flow rate are obtained for the non-dimensional conservation equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of couple stress parameter and transverse magnetic field on the velocity profile, pressure distribution, local wall shear stress and the averaged flow rate are discussed with the aid of computational results. The comparative study of non-integral and integral number of waves propagating along the finite length channel is also presented. Magnetic field and non-Newtonian properties are found to strongly influence peristaltic transport.

  13. Starch and fiber properties affect their kinetics of digestion and thereby digestive physiology in pigs.

    Zijlstra, R T; Jha, R; Woodward, A D; Fouhse, J; van Kempen, T A T G


    Traditionally in swine nutrition, analyses of starch and fiber have focused on assessing quantity; however, both have a wide range of functional properties making them underappreciated nutrients. Starch ranging from low to high amylose changes from rapidly digestible in the upper gut to poorly digestible but fermentable in the lower gut thereby changing from a source of glucose to VFA source. Likewise, fibers ranging from low to high viscosity affect digesta flow and from slowly to rapidly fermentable alter production of VFA serving as energy for the gut or whole body. Our hypothesis is that total extent, kinetics, and site of digestion or fermentation of starch and fiber are important for whole body nutrient use and intestinal health. To elucidate their effects, we developed in vitro, lab-based methodologies to describe kinetics of digestion and fermentation and linked these with in vivo models including i) ileum cannulation to collect digesta, ii) portal-vein catheterization to sequentially sample blood, iii) slaughter method to collect site-specific intestinal tissue and digesta, and iv) indirect calorimetry. Using these methods, kinetics of nutrient absorption was associated with pancreatic and intestinal hormones released into the portal vein, intestinal microbiota, and gene expression in intestinal tissue and microbiota. These studies confirmed that slowly digestible starch is partially degraded in the distal small and large intestine and fermented into VFA including butyrate (10-fold increase in net portal appearance), which reduces insulin responses by 60% and whole body energy use. Starch entering the distal intestine altered mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and was bifidogenic. Extremely viscous purified fiber dampened glycemic responses and reduced digesta passage rate by 50% thereby increasing ileal digestion of dietary nutrients whereas increased fiber in feed grains reduced nutrient digestibility. Fermentable fiber increased butyrate and

  14. Validation of an in vitro digestive system for studying macronutrient decomposition in humans.

    Kopf-Bolanz, Katrin A; Schwander, Flurina; Gijs, Martin; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto; Egger, Lotti


    The digestive process transforms nutrients and bioactive compounds contained in food to physiologically active compounds. In vitro digestion systems have proven to be powerful tools for understanding and monitoring the complex transformation processes that take place during digestion. Moreover, the investigation of the physiological effects of certain nutrients demands an in vitro digestive process that is close to human physiology. In this study, human digestion was simulated with a 3-step in vitro process that was validated in depth by choosing pasteurized milk as an example of a complex food matrix. The evolution and decomposition of the macronutrients was followed over the entire digestive process to the level of intestinal enterocyte action, using protein and peptide analysis by SDS-PAGE, reversed-phase HPLC, size exclusion HPLC, and liquid chromatography-MS. The mean peptide size after in vitro digestion of pasteurized milk was 5-6 amino acids (AA). Interestingly, mostly essential AA (93.6%) were released during in vitro milk digestion, a significantly different relative distribution compared to the total essential AA concentration of bovine milk (44.5%). All TG were degraded to FFA and monoacylglycerols. Herein, we present a human in vitro digestion model validated for its ability to degrade the macronutrients of dairy products comparable to physiological ranges. It is suited to be used in combination with a human intestinal cell culture system, allowing ex vivo bioavailability measurements and assessment of the bioactive properties of food components.

  15. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    ... the risk of H. pylori infection, slows the healing of peptic ulcers, and increases the likelihood that peptic ulcers will recur. The stomach and duodenum contain acids, enzymes, and other substances that help digest food. However, these substances may also harm the lining ...

  16. Abdomen, digestive system; Abdomen, appareil digestif

    Pradel, J. [Hopital Saint-Eloi, 34 - Montpellier (France); Siauve, N. [Hopital Laennec, 75 - Paris (France); Alexandre, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 06 - Nice (France); Lorenzetti, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)


    The Radiological Society of North America (RNSA) ` 96 has devoted a broad part to abdomen and digestive imaging. we find hepatic pathology and comparative evaluation between computed tomography and NMR imaging. The question of contrast products and their advance in hepatic pathology are studied. The biliary tracts and MRI do not present any surprise. The pancreas with the computerized tomography and finally the digestive system, always with computerized tomography are exposed. (N.C.).

  17. Studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    Clauss, M; Polster, C; Kienzle, E; Wiesner, H; Baumgartner, K; von Houwald, F; Ortmann, S; Streich, W J; Dierenfeld, E S


    We performed intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies in 11 Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output. The regularly fed zoo ration of roughage and concentrates (ration RC) and a roughage-only ration (ration R) were used; the roughage source differed between the facilities and comprised grass hay, grass silage, straw and lucerne hay. Dry matter intake ranged between 0.8 and 1.3% of body weight on ration RC and 0.5-1.2% on ration R. Digestibility coefficients achieved were similar to those reported for horses on diets of comparable composition. Endogenous losses as determined by linear regression analysis were within the range reported for horses. Measurements of faecal volatile fatty acids, faecal lactate and faecal pH also showed similarity to similar measurements in horses. The mean retention times of fluids (Co-EDTA) and particles (Cr-mordanted fibre horse is a useful model animal for designing diets for Indian rhinoceroses. Why digestive parameters are similar between these species in spite of enormous differences in body weight and retention times remains to be answered.

  18. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang


    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented.

  19. Digestive physiology of the Burmese python: broad regulation of integrated performance.

    Secor, Stephen M


    As an apparent adaptation to predictably long episodes of fasting, the sit-and-wait foraging Burmese python experiences unprecedented regulation of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular performance with feeding and fasting. The ingestion of a meal signals the quiescent gut tissues to start secreting digestive acid and enzymes, to upregulate intestinal brush-border enzymes and nutrient transporters, and to grow. An integrated phenomenon, digestion is also characterized by increases in the mass, and presumably the function, of the heart, pancreas, liver and kidneys. Once digestion is complete, the python's stomach and small intestine rapidly downregulate performance. Much of the modulation of intestinal function can be explained by the 5-fold increase in microvillus length and apical surface area with feeding, and the subsequent shortening of the microvilli after digestion has finished. Digestion for the Burmese python is a relatively expensive endeavor, evident by the as much as a 44-fold increase in metabolic rate and equivalent in cost to as much as 37% of the meal's energy. Their large metabolic response is supported by substantial increases in ventilation and cardiac output and the apparent catabolism of glucose and lipids. Unmatched in the magnitude of its numerous physiological responses to feeding, the Burmese python is a very attractive model for examining the capacities and regulatory mechanisms of physiological performance.

  20. The Digestive Tract of Cephalopods: Toward Non-invasive In vivo Monitoring of Its Physiology

    Giovanna Ponte


    Full Text Available Ensuring the health and welfare of animals in research is paramount, and the normal functioning of the digestive tract is essential for both. Here we critically assess non- or minimally-invasive techniques which may be used to assess a cephalopod's digestive tract functionality to inform health monitoring. We focus on: (i predatory response as an indication of appetitive drive; (ii body weight assessment and interpretation of deviations (e.g., digestive gland weight loss is disproportionate to body weight loss in starvation; (iii oro-anal transit time requiring novel, standardized techniques to facilitate comparative studies of species and diets; (iv defecation frequency and analysis of fecal color (diet dependent and composition (parasites, biomarkers, and cytology; (v digestive tract endoscopy, but passage of the esophagus through the brain is a technical challenge; (vi high resolution ultrasound that offers the possibility of imaging the morphology of the digestive tract (e.g., food distribution, indigestible residues, obstruction and recording contractile activity; (vii needle biopsy (with ultrasound guidance as a technique for investigating digestive gland biochemistry and pathology without the death of the animal. These techniques will inform the development of physiologically based assessments of health and the impact of experimental procedures. Although intended for use in the laboratory they are equally applicable to cephalopods in public display and aquaculture.

  1. Digestive physiology of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus): A large herbivorous hystricomorph rodent.

    Hagen, Katharina B; Besselmann, Dorothea; Cyrus-Eulenberger, Ulrike; Vendl, Catharina; Ortmann, Sylvia; Zingg, Robert; Kienzle, Ellen; Kreuzer, Michael; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus


    Plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) are large South American, fossorial rodents susceptible to diabetic cataracts. Various aspects of their digestive physiology were studied in three different experiments with nine male and seven female adult animals and six different diets (total n of feeding trials = 35). Viscachas achieved mean retention times of 23–31 hr, which is of a magnitude also recorded in horses; these did not differ for solute or small particle (Digestible energy requirement for maintenance was 445 kJ/kg0.75/day. At 1.6–2.7 L/day, viscachas produced more methane than expected for a hindgut fermenter of their size. On diets that included concentrate feeds, viscachas excreted glucose in their urine, corroborating reports on the susceptibility of this species for diabetes when kept on energy-dense food. Viscachas had a similar apparent digestibility of protein, lipids, and macrominerals as other rodents, rabbits, or domestic horses. This suggests that whether or not a species practices coprophagy does not have a major influence on these measures. Viscachas resemble other hindgut fermenters in their high apparent calcium digestibility. With respect to a digestibility-reducing effect of dietary fiber, viscachas differed from rabbits and guinea pigs but were similar to horses, suggesting that small body size needs not necessarily be linked to lower digestive efficiency on high-fiber diets.

  2. Transport phenomena in disordered interacting electron systems

    Michaeli, Karen

    We develop a user friendly scheme based on the quantum kinetic equation for studying electric and thermal transport phenomena in the presence of interactions and disorder. We demonstrate that this scheme is suitable for both a systematic perturbative calculation as well as a general analysis. The work was motivated by the growing number of experiments of thermal and thermoelectric transport, and the absence of adequate theoretical tools for studying them. In particular, for thermal transport, the widely used Kubo formula is rather cumbersome. In this thesis, we present a systematic derivation of the quantum kinetic approach which we believe can be a good alternative to the Kubo formula. One main advantage of the kinetic approach is that it provides us with an intuitive picture for both electric and thermal transport. The strength of our scheme is in its generality that allow us to apply it for different kinds of interactions. We study the effect of the superconducting fluctuations on the Hall and Nernst effects. We show that the strong Nernst effect observed recently in amorphous superconducting films far above the critical temperature is caused by the fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. We demonstrate that in the limit T → 0 the contribution of the magnetization ensures the vanishing of the Nernst signal in accordance with the third law of thermodynamics. We obtained a striking agreement between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data in a broad region of temperatures and magnetic fields. In addition, we present the calculation of the Hall conductivity in the vicinity of the superconducting transition driven by a magnetic field. We discuss the peculiar feature of both the Hall coefficient and Nernst signal anticipated near the quantum phase transition.

  3. Chaotic Phenomena in Technical Control Systems

    Mosekilde, Erik


    The paper discusses a number of examples of technical control systems that can exhibit deterministic chaos and other forms of complex nonlinear behavior. These examples include thermostatically regulated radiators, closely placed refrigirators, and industrial cooling compressors. The paper...... continues to describe the possible perspective in driving our technical systems to operate in a chaotic regime. An example of a technical system capable of operating under unstable conditions is the F/A-18 fighter....

  4. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Anne M. Estes


    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  5. Feeding and digestive problems in horses. Physiologic responses to a concentrated meal.

    Clarke, L L; Roberts, M C; Argenzio, R A


    The association of feeding practices with the development of digestive disorders in horses has long been recognized, although the underlying mechanisms had been barely considered. The physiologic consequences of meal frequency may help to explain the relationship and prove to be of major significance in the induction of many conditions. Many Equidae kept for performance and leisure activities are fed high-energy, low-forage rations twice daily, with limited access to hay or grazing. Rapid ingestion of such meals stimulates a copious outpouring of upper alimentary secretions and results in transient hypovolemia (15% plasma volume loss). Subsequent activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) contributes to the preservation of circulatory status. Large meals may accelerate digesta passage to the cecum and, thereby, increase soluble carbohydrate availability for large intestinal fermentation. Intense periods of fermentation develop that require significant shifts of fluid into the colonic lumen. This is followed by net fluid absorption, which, in part, is dependent on postprandial increases of aldosterone. Potential consequences of these events include (1) imbalances in the RAAS response, which may promote conditions favorable to gastrointestinal disturbance, notably large intestinal impaction, and (2) changes in the gastrointestinal microflora, which may affect the intraluminal endotoxin pool and the population of enterotoxin-producing bacteria. In contrast to episodic feedings, similar changes are absent or greatly attenuated under simulated grazing conditions (for example, small, frequent meals). Thus, modification of management practices to facilitate a more continuous feeding pattern may significantly reduce the incidence of digestive problems in the stabled horse.

  6. Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    Belton, Michael J. S. (Editor); West, Robert A. (Editor); Rahe, Jurgen (Editor); Pereyda, Margarita


    The current state of knowledge of dynamic processes in the Jovian system is assessed and summaries are provided of both theoretical and observational foundations upon which future research might be based. There are three sections: satellite phenomena and rings; magnetospheric phenomena, Io's torus, and aurorae; and atmospheric phenomena. Each chapter discusses time dependent theoretical framework for understanding and interpreting what is observed; others describe the evidence and nature of observed changes or their absence. A few chapters provide historical perspective and attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge.

  7. Classification of Transient Phenomena in Distribution System using wavelet Transform

    Sedighi, Alireza


    An efficient procedure for classification of transient phenomena in distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has been applied to classify some transient phenomena such as inrush current, load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. The new scheme is based on wavelet transform algorithm. All of the events for feature extraction and test are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results show high accuracy of proposed method.

  8. Physiological Roles of Group X-secreted Phospholipase A2 in Reproduction, Gastrointestinal Phospholipid Digestion, and Neuronal Function*

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Yoshimi; Kamei, Daisuke; Hara, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto


    Although the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA2 (sPLA2-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as to the roles played by this enzyme in the physiology of reproduction, digestion, and the nervous system. Herein we used mice with gene disruption or transgenic overexpression of sPLA2-X to clarify the homeostatic functions of this enzyme at these locations. Our results suggest that sPLA2-X regulates 1) the fertility of spermatozoa, not oocytes, beyond the step of flagellar motility, 2) gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, perturbation of which is eventually linked to delayed onset of a lean phenotype with reduced adiposity, decreased plasma leptin, and improved muscle insulin tolerance, and 3) neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and the duration of peripheral pain nociception. Thus, besides its inflammatory action proposed previously, sPLA2-X participates in physiologic processes including male fertility, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion linked to adiposity, and neuronal outgrowth and sensing. PMID:21266581

  9. Physiological roles of group X-secreted phospholipase A2 in reproduction, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, and neuronal function.

    Sato, Hiroyasu; Isogai, Yuki; Masuda, Seiko; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Miki, Yoshimi; Kamei, Daisuke; Hara, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kei; Murakami, Makoto


    Although the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) family has been generally thought to participate in pathologic events such as inflammation and atherosclerosis, relatively high and constitutive expression of group X sPLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) in restricted sites such as reproductive organs, the gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral neurons raises a question as to the roles played by this enzyme in the physiology of reproduction, digestion, and the nervous system. Herein we used mice with gene disruption or transgenic overexpression of sPLA(2)-X to clarify the homeostatic functions of this enzyme at these locations. Our results suggest that sPLA(2)-X regulates 1) the fertility of spermatozoa, not oocytes, beyond the step of flagellar motility, 2) gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, perturbation of which is eventually linked to delayed onset of a lean phenotype with reduced adiposity, decreased plasma leptin, and improved muscle insulin tolerance, and 3) neuritogenesis of dorsal root ganglia and the duration of peripheral pain nociception. Thus, besides its inflammatory action proposed previously, sPLA(2)-X participates in physiologic processes including male fertility, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion linked to adiposity, and neuronal outgrowth and sensing.

  10. Integrated Library Systems. ERIC Digest.

    Lopata, Cynthia L.

    An automated library system usually consists of a number of functional modules, such as acquisitions, circulation, cataloging, serials, and an online public access catalog (OPAC). An "integrated" library system is an automated system in which all of the function modules share a common bibliographic database. There are several ways the…

  11. Modeling mesoscopic phenomena in extended dynamical systems

    Bishop, A.; Lomdahl, P.; Jensen, N.G.; Cai, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mertenz, F. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany); Konno, Hidetoshi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Salkola, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have obtained classes of nonlinear solutions on curved geometries that demonstrate a novel interplay between topology and geometric frustration relevant for nanoscale systems. We have analyzed the nature and stability of localized oscillatory nonlinear excitations (multi-phonon bound states) on discrete nonlinear chains, including demonstrations of successful perturbation theories, existence of quasiperiodic excitations, response to external statistical time-dependent fields and point impurities, robustness in the presence of quantum fluctuations, and effects of boundary conditions. We have demonstrated multi-timescale effects for nonlinear Schroedinger descriptions and shown the success of memory function approaches for going beyond these approximations. In addition we have developed a generalized rate-equation framework that allows analysis of the important creation/annihilation processes in driven nonlinear, nonequilibiium systems.

  12. Duality of boiling systems and uncertainty phenomena

    柴立合; 彭晓峰; 王补宣


    Interactions among dry patches at high heat flux are theoretically analyzed. The high heat flux boiling experiments on metal plate wall with different materials and thickness are correspondingly conducted. The duality of boiling system, i.e. hydrodynamic performance and self-organized performance is identified. A unified explanation of hydrodynamic models and dry patches models is given. The scatter and uncertainty in boiling data can be mainly attributed to the intrinsic duality, but not the sole surface effects. The present experimental results explain why the deviation point at high flux boiling is seen only on occasion and why the self-organization of dry patches is often ignored in available literature.

  13. Interfacial phenomena in gas hydrate systems.

    Aman, Zachary M; Koh, Carolyn A


    Gas hydrates are crystalline inclusion compounds, where molecular cages of water trap lighter species under specific thermodynamic conditions. Hydrates play an essential role in global energy systems, as both a hinderance when formed in traditional fuel production and a substantial resource when formed by nature. In both traditional and unconventional fuel production, hydrates share interfaces with a tremendous diversity of materials, including hydrocarbons, aqueous solutions, and inorganic solids. This article presents a state-of-the-art understanding of hydrate interfacial thermodynamics and growth kinetics, and the physiochemical controls that may be exerted on both. Specific attention is paid to the molecular structure and interactions of water, guest molecules, and hetero-molecules (e.g., surfactants) near the interface. Gas hydrate nucleation and growth mechanics are also presented, based on studies using a combination of molecular modeling, vibrational spectroscopy, and X-ray and neutron diffraction. The fundamental physical and chemical knowledge and methods presented in this review may be of value in probing parallel systems of crystal growth in solid inclusion compounds, crystal growth modifiers, emulsion stabilization, and reactive particle flow in solid slurries.

  14. Freezing phenomena in ice-water systems

    Akyurt, M.; Zaki, G.; Habeebullah, B. [Fakieh Center for Applied Research, Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Saudi Arabia); King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The characteristics of solidification and melting are reviewed. The properties of water and ice and the phase diagram of water are discussed with special emphasis on ice density. A concise account of the freezing process and the Stefan problem is presented. To this end, the four stages of freezing are identified, supercooling, nucleation and the formation of dendritic ice, the growth of concentric rings of solid ice at 0{sup o}C and the final cooling of the solid ice are treated in some detail. The subject of bursting of pipes is given particular emphasis. Attention is drawn to a common misconception on pipe bursting and to misleading relationships for the computation of freezing time for ice blockage. Several current applications of melting and freezing systems are outlined. (author)

  15. Development of an in vitro system simulating bucco-gastric digestion to assess the physical and chemical changes of food.

    Hoebler, C; Lecannu, G; Belleville, C; Devaux, M-F; Popineau, Y; Barry, J-L


    The release of nutrients from solid food depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, and on dynamic physiological events including pH, gastric emptying and enzymatic secretion. Our laboratory has developed an in vitro digestive system mimicking mouth and stomach processes to determine physical and chemical changes of bread during digestion. To simulate oral-phase digestion, bread was minced and subjected to in vitro amylase digestion, releasing 219 +/- 11 g oligosaccharides/kg total carbohydrate. During the gastric phase, bread proteins, which are converted into insoluble aggregated proteins during breadmaking, were emptied in various states of peptic digestion: undigested aggregated proteins and degraded proteins of intermediate and low molecular weight. The mean particle size of ground bread decreased progressively to the end of the gastric digestion (from 292 to 109 microm). The in vitro digestive system proved to be a useful tool for understanding the dynamic digestion of various food components held within the structure of a food matrix.

  16. Nonlinear Hyperbolic-Parabolic System Modeling Some Biological Phenomena

    WU Shaohua; CHEN Hua


    In this paper, we study a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system modeling some biological phenomena. By semigroup theory and Leray-Schauder fixed point argument, the local existence and uniqueness of the weak solutions for this system are proved. For the spatial dimension N = 1, the global existence of the weak solution will be established by the bootstrap argument.

  17. Synchronization Phenomena in an Array of Population Dynamic Systems

    Postnov, D.E.; Balanov, A.G.; Mosekilde, Erik


    The paper applies continuation methods to examine synchronization phenomena that can arise in a cascaded system of population dynamic models. The individual model describes a bacterial population interacting with a population of viruses that attack the cells. Coupling between the subsystems...

  18. In vitro digestion testing of lipid-based delivery systems

    Devraj, Ravi; Williams, Hywel D; Warren, Dallas B


    In vitro digestion testing is of practical importance to predict the fate of drugs administered in lipid-based delivery systems. Calcium ions are often added to digestion media to increase the extent of digestion of long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), but the effects they have on phase behaviour...... of the products of digestion, and consequent drug solubilization, are not well understood. This study investigates the effect of calcium and bile salt concentrations on the rate and extent of in vitro digestion of soybean oil, as well as the solubilizing capacity of the digestion products for two poorly water......-soluble drugs, fenofibrate and danazol. In the presence of higher concentrations of calcium ions, the solubilization capacities of the digests were reduced for both drugs. This effect is attributed to the formation of insoluble calcium soaps, visible as precipitates during the digestions. This reduces...

  19. A Retrospection of Chaotic Phenomena in Electrical Systems

    Umesh Kumar


    Full Text Available In the last decade new phenomena have been observed in all areas of non linear dynamics, principal among these being ‘Chaotic phenomena’. Chaos has been reported virtually from every scientific discipline. This paper summarizes a study of the chaotic phenomena in electrical systems and attempts to translate the mathematical ideas and techniques into language that engineers and applied scientists can use to study ‘Chaos’. Towards this end, the paper has summarized the study of chaos in several examples like Chua’s circuit family; Folded Torus circuit; non-autonomous circuits; switched capacitor circuits and hyper-chaos circuits. As observed in power systems, control systems and digital filters, chaos has been exhibited and shown on examples.

  20. Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad


    This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...

  1. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  2. Transport Phenomena and Interfacial Kinetics in Multiphase Combustion Systems. Revision


    not be interpreted as necessarily the official policy or the endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research...43 867. 1991 0021 8502,91 S3.00+O.0 Pnnted in Gmat Britain C 1991 Pupmon Prm pic CORRECTION FOR SAMPLING ERRORS DUE TO COAGULATION AND WALL LOSS IN...for Brownian aerosols (in the absence of appreciable inertial- and sedimentation-phenomena), as well as guide the design/selection of sampling systems

  3. Dynamical system analysis of unstable flow phenomena in centrifugal blower

    Garcia David


    Full Text Available Methods of dynamical system analysis were employed to analyze unsteady phenomena in a centrifugal blower. Pressure signals gathered at different control points were decomposed into their Principal Components (PCs by means of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA. Certain number of PCs was considered in the analysis based on their statistical correlation. Projection of the original signal onto its PCs allowed to draw the phase trajectory that clearly separated non-stable blower working conditions from its regular operation.

  4. Influences of weather phenomena on automotive laser radar systems

    Rasshofer, R. H.; Spies, M.; Spies, H.


    Laser radar (lidar) sensors provide outstanding angular resolution along with highly accurate range measurements and thus they were proposed as a part of a high performance perception system for advanced driver assistant functions. Based on optical signal transmission and reception, laser radar systems are influenced by weather phenomena. This work provides an overview on the different physical principles responsible for laser radar signal disturbance and theoretical investigations for estimation of their influence. Finally, the transmission models are applied for signal generation in a newly developed laser radar target simulator providing - to our knowledge - worldwide first HIL test capability for automotive laser radar systems.

  5. Charged dust and shock phenomena in the Solar System

    S. I. Popel


    Full Text Available The results on shock phenomena in dusty plasmas of the Solar System are reviewed. The problems of dust ion acoustic bow shock in interaction of the solar wind with dusty cometary coma and formation of transient atmospheres of atmosphereless cosmic bodies such as Moon, Mercury, asteroids and comets are considered. The latter assumes the evolution of meteoroid impact plumes and production of charged dust grains due to the condensation of both the plume substance and the vapor thrown from the crater and the surrounding regolith layer. Physical phenomena occurring during large meteoroid impacts can be modeled with the aid of active rocket experiments, which involve the release of some gaseous substance in near-Earth space. New vistas in investigation of shock processes in natural dusty plasmas are determined.

  6. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    .... Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans...

  7. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly.

    Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L; Morehouse, Nathan I


    Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly.

  8. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch


    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  9. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Ronny P Bartsch

    Full Text Available We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS, we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  10. Network Physiology: Mapping interactions between complex physiological systems

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.


    The human organism is an integrated network where multi-component organ systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact to optimize and coordinate their function. Organ-to-organ interactions occur at multiple levels and spatiotemporal time scales to produce distinct physiologic states: wake and sleep; light and deep sleep; consciousness and unconsciousness. Disrupting organ communications can lead to dysfunction of individual systems or to collapse of the entire organ...

  11. Spatio-temporal phenomena in complex systems with time delays

    Yanchuk, Serhiy; Giacomelli, Giovanni


    Real-world systems can be strongly influenced by time delays occurring in self-coupling interactions, due to unavoidable finite signal propagation velocities. When the delays become significantly long, complicated high-dimensional phenomena appear and a simple extension of the methods employed in low-dimensional dynamical systems is not feasible. We review the general theory developed in this case, describing the main destabilization mechanisms, the use of visualization tools, and commenting on the most important and effective dynamical indicators as well as their properties in different regimes. We show how a suitable approach, based on a comparison with spatio-temporal systems, represents a powerful instrument for disclosing the very basic mechanism of long-delay systems. Various examples from different models and a series of recent experiments are reported.

  12. The origin of graphic recording of psycho-physiological phenomena in Germany.

    De Leo, Angela


    Despite some negative comments expressed by E. du Bois-Reymond on W. Wundt's experimental skills, the latter provided accurate descriptions of the laboratory instruments just in his first works. But he paid particular attention to graphic recording, whose history was most likely reconstructed by him probably for the first time. Its significance lay in the fact that it was applied in every psychology laboratory: without it, mental phenomena could not be measured. Starting from such a history, the aim of this essay is to trace the paths that have led to the introduction of graphic recording into the sciences. Commonly connected with the invention of C. Ludwig's kymograph in 1846, graphic recording has nevertheless a much more extensive background.

  13. Dietary Sodium Suppresses Digestive Efficiency via the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    Weidemann, Benjamin J; Voong, Susan; Morales-Santiago, Fabiola I; Kahn, Michael Z; Ni, Jonathan; Littlejohn, Nicole K; Claflin, Kristin E; Burnett, Colin M L; Pearson, Nicole A; Lutter, Michael L; Grobe, Justin L


    Dietary fats and sodium are both palatable and are hypothesized to synergistically contribute to ingestive behavior and thereby obesity. Contrary to this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice fed a 45% high fat diet exhibited weight gain that was inhibited by increased dietary sodium content. This suppressive effect of dietary sodium upon weight gain was mediated specifically through a reduction in digestive efficiency, with no effects on food intake behavior, physical activity, or resting metabolism. Replacement of circulating angiotensin II levels reversed the effects of high dietary sodium to suppress digestive efficiency. While the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan had no effect in mice fed low sodium, the AT2 receptor antagonist PD-123,319 suppressed digestive efficiency. Correspondingly, genetic deletion of the AT2 receptor in FVB/NCrl mice resulted in suppressed digestive efficiency even on a standard chow diet. Together these data underscore the importance of digestive efficiency in the pathogenesis of obesity, and implicate dietary sodium, the renin-angiotensin system, and the AT2 receptor in the control of digestive efficiency regardless of mouse strain or macronutrient composition of the diet. These findings highlight the need for greater understanding of nutrient absorption control physiology, and prompt more uniform assessment of digestive efficiency in animal studies of energy balance.

  14. A master system for power system fault phenomena

    Yoo, Myung Ho; Jang, Sang Ho; Hong, Joon Hee; Min, Wan Ki; Yoo, Chang Hwan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center


    This report includes as follows - Real time digital simulator - Remote measuring, analyzing and reproducing system of power system fault data -Power system reduction method program using EMTP -Test system for protection device. (author). 22 refs., 38 figs.

  15. Bifurcation phenomena in internal dynamics of gear systems

    Hortel M.


    Full Text Available The impact effects in gear mesh represent specific phenomena in the dynamic investigation of highspeed light transmission systems with kinematic couplings. They are caused of greater dynamic than static elastic deformations in meshing gear profiles. In term of internal dynamics they are influenced among others by time heteronomous stiffness functions in gear mesh and resonance tuning of stiffness level. The damping in gear mesh and in gear system is concerned significantly in the amplitude progress, greatness and phase shift of relative motion towards stiffness function alternatively towards its modify form in gear mesh. In consequence of these and another actions rise above resonance characteristics certain singular locations with jump amplitude course.

  16. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A


    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  17. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim


    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effects of exogenous enzymes and dietary energy on performance and digestive physiology of broilers.

    Zou, Jialing; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Bai, Shiping


    The study was conducted to compare the effects of XG with AG and BM at different metabolizable energy diets on growth performance, digestive physiology and energy utilization of broilers fed with corn-SBM diet. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used with two basal diets (the positive control group, PC; negative control with ME reduction 100 kcal/kg, NC) and with or without the addition of three exogenous enzymes (0.02% BM; 0.01% AG; 0.05% XG) respectively. 1,200 one-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 8 treatments with 10 pens of 15 broilers. There was no significant difference on BW, BWG, and FI at 0-21d, 21-42d or 0-42d for diet, enzymes or their interactions, but FI at 22-42d and 0-42d were tend to be decreased with the addition of enzymes. The F/G was significantly improved by the addition of enzymes especially in NC diet. The dietary AME and TME in PC or NC diet were significantly increased by XG or AG in NC diet. The villus length and V/C of ileum were significantly increased by the addition of BM or XG. XG improved the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylase, BM improved the activity of trypsin at 21d, and AG improved the activity of chymotrypsin at 21d. Comparing to PC diet, the addition of enzymes in PC or NC diet decreased feed cost per kg body weight gain especially in NC diet (except AG in PC diet) with the highest profits for XG in NC diet. In conclusion, supplementation of 0.02% BM or 0.01% AG or 0.05% XG could improve feed conversion of broilers in corn-soybean meal diet by improving energy utilization and digestive physiology, and also supplementation of 0.05% XG had a preferable efficacy in low energy diet.

  19. [Defense mechanism to prevent ectopic activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes under physiological conditions and its breakdown in acute pancreatitis].

    Kaku, Midori; Otsuko, Makoto


    Independent of the etiology, acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and the potential for mortality. In most patients, acute pancreatitis follows an uncomplicated or mild course. Recent studies in hereditary pancreatitis have clearly revealed that trypsin is the key enzyme at the onset of pancreatitis. However, there are several defense mechanisms to prevent ectopic activation of trypsin under physiological conditions. If the defense mechanisms failed or activation of trypsin occurred over defense ability, trypsin would activate other digestive enzymes and self-digestion of the pancreas would occur.

  20. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C


    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  1. A comparison of thermoelectric phenomena in diverse alloy systems

    Cook, Bruce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The study of thermoelectric phenomena in solids provides a wealth of opportunity for exploration of the complex interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of materials. As thermoelectricity implies some type of coupled thermal and electrical behavior, it is expected that a basic understanding of transport behavior in materials is the goal of such a study. However, transport properties such as electrical resistivity and thermal diffusivity cannot be fully understood and interpreted without first developing an understanding of the material's preparation and its underlying structure. It is the objective of this dissertation to critically examine a number of diverse systems in order to develop a broad perspective on how structure-processing-property relationships differ from system to system, and to discover the common parameters upon which any good thermoelectric material is based. The alloy systems examined in this work include silicon-germanium, zinc oxide, complex intermetallic compounds such as the half-Heusler MNiSn, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, and rare earth chalcogenides.

  2. The impact of pollen consumption on honey bee (Apis mellifera) digestive physiology and carbohydrate metabolism.

    Ricigliano, Vincent A; Fitz, William; Copeland, Duan C; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Floyd, Amy S; Dockstader, Arnold; Anderson, Kirk E


    Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) due to its dietary specialization on plant-based nutrition. Secretory glycoside hydrolases (GHs) produced in worker head glands aid in the processing of floral nectar into honey and are expressed in accordance with age-based division of labor. Pollen utilization by the honey bee has been investigated in considerable detail, but little is known about the metabolic fate of indigestible carbohydrates and glycosides in pollen biomass. Here, we demonstrate that pollen consumption stimulates the hydrolysis of sugars that are toxic to the bee (xylose, arabinose, mannose). GHs produced in the head accumulate in the midgut and persist in the hindgut that harbors a core microbial community composed of approximately 10(8) bacterial cells. Pollen consumption significantly impacted total and specific bacterial abundance in the digestive tract. Bacterial isolates representing major fermentative gut phylotypes exhibited primarily membrane-bound GH activities that may function in tandem with soluble host enzymes retained in the hindgut. Additionally, we found that plant-originating β-galactosidase activity in pollen may be sufficient, in some cases, for probable physiological activity in the gut. These findings emphasize the potential relative contributions of host, bacteria, and pollen enzyme activities to carbohydrate breakdown, which may be tied to gut microbiome dynamics and associated host nutrition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Sojka Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  4. Modelling grass digestibility on the basis of morphological and physiological plant characteristics

    Groot, J.C.J.


    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental

  5. Study of the inhibitory phenomena during the anaerobic digestion of sugar cane mill mud waste; Estudio del fenomeno de inhibicion durante la digestion anaerobia de cachaza

    Lopez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Montalvo, S.; Escobedo, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas . Ciudad de la Habana. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)


    Sugar cane mill mud waste is one of the effluents obtained during the process of sugar production, specifically, in the stage of clarification and filtration of the cane's juice. This effluent can be treated anaerobically in order to reduce its contamination and use the biogas like a resource. This work shows the study of the inhibition originated along the anaerobic digestion of sugar mill mud waste and evaluates the influence of waste pre-treatment on this process. Th inhibitory effect was verified and quantified. The quantification was carried out applying the Levenspiel model, using the evolution of the constant kinetic of the apparent rate (K{sub {omicron}}). Author 5 refs.

  6. Phenotypic flexibility in digestive system structure and function in migratory birds and its ecological significance.

    McWilliams, S R; Karasov, W H


    Birds during migration must satisfy the high energy and nutrient demands associated with repeated, intensive flight while often experiencing unpredictable variation in food supply and food quality. Solutions to such different challenges may often be physiologically incompatible. For example, increased food intake and gut size are primarily responsible for satisfying the high energy and nutrient demands associated with migration in birds. However, short-term fasting or food restriction during flight may cause partial atrophy of the gut that may limit utilization of ingested food energy and nutrients. We review the evidence available on the effects of long- and short-term changes in food quality and quantity on digestive performance in migratory birds, and the importance of digestive constraints in limiting the tempo of migration in birds. Another important physiological consequence of feeding in birds is the effect of diet on body composition dynamics during migration. Recent evidence suggests that birds utilize and replenish both protein and fat reserves during migration, and diet quality influences the rate of replenishment of both these reserves. We conclude that diet and phenotypic flexibility in both body composition and the digestive system of migratory birds are important in allowing birds to successfully overcome the often-conflicting physiological challenges of migration.

  7. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko


    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  8. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko


    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  9. The effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves.

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Ottesen, Nina; Larsen, Stig; Grøndahl, Ann Margaret


    It is commonly believed that young calves should not be fed more than about 2l of milk per meal. If calves are fed beyond this volume, it is said that the capacity of the abomasum may be exceeded and that milk could enter the rumen. This can disturb the microbial flora/fauna of the rumen and increase the risk of indigestion, diarrhoea and reduced growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of large milk meals on digestive physiology and behaviour in dairy calves. Six calves (19-23days of age at the beginning of the experiment) were fed 2l of warm whole milk by teat bottle three times per day, which was the recommended Norwegian feeding regime at the time. The calves were given free access to hay, concentrates and water. During three morning feeding sessions, each separated by 48h, all calves were offered larger meals. The offered amounts were calculated according to the within patient 3-level Response Surface Pathway (RSP) design. The milk given on the three test days contained a contrast medium (barium sulphate), and the animals were radiographed before, during and immediately after intake to reveal whether milk entered the rumen. Four out of the six calves drank more than 5l in one meal and the highest voluntary intake was 6.8l in one meal (13.2% of BW). Abdominal radiographs showed that the abomasum has a large ability for distension. Milk in the rumen was not observed in any of the calves, regardless of intake. The behaviour of the calves was observed for 2h after each test session. No behaviour indicating abdominal pain or discomfort was observed regardless of intake. The results indicate that when warm whole milk is administered from a teat bottle, farmers can increase the amount of milk they offer their calves beyond the traditionally recommended portion size without risk of milk entering the rumen. Hence, farmers who want to feed their calves more milk can do so by increasing meal sizes, and not necessarily by introducing an additional meal.

  10. Nonlinear stochastic systems with network-induced phenomena recursive filtering and sliding-mode design

    Hu, Jun; Gao, Huijun


    This monograph introduces methods for handling filtering and control problems in nonlinear stochastic systems arising from network-induced phenomena consequent on limited communication capacity. Such phenomena include communication delay, packet dropout, signal quantization or saturation, randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring uncertainties.The text is self-contained, beginning with an introduction to nonlinear stochastic systems, network-induced phenomena and filtering and control, moving through a collection of the latest research results which focuses on the three aspects

  11. Molecular physiology of digestion in arachnida: functional and comparative-evolutionary approaches.

    Felipe Jun Fuzita


    Spiders and scorpions are efficient predators arachnid (PA) consuming preys larger than themselves. Few studies reported, molecularly, the digestion in PA. This work describes a biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the midgut and midgut glands (MMG) and digestive juice (DJ) from Nephilengys cruentata and Tityus serrulatus MMG. Cathepsin L, B, D and F, legumain, trypsin, astacin, carbohydrases and lipases were identified by these approaches. Peptide isomerase and ctenitoxins, ...

  12. The journey of a sandwich: computer-based laboratory experiments about the human digestive system in high school biology teaching.

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko


    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school biology. Using a computer equipped with a commercially available data-acquisition system and a couple of sensors, it was possible to illustrate the basic underlying physical and chemical principles of digestion to the students. Students were able to investigate, through hands-on activities, the chewing force of the jaws, importance of the mechanical breakdown of food, enzymatic activity of pepsin and amylase, antibacterial activity of hydrochloric acid, and importance of the villi for absorption. Students found the experiments interesting and helpful for understanding the digestive process. Furthermore, the results from testing indicated that the students had a deeper understanding of the physiological processes.

  13. From growth physiology to systems biology.

    Schaechter, Moselio


    As it focuses on the integrated behavior of the entire cell, systems biology is a powerful extension of growth physiology. Here, I briefly trace some of the origins of modern-day bacterial growth physiology and its relevance to systems biology. I describe how growth physiology emerged from the foggy picture of the growth curve as a self-contained entity. For this insight, we can thank Henrici, Hershey, Monod, Maaløe, and others. As a result of their work, growth rate is understood to be the unitary manifestation of the response to nutritional conditions and to the control condition for studies on the effect of environmental stresses. For this response to be usefully reproducible, cultures must be in the steady state known as balanced growth. I point out that present-day experimenters are not always aware of this imperative and thus do not always use conditions that ensure the balanced growth of their control cultures.

  14. Performance of a UASB-digester system treating domestic wastewater.

    Alvarez, J A; Armstrong, E; Presas, J; Gómez, M; Soto, M


    The anaerobic treatment of raw domestic wastewater by a novel technology consisting of an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor combined with a completely mixed digester for the stabilisation of the UASB sludge was assessed. A pilot-scale plant of the so-called UASB-Digester system was located at the municipal wastewater treatment facility of Santiago de Compostela (Northwest of Spain). The main aim of the Digester was to enhance the biodegradation of influent solids retained in the UASB reactor at low temperatures, then increasing its specific methanogenic activity. The sludge drawn from the middle zone of the UASB entered the upper zone of the Digester and then circulated from the bottom of the Digester to the UASB bottom. Circulating in an automated semi-continuous way, the flow of this sludge stream was selected in order to set a previously defined hydraulic retention time (HRT) (16-27 d) in the digester. The Digester temperature was set at an optimum value ranging from 25 to 35 degrees C. The steady state efficiency of the UASB system, at 6-8 h of HRT, 15-16 degrees C of temperature and 330-360 mg l(-1) of influent total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was 79% of total suspended solids (TSS) removal, 52% of TCOD removal and 60% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5) removal. The hydrolysis of retained solids reached 85%, while excess sludge generation was only 7% of influent TCOD. A stable anaerobic (pre)treatment of diluted domestic wastewater was reached as the sludge concentration in the reactor remained mainly constant and the specific methanogenic activity showed a slight increase.

  15. Effects of insularity on digestion: living on islands induces shifts in physiological and morphological traits in island reptiles

    Sagonas, Kostas; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D.


    Living on islands entails numerous challenges for animals, among which resource scarcity stands out. In order to survive, animals have to optimize energy acquisition. We examined the impact of insularity on digestion comparing a series of physiological and morphological traits of adult males between insular and mainland populations of the Balkan green lizard. Island lizards had longer gastrointestinal tracts and gut passage times and higher digestive efficiencies. The dissection of the hindgut revealed an unexpected finding, the presence of cecal valves that were more frequent in island lizards. Thanks to all above islanders retain food for longer periods and thus maximize energy income and increase the amount of the extracted nutrients. That way, they secure energy income from the limited, in time and quantity, food resources of the islands.


    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I


    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  17. Digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    詹俊; 陈为宪; 李楚强; 伍卫; 李建军; 江山平; 王景峰; 曾志勇; 黄子通; 黄洪章


    Objective To explore digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Method The clinical data of 96 cases with SARS admitted into our hospital from February 6, 2003 to March 28, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 96 cases, 26 cases (27%) had diarrhea, 17 (18%) had nausea, 6 (6%) had vomiting, 16 (17%) had bellyache, and 8 (8%) had ALT elevation.Conclusions Patients with SARS may have digestive system manifestations; diarrhea is the most common symptom.

  18. Exploitation of rapid acidification phenomena of food waste in reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of high rate anaerobic digester without conceding on biogas yield.

    Kuruti, Kranti; Begum, Sameena; Ahuja, Shruti; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Gandu, Bharath; Ahuja, Devender Kumar


    The aim of the present work was to study and infer a full scale experience on co-digestion of 1000kg of FW (400kg cooked food waste and 600kg uncooked food waste) and 2000L of rice gruel (RG) on daily basis based on a high rate biomethanation technology called "Anaerobic gas lift reactor" (AGR). The pH of raw substrate was low (5.2-5.5) that resulted in rapid acidification phenomena with in 12h in the feed preparation tank that facilitated to obtain a lower hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 10days. At full load, AGR was fed with 245kg of total solids, 205kg of volatile solids (167kg of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand) which resulted in the generation of biogas and bio manure of 140m(3)/day and 110kg/day respectively. The produced biogas replaced 60-70kg of LPG per day.

  19. Septin functions in organ system physiology and pathology

    Dolat, Lee; Hu, Qicong


    Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode for >30 protein isoforms with ubiquitous and tissue-specific expressions. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher-order oligomers and filamentous polymers, which associate with cell membranes and the cytoskeleton. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical properties and cell biological functions of septins. In parallel, a growing number of studies show that septins play important roles for the development and physiology of specific tissues and organs. Here, we review the expression and function of septins in the cardiovascular, immune, nervous, urinary, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary organ systems. Furthermore, we discuss how the tissue-specific functions of septins relate to the pathology of human diseases that arise from aberrations in septin expression. PMID:24114910

  20. Emergence of dynamical order synchronization phenomena in complex systems

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Zanette, Damián H


    Synchronization processes bring about dynamical order and lead tospontaneous development of structural organization in complex systemsof various origins, from chemical oscillators and biological cells tohuman societies and the brain. This book provides a review and adetailed theoretical analysis of synchronization phenomena in complexsystems with different architectures, composed of elements withperiodic or chaotic individual dynamics. Special attention is paid tostatistical concepts, such as nonequilibrium phase transitions, orderparameters and dynamical glasses.

  1. Modulation of digestive physiology and biochemistry in Mytilus californianus in response to feeding level acclimation and microhabitat

    Kwasi M. Connor


    Full Text Available The intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus is a critical foundation species that is exposed to fluctuations in the environment along tidal- and wave-exposure gradients. We investigated feeding and digestion in mussels under laboratory conditions and across environmental gradients in the field. We assessed whether mussels adopt a rate-maximization (higher ingestion and lower assimilation or a yield-maximization acquisition (lower ingestion and higher assimilation strategy under laboratory conditions by measuring feeding physiology and digestive enzyme activities. We used digestive enzyme activity to define resource acquisition strategies in laboratory studies, then measured digestive enzyme activities in three microhabitats at the extreme ends of the tidal- and wave-exposure gradients within a stretch of shore (<20 m projected sea-ward. Our laboratory results indicated that mussels benefit from a high assimilation efficiency when food concentration is low and have a low assimilation efficiency when food concentration is high. Additionally, enzyme activities of carbohydrases amylase, laminarinase and cellulase were elevated when food concentration was high. The protease trypsin, however, did not increase with increasing food concentration. In field conditions, low-shore mussels surprisingly did not have high enzyme activities. Rather, high-shore mussels exhibited higher cellulase activities than low-shore mussels. Similarly, trypsin activity in the high-shore-wave-sheltered microhabitat was higher than that in high-shore-wave-exposed. As expected, mussels experienced increasing thermal stress as a function of reduced submergence from low to high shore and shelter from wave-splash. Our findings suggest that mussels compensate for limited feeding opportunities and thermal stress by modulating digestive enzyme activities.

  2. Digestive physiology comparisons of aquatic invertebrates in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Haro, Roger J.; Gaikowski, Mark


    Limited information is available on the composition of digestive enzymes present in unionid mussels and the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Available information is nearly exclusive to species used for culture purposes. A commercially available enzyme assay kit was used to examine the effect of habitat within an ecosystem, season, and species on the activities of several digestive enzymes. We used Amblema plicata to represent native unionids, D. polymorpha, and also Hydropsyche orris as an outgroup to compare differences between mussels and other macroinvertebrates. The data indicated that neither location nor time affect the activities of the digestive enzymes tested; species was the only factor to affect the activity. Differences were found mostly between four enzymes: naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and β-galactosidase.

  3. Digestion of dietary fat : gastrointestinal behaviour of emulsions and human physiological responses

    Helbig, A.


    Two in vitromodels were used to understand emulsion behavior and the subsequent formation of free fatty acids (FFA), monoglycerides (MG) and diglycerides (DG). Emulsions stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI) or gum arabic (GA), varying in droplet size, were digested under intestinal conditions. C

  4. Microscopic anatomy of pycnogonida: II. Digestive system. III. Excretory system.

    Fahrenbach, W H; Arango, Claudia P


    The digestive system of several species of sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) was studied by electron microscopy. It is composed of the foregut inside a long proboscis, a midgut and a hindgut. Lips near the three jaws at the tip of the proboscis receive several hundred ductules originating from salivary glands. These previously undetected glands open on the lips, a fluted, projecting ridge at the external hinge line of the jaws, i.e., to the outside of the mouth. This disposition suggests affinities to the chelicerate line. The trigonal esophagus within the proboscis contains a complex, setose filter device, operated by dedicated muscles, that serves to reduce ingested food to subcellular dimensions. The midgut has diverticula into the bases of all legs. Its cells differentiate from the basal layer and contain a bewildering array of secretion droplets, lysosomes and phagosomes. In the absence of a hepatopancreas, the midgut serves both digestive and absorptive functions. The cuticle-lined hindgut lies in the highly reduced, peg-like abdomen. Traditionally, pycnogonids have been claimed to have no excretory organ at all. Such a structure, however, has been located in at least one ammotheid, Nymphopsis spinosissima, in which a simple, but standard, excretory gland has been found in the scape of the chelifore. It consists of an end sac, a straight proximal tubule, a short distal tubule, and a raised nephropore. The end sac is a thin-walled and polygonal chamber, about 150 microm in cross section, suspended in the hemocoel of the appendage, its edges radially tethered to the cuticle at more than half a dozen locations. This wall consists of a filtration basement membrane, 1-4 microm thick, facing the hemocoel, and internally of a continuous carpet of podocytes and their pedicels. The podocytes, measuring maximally 10 by 15 microm, have complex contents, of which a labyrinthine system of connected intracellular channels stands out. These coated cisternae open into a

  5. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw


    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment.

  6. A proposed food breakdown classification system to predict food behavior during gastric digestion.

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Ferrua, Maria J; Singh, R Paul


    The pharmaceutical industry has implemented the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), which is used to classify drug products based on their solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS can help predict drug behavior in vivo, the rate-limiting mechanism of absorption, and the likelihood of an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Based on this analysis, we have proposed a Food Breakdown Classification System (FBCS) framework that can be used to classify solid foods according to their initial hardness and their rate of softening during physiological gastric conditions. The proposed FBCS will allow for prediction of food behavior during gastric digestion. The applicability of the FBCS framework in differentiating between dissimilar solid foods was demonstrated using four example foods: raw carrot, boiled potato, white rice, and brown rice. The initial hardness and rate of softening parameter (softening half time) were determined for these foods as well as their hypothesized FBCS class. In addition, we have provided future suggestions as to the methodological and analytical challenges that need to be overcome prior to widespread use and adoption of this classification system. The FBCS gives a framework that may be used to classify food products based on their material properties and their behavior during in vitro gastric digestion, and may also be used to predict in vivo food behavior. As consumer demand increases for functional and "pharma" food products, the food industry will need widespread testing of food products for their structural and functional performance during digestion.

  7. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L


    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (Prabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at 49 days of age and the longest at 70 days in the AL and R1 groups

  8. Role of microRNA-7 in digestive system malignancy


    There are several malignancies of the digestive system(including gastric, pancreatic and colorectal cancers, andhepatocellular carcinoma), which are the most commontypes of cancer and a major cause of death worldwide.MicroRNA (miR)-7 is abundant in the pancreas, playingan important role in pancreatic development andendocrine function. Expression of miR-7 is downregulatedin digestive system malignancies compared with normaltissue. Although there are contrasting results for miR-7expression, almost all research reveals that miR-7 is atumor suppressor, by targeting various genes in specificpathways. Moreover, miR-7 can target different genessimultaneously in different malignancies of the digestivesystem. By acting on many cytokines, miR-7 is alsoinvolved in many gastrointestinal inflammatory diseasesas a significant carcinogenic factor. Consequently, miR-7might be a biomarker or therapeutic target gene indigestive system malignancies.

  9. Expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in rodent digestive system

    Yutaka; Oomura


    AIM: To observe the regional distributions and morphological features of nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rodent digestive system. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections of seven organs (pancreas, stomach, duodenum, esophagus, liver, small intestine and colon) dissected from sprague-dawley (SD) rats and institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were prepared. The regional distributions of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 IR cells were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The morphological ...

  10. Physiological responses to digestion in low salinity in the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus.

    Penney, Chantelle M; Patton, Richard L; Whiteley, Nia M; Driedzic, William R; McGaw, Iain J


    Osmoregulation and digestion are energetically demanding, and crabs that move into low salinity environments to feed must be able to balance the demands of both processes. Achieving this balance may pose greater challenges for weak than for efficient osmoregulators. This study examined the rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) of Carcinus maenas (efficient osmoregulator) and Cancer irroratus (weak osmoregulator) as a function of feeding and hyposaline stress. The MO2 increased 2-fold in both species following feeding. The MO2 increased and remained elevated in fasted crabs during acute hyposaline exposure. When hyposaline stress occurred after feeding, C. maenas responded with an immediate summation of the MO2 associated with feeding and hyposaline stress, whereas C. irroratus reacted with a partial summation of responses in a salinity of 24‰, but were unable to sum responses in 16‰. C. irroratus exhibited longer gut transit times. This may be due to an inability to regulate osmotic water onload as efficiently as C. maenas. Mechanical digestion in crabs can account for a significant portion of SDA, and a short term interruption led to the delay in summation of metabolic demands. Although protein synthesis is reported to account for the majority of SDA, this did not appear to be the case here. Protein synthesis rates were higher in C. irroratus but neither feeding or salinity affected protein synthesis rates of either species which suggests that protein synthesis can continue in low salinity as long as substrates are available.

  11. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.


    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  12. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin


    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  13. The effect of physiological conditions on the surface structure of proteins: Setting the scene for human digestion of emulsions

    Maldonado-Valderrama, J.; Gunning, A. P.; Ridout, M. J.; Wilde, P. J.; Morris, V. J.


    Understanding and manipulating the interfacial mechanisms that control human digestion of food emulsions is a crucial step towards improved control of dietary intake. This article reports initial studies on the effects of the physiological conditions within the stomach on the properties of the film formed by the milk protein ( β -lactoglobulin) at the air-water interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface tension and surface rheology techniques were used to visualize and examine the effect of gastric conditions on the network structure. The effects of changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength on a pre-formed interfacial structure were characterized in order to simulate the actual digestion process. Changes in ionic strength had little effect on the surface properties. In isolation, acidification reduced both the dilatational and the surface shear modulus, mainly due to strong repulsive electrostatic interactions within the surface layer and raising the temperature to body temperature accelerated the rearrangements within the surface layer, resulting in a decrease of the dilatational response and an increase of surface pressure. Together pH and temperature display an unexpected synergism, independent of the ionic strength. Thus, exposure of a pre-formed interfacial β -lactoglobulin film to simulated gastric conditions reduced the surface dilatational modulus and surface shear moduli. This is attributed to a weakening of the surface network in which the surface rearrangements of the protein prior to exposure to gastric conditions might play a crucial role.

  14. Percolation phenomena in diffusion-controlled polymer matrix systems

    徐铜文; 何炳林


    The controlled release of two kinds of drugs,5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and hydrocortisonum (Hydro.) loaded in poly(ethylene-vinylalcohol) (EVAL) was dealt with,of which 5-FU/EVAL and Hydro /EVAL matrix systems are composed.The results were analyzed using the pseudo-steady-diffusion models coupled with the fundamental concepts of percolation theory.The percolation thresholds for the two systems were calculated,which could indicate the contributions of pore diffusion and matrix diffusion.

  15. Percolation and Critical Phenomena of AN Attractive Micellar System

    Mallamace, F.; Chen, S. H.; Gambadauro, P.; Lombardo, D.; Faraone, A.; Tartaglia, P.

    In this work we study an attractive micellar system for which the percolation curve terminates near the critical point. We have studied such an intriguing situation by means of scattering (elastic and dynamical) and viscoelasticity experiments. Obtained data are accounted by considering in a proper way the fractal clustering processes typical of percolating systems and the related scaling concepts. We observe that the main role in the system structure and dynamics it is played by the cluster's partial screening of hydrodynamic interaction. This behaves on approaching the percolation threshold dramatic effects on the system rheological properties and on the density decay relaxations. The measured correlation functions assume a stretched exponential form and the system becomes strongly viscoelastic. The overall behavior of the measured dynamical and structural parameters indicates, that in the present micellar system, the clustering process originates dilute, poly-disperse and swelling structures. Finally, this originates an interesting situation observed in the present experiment. As it has been previously, proposed by A. Coniglio et al., percolation clusters can be considered to be "Ising clusters" with the same properties as the Fisher's critical droplets. Therefore at the critical point the percolation connectedness length (ξp) can be assumed as the diverging correlation length (ξp ≡ ξ) and the mean cluster size diverges as the susceptibility.

  16. The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi has a flow-through system for digestion with three consecutive phases of extracellular digestion.

    Bumann, D; Puls, G


    The ctenophore (comb jelly) Mnemiopsis leidyi is a periodically abundant and voracious predator in U.S. coastal waters. Mnemiopsis leidyi is especially competitive at high prey concentrations because of its very efficient extracellular digestion. We investigated the functional basis for these outstanding digestion capabilities. Extracellular digestion takes place in the pharynx and consists of three distinct and consecutive phases. The three phases take place in different regions of the pharynx so that various prey items can be treated simultaneously in each phase. The first phase is acidic, while the second and the third are alkaline. Extracellular digestion is completed by ciliary currents that mechanically disrupt the predigested food. Bulky indigestible food fragments are expelled through the mouth. Except for a small area, the paths for ingestion and egestion are separate. Hence, both ingestion and egestion can occur simultaneously. The flattened and elongated shape of the pharynx provides the morphological basis for this flow-through system with various regions for different digestive treatments of the food. This system is highly elaborated compared with those of other lower invertebrates and allows for an efficient, fast, and simultaneous digestion of many prey items, which accounts for the outstanding feeding capabilities of M. leidyi.

  17. Mesoscopic phenomena in oxide nanoparticles systems: processes of growth

    Konstantinova, Tetyana, E-mail:; Danilenko, Igor; Glazunova, Valentina; Volkova, Galina; Gorban, Oksana [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering of the NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine)


    The process of nanoparticles growth has been investigated and discussed in terms of mesoscopic approach on example of ZrO{sub 2}-3 mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. Growth process of nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation has three stages: cooperative-oriented crystallization of ordered areas in xerogel polymer matrix and disintegration of crystallized areas (350-400 Degree-Sign C); oriented attachment of particles into single crystal caused by electrostatic interaction (400-600 Degree-Sign C); attachment of particles to single and poly-crystals by oxygen diffusion through vacancies in surface layers of joining crystals (600-1,000 Degree-Sign C). Proposed conception on mesoscopic processes of nanoparticles formation make the understanding and theoretical description of significant amount of experimental data possible and open the way for purposeful governing by oxide powder system on the stages of obtaining, compaction, and sintering.

  18. Dynamical System Analysis of Unsteady Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressor

    YasuyukiKomatsubara; ShimpeiMizuki


    Surge and rotating stall occurring in a centrifugal compressor system are investigated by using a phase portrait reconstruction method.From experimentally measured time series of data,the method clarified the cyclic behavior of surge.For rotating stall,there still remain problems in the phase portrait due to the chaotic behavior.However,the results obtained by the present method are able to provide new insights to the modelings for surge and rotating stall.Surge and roatting stall occurring in a centrifugal compressor system are investigated by using a phase portrait reconstruction method.From experimentally measured time series of data,the method clarified the cylcic behavior of surge.For rotating stall,there still remain problems in the phase portrait due to the chaotic behavior.However,the results obtained by the present method are able to provide new insights to the modelings for surge and rotating stall.

  19. Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems: From Nano to Macro Scale

    Stanley, H


    Topics of complex system physics and their interdisciplinary applications to different problems in seismology, biology, economy, sociology,  energy and nanotechnology are covered in this new work from renowned experts in their fields.  In  particular, contributed papers contain original results on network science, earthquake dynamics, econophysics, sociophysics, nanoscience and biological physics. Most of the papers use interdisciplinary approaches based on statistical physics, quantum physics and other topics of complex system physics.  Papers on econophysics and sociophysics are focussed on societal aspects of physics such as, opinion dynamics, public debates and financial and economic stability. This work will be of interest to statistical physicists, economists, biologists, seismologists and all scientists working in interdisciplinary topics of complexity.

  20. Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems

    A.V. Chalyi


    Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the

  1. Anaerobic digestion of solid agroindustrial waste in semi-continuous mode: Evaluation of mono-digestion and co-digestion systems.

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos


    The present study aimed at investigating the anaerobic digestion of four agroindustrial waste, namely cotton gin waste, winery waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste, in semi-continuous mode, conducting mono-digestion and co-digestion assays, using an artificial organic fraction sample as co-substrate. These assays were divided into two groups, in which different conditions were applied. Group I investigated the variation in two operational parameters, i.e. the organic loading rate (OLR) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT), while in Group II, the assays were fed with different substrates in a sequential order. Results showed more elevated specific methane yields for co-digestion assays compared with mono-digestion assays. Maximum yields were achieved at an OLR of 1.0gVS/(L·d) and a HRT reduced to half of the initial. Further reduction of the HRT coupled to an increase of the OLR generally caused a significant decrease of specific methane yields, as well as one case of severe overloading, i.e. the mono-digestion of juice industry waste, which resulted in instability and ultimately system failure. Sequential feeding with different substrates led to a more equilibrated operation, especially for co-digestion systems, with higher specific methane yields being observed during the phases corresponding to winery waste and juice industry waste substrates. Overall more positive results were obtained in the cases in which the latter substrates were fed to the reactors at process startup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibre Optic System for Monitoring Rotational Seismic Phenomena

    Anna Kurzych


    Full Text Available We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS, which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10−9 to 5.5 × 10−8 rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland seismological observatory are also presented.

  3. Fibre optic system for monitoring rotational seismic phenomena.

    Kurzych, Anna; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Teisseyre, Krzysztof P; Kowalski, Jerzy K


    We outline the development and the application in a field test of the Autonomous Fibre-Optic Rotational Seismograph (AFORS), which utilizes the Sagnac effect for a direct measurement of the seismic-origin rotations of the ground. The main advantage of AFORS is its complete insensitivity to linear motions, as well as a direct measurement of rotational components emitted during seismic events. The presented system contains a special autonomous signal processing unit which optimizes its operation for the measurement of rotation motions, whereas the applied telemetric system based on the Internet allows for an AFORS remote control. The laboratory investigation of such two devices indicated that they keep an accuracy of no less than 5.1 × 10(-9) to 5.5 × 10(-8) rad/s in the detection frequency band from 0.83~106.15 Hz and protect linear changes of sensitivity in the above bandpass. Some experimental results of an AFORS-1 application for a continuous monitoring of the rotational events in the Książ (Poland) seismological observatory are also presented.

  4. Pattern phenomena in an rf discharge dusty plasma system

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long


    Various dust patterns are observed in an rf discharge dusty plasma system.According to the dust growth process from small to large in size, the formation of different dust patterns can be divided into two stages: the small-particle stage (or dust cloud stage),and the large-particle stage (or dust crystal stage). The evolution relations between different dust patterns with gas pressure changing are investigated. Dust voids, dust acoustic waves and strong turbulence modes are presented at the small-particle stage. The self-organized dust lattices and dust clusters are investigated at the large-particle stage.The static structure of a dust lattice is characterized by means of the pair correlation function. Dust clusters formed by particles with different numbers and the regular evolution of the clusters with gas pressure are also investigated. The packing sequences of dust clusters are verified through two-dimensional confined molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Magnetoelectric phenomena in single-phase and composite systems

    Mitoseriu, Liliana


    Full Text Available In the present review, the main phenomenology and problematic related some of the most interesting magnetoelectric systems (materials having in the same phase magnetic and ferroelectric order and interaction between them, giving rise to the magnetoelectric effect is presented. Some single-phase systems as manganites, BiFeO3 and relaxor magnetoelectrics mainly interesting from a fundamental point of view, as well as diphasic composites with a high potentiality in applications are discussed. The coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic activity in magnetoelectric multiferroics opens the possibility of controlling magnetic properties through electric fields and vice versa, giving to these materials a large potentiality for applications in spintronics, multiple state memory elements or novel memory devices which might use electric and/or magnetic fields for read/write operations.

    En esta revisión, se presentan la fenomenología y principales problemas relacionados con los sistemas magnetoeléctricos más interesantes. En el efecto magnetoeléctrico el orden magnético y ferroeléctrico se dan en una misma fase con interacción entre ellos. Se abordan sistemas monobásicos como manganitas, BiFeO3 y magnetoeléctricos relaxores y composites difásicos que poseen tanto un interés desde el punto de vista fundamental como un alto potencial de aplicaciones. El acoplamiento entre la actividad ferroeléctrica y magnética en multiferróicos magnetoeléctricos abre la posibilidad de controlar las propiedades magnéticas a través de campos eléctricos y viceversa, dotando a estos materiales de numerosas aplicaciones en espintrónica, elementos de memoria de estados múltiples o novedosas aplicaciones de memoria que pueden emplear campos eléctricos y/o magnéticos en operaciones de lectura/escritura.

  6. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D


    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate.

  7. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes


    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  8. System identification of physiological systems using short data segments.

    Ludvig, Daniel; Perreault, Eric J


    System identification of physiological systems poses unique challenges, especially when the structure of the system under study is uncertain. Nonparametric techniques can be useful for identifying system structure, but these typically assume stationarity and require large amounts of data. Both of these requirements are often not easily obtained in the study of physiological systems. Ensemble methods for time-varying nonparametric estimation have been developed to address the issue of stationarity, but these require an amount of data that can be prohibitive for many experimental systems. To address this issue, we developed a novel algorithm that uses multiple short data segments. Using simulation studies, we showed that this algorithm produces system estimates with lower variability than previous methods when limited data are present. Furthermore, we showed that the new algorithm generates time-varying system estimates with lower total error than an ensemble method. Thus, this algorithm is well suited for the identification of physiological systems that vary with time or from which only short segments of stationary data can be collected.

  9. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)


    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  10. The formalism of fractal aggregation phenomena of colloidal drug delivery systems.

    Pippa, Natassa; Demetzos, Costas; Danezis, Emmanuel


    Classical Newtonian Physics and Euclidean Geometry are currently used to describe biological phenomena and the processes of drug formulation, which are characterized by homogeneity and linearity. On the other hand, at the mesoscopic level, the principles and the laws of physics are quite different from the Classical Newtonian Physics and Euclidean approach especially at nanoscale dimension. The investigation of the aggregation process of liposomes is of paramount importance due to their applications in pharmaceutical nanotechnology as drug delivery systems and as membrane models, in biosciences. The physical stability and the aggregation process of colloidal systems as well as the surface phenomena are described using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The elucidation of the dimensionality of liposome aggregates obeys the fractal approach because the aggregation phenomena are irreversible. This approach can be correlated with the extended DLVO theory, which includes the hydration energy, too.

  11. Dynamic self-organization phenomena in complex ionized gas systems: new paradigms and technological aspects

    Vladimirov, S. V.; Ostrikov, K.


    An overview of dynamic self-organization phenomena in complex ionized gas systems, associated physical phenomena, and industrial applications is presented. The most recent experimental, theoretical, and modeling efforts to understand the growth mechanisms and dynamics of nano- and micron-sized particles, as well as the unique properties of the plasma-particle systems (colloidal, or complex plasmas) and the associated physical phenomena are reviewed and the major technological applications of micro- and nanoparticles are discussed. Until recently, such particles were considered mostly as a potential hazard for the microelectronic manufacturing and significant efforts were applied to remove them from the processing volume or suppress the gas-phase coagulation. Nowadays, fine clusters and particulates find numerous challenging applications in fundamental science as well as in nanotechnology and other leading high-tech industries.

  12. Seasonal variations in the antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation of the digestive gland of mussels.

    Viarengo, A; Canesi, L; Pertica, M; Livingstone, D R


    1. The seasonal variations in the level of antioxidant compounds (glutathione (GSH), vitamin E, carotenoids) and in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (EC, catalase (EC, GSH-peroxidase (EC in the digestive gland of mussels (Mytilus sp.) were evaluated. The lipid peroxidation process was also measured by determining the tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). 2. The physiological fluctuations of the antioxidant defence systems were inversely related to the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) in the tissue. The observed seasonal variations are presumably related to the changing metabolic status of the animals, itself dependent on such factors as gonad ripening and food availability. 3. In particular, the obtained data indicate that a reduction of the antioxidant defence systems, occurring during winter, could be directly responsible for an enhanced susceptibility of mussels tissues to oxidative stress, as indicated by the high MDA concentration observed in this period.

  13. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems : A model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J.P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.


    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with

  14. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems : A model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J.P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.


    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with

  15. Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    Ke, Po-Yuan


    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research. Copyright © 2017 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Horning cell self-digestion: Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Po-Yuan Ke


    Full Text Available Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process by which eukaryotic cells eliminate intracellular components via the lysosomal degradation process. This cell self-digestion process was first discovered and morphologically characterized in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The genetic screen studies in baker's yeast in the 1990s further identified the essential genes functioning in the autophagic process. In the past two decades, the detailed molecular process involved in the completion of autophagy was delineated. Additionally, autophagy has been implied to function in many aspects of biological processes, including maintenance of organelle integrity, protein quality control, regulation of the stress response, and immunity. In addition to maintain cell homeostasis, autophagy has recently been shown to be modulated and to participate in the pathogenesis of human diseases, such as pathogen infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and tumor development. Overall, the breakthrough in autophagy research relies on the discovery of autophagy-related genes (ATGs using a genetic screening approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was established by Yoshinori Ohsumi. This year the Nobel Committee has awarded Yoshinori Ohsumi the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his remarkable contribution to autophagy research.


    黄蔚章; 陈育森


    The initial layer phenomena for a class of singular perturbed nonlinear system with slow variables are studied. By introducing stretchy variables with different quantity levels and constructing the correction term of initial layer with different "thickness", the Norder approximate expansion of perturbed solution concerning small parameter is obtained,and the "multiple layer" phenomena of perturbed solutions are revealed. Using the fixed point theorem, the existence of perturbed solution is proved, and the uniformly valid asymptotic expansion of the solutions is given as well.

  18. Considerations on the practice and future reform of integrated course of the digestive system

    Li DONG; Xin LU; Wei-fang RONG


    Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has comprehensively implemented the systembased integrated teaching for clinical medicine programs.According to the review and summarization of teaching the digestive system course for several years,we deem that compared with discipline-based traditional teaching model,the integrated teaching can efficiently improve students’interest and passion for learning basic medicine knowledge and facilitate students’ability to establish the connection between basic medicine and clinical medicine.In the future,the knowledge integration among different disciplines should be enhanced,such as the integration of histology with pathology,morphology with function,and physiology with pharmacology,etc.It is necessary to adjust teaching contents and methods accordingly,so as to achieve better teaching outcomes.

  19. Physiology

    Kay, Ian


    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  20. Low-Dimensional Models for Physiological Systems: Nonlinear Coupling of Gas and Liquid Flows

    Staples, A. E.; Oran, E. S.; Boris, J. P.; Kailasanath, K.


    Current computational models of biological organisms focus on the details of a specific component of the organism. For example, very detailed models of the human heart, an aorta, a vein, or part of the respiratory or digestive system, are considered either independently from the rest of the body, or as interacting simply with other systems and components in the body. In actual biological organisms, these components and systems are strongly coupled and interact in complex, nonlinear ways leading to complicated global behavior. Here we describe a low-order computational model of two physiological systems, based loosely on a circulatory and respiratory system. Each system is represented as a one-dimensional fluid system with an interconnected series of mass sources, pumps, valves, and other network components, as appropriate, representing different physical organs and system components. Preliminary results from a first version of this model system are presented.

  1. Digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive Linné's two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus).

    Vendl, C; Frei, S; Dittmann, M T; Furrer, S; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Munn, A; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M


    Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linné's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg(0.75)  day), once every 5 days and >140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg(0.75)  day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating 'digesta washing' in the sloths' GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the metabolisable energy intake in three individuals [173 ± 22 vs. 168 ± 44 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)] but not in the fourth one [225 vs. 698 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)], supporting the interpretation that this animal was replenishing body stores. In spite of the low food intake and the low-fibre diet (209 ± 26 g neutral detergent fibre/kg dry matter), methane production was rather high accounting for 9.4 ± 0.8% of gross energy intake (2.7% in the fourth individual), which exceeded literature data for ruminants on forage-only diets. These results corroborate literature reports on low intake, low defecation frequency, low metabolic rate and long MRT in other sloth species. The long MRT is probably responsible for the comparatively high methane production, providing more opportunity for methanogenic archaea than in other non-ruminant mammals to produce significant amounts of methane.

  2. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.


    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  3. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.


    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  4. Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems

    Nepomnyashchy, Alexander A


    Nano-science and nano-technology are rapidly developing scientific and technological areas that deal with physical, chemical and biological processes that occur on nano-meter scale – one millionth of a millimeter. Self-organization and pattern formation play crucial role on nano-scales and promise new, effective routes to control various nano-scales processes. This book contains lecture notes written by the lecturers of the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Self-Assembly, Pattern Formation and Growth Phenomena in Nano-Systems" that took place in St Etienne de Tinee, France, in the fall 2004. They give examples of self-organization phenomena on micro- and nano-scale as well as examples of the interplay between phenomena on nano- and macro-scales leading to complex behavior in various physical, chemical and biological systems. They discuss such fascinating nano-scale self-organization phenomena as self-assembly of quantum dots in thin solid films, pattern formation in liquid crystals caused by light, self-organi...

  5. Phase Locking Phenomena and Electroencephalogram-Like Activities in Dynamic Neuronal Systems

    XU Xin-Jian; WANG Sheng-Jun; TANG Wei; WANG Ying-Hai


    @@ We study signal detection and transduction of dynamic neuronal systems under the influence of external noise,white and coloured. Based on simulations, we show explicitly phase locking phenomena between the output and the input of a single neuron and Electroencephalogram-like activities on neural networks with small-world connectivity. The numerical results prove that the dynamic neuronal system can be adjusted to an optimal sensitive state for signal processing in the presence of additive noise.

  6. Effect of fasting in the digestive system: histological study of the small intestine in house sparrows.

    Funes, Samanta Celeste; Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Cid, Fabricio Damián; Mohamed, Fabián; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Chediack, Juan Gabriel


    In birds and mammals the metabolic response to fasting has been studied and can be characterized by three consecutive phases reflecting metabolic and physiological adjustments. An effective way to minimize energy expenditure during food scarcity is to decrease the mass of the organs. As the digestive system is metabolically expensive to maintain, the small intestine and the liver are the most affected organs. We evaluated the effects of phase III starvation on the mass of the different organs and histological parameters on house sparrows, a small non-migrant bird. In a short period of time (34 h) we observed a larger reduction in the digestive organ mass when compared to the mass of the body and non-alimentary tissues. Furthermore, the intestinal mass was proportionally more reduced than its length and nominal surface area. A reduction on the intestinal mucosal layer also resulted in a shortening of villus (length and thickness) and crypt depth. Moreover, the morphology of the enterocytes changed from cylindrical to cubical, suggesting that the surface exposed to the lumen was conserved. This may indicate an adaptive response to the moment of refeeding. The nominal surface area/body mass remained constant in both groups and several histological parameters were reduced, suggesting that starving induces the atrophy of the small intestine. However, the goblet cells were conserved after fasting indicating a protective tendency.

  7. Effect of noisy stimulation on neurobiological sensitization systems and its role for normal and pathological physiology

    Huber, Martin; Braun, Hans; Krieg, J.\\:Urgen-Christian


    Sensitization is discussed as an important phenomenon playing a role in normal physiology but also with respect to the initiation and progression of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsia, substance-related disorders or recurrent affective disorders. The relevance to understand the dynamics of sensitization phenomena is emphasized by recent findings that even single stimulations can induce longlasting changes in biological systems. To address specific questions associated with the sensitization dynamics, we use a computational approach and develop simple but physiologically-plausible models. In the present study we examine the effect of noisy stimulation on sensitization development in the model. We consider sub- and suprathresold stimulations with varying noise intensities and determine as response measures the (i) absolute number of stimulus-induced sensitzations and (ii) the temporal relsation of stimulus-sensitization coupling. The findings indicate that stochastic effects including stochastic resonance might well contribute to the physiology of sensitization mechanisms under both nomal and pathological conditions.

  8. Intermediate-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion system operational development

    Rivard, C.J.


    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. Operation of the anaerobic digestion process at high solids reduces the level of process water and thereby the size and capital costs for the digester system. In addition, by virtue of the lack of available water, the microbial catalysts are more productive in feedstock polymer hydrolysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. Information gained from laboratory-scale digester research was used to develop die intermediate-scale digester system. This system represents a 50-fold scale-up of the original digester system and includes continuous feed addition and computer monitoring and control. During the first 1.15 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements -- which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using the NREL high-solids digester design -- are detailed in this report.

  9. Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Naoya Tajima


    Full Text Available A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure.


    Agnieszka Montusiewicz


    The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months) following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/met...

  11. Smart Vest: wearable multi-parameter remote physiological monitoring system.

    Pandian, P S; Mohanavelu, K; Safeer, K P; Kotresh, T M; Shakunthala, D T; Gopal, Parvati; Padaki, V C


    The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.

  12. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU


    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  13. An Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System

    Dou, Naoki; Toyama, Atushi; Satoh, Kohki; Naitoh, Tadashi; Masaki, Kazuyuki

    In high voltage distribution systems, there are many power quality troubles due to voltage dips. Otherwise, a magnetizing inrush current causes the voltage dip. To suppress voltage dips, it is necessary to identify the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. In this paper, the authors propose a new identification method. The principles are that the saturation start/end flux is equal and the inrush current pattern exists. And to avoid a interfere with saturation area overlap; the rectangular coordinate method is adopted.

  14. A virtual laboratory system for physiology teaching

    KArl Bohme


    Full Text Available There exist a number of areas in the teaching of physiology which potentially lend themselves to a Computer-Based Learning approach. One such area which has been explored at Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU and elsewhere (Dewhurst, 1993; Kwan, 1993 is the use of multimedia tools to simulate aspects of experiments traditionally performed on animals. The use of real animal specimens (for example, frogs or rats for dissection and experimentation is both costly and contrary to the ethics of some students.

  15. Evaluation studies of persimmon plant (Diospyros kaki) for physiological benefits and bioaccessibility of antioxidants by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Martínez-Las Heras, Ruth; Pinazo, Alicia; Heredia, Ana; Andrés, Ana


    This study aims to analyze the antioxidant benefits from persimmon leaf tea, fruit and fibres taking into account their changes along gastrointestinal digestion. The evolution of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity was studied using the recent harmonized in vitro protocol published by Minekus et al. (2014). The digestion was performed with and without digestive enzymes. Results showed aqueous leaf extract was richer in antioxidants than the fruit or the extracted fibres. Nevertheless, persimmon-leaf antioxidants were more sensitive to the digestive environment. In general, the oral conditions greatly affected the antioxidants, while gastric digestion led to slight additional losses. The intestinal step enhanced polyphenols and flavonoids solubility coming from the fruit and fibres. Additionally, the presence of digestive enzymes positively contributed to antioxidant release throughout digestion. Finally, the bioaccessibility of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of persimmon fruit were 1.4, 1.0 and 3.8 times higher than in aqueous leaf extract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the dual digestion system 1: overview of the Milnerton experience

    Messenger, JR


    Full Text Available A number of advantages are claimed for dual digestion as a system for sewage sludge pasteurisation and stabilisation. In this paper, the first of a series of 4, an overview of a 4-year full-scale (45 m3 aerobic reactor and 500 m3 anaerobic digester...

  17. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang


    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 °C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ≥60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded.

  18. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian


    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  19. Silica nanoparticles to control the lipase-mediated digestion of lipid-based oral delivery systems.

    Tan, Angel; Simovic, Spomenka; Davey, Andrew K; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben J; Prestidge, Clive A


    We investigate the role of hydrophilic fumed silica in controlling the digestion kinetics of lipid emulsions, hence further exploring the mechanisms behind the improved oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs promoted by silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) microcapsules. An in vitro lipolysis model was used to quantify the lipase-mediated digestion kinetics of a series of lipid vehicles formulated with caprylic/capric triglycerides: lipid solution, submicrometer lipid emulsions (in the presence and absence of silica), and SLH microcapsules. The importance of emulsification on lipid digestibility is evidenced by the significantly higher initial digestion rate constants for SLH microcapsules and lipid emulsions (>15-fold) in comparison with that of the lipid solution. Silica particles exerted an inhibitory effect on the digestion of submicrometer lipid emulsions regardless of their initial location, i.e., aqueous or lipid phases. This inhibitory effect, however, was not observed for SLH microcapsules. This highlights the importance of the matrix structure and porosity of the hybrid microcapsule system in enhancing lipid digestibility as compared to submicrometer lipid emulsions stabilized by silica. For each studied formulation, the digestion kinetics is well correlated to the corresponding in vivo plasma concentrations of a model drug, celecoxib, via multiple-point correlations (R(2) > 0.97). This supports the use of the lipid digestion model for predicting the in vivo outcome of an orally dosed lipid formulation. SLH microcapsules offer the potential to enhance the oral absorption of poorly soluble drugs via increased lipid digestibility in conjunction with improved drug dissolution/dispersion.

  20. Epigenetic phenomena, chromatin dynamics, and gene expression. New theoretical approaches in the study of living systems.

    Boi, Luciano


    This paper is aimed at exploring the genome at the level beyond that of DNA sequence alone. We stress the fact that the level of genes is not the sole "reality" in the living world, for there are different epigenetic processes that profoundly affect change in living systems. Moreover, epigenetics very likely influences the course of evolution and the unfolding of life. We further attempt to investigate how the genome is dynamically organized into the nuclear space within the cell. We mainly focus on analyses of higher order nuclear architecture and the dynamic interactions of chromatin with other nuclear components. We especially want to know how epigenetic phenomena influences genes expression and chromosome functions. The proper understanding of these processes require new concepts and approaches be introduced and developed. In particular, we think that research in biology has to shift from only describing molecular and local features of living systems to studying the regulatory networks of interactions among gene pathways, the folding and dynamics of chromatin structure and how environmental factors affects the behavior of organisms. There are essential components of biological information on living organisms which cannot be portrayed in the DNA sequence alone. In a post-genomic era, the importance of chromatin/epigenetic interface has become increasingly apparent. One of the purposes of current research should be to highlight the enormous impact of chromatin organization and dynamics on epigenetic phenomena, and, conversely, to emphasize the important role that epigenetic phenomena play in gene expression and cell regulation.


    Agnieszka Montusiewicz


    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/methane yields only 5-8% lower as compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, and the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, a comparable value of volatile solids removal was obtained. However, the effects became worse over time, i.e. a lower organics removal efficiency of 16% as well as 9.5–13% decreases of biogas/methane yields were achieved by applying co-digestion for a further period (of the same duration. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate could be recognized as quite efficient in the system that was primarily bioaugmented with the use of Arkea®. However, the beneficial impact of bioaugmentation remained for the limited period of three months after its completion. To sustain the favourable effects a periodical, repeatable bioaugmentation of the co-digestion system is required.

  2. In silico modelling of physiologic systems.

    Colquitt, Richard B; Colquhoun, Douglas A; Thiele, Robert H


    In silico modelling, in which computer models are developed to model a pharmacologic or physiologic process, is a logical extension of controlled in vitro experimentation. It is the natural result of the explosive increase in computing power available to the research scientist at continually decreasing cost. In silico modelling combines the advantages of both in vivo and in vitro experimentation, without subjecting itself to the ethical considerations and lack of control associated with in vivo experiments. Unlike in vitro experiments, which exist in isolation, in silico models allow the researcher to include a virtually unlimited array of parameters, which render the results more applicable to the organism as a whole. In silico modelling is best known for its extensive use in pharmacokinetic experimentation, the best-known example of which is the development of the three-compartment model. In addition, complex in silico models have been applied to pathophysiological problems to provide information which cannot be obtained practically or ethically by traditional clinical research methods. These experiments have led to the development of significant insights in subject matters ranging from pure physiology to congenital heart surgery, obstetric anaesthesia airway management, mechanical ventilation and cardiopulmonary bypass/ventricular support devices. The utility of these models is based on both the validity of the model framework as well as the corresponding assumptions. In vivo experimentation has validated some, but not all of the in silico strategies employed. We present a review illustrating by example how in silico modelling has been applied to a number of cardio-respiratory problems in states of health and disease, the purpose of which is to give the reader a sense of the complexity and assumptions which underlie this diverse and underappreciated research strategy, as well as an introduction to a research strategy that will likely continue to grow in

  3. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG


    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  4. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C


    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH4(+)-N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm(-1)) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm(-1)) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  5. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    Christian Sahlmann

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph. Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.

  6. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    Mukherjee, Santanu, E-mail: [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom [BASF SE, Crop Protection, 67117, Limburgerhof (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Sustainable Campus, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting {sup 14}C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. - Highlights: • Biochar and digestate significantly affects the dissipation pattern of pesticides. • Addition of digestate enhanced mineralization of

  7. High-Dimensional Disorder-Driven Phenomena in Weyl Semimetals, Semiconductors and Related Systems

    Syzranov, S V


    It is commonly believed that a non-interacting disordered electronic system can undergo only the Anderson metal-insulator transition. It has been suggested, however, that a broad class of systems can display disorder-driven transitions distinct from Anderson localisation that have manifestations in the disorder-averaged density of states, conductivity and other observables. Such transitions have received particular attention in the context of recently discovered 3D Weyl and Dirac materials but have also been predicted in cold-atom systems with long-range interactions, quantum kicked rotors and all sufficiently high-dimensional systems. Moreover, such systems exhibit unconventional behaviour of Lifshitz tails, energy-level statistics and ballistic-transport properties. Here we review recent progress and the status of results on non-Anderson disorder-driven transitions and related phenomena.

  8. Systems biology and integrative physiological modelling.

    Hester, Robert L; Iliescu, Radu; Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas G


    Over the last 10 years, 'Systems Biology' has focused on the integration of biology and medicine with information technology and computation. The current challenge is to use the discoveries of the last 20 years, such as genomics and proteomics, to develop targeted therapeutical strategies. These strategies are the result of understanding the aetiologies of complex diseases. Scientists predict the data will make personalized medicine rapidly available. However, the data need to be considered as a highly complex system comprising multiple inputs and feedback mechanisms. Translational medicine requires the functional and conceptual linkage of genetics to proteins, proteins to cells, cells to organs, organs to systems and systems to the organism. To help understand the complex integration of these systems, a mathematical model of the entire human body, which accurately links the functioning of all organs and systems together, could provide a framework for the development and testing of new hypotheses that will be important in clinical outcomes. There are several efforts to develop a 'Human Physiome', with the strengths and weaknesses of each being presented here. The development of a 'Human Model', with verification, documentation and validation of the underlying and integrative responses, is essential to provide a usable environment. Future development of a 'Human Model' requires integrative physiologists working in collaboration with other scientists, who have expertise in all areas of human biology, to develop the most accurate and usable human model.

  9. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A


    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  10. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  11. Relationships among the brain, the digestive system, and eating behavior: workshop summary

    Pray, Leslie A


    "On July 9-10, 2014, the Institute of Medicine's Food Forum hosted a public workshop to explore emerging and rapidly developing research on relationships among the brain, the digestive system, and eating behavior...

  12. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review

    Mi Suk Lee


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  13. Interfacial Phenomena in Fe/Stainless Steel-TiC Systems and the Effect of Mo

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshihiro


    Titanium carbide is used as reinforcement particles in composites due to its hardness, wear resistance and stability. This work is a part of the study in which titanium carbides are formed in stainless steel castings in the mold to improve the wear resistance of a certain surface of the casting. Such local reinforcement is a very potential method but it is a quite demanding task requiring profound knowledge of interfacial phenomena in the system, wettability, stability, dissolution and precipitation of new phases in production of these materials. Good wetting between different constituents in the material is a key factor to attain maximal positive effects. Mo is used with TiC or Ti(C,N) reinforcement in composites to improve wettability. In this work the effect of Mo on the phenomena in Fe/stainless steel-TiC systems was examined by wetting experiments between the substrate and the alloy. Wetting was not significantly improved by adding Mo to the systems. Core-rim type carbides as well as more homogenous carbide particles were observed. Overall the carbide particles are very complex regarding to their chemistry, size and shape which aspects have to be taken into account in the development of these materials and manufacturing processes.

  14. Ultrastructure of the digestive system of Ramazzottius tribulosus and Macrobiotus richtersi (Eutardigrada in relationship with diet

    Alexandra M. AVDONINA


    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive system of tardigrades was already described in some species, but it has never been studied in relationship to diet. We performed ultrastructural analyses of the midgut and hindgut of phytophagous Ramazzottius tribulosus and zoophagous Macrobiotus richtersi. In addition, the foregut of R. tribulosus was analyzed. New ultrastructural details have been observed. Among them are: (a distinct transverse pillar-like structures, lacking in electron-dense and compact cuticle of the buccal tube; (b a hole or groups of holes sometimes present in the buccal tube; (c a large cavity within each of the salivary glands where secreted mucus accumulates; and (d already found in zoophagous Isohypsibius prosostomus, one valve, formed by folds of the pharynx and located at the transition from pharynx to esophagus. In both analyzed species the increase of midgut surface is identified by two orders of folds of the gut wall and by microvilli. In R. tribulosus there are many first-order folds and few second-order folds, whereas in M. richtersi the opposite pattern is found. A peritrophic membrane and microvilli with a well developed glycocalyx are found only in the midgut lumen of R. tribulosus. The density of microvilli and the ratio between the real surface with microvilli and the hypothetical surface without microvilli is lower in zoophagous M. richtersi and I. prosostomus than in phytophagous R. tribulosus. All of these data represent an indirect indication of differences in digestive physiology between phytophagous and zoophagous tardigrade species. The shape of the hindgut is similar in both species and the lumen of the hindgut looks like a heartshaped cavity with some narrow cell evaginations.

  15. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies.

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Dong, Qing; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Ming


    Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30-3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  16. On overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of high-loss and lossless components

    Figotin, Alexander; Welters, Aaron


    Using a Lagrangian framework, we study overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of two components, one of which is highly lossy and the other is lossless. The losses are accounted by a Rayleigh dissipation function. As we have shown previously, for such a composite system, the modes split into two distinct classes, high-loss and low-loss, according to their dissipative behavior. A principal result of this paper is that for any such system, a rather universal phenomenon of selective overdamping occurs. Namely, first of all, the high-loss modes are all overdamped, i.e., non-oscillatory, as are an equal number of low-loss modes. Second of all, the rest of the low-loss modes remain oscillatory (i.e., the underdamped modes), each with an extremely high quality factor (Q-factor) that actually increases as the loss of the lossy component increases. We prove that selective overdamping is a generic phenomenon in Lagrangian systems with gyroscopic forces and gives an analysis of the overdamping phenomena in such systems. Moreover, using perturbation theory, we derive explicit formulas for upper bound estimates on the amount of loss required in the lossy component of the composite system for the selective overdamping to occur in the generic case and give Q-factor estimates for the underdamped modes. Central to the analysis is the introduction of the notion of a "dual" Lagrangian system and this yields significant improvements on some results on modal dichotomy and overdamping. The effectiveness of the theory developed here is demonstrated by applying it to an electric circuit with a gyrator element and a high-loss resistor.

  17. On-line digestion system for protein characterization and proteome analysis.

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Petritis, Konstantinos; Lourette, Natacha M; Clowers, Brian; Hixson, Kim K; Heibeck, Tyler; Prior, David C; Pasa-Tolić, Ljiljana; Camp, David G; Belov, Mikhail E; Smith, Richard D


    An efficient on-line digestion system that reduces the number of sample manipulation steps has been demonstrated for high-throughput proteomics. By incorporating a pressurized sample loop into a liquid chromatography-based separation system, both sample and enzyme (e.g., trypsin) can be simultaneously introduced to produce a complete, yet rapid digestion. Both standard proteins and a complex Shewanella oneidensis global protein extract were digested and analyzed using the automated online pressurized digestion system coupled to an ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an ion trap mass spectrometer, or both. The system denatured, digested, and separated product peptides in a manner of minutes, making it amenable to on-line high-throughput applications. In addition to simplifying and expediting sample processing, the system was easy to implement and no cross-contamination was observed among samples. As a result, the online digestion system offers a powerful approach for high-throughput screening of proteins that could prove valuable in biochemical research (rapid screening of protein-based drugs).

  18. Transport phenomena and kinetic theory applications to gases, semiconductors, photons, and biological systems

    Gabetta, Ester


    The study of kinetic equations related to gases, semiconductors, photons, traffic flow, and other systems has developed rapidly in recent years because of its role as a mathematical tool in many applications in areas such as engineering, meteorology, biology, chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, and pharmacy. Written by leading specialists in their respective fields, this book presents an overview of recent developments in the field of mathematical kinetic theory with a focus on modeling complex systems, emphasizing both mathematical properties and their physical meaning. The overall presentation covers not only modeling aspects and qualitative analysis of mathematical problems, but also inverse problems, which lead to a detailed assessment of models in connection with their applications, and to computational problems, which lead to an effective link of models to the analysis of real-world systems. "Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory" is an excellent self-study reference for graduate students, re...

  19. Mechanism of Occurring Over-Voltage Phenomena in Distributed Power System on Energization of Transformers

    Nakachi, Yoshiki; Ueda, Fukashi; Kajikawa, Takuya; Amau, Tooru; Kameyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Hisanori

    This paper verifies the mechanism of occurring over voltage phenomena in the distributed power system on energizing the transformer. This over-voltage, which is observed at the actual distributed power system, with heavy inrush current is found to occur at about 0.1-0.2sec after the energizing and continue for a duration of more than 0.1[sec]. There is a concern that this over-voltage may operate the protection relay and deteriorate the insulation of apparatus. It is basically caused by the resonance between the shunt capacitors and saturated/unsaturated magnetizing inductance of transformer, system inductance. By using analytical formulation of a simple equivalent circuit, its mechanism has been verified through simulations carried out by using EMTP. Moreover, the sympathetic interaction between transformers is prolonged the duration of the over-voltage by the field test data is discussed in this paper.

  20. Complex airborne system with combined action on the conditions of risk weather phenomena

    Niculae MARIN


    Full Text Available The study of the weather phenomena is one of the main concerns of scientists. Initially, theresearches in this area were intended to provide military structures new ways of fighting in wars suchas the wars in Korea or Vietnam and then continued with the development of technologies to combatthe phenomena that affect the normal conditions of agriculture, the environment, etc. -extremephenomena- hail, low precipitation regime, etc. Since the last decade of last century also in Romaniathere were a number of initiatives supported through a national program of research in the fightagainst hail and stimulation of precipitation. In this context, INCAS proposed in 2008 a researchproject to implement a complex airborne system, which carry out actions to limit the effects of extremeweather events on crops and objectives of national and strategic interest, on the basis of informationreceived from a system of sensors located on the air platform and intended for measuring the physicalcharacteristics of the atmosphere. Also, as a long-term effect, the action of the complex airbornesystem may lead to the rainfall regulation and control, with all the implications arising from this(avoiding flooding, providing protection from frost of autumn crop, etc.The aerial platform chosen for this research approach is the aircraft for school and training IAR99SOIM, INCAS being the author of its structural design and also holding the patent for IndustrialDesign nr.00081 registered with OSIM. Project acronym : COMAEROPREC.

  1. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Implications for insomnia.

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J


    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia.

  2. Paranormal phenomena

    Gaina, Alex


    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  3. Recent developments on polyphenol–protein interactions: effects on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

    Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Ghosh, Amit K; Ghosh, Chandrasekhar


    Tea and coffee are widely consumed beverages across the world and they are rich sources of various polyphenols. Polyphenols are responsible for the bitterness and astringency of beverages and are also well known to impart antioxidant properties which is beneficial against several oxidative stress related diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and aging. On the other hand, proteins are also known to display many important roles in several physiological activities. Polyphenols can interact with proteins through hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, leading to the formation of soluble or insoluble complexes. According to recent studies, this complex formation can affect the bioavailability and beneficiary properties of both the individual components, in either way. For example, polyphenol-protein complex formation can reduce or enhance the antioxidant activity of polyphenols; similarly it can also affect the digestion ability of several digestive enzymes present in our body. Surprisingly, no review article has been published recently which has focused on the progress in this area, despite numerous articles having appeared in this field. This review summarizes the recent trends and patterns (2005 onwards) in polyphenol-protein interaction studies focusing on the characterization of the complex, the effect of this complex formation on tea and coffee taste, antioxidant properties and the digestive system.

  4. A simple ballistocardiographic system for a medical cardiovascular physiology course.

    Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio


    Ballistocardiography is an old, noninvasive technique used to record the movements of the body synchronous with the heartbeat due to left ventricular pump activity. Despite the fact that this technique to measure cardiac output has been superseded by more advanced and precise techniques, it is useful for teaching cardiac cycle physiology in an undergraduate practical course because of its noninvasive application in humans, clear physiological and physiopathological analysis, and practical approach to considering cardiac output issues. In the present report, a simple, low cost, easy-to-build ballistocardiography system is implemented together with a theoretical and practical session that includes Newton's laws, cardiac output, cardiac pump activity, anatomy and physiology of the vessel circulation, vectorial composition, and signal transduction, which makes cardiovascular physiology easy to understand and focuses on the study of cardiac output otherwise seen only with the help of computer simulation or echocardiography. The proposed system is able to record body displacement or force as ballistocardiography traces and its changes caused by different physiological factors. The ballistocardiography session was included in our medical physiology course six years ago with very high acceptance and approval rates from the students.

  5. Optimisation of sewage sludge anaerobic digestion through co-digestion with OFMSW: Effect of collection system and particle size

    Silvestre, Gracia [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Ainia, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Bioenergía e Higiene Industrial, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Bonmatí, August [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, Belén, E-mail: [IRTA, GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Torre Marimon, Barcelona (Spain)


    Highlights: • Methane production rate increased between 56% and 208% during OFMSW–SS codigestion. • The OFMSW particle size reduction from 20 to 8 mm did not affect the methane yield. • OFMSW–SS codigestion promoted β-oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. • The evolution of specific activity was a feasible tool to control the process. - Abstract: The effect of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) loading rate and particulate size on the sewage sludge (SS) mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactor at hydraulic retention time of 20 days. The SS–OFMSW mixture composed by 54% of the volatile solids fed (inlet-VS), at OLR of 3.1 kg{sub COD} m{sup −3} d{sup −1} (1.9 kg{sub VS} m{sup −3} d{sup −1}), showed the highest increment on the volumetric methane production and yield of +200% and +59% respectively, under stable conditions. The effect of particulate size was assessed with the same mixture and same operational conditions but reducing the OFMSW particulate size from 20 mm to 8 mm with the aim to improve the hydrolysis step, but the results showed any influence in the OFMSW particulate size range analysed. In addition, specific biomass activity was assessed at the end of each co-digestion period. Results showed that OFMSW promoted β-oxidation syntrophic acetogens and the acetoclastic methanogens activity; although the last increase of the OFMSW percentage (from 47% to 54% inlet-VS) affected negatively the specific substrate activity, but not inhibitory effect was observed. Therefore, the results obtained in the continuous experiment could be related with some inhibitory or toxic effect and not due to hydrolysis limitation. The specific biomass activity test was demonstrated to be an interesting tool to evaluate and control the co-digestion process, especially when conventional parameters did not explain the behaviour of the biological system.

  6. Analysis of Transient Phenomena Due to a Direct Lightning Strike on a Wind Energy System

    João P. S. Catalão


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the protection of wind energy systems against the direct effects of lightning. As wind power generation undergoes rapid growth, lightning damages involving wind turbines have come to be regarded as a serious problem. Nevertheless, very few studies exist yet in Portugal regarding lightning protection of wind energy systems using numerical codes. A new case study is presented in this paper, based on a wind turbine with an interconnecting transformer, for the analysis of transient phenomena due to a direct lightning strike to the blade. Comprehensive simulation results are provided by using models of the Restructured Version of the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP, and conclusions are duly drawn.

  7. Three-phase interactions and interfacial transport phenomena in coacervate/oil/water systems.

    Dardelle, Gregory; Erni, Philipp


    Complex coacervation is an associative liquid/liquid phase separation resulting in the formation of two liquid phases: a polymer-rich coacervate phase and a dilute continuous solvent phase. In the presence of a third liquid phase in the form of disperse oil droplets, the coacervate phase tends to wet the oil/water interface. This affinity has long been known and used for the formation of core/shell capsules. However, while encapsulation by simple or complex coacervation has been used empirically for decades, there is a lack of a thorough understanding of the three-phase wetting phenomena that control the formation of encapsulated, compound droplets and the role of the viscoelasticity of the biopolymers involved. In this contribution, we review and discuss the interplay of wetting phenomena and fluid viscoelasticity in coacervate/oil/water systems from the perspective of colloid chemistry and fluid dynamics, focusing on aspects of rheology, interfacial tension measurements at the coacervate/solvent interface, and on the formation and fragmentation of three-phase compound drops.

  8. Control of chaos in excitable physiological systems: A geometric analysis.

    Christini, David J.; Collins, James J.


    Model-independent chaos control techniques are inherently well-suited for the control of physiological systems for which quantitative system models are unavailable. The proportional perturbation feedback (PPF) control paradigm, which uses electrical stimulation to perturb directly the controlled system variable (e.g., the interbeat or interspike interval), was developed for excitable physiological systems that do not have an easily accessible system parameter. We develop the stable manifold placement (SMP) technique, a PPF-type technique which is simpler and more robust than the original PPF control algorithm. We use the SMP technique to control a simple geometric model of a chaotic system in the neighborhood of an unstable periodic orbit (UPO). We show that while the SMP technique can control a chaotic system that has UPO dynamics which are characterized by one stable manifold and one unstable manifold, the success of the SMP technique is sensitive to UPO parameter estimation errors. (c) 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele


    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m(3)day, generating about 252NL CH4/kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m(3)day, generating about 320NL CH4/kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wearable Systems for Service based on Physiological Signals.

    Ryoo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young-Sung; Lee, Jeun-Woo


    Many researches for useful status information on humans have been done using the bio-signals. The bio-signal acquisition systems can be used to connect a user and a ubiquitous computing environment. The ubiquitous computing environment has to give various services anywhere, anytime. Consequently, ubiquitous computing requires new technology, such as a new user interface, dynamic service mechanism based on context and mobility support, which is different from technology used in desktop environment. To do this, we developed a wearable system, which can sense physiological data, determine emotional status and execute service based on the emotion. In this paper, we described wearable systems for personalized service based on physiological signals. The wearable system is composed of three subsystems, the physiological data sensing subsystem, the human status awareness subsystem and the service management subsystem. The physiological data sensing subsystem senses PPG, GSR and SKT signals from the data glove and sends the data to a wearable system using Bluetooth. The human status awareness subsystem in the wearable system receives the data from bio-sensors and determines emotional status using nonlinear mapping and rule-base. After determining emotion, the service management subsystem activates proper service automatically, and the service management subsystem can provide personalized service for users based on acquired bio-signals. Also, we presented various feature extraction using bio-signals such as PPG, GSR, SKT considering mobility, and emotion recognition of human status for the ubiquitous computing service.

  11. 'Systems biology' in human exercise physiology: is it something different from integrative physiology?

    Greenhaff, Paul L; Hargreaves, Mark


    On first impression the 'whole-istic approach to understanding biology' that has been used to describe Systems Biology bears a striking resemblance to what many of us know as Integrative Physiology. However, closer scrutiny reveals that at the present time Systems Biology is rooted in processes operating at a cellular level ('the study of an organism, viewed as an integrated and interacting network of genes, proteins and biochemical reactions which give rise to life ultimately responsible for an organism's form and functions';, and appears to have evolved as a direct result of advances in high throughput molecular biology platforms (and associated bioinformatics) over the past decade. The Systems Biology approach is in many ways laudable, but it will be immediately apparent to most exercise or integrative physiologists that the challenge of understanding the whole-animal response to exercise as a network of integrated and interacting genes, proteins and biochemical reactions is unlikely to be realized in the near future. This short review will attempt to clarify conceptual inconsistencies between the fields of Systems Biology and Integrative Physiology in the context of exercise science, and will attempt to identify the challenges to whole-body physiologists wishing to harness the tools of Systems Biology.

  12. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K


    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  13. Modelling of Mass Transfer Phenomena in Chemical and Biochemical Reactor Systems using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Larsson, Hilde Kristina

    are subsequently evaluated based on their applicability in the four case studies. The evaluations especially focus on the impact of the choice of turbulence model and other modelling decisions made by the user. The conclusion is that CFD is a highly valuable tool for modelling several important parameters...... are presented as well as the theory behind the SST and the k-ε turbulence models. Modelling of additional variables, porous materials and twophase flows are also introduced. The two-phase flows are modelled using the Euler-Euler method, and both dispersed and free-surface flows are simulated. The importance...... of mass transfer with a focus on mixing, gas-liquid transfer of oxygen, and heterogeneous reactor systems is reviewed and mathematical models for these applications are presented. A review of how these mass transfer phenomena have been modelled in the scientific literature is also included. The models...

  14. Causal systems categories: differences in novice and expert categorization of causal phenomena.

    Rottman, Benjamin M; Gentner, Dedre; Goldwater, Micah B


    We investigated the understanding of causal systems categories--categories defined by common causal structure rather than by common domain content--among college students. We asked students who were either novices or experts in the physical sciences to sort descriptions of real-world phenomena that varied in their causal structure (e.g., negative feedback vs. causal chain) and in their content domain (e.g., economics vs. biology). Our hypothesis was that there would be a shift from domain-based sorting to causal sorting with increasing expertise in the relevant domains. This prediction was borne out: the novice groups sorted primarily by domain and the expert group sorted by causal category. These results suggest that science training facilitates insight about causal structures.

  15. Network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena, systems and methods for employing same

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.


    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  16. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G


    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  17. FOSREM - Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events&Phenomena Monitoring

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Kurzych, Anna; Kowalski, Jerzy; Teisseyre, Krzysztof


    We present the construction and tests of fiber-optic rotational seismometer named FOSREM (Fibre-Optic System for Rotational Events&Phenomena Monitoring). This presented device is designed for detection and monitoring the one-axis rotational motions, brought about to ground or human-made structures both by seismic events and the creep processes. The presented system works by measuring Sagnac effect and generally consists of two basic elements: optical sensor and electronic part. The optical sensor is based on so-called the minimum configuration of FOG (Fibre-Optic Gyroscope) where the Sagnac effect produces a phase shift between two counter-propagating light beams proportional to the measured rotation speed. The main advantage of the sensor of this type is its complete insensitivity to linear motions and a direct measurement of rotational speed. It may work even when tilted, moreover, used in continuous mode it may record the tilt. The electronic system, involving specific electronic solutions, calculates and records rotational events data by realizing synchronous in a digital form by using 32 bit DSP (Digital Signal Processing). Storage data and system control are realised over the internet by using connection between FOSREM and GSM/GPS. The most significant attribute of our system is possibility to measure rotation in wide range both amplitude up to 10 rad/s and frequency up to 328.12 Hz. Application of the wideband, low coherence and high power superluminescent diode with long fibre loop and suitable low losses optical elements assures the theoretical sensitivity of the system equal to 2·10-8 rad/s/Sqrt(Hz). Moreover, the FOSREM is fully remote controlled as well as is suited for continuous, autonomous work in very long period of time (weeks, months, even years), so it is useful for systematic seismological investigation at any place. Possible applications of this system include seismic monitoring in observatories, buildings, mines and even on glaciers and in

  18. On Modelling of Nonlinear Systems and Phenomena with the Use of Volterra and Wiener Series

    Andrzej Borys


    Full Text Available This is a short tutorial on Volterra and Wiener series applications to modelling of nonlinear systems and phenomena, and also a survey of the recent achievements in this area. In particular, we show here how the philosophies standing behind each of the above theories differ from each other. On the other hand, we discuss also mathematical relationships between Volterra and Wiener kernels and operators. Also, the problem of a best approximation of large-scale nonlinear systems using Volterra operators in weighted Fock spaces is described. Examples of applications considered are the following: Volterra series use in description of nonlinear distortions in satellite systems and their equalization or compensation, exploiting Wiener kernels to modelling of biological systems, the use of both Volterra and Wiener theories in description of ocean waves and in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Moreover, connections between Volterra series and neural network models, and also input-output descriptions of quantum systems by Volterra series are discussed. Finally, we consider application of Volterra series to solving some nonlinear problems occurring in hydrology, navigation, and transportation.

  19. The Digestive System and Nutritional Considerations for Individuals with Rett Syndrome

    Meir Lotan


    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS is a neurodevelopmental syndrome of genetic origin that mainly affects females. Individuals diagnosed with RS exhibit a variety of functional difficulties that impair their quality of life. One of the affected systems is the digestive system, where 74% of persons with RS have abnormal functioning. The affected digestive system causes this population to present an array of problems, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER, constipation, and malnutrition, leading to failure to thrive (FTT, which resolves in reduced functional ability. Due to the severe effects of the dysfunctional digestive system of individuals with RS, this article will describe the problems common to this population, as well as propose some clinical suggestions for intervention. .

  20. The Conservative Physiology of the Immune System. A Non-Metaphoric Approach to Immunological Activity

    Nelson M. Vaz


    Full Text Available Historically, immunology emerged as a biomedical science, concerned with host defense and production of anti-infectious vaccines. In the late 50s, selective theories were proposed and from then on, immunology has been based in a close association with the neo-Darwinian principles, such as random generation of variants (lymphocyte clones, selection by extrinsic factors (antigens—and, more generally, on genetic determinism and functionalism. This association has had major consequences: (1 immunological jargon is full of “cognitive” metaphors, founded in the idea of “foreignness”; (2 the immune system is described with a random clonal origin, coupled to selection by random encounters; and (3 physiological events are virtually absent from immunological descriptions. In the present manuscript, we apply systemic notions to bring forth an explanation including systemic mechanisms able to generate immunological phenomena. We replace “randomness plus selection” and the notion of foreignness by a history of structural changes which are determined by the coherences of the system internal architecture at any given moment. The importance of this systemic way of seeing is that it explicitly attends to the organization that defines the immune system, within which it is possible to describe the conservative physiology of the immune system. Understanding immune physiology in a systemic way of seeing also suggests mechanisms underlying the origin of immunopathogeny and therefore suggests new insights to therapeutic approaches. However, if seriously acknowledged, this systemic/historic approach to immunology goes along with a global conceptual change which modifies virtually everything in the domain of biology, as suggested by Maturana.

  1. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.


    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  2. Histological Study on the Digestive System Development of Takifugu rubripes Larvae and Juvenile


    The digestive tract of Takifugu rubripes during early life stages was studied with light microscopy. At the beginning of hatching, the digestive tract is represented by a simple and undifferentiated straight tube and does not communicate with the exterior, as the mouth and anus are not open yet. At 2 d after hatching, a constriction between intestine and rectum that will become the intestino-rectal valve is visible. During the endogenous feeding phase, the yolk sac is resorbed and the digestive tract becomes functional and differentiated. The liver and pancreas also become apparent at this time. At onset of exogenous feeding (3 d after hatching), yolk sac resesves are not completely depleted, suggesting a period of mixed nutrition. The digestive tract differentiates fully into buccopharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine and rectum. At 9 d after hatching, the yolk sac reserves are completely depleted. The most noticeable events occurring from 5 to 17 d after hatching are the transformation of the epithelia type, the differentiation of the pneumatic sac, the epithelial cell, gut convolution, mucosal fold increase, and the growth of liver and pancreas. From 18 to 27 d after hatching, the numbers of intestine folds and mucus cells increase progressively. From then on, morphological changes of digestive features are almost completed. At 27 d after hatching, the morphology and function of digestive system are similar to that of the adult.

  3. Simulating the digestion of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS): overview of in vitro lipolysis models.

    Bolko, Katarina; Zvonar, Alenka; Gašperlin, Mirjana


    One of the greatest challenges in the pharmaceutical science is the improvement of oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Lately, one of the most attractive approaches has been formulation of lipid based drug delivery systems. However, the emerging popularity of these systems in the last decade has brought to light the need for efficient methods for their in vitro evaluation that would serve as their in vivo behaviour prediction tool. Because lipids are subject to lipid digestion and multiple absorption pathways in vivo, simple dissolution tests are not predictive enough when testing lipid based delivery systems. To assert these needs, the in vitro lipolysis model has been developed, utilizing pancreatic enzymes, bile and phospholipids in a temperature controlled chamber to simulate in vivo digestion. However, with very variable physiological conditions in gastrointestinal tract, this model has not been yet standardised and experiments vary among different laboratories. This review discusses in vivo events following oral application of lipid based delivery, in vitro lipolysis models to emulate them and their future perspectives.

  4. BETAview: a digital {beta}-imaging system for dynamic studies of biological phenomena

    Bertolucci, E.; Conti, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M.C. E-mail:; Russo, P


    We present a digital autoradiography (DAR) system, named BETAview, based on semiconductor pixel detectors and a single particle counting chip, for quantitative analysis of {beta}-emitting radioactive tracers in biological samples. The system is able to perform a real time monitoring of time-dependent biological phenomena. BETAview could be equipped either with GaAs or with Si semiconductor pixellated detectors. In this paper, we describe the results obtained with an assembly based on a Si detector, 300 {mu}m thick, segmented into 64x64 170 {mu}m size square pixels. The detector is bump-bonded to the low threshold, single particle counting chip named Medipix1, developed by a CERN-based European collaboration. The sensitive area is about 1 cm{sup 2}. Studies of background noise and detection efficiency have been performed. Moreover, time-resolved cellular uptake studies with radiolabelled molecules have been monitored. Specifically, we have followed in vivo and in real time, the [{sup 14}C]L-leucine amino acid uptake by eggs of Octopus vulgaris confirming the preliminary results of a previous paper. This opens the field of biomolecular kynetic studies with this new class of semiconductor DAR systems, whose evolution (using the Medipix2 chip, 256x256 pixels, 55 {mu}m pixel size) is soon to come.

  5. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.


    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  6. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine applied to the physiology and pathophysiology of catecholamine systems.

    Goldstein, David S


    This review presents concepts of scientific integrative medicine and relates them to the physiology of catecholamine systems and to the pathophysiology of catecholamine-related disorders. The applications to catecholamine systems exemplify how scientific integrative medicine links systems biology with integrative physiology. Concepts of scientific integrative medicine include (i) negative feedback regulation, maintaining stability of the body's monitored variables; (ii) homeostats, which compare information about monitored variables with algorithms for responding; (iii) multiple effectors, enabling compensatory activation of alternative effectors and primitive specificity of stress response patterns; (iv) effector sharing, accounting for interactions among homeostats and phenomena such as hyperglycemia attending gastrointestinal bleeding and hyponatremia attending congestive heart failure; (v) stress, applying a definition as a state rather than as an environmental stimulus or stereotyped response; (vi) distress, using a noncircular definition that does not presume pathology; (vii) allostasis, corresponding to adaptive plasticity of feedback-regulated systems; and (viii) allostatic load, explaining chronic degenerative diseases in terms of effects of cumulative wear and tear. From computer models one can predict mathematically the effects of stress and allostatic load on the transition from wellness to symptomatic disease. The review describes acute and chronic clinical disorders involving catecholamine systems-especially Parkinson disease-and how these concepts relate to pathophysiology, early detection, and treatment and prevention strategies in the post-genome era.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion in the Netherlands. A system analysis on greenhouse gas emissions from Dutch co-digesters.

    Groenewold, Henk


    Summary Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process whereby, in the absence of oxygen, organic matter is transformed into biogas and digestate. In recent years AD has received new attention in the Dutch agricultural sector by introducing the co-dige

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion in the Netherlands. A system analysis on greenhouse gas emissions from Dutch co-digesters.

    Groenewold, Henk


    Summary Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process whereby, in the absence of oxygen, organic matter is transformed into biogas and digestate. In recent years AD has received new attention in the Dutch agricultural sector by introducing the co-dige

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the respiratory system, digestive system and on the skin in humans

    Maria Dynowska


    Full Text Available The results of observations on the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in the respiratory and digestive systems and on the skin in hospitalised individuals, mostly belonging to so-called risk groups of fungal infections, conducted over a period of five years (1999-2004, are described and discussed. The participation of S. cerevisiae in the mycocoenoses studied was 11.04% of all the recorded fungi. A significant increase in its prevalence, especially on the skin, was noticed. The fungus was mostly isolated with fungi of the genera Candida and Trichosporon, as well as separately in the last two years of the study.

  10. Human Factors Evaluation of the Hidalgo Equivital EQ-02 Physiological Status Monitoring System


    Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system. The usability and acceptability of this system has been tested previously and generally...under CBRNE- PPE provided utility and was comfortable to wear. Thermal strain; CBRNE; PPE; physiological status monitoring; PSM ; human factors; chem...real-time physiological monitoring. The Hidalgo, Ltd. (Cambridge, UK) Equivital™ EQ-02 physiological status monitoring ( PSM ) system is a typical

  11. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    Rivard, C. J.


    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  12. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya


    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning.

  13. Developing a research agenda in biogerontology: physiological systems.

    Carrington, Jill L; Bellino, Francis L


    The Biology of Aging Program (BAP) at the National Institute on Aging supports research in many areas, including processes of cell senescence and apoptosis, genetic influences on aging, and how aging leads to tissue dysfunction. Several approaches to research on aging physiological systems are described, along with BAP programmatic efforts to enhance and support that research. Understanding the relation between aging and tissue dysfunction has led to new insights into how health can be improved for aged individuals.

  14. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  15. Digestive health in pregnancy.

    Kenyon, Charlotte


    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.

  16. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 93 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients: an autopsy study

    Lucinda Calheiros Guimarães


    Full Text Available Involvement of the digestive system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is frequent and many changes in these patients are diagnosed only at autopsy. There are few studies of autopsy with detailed analysis of this system and only one was conducted in Brazil. We evaluated each segment of the digestive system in 93 consecutive autopsies of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the importance of these lesions to death. Of these, 90 (96.8% patients had AIDS. We reviewed medical records, autopsy reports and histological sections from tongue to rectum stained with hematoxylin-eosin. When necessary, we analyzed special stains and immunohistochemistry to investigate infections. There was damage to the digestive system in 73 (78.5% cases. The most common infections were candidiasis (42%, cytomegalovirus (29%, histoplasmosis (11.8%, toxoplasmosis (9.7% and mycobacterial infection (9.7%. Malignancies were rare, present in four (4.3% cases (two Kaposi's sarcoma, one adenocarcinoma and one metastatic embryonal carcinoma. All segments showed lesions: tongue (48.6%, esophagus (44.8%, stomach (44.7%, colon (43.2% and small intestine (28.9%. The lesions found were immediate cause of death in five (5.4% cases. In another 36 (38.7% cases the basic disease was systemic and also compromised the digestive system.

  17. Transport Phenomena.

    Shah, D. B.


    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  18. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M


    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs.

  19. Digestible lysine for broiler chickens with lower genetic potential grown on free-range system

    Eduardo Souza do Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the actual lysine requirement is crucial as it is an essential amino acid and plays animportant role in the metabolism of broilers. In addition, it is the second limiting amino acid for broilers fed with rations formulated basedon corn and soybean meal. The aim of this study was to determine the digestible lysine requirement for male broilers with lower genetic potential for growth in a semi-confined system as well as to evaluate the effects of different values of digestible lysine on performance and carcass characteristics. A total of 300 broiler chickensfrom a commercial lineage EMBRAPA 041 were used with an average initial weight of 987 g. The broilers were distributed into 20 experimental units in a completely randomized design with five treatments (0.586; 0.746; 0.906; 1.066, and 1.226% digestible lysine, four replicates and 15 broilers per experimental unit.In both periods, there were linear effect of digestible lysine values on the lysine intake and lysine utilization efficiency and quadratic effect on final body weight, weight gain and feed: gain ratio.There was a quadratic effect on the absolute weight of carcasses, breast, thigh + drumstick and income gizzard.For rearing of male broilers with lesser genetic growth potential reared in semi-confinement, rations with 1.040% and 1.103% digestible lysine can be recommended for maximum weight gain in periods from 35 to 70 and 35 to 84 days of age, respectively.

  20. Biomethanation and microbial community changes in a digester treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Zhang, Xuedong; Tao, Yu; Hu, Jianmei; Liu, Gang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B


    Using a high-salinity-adapted inoculum and a moderate stepwise-increased organic loading rate (OLR), a stable digester performance was achieved in treating sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system. The specific methane yield was distinctly enhanced, reaching 0.203LCH4/gCODadded, compared to literature values (0.140-0.154LCH4/gCODadded) from the salty sludges. OLR adjustment and the fecal substrate substantially influenced population changes in the digester. Within the bacterial subpopulations, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Bacteroides declined, accompanied by the increase of Clostridium and Trigonala over time. The results show Trigonala was derived from the substrate and accumulated inside the digester. The most abundant methanogen was Methanosarcina in the inoculum and the digestates. The Methanosarcina proliferation can be ascribed to its metabolic versatility, probably a feature of crucial importance for high-salinity environments. Other frequently observed methanogens were outcompeted. The population similarity at the genus level between inoculum and digestates declined during the initial stage and afterwards increased.

  1. Assessing the treatment costs and the fertilizing value of the output products in digestate treatment systems.

    Golkowska, K; Vázquez-Rowe, I; Lebuf, V; Accoe, F; Koster, D


    The objective of this paper was to advance towards finding sustainable solutions to deal with biogas digestate and contribute to faster development of the market for digestate treatment products. The study compares digestate treatment costs through four different treatment plants, estimates the potential fertilizing and humus value (PFHV) of the derived products and allocates the cash flows to show the possible regional benefits. The treatment costs for the pre-dried solid fraction of digestate ranged from €19 to €23/tonne output. These costs may be covered by vending treatment products at a price reaching at least 34-41% of their PFHV (ca €55/tonne). Treatment of raw digestate generates high operating costs (€216-247/tonne output), much higher than the PFHV of the products (ca €35-51/tonne). For such systems either the treatment has to be financially subsidized by the authorities or €13-32/tonne input should be covered by the substrate deliverers as a disposal fee. Nevertheless, a well-prepared investment concept in this field may allow the local binding of up to 80% of total cash flows. Finally, the current difficult market situation of the treatment products can be primarily improved by clearing their legal status at European level.

  2. Validation of a new in vitro dynamic system to simulate infant digestion.

    Ménard, Olivia; Cattenoz, Thomas; Guillemin, Hervé; Souchon, Isabelle; Deglaire, Amélie; Dupont, Didier; Picque, Daniel


    Understanding the mechanisms of infant formula disintegration in the infant gastrointestinal tract is a key step for developing new formulas with health benefits for the neonate. For ethical reasons, the access to in vivo data obtained on infants is limited. The use of animal models can be an alternative but these experiments are labour intensive, expensive and results obtained show high inter-individual variability, making their interpretation difficult. The aim of this work was to develop a simple in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system, for studying infant formula digestion, and to validate it by comparing the kinetics of proteolysis obtained in vitro with in vivo data collected from piglets. Results showed a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data and confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of caseins in gastric conditions, whereas whey proteins appeared more resistant to digestion.

  3. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    Apeksh Patwa


    Full Text Available Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone.

  4. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  5. Experimental study and modeling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peder Lund


    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modeling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...

  6. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl


    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing...

  7. Middle infrared optoelectronic absorption systems for monitoring physiological glucose solutions

    Martin, W. Blake

    Tight monitoring of the glucose levels for diabetic individuals is essential to control long-term complications. A definitive diabetes management system has yet to be developed for the diabetic. This research investigates the application of middle infrared absorption frequencies for monitoring glucose levels in biological solutions. Three frequencies were identified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and correlated to changes in glucose concentrations. The 1035 +/- 1 cm-1 frequency was determined to be the best representative frequency. Other biological molecules contributed no significant interference to monitoring glucose absorption. A second frequency at 1193 cm-1 was suggested as a representative background absorption frequency, which could be used for more accurate glucose absorption values. Next, a quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system was designed and developed to monitor glucose. After careful alignment and design, the system was used to monitor physiological glucose concentrations. Correlation at 1036 cm-1 with glucose changes was comparable to the previous results. The use of the background absorption frequency was verified. This frequency essentially acts as a calibrating frequency to adjust in real-time to any changes in the background absorption that may alter the accuracy of the predicted glucose value. An evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique was explored to monitor molecules in a biological solution. Visible light at 425 nm was used to monitor hemoglobin in control urine samples. An adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin was detectable to limit of 5.8 nM. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy would be useful for a glucose solution. Given an equivalent system designed for the middle infrared, the molar extinction coefficient of glucose allows for a detectable limit of 45 mg/dl for a free-floating glucose solution, which is below normal physiological concentrations. The future use of a hydrophobic

  8. Insights from Systems Biology in Physiological Studies: Learning from Context

    Pedro Henrique Imenez Silva


    Full Text Available Systems biology presents an integrated view of biological systems, focusing on the relations between elements, whether functional or evolutionary, and providing a rich framework for the comprehension of life. At the same time, many low-throughput experimental studies are performed without influence from this integrated view, whilst high-throughput experiments use low-throughput results in their validation and interpretation. We propose an inversion in this logic, and ask which benefits could be obtained from a holistic view coming from high-throughput studies―and systems biology in particular―in interpreting and designing low-throughput experiments. By exploring some key examples from the renal and adrenal physiology, we try to show that network and modularity theory, along with observed patterns of association between elements in a biological system, can have profound effects on our ability to draw meaningful conclusions from experiments.

  9. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Alcione Eneida Santos


    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  10. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Implications for schizophrenia.

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J


    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia.


    刘法贵; 孔德兴


    By means of maximum principle for nonlinear hyperbolic systems,the results given by HSIAO Ling and D.Serre was improved for Cauchy problem of compressible adiabatic flow through porous media,and a complete result on the global existence and the blow-up phenomena of classical solutions of these systems.These results show that the dissipation is strong enough to preserve the smoothness of 'small ' solution.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  13. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  14. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A


    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated.

  15. [Electroencephalography and the general physiology of the nervous system].

    Wyss, O A


    The contributions of electro-encephalography to the general physiology of the nervous system - studies based on 50 years of experimental and clinical research on the EEG of animals and man - have established irrefutable facts underlying present-day concepts in neurophysiology. This conclusion holds true, even if allowance must be made with regard to the alpha-rhythm, reasons having been given to suppose that this phenomenon is in reality, partially or entirely, an ocular tremor phenomenon (Lippold). The fundamental principles of neuronal activity such as (1) the electrogenesis of gray matter, i.e., the electric current and membrane potential aspects of the existence and the functioning of nerve cells and neuronal aggregates, (2) the rhythmicity and periodicity of nervous activity in single cells or networks of neurones, (3) the synchronization of such nervous activity due, at the site of its source, to electric interaction between neurones belonging together and 'beating in unison', and (4) the autonomous automaticity of nerve cells and nerve centres as being the basic feature of neuronal activity, are among the prominent topics dealt with in this report. Particular attention is paid to the autonomy-concept of nervous activity, a concept ofter forgotten, neglected or discarded from physiological thinking, although life of any kind, in any type of living system, can only be understood if spontaneous existence and activity are accepted for living matter. In this respect the EEG has contributed in a large measure to save the physiology of our period from the materialism which prevailed at the beginning of the century and which threatens once more to emerge towards its end.

  16. Transport Phenomena.

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.


    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  17. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    Diels, Jean-Claude


    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  18. Environmental assessment of energy and waste systems based on anaerobic digestion

    Rehl, Torsten


    The results of the studies show that biogas production brings about many or environmental improvements compared to energy generation based on fossil sources when designed and managed properly. Environmental advantages are found for GWP (Global Warming Potential) and energy consumption, disadvantages however for EP (Eutrophication Potential), AP (Acidification Potential) and POCP (Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential). However the large amount of technologies and measures indicate that there is a large potential to reduce the environmental impacts. Another finding is that all life cycle phases and subsystems must be carefully considered, as no single dominating item or aspect in the life cycle can be identified. The most environmentally relevant phases are found to be storage, treatment and field application of manure and digestate. This result is to a large part due to the emission of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. It can therefore be concluded that from a lifecycle perspective, control and mitigation of nitrogen related emissions will be of utmost importance in the future to improve the environmental performance of biogas systems. Considerable emission reduction potentials are exposed when proper technological modifications (e.g. storage covers, filter technologies, digestate treatment or field application technologies) or adopted management practices (early soil incorporation of digestate) are applied. The environmental analysis also shows that whenever possible the focus of anaerobic digestion should be on the use of organic residues from households, agriculture or food industry instead of using energy crops. In this case conventional waste management systems are replaced and manifold positive effects of anaerobic digestion such as waste stabilization, nutrient recycling and energy generation emerge.

  19. Microbial distribution and abundance in the digestive system of five shipworm species (Bivalvia: Teredinidae.

    Meghan A Betcher

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms are voracious consumers of wood in marine environments. In several shipworm species, dense communities of intracellular bacterial endosymbionts have been observed within specialized cells (bacteriocytes of the gills (ctenidia. These bacteria are proposed to contribute to digestion of wood by the host. While the microbes of shipworm gills have been studied extensively in several species, the abundance and distribution of microbes in the digestive system have not been adequately addressed. Here we use Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH and laser scanning confocal microscopy with 16S rRNA directed oligonucleotide probes targeting all domains, domains Bacteria and Archaea, and other taxonomic groups to examine the digestive microbiota of 17 specimens from 5 shipworm species (Bankia setacea, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Lyrodus massa, Lyrodus sp. and Teredo aff. triangularis. These data reveal that the caecum, a large sac-like appendage of the stomach that typically contains large quantities of wood particles and is considered the primary site of wood digestion, harbors only very sparse microbial populations. However, a significant number of bacterial cells were observed in fecal pellets within the intestines. These results suggest that due to low abundance, bacteria in the caecum may contribute little to lignocellulose degradation. In contrast, the comparatively high population density of bacteria in the intestine suggests a possible role for intestinal bacteria in the degradation of lignocellulose.

  20. Marine biomass system: anaerobic digestion and production of methane

    Haven, K.F.; Henriquez, M.; Ritschard, R.L.


    Two approaches to kelp conversion to methane are described. First, a large (10.56 mi/sup 2/) oceanic farm using an artificial substrate and an upwelling system to deliver nutrient-rich deep ocean water to the kelp bed is described. This system can yield as much as 50 tons of kelp (dry ash free - DAF) per acre-year. Kelp are harvested by a specially designed 30,000 DWT ship and delivered to an onshore processing plant as a ground kelp slurry. The second system involves the use of a natrual coastal kelp bed. Growth rates in this bed are stimulated by a nutrient rich sewer outfall. A conceptual model is presented for calculation of the growth rate of kelp in this natural bed which can reach 15 tons (DAF) per acre-year. The harvest activity and processing plant are similar to those for oceanic farm system. In the next section of this report, the overall concept of kelp production and conversion to methane is discussed. In Section III the general design of the ocean farm system is presented and discussed while Section IV contains a similar description for the natural bed system. Section V presents the capital requirements and operational labor, resources and material requirements. Section VI describes the environmental residuals created by the operation of either system and, to the extent possible, quantifies the rate at which these residuals are generated. In addition to the technical data reported herein, cost data have been generated for the various processes and components utilized in each solar technology. The requirements for costing information basically arise from the need to compute parameters such as investment demands, employment patterns, material demands and residual levels associated with each technology for each of several national and regional scenarios.

  1. Biogas production from poultry rendering plant anaerobic digesters: systems comparison

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system p...

  2. The digestive tract as the origin of systemic inflammation

    de Jong, Petrus R.; Gonzalez-Navajas, Jose M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.


    Failure of gut homeostasis is an important factor in the pathogenesis and progression of systemic inflammation, which can culminate in multiple organ failure and fatality. Pathogenic events in critically ill patients include mesenteric hypoperfusion, dysregulation of gut motility, and failure of the

  3. Effect of raw material source, processing systems, and processing temperatures on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M


    Experiments were conducted to evaluate amino acid digestibility of 32 commercial meat and bone meals (MBM) varying in raw material source and produced in seven different commercial cooking systems and at two processing temperatures (low vs high) that differed by 15 to 20 C. Raw material sources included all beef, all pork, mixed species, and high bone MBM. True digestibilities of amino acids were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of six MBM varying greatly in amino acid digestibility was determined with chicks fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the sole source of dietary protein. The 32 MBM samples averaged 53.2% CP, 2.73% Lys, 0.6% Cys, and 0.75% Met on a DM basis. True digestibility averaged 82% for Lys, 87% for Met, and 47% for Cys. True digestibilities of amino acids varied substantially among processing systems and temperatures, particularly for Lys and Cys. For example, Lys and Cys digestibility ranged from 68 to 92% and from 20 to 71%, respectively, among different MBM. The higher processing temperature generally yielded lower amino acid digestibility than did the low processing temperature. A smaller, less consistent, effect was observed for raw material source. The PER values of the six selected MBM varied from 0.97 to 2.68 and were highly correlated with amino acid digestibility. These results indicated that very high amino acid digestibility MBM can be produced in commercial rendering systems. However, differences in processing systems and temperatures can cause substantial variability in amino acid digestibilities.

  4. A Systems Approach to Physiologic Evolution: From Micelles to Consciousness.

    Torday, John S; Miller, William B


    A systems approach to evolutionary biology offers the promise of an improved understanding of the fundamental principles of life through the effective integration of many biologic disciplines. It is presented that any critical integrative approach to evolutionary development involves a paradigmatic shift in perspective, more than just the engagement of a large number of disciplines. Critical to this differing viewpoint is the recognition that all biological processes originate from the unicellular state and remain permanently anchored to that phase throughout evolutionary development despite their macroscopic appearances. Multicellular eukaryotic development can therefore be viewed as a series of connected responses to epiphenomena that proceeds from that base in continuous iterative maintenance of collective cellular homeostatic equipoise juxtaposed against an ever-changing and challenging environment. By following this trajectory of multicellular eukaryotic evolution from within unicellular First Principles of Physiology forward, the mechanistic nature of complex physiology can be identified through a step-wise analysis of a continuous arc of vertebrate evolution based upon serial exaptations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. [Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].

    Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V


    Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation.

  6. Experimental and modeling study of a two-stage pilot scale high solid anaerobic digester system.

    Yu, Liang; Zhao, Quanbao; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Chen, Shulin


    This study established a comprehensive model to configure a new two-stage high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) system designed for highly degradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). The HSAD reactor as the first stage was naturally separated into two zones due to biogas floatation and low specific gravity of solid waste. The solid waste was retained in the upper zone while only the liquid leachate resided in the lower zone of the HSAD reactor. Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and advective-diffusive reactor (ADR) models were constructed in series to describe the whole system. Anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as reaction kinetics and incorporated into each reactor module. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results indicated that the model was able to well predict the pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and biogas production.

  7. Transport Phenomena in Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Other Low-Dimensional Systems

    Montes, Enrique


    Nanoscale materials are not new in either nature or physics. However, the recent technological improvements have given scientists new tools to understand and quantify phenomena that occur naturally due to quantum confinement effects. In general, these phenomena induce remarkable optical, magnetic, and electronic properties in nanoscale materials in contrast to their bulk counterpart. In addition, scientists have recently developed the necessary tools to control and exploit these properties in electronic devices, in particular field effect transistors, magnetic memories, and gas sensors. In the present thesis we implement theoretical and computational tools for analyzing the ground state and electronic transport properties of nanoscale materials and their performance in electronic devices. The ground state properties are studied within density functional theory using the SIESTA code, whereas the transport properties are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions formalism implemented in the SMEAGOL code. First we study Si-based systems, as Si nanowires are believed to be important building blocks of the next generation of electronic devices. We derive the electron transport properties of Si nanowires connected to Au electrodes and their dependence on the nanowire growth direction, diameter, and length. At equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between electrodes and nanowire, resulting in low contact resistance. For the tunneling regime, the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length is rationalized using the complex band structure. The nanowires grown along the (110) direction show the smallest decay and the largest conductance and current. Due to the high spin coherence in Si, Si nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. Therefore, we built a magnetic tunneling junction by connecting a (110) Si nanowire to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes. We have find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance of

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.


    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  9. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno; Luiz Michel Santos; Maria Angélica Miglino; Jayme Augusto Peres; Ricardo Romão Guerra


    The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary ca...

  10. Systems physiology of the airways in health and obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Bates, Jason H T


    Fresh air entering the mouth and nose is brought to the blood-gas barrier in the lungs by a repetitively branching network of airways. Provided the individual airway branches remain patent, this airway tree achieves an enormous amplification in cross-sectional area from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles. Obstructive lung diseases such as asthma occur when airway patency becomes compromised. Understanding the pathophysiology of these obstructive diseases thus begins with a consideration of the factors that determine the caliber of an individual airway, which include the force balance between the inward elastic recoil of the airway wall, the outward tethering forces of its parenchymal attachments, and any additional forces due to contraction of airway smooth muscle. Other factors may also contribute significantly to airway narrowing, such as thickening of the airway wall and accumulation of secretions in the lumen. Airway obstruction becomes particularly severe when these various factors occur in concert. However, the effect of airway abnormalities on lung function cannot be fully understood only in terms of what happens to a single airway because narrowing throughout the airway tree is invariably heterogeneous and interdependent. Obstructive lung pathologies thus manifest as emergent phenomena arising from the way in which the airway tree behaves a system. These emergent phenomena are studied with clinical measurements of lung function made by spirometry and by mechanical impedance measured with the forced oscillation technique. Anatomically based computational models are linking these measurements to underlying anatomic structure in systems physiology terms. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:423-437. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1347 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    Devasahayam, Suresh R


    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  12. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Wu, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Rui; Su, Yuqi; Sun, Li; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun


    Metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1), a newly identified oncogene, has been associated with poor survival of cancer patients by multiple studies. However, the prognostic value of MACC1 in digestive system neoplasms needs systematic evidence to verify. Therefore, we aimed to provide further evidence on this topic by systematic review and meta-analysis. Literature search was conducted in multiple databases and eligible studies analyzing survival data and MACC1 expression were included for meta-analysis. Hazard ratio (HR) for clinical outcome was chosen as an effect measure of interest. According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system neoplasms (HR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.49-2.53) as well as poorer relapse-free survival (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.33-2.82). The results of subgroup studies categorized by methodology, anatomic structure, and cancer subtype for pooled OS were all consistent with the overall pooled HR for OS as well. No publication bias was detected according to test of funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. In conclusion, high MACC1 expression may serve as a prognostic biomarker to guide individualized management in clinical practice for digestive system neoplasms.

  13. Prediction of digestible energy of feed ingredients for growing pigs using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system.

    Chen, L; Gao, L X; Huang, Q H; Lu, Q P; Sa, R N; Zhang, H F


    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate in vitro DE (IVDE) of selected feed ingredients using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) and predict DE of ingredients for growing pigs. Samples of 6 ingredients with a wide range in energy and nutrient profile were collected. The CP and GE contents ranged from 9.9 to 50.9% and 4,493 to 4,841 kcal/kg (DM basis), respectively. Two control diets were formulated to achieve different CP contents (12.5 and 20.0%). Three experimental diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the high-CP control diet with corn, wheat, or wheat bran, whereas 3 additional diets were formulated by replacing 20% of the low-CP control diet with soybean meal, rapeseed meal, or cottonseed meal. The DE was determined using barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 35.9 ± 1.9 kg) in 2 periods with 6 observations per diet treatment and ranged from 2,769 to 4,368 kcal/kg. The equation for the DE content (kcal/kg of DM) using chemical components as independent variables was DE = 4,186 + 0.06 × CP + 79.33 × ether extract - 14.57 × NDF - 47.99 × ADF, with R(2) = 0.995, residual SD (RSD) = 89.5 kcal/kg, CV = 2.4%, and P = 0.10 (chemical component values; %). The IVDE ranged from 2,289 to 3,724 kcal/kg and was highly related to the determined DE content of the ingredients (R(2) = 0.91, RSD = 193 kcal/kg, and CV = 5.2%). The relationship between IVDE:GE and DE:GE was very high (R(2) = 0.93, RSD = 3.8%, and CV = 4.7%). The average values of CV for IVDE (0.75%) and IVDE:GE (0.73%) were less than that for determined DE (2.58%) and DE:GE (2.54%), respectively. In conclusion, the IVDE content determined, using a CCSDS with relatively high accuracy and acceptable repeatability, might be used to predict DE of feed ingredients for growing pigs.

  14. Evaluation of systems for purification of fuel gas from anaerobic digestion. Engineering report

    Ashare, E.; Augenstein, D. C.; Yeung, J. C.; Hossan, R. J.; Duret, G. L.


    Fuel gas obtained from the anaerobic digestion of waste materials usually needs to be treated before being transmitted in existing pipeline systems. The purification scheme involves the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and moisture from the digester gas to meet pipeline specifications. Gas treatment systems for the handling of 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 MM Scfd of raw feed gas and product delivery pressures of 125 and 1000 psia were considered in this study. From the results of an economic and technical analysis of these systems, physical absorption systems, particularly water scrubbing, were found to be the most economical system for the treatment of digester gas with the flow streams considered. The Fluor Solvent process was economically comparable with the water scrubbing process for high pressure applications, but the value presented had a large uncertainty. The commercial chemical absorption systems were less economical due to high heat requirements for solvent regeneration. Among the chemical absorption processes, the hot potassium systems were found to be more economical than the amine system. The molecular sieve adsorption process was economically similar to the chemical absorption process. The GE membrane separation process was economically comparable for both high and low pressure apllications, but this system has not been evaluated in real-life conditions. Since no kinetic and equilibrium data were available for the phosphate buffer system, estimates had to be assumed. Using what were believed to be very conservative estimates, this chemical absorption process was found to be economically competitive with the water scrubbing process for treating gas with a delivery pressure of 125 psia.The cost analyses in this study were based on the assumption of no recovery of the CO/sub 2/ by-product. It was found that credits for the recovery of the CO/sub 2/ could be significant.

  15. Component activities in the autoregressive activity of physiological systems.

    Sato, K; Ono, K; Chiba, G; Fukata, K


    The higher-order autoregressive (AR) activity of a physiological system (Sato 1975a,b; Sato et al., 1977) was decomposed into first- and second-order activities. The former time-pattern displays a fast rise and an exponential decay, while the latter exhibits a damped sine wave. Application of this component analysis to EEG showed the first-order activity to coincide with the nonoscillatory delta component. The frequency distribution of the natural, damped and resonance frequencies of the second-order activities was found to show one, two or three modes in each frequency range of the delta, theta and beta rhythms in ninety normal adult EEGs. Hence, the second-order activities agree with the oscillatory delta, theta, alpha and beta rhythms. Some changes were induced not only in the frequency of theta and beta rhythms but also in that of alpha rhythm by over-breathing for about three minutes.

  16. An Improved Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System

    Maeda, Tatsuhiko; Naitoh, Tadashi; Toyama, Atsushi; Takeda, Keiki

    In this paper, the authors propose an improved identification method of the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. A first improvement is the development of determinant method about the transformer connection, which gives a calculation method of magnetic flux, using with theoretical pattern of inrush current ratio. And then, since the Aitken's Δ2-process, which uses the estimation of the saturation on/off time, has many extrema, it is difficult to determinate the saturation on/off time. Therefore, using the pattern of derivative current, a new determinant method of the saturation on/off time is developed.

  17. The nervous and the immune systems: conspicuous physiological analogies.

    Sotelo, Julio


    From all biological constituents of complex organisms, two are highly sophisticated: the nervous and the immune systems. Interestingly, their goals and processes appear to be distant from each other; however, their physiological mechanisms keep notorious similarities. Both construct intelligence, learn from experience, and keep memory. Their precise responses to innumerable stimuli are delicately modulated, and the exposure of the individual to thousands of potential challenges integrates their functionality; they use a large part of their constituents not in excitatory activities but in the maintenance of inhibitory mechanisms to keep silent vast intrinsic potentialities. The nervous and immune systems are integrated by a basic cell lineage (neurons and lymphocytes, respectively) but each embodies countless cell subgroups with different and specialized deeds which, in contrast with cells from other organs, labyrinthine molecular arrangements conduct to "one cell, one function". Also, nervous and immune actions confer identity that differentiates every individual from countless others in the same species. Both systems regulate and potentiate their responses aided by countless biological resources of variable intensity: hormones, peptides, cytokines, pro-inflammatory molecules, etc. How the immune and the nervous systems buildup memory, learning capability, and exquisite control of excitatory/inhibitory mechanisms constitute major intellectual challenges for contemporary research.

  18. Exercise Physiology and the Academy: Contributions to Physiological Concepts and Biological Systems during the Commemorative Years

    Tipton, Charles M.


    To determine the contributions made by Academy Fellows during the past 75 years to concepts within the body of knowledge associated with exercise physiology, a literature search was undertaken. Of the charter Fellows, Hetherington and eight others (34%) were identified. Schneider in 1933 was the first of 18 Fellows who became authors, co-authors,…

  19. Spatial decision support system to evaluate crop residue energy potential by anaerobic digestion.

    Escalante, Humberto; Castro, Liliana; Gauthier-Maradei, Paola; Rodríguez De La Vega, Reynel


    Implementing anaerobic digestion (AD) in energy production from crop residues requires development of decision tools to assess its feasibility and sustainability. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) was constructed to assist decision makers to select appropriate feedstock according to biomethanation potential, identify the most suitable location for biogas facilities, determine optimum plant capacity and supply chain, and evaluate associated risks and costs. SDSS involves a spatially explicit analysis, fuzzy multi-criteria analysis, and statistical and optimization models. The tool was validated on seven crop residues located in Santander, Colombia. For example, fique bagasse generates about 0.21millionm(3)CH4year(-1) (0.329m(3)CH4kg(-1) volatile solids) with a minimum profitable plant of about 2000tonyear(-1) and an internal rate of return of 10.5%. SDSS can be applied to evaluate other biomass resources, availability periods, and co-digestion potential.

  20. Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in normal and regenerating specimens of the brittlestar Amphipholis kochii.

    Frolova, Lidia T; Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    The morphology and regeneration of the digestive system of the ophiuroid Amphipholis kochii were investigated. The epithelia of the esophagus and stomach of A. kochii were composed of typical enterocytes and mucous cells. The digestive epithelium of the stomach contained two types of granular secretory cells. After autotomy of the disk, the animals retained the esophagus and a small part of the stomach. The dedifferentiation of enterocytes and mucous cells began on the first day after autotomy. On day 3 the cells formed an anlage of stomach around the mouth opening. Later, the stomach anlage grew as a result of cell proliferation. The opening on the aboral side of the body was closed by day 7. By this time differentiating cells were already observed in the stomach lining. The stomach mesothelium was formed by peritoneocytes and myoepithelial cells, which migrated from other coelomic epithelia of the body. Our study showed that the formation of the digestive system in A. kochii during regeneration depended on cells from the esophagus and the stomach remnant. Both enterocytes and mucous cells were able to dedifferentiate, migrate, and proliferate to give rise to the luminal epithelium. The basic mechanism of stomach formation was epithelial morphogenesis.

  1. Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system.

    Neil C Chi


    Full Text Available Vertebrate hearts depend on highly specialized cardiomyocytes that form the cardiac conduction system (CCS to coordinate chamber contraction and drive blood efficiently and unidirectionally throughout the organism. Defects in this specialized wiring system can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a greater understanding of cardiac conduction development may help to prevent these devastating clinical outcomes. Utilizing a cardiac-specific fluorescent calcium indicator zebrafish transgenic line, Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP(s878, that allows for in vivo optical mapping analysis in intact animals, we identified and analyzed four distinct stages of cardiac conduction development that correspond to cellular and anatomical changes of the developing heart. Additionally, we observed that epigenetic factors, such as hemodynamic flow and contraction, regulate the fast conduction network of this specialized electrical system. To identify novel regulators of the CCS, we designed and performed a new, physiology-based, forward genetic screen and identified for the first time, to our knowledge, 17 conduction-specific mutations. Positional cloning of hobgoblin(s634 revealed that tcf2, a homeobox transcription factor gene involved in mature onset diabetes of the young and familial glomerulocystic kidney disease, also regulates conduction between the atrium and the ventricle. The combination of the Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP(s878 line/in vivo optical mapping technique and characterization of cardiac conduction mutants provides a novel multidisciplinary approach to further understand the molecular determinants of the vertebrate CCS.

  2. Anatomy and Physiology. Module Set II: Major Body Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Surgical Technology.

    Hilley, Robert

    This document, which is the second part of a two-part set of modules on anatomy and physiology for future surgical technicians, contains the teacher and student editions of an introduction to anatomy and physiology that consists of modules on the following body systems: integumentary system; skeletal system; muscular system; nervous system;…

  3. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  4. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.


    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  5. Digestive System


    2009080 A study on the light microscopic measurement of intercellular space of squamous epithelium in lower esophagus to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease. CUI Ronli(崔荣丽), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Peking Univ 3rd Hosp, Beijing 100191. Chin J Intern Med 2009; 48(3):208-212. Objective To evaluate the significance of dilated intercellular space (DIS) of squamous epithelium in lower-esophagus which was measured at light microscopy (LM) in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

  6. Digestive System

    ... abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting. Gastritis and peptic ulcers arise when a bacterium, Helicobacter ... irritate and inflame the lining of the stomach (gastritis) or cause peptic ulcers, which are sores or ...

  7. Digestive System

    ... absorbable atoms and molecules. During the process of absorption, nutrients that come from the food (including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) pass through channels in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. The blood works ...

  8. Eva Physiology, Systems, and Performance (EPSP) Project Overview

    Gernhardt, Michael L.


    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity performed by astronauts outside their space vehicle or habitat. EVA may be performed on orbit, such as outside the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station, or on a planetary surface such as Mars or on the moon. Astronauts wear a pressurized suit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications while they work in the harsh conditions of a microgravity environment. Exploration missions to the moon and Mars may last many days and will include many types of EVAs; exploration, science, construction and maintenance. The effectiveness and success of these EVA-filled missions is dependent on the ability to perform tasks efficiently. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performance (EPSP) project will conduct a number of studies to understand human performance during EVA, from a molecular level to full-scale equipment and suit design aspects, with the aim of developing safe and efficient systems for Exploration missions and the Constellation Program. The EPSP project will 1) develop Exploration Mission EVA suit requirements for metabolic and thermal loading, optional center of gravity location, biomedical sensors, hydration, nutrition, and human biomedical interactions; 2) develop validated EVA prebreathe protocols that meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints while minimizing crew time and thus increasing EVA work efficiency; and 3) define exploration decompression sickness (DCS) risks, policy, and mission success statistics and develop a DCS risk definition report.

  9. Factorial switching linear dynamical systems applied to physiological condition monitoring.

    Quinn, John A; Williams, Christopher K I; McIntosh, Neil


    Condition monitoring often involves the analysis of systems with hidden factors that switch between different modes of operation in some way. Given a sequence of observations, the task is to infer the filtering distribution of the switch setting at each time step. In this paper, we present factorial switching linear dynamical systems as a general framework for handling such problems. We show how domain knowledge and learning can be successfully combined in this framework, and introduce a new factor (the "X-factor") for dealing with unmodeled variation. We demonstrate the flexibility of this type of model by applying it to the problem of monitoring the condition of a premature baby receiving intensive care. The state of health of a baby cannot be observed directly, but different underlying factors are associated with particular patterns of physiological measurements and artifacts. We have explicit knowledge of common factors and use the X-factor to model novel patterns which are clinically significant but have unknown cause. Experimental results are given which show the developed methods to be effective on typical intensive care unit monitoring data.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of food waste through the operation of a mesophilic two-phase pilot scale digester--assessment of variable loadings on system performance.

    Grimberg, S J; Hilderbrandt, D; Kinnunen, M; Rogers, S


    Single and two-phase operations were compared at mesophilic operating conditions using a digester system consisting of three 5-m(3) reactors treating food waste generated daily within the university campus kitchens. When normalizing the methane production to the daily feedstock characteristics, significantly greater methane was produced during two-phase mesophilic digestion compared to the single-stage operation (methane yield of 380 vs 446-L CH4 kg VS(-1); 359 vs 481-L CH4 kg COD(-1) removed for single vs two stage operation). The fermentation reactor could be maintained reliably even under very low loading rates (0.79±0.16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1)) maintaining a steady state pH of 5.2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Effluent Recirculation in a Semi-Continuous Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion System

    Karthik Rajendran


    Full Text Available The effect of recirculation in increasing organic loading rate (OLR and decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT in a semi-continuous two-stage anaerobic digestion system using stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB was evaluated. Two-parallel processes were in operation for 100 days, one with recirculation (closed system and the other without recirculation (open system. For this purpose, two structurally different carbohydrate-based substrates were used; starch and cotton. The digestion of starch and cotton in the closed system resulted in production of 91% and 80% of the theoretical methane yield during the first 60 days. In contrast, in the open system the methane yield was decreased to 82% and 56% of the theoretical value, for starch and cotton, respectively. The OLR could successfully be increased to 4 gVS/L/day for cotton and 10 gVS/L/day for starch. It is concluded that the recirculation supports the microorganisms for effective hydrolysis of polyhydrocarbons in CSTR and to preserve the nutrients in the system at higher OLRs, thereby improving the overall performance and stability of the process.


    Kuklina, M M


    Relationships between the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis L., 1761) and cestodes Tetrabothrius minor Loennberg, 1893 (Cestoda: Tetrabothriidae) were studied. The results of calculation of the number of tapeworms in different parts (proximal, medial and distal) of bird intestines are represented. Parameters of protein metabolism in the northern fulmar and cestodes T. minor were investigated. Activity of proteases in different parts of northern fulmar intestine and in the strobila of T. minor was determined. Digestion processes occurring on digestive-absorptive surfaces of the intestine of the northern fulmar and of cestodes were studied. Biochemical indices of blood plasma of the northern fulmar were analyzed in relation to the intensity of invasion and the stage parasite maturation. The highest indices of the invasion of the northern fulmar with T. minor were recorded in the proximal part if the intestine. It was shown that the preferred localization of tapeworms in the proximal department of the intestine was determined by abundance of food and high activity of digestive enzymes in this place. Active hydrolysis of proteins in the intestine of the northern fulmar and on tegument surfaces of T. minor occurred mainly during the process of cavernous digestion. To a greater extent, the physiological state of the northern fulmar depended on the intensity of invasion and on the maturation stage of tapeworms.

  13. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  14. Distributed Generation and Islanding – Study on Converter Modeling of PV Grid-Connected Systems under Islanding Phenomena


    The technique to derive a dc-ac full bridge switching converter for a PV grid-connected system are proposed in this paper. An analysis of islanding phenomena due to load variations of R and RLC connections can be easily derived by using the state-space averaging technique and the piecewise technique with feedback current control by setting up the duty cycle with sinusoidal terms around constant value of 0.5. The solution of the two proposed models can be handled via MATLAB/SIMULINK in fast sp...

  15. Innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic-digestion integrated system for ammonia recovery and bioenergy production from ammonia-rich residues

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production (Figure 1). In batch experiment, th...

  16. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie


    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  17. Analysis of Bioenergy Residues (biochar and digestate) to Study the Fate of Pesticides for Biopurification Systems

    Mukherjee, S.


    To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are under development. Processes like sorption-desorption, dissipation behavior of three radiolabeled pesticides (Bentazone, Boscalid and Pyrimethanil) has been investigated at lab scale. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two types of soil (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a biofilter test material for a respiration study (over three month's time period) instead of conventional soil, peat and straw mixtures. The results show that digestate is an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO2-C. It was found that with the addition of even a small amount (1 % W/W) of biochar there is a profound suppression in the CO2-C release.The driving mechanism for this suppression can be manifold like negative priming, chemisorption of CO2-C on biochar or combinations of all. Further, the fate of applied organic contaminants to biomixtures depends on factors like soil properties as well as biological degradation by soil microbes. To analyze the degradation potential of the different soil/amendment mixtures on pesticides a degradation study was performed. The results from the 14C labelled pesticides study indicated that a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) well balanced the mineralization (~20% for bentazone, ~6% for boscalid and ~2% for pyrimethanil) and sorption process (>85% non-extractable residues for all pesticides) resulting in favorable dissipation process. To investigate the sorption-desorption potential of the above pesticides a batch equilibrium study was carried out with selected biomixtures. A higher Kd (>1500 L kg-1), kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the soil/digestate/biochar mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. SUVA254 values justified the aromatic character of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) mixture which showed highest Koc values among all

  18. Clinical analysis of multiple primary malignancies in the digestive system: A hospital-based study

    Hui-Yun Cheng; Cheng-Hsin Chu; Wen-Hsiung Chang; Tzu-Chi Hsu; Shee-Chan Lin; Chuan-Chuan Liu; An-Ming Yang; Shou-Chuan Shih


    AIM: To analyze the characteristics of multiple primary malignancies (MPMs) of digestive system; including incidence, types of tumor combinations, time intervals between development of multiple tumors, clinical course,and prognostic factors affecting survival and mortality.METHODS: Data from a total of 129 patients treated from January 1991 to December 2000 for pathologically proved MPMs, including at least one originating from the digestive system, were reviewed retrospectively.RESULTS: Among 129 patients, 120 (93.02%) had two primary cancers and 9 (6.98%) had three primary cancers. The major sites of MPMs of the digestive system were large intestine, stomach, and liver. Associated nondigestive cancers included 40 cases of gynecological cancers, of which 31 were carcinoma of cervix and 10cases of genitourinary cancers, of which 5 were bladder cancers. Other cancers originated from the lung, breast,nasopharynx, larynx, thyroid, brain, muscle, and skin.Reproductive tract cancers, especially cervical, ovarian,bladder, and prostate cancers were the most commonly associated non-GI cancers, followed by cancer of the lung and breasts. Forty-three cases were synchronous, while the rest (86 cases) were metachronous cancers. Staging of MPMs and treatment regimes correlated with the prognosis between survival and non-survival groups.CONCLUSION: As advances in cancer therapy bring about a progressively larger percentage of long-term survivors, the proportion of patients with subsequent primary lesions will increase. Early diagnosis of these lesions, based on an awareness of the possibility of second and third cancers, and multidiscipiinary treatment strategies will substantially increase the survival of these patients.

  19. Waste activated sludge treatment based on temperature staged and biologically phased anaerobic digestion system.

    Yu, Jingwen; Zheng, Mingxia; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun


    The concept of temperature staged and biological phased (TSBP) was proposed to enhance the performance of waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion. Semi-continuous experiments were used to investigate the effect of temperature (35 to 70 degrees C) as well as the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2, 4 and 6 days) on the acidogenic phase. The results showed that the solubilization degree of waste-activated sludge increased from 14.7% to 30.1% with temperature increasing from 35 to 70 degrees C, while the acidification degree was highest at 45 degrees C (17.6%), and this was quite different from the temperature impact on hydrolysis. Compared with HRT of 2 and 6 days, 4 days was chosen as the appropriate HRT because of its relatively high solubilization degree (24.6%) and acidification degree (20.1%) at 45 degrees C. The TSBP system combined the acidogenic reactor (45 degrees C, 4 days) with the methanogenic reactor (35 degrees C, 16 days) and the results showed 84.8% and 11.4% higher methane yield and volatile solid reduction, respectively, compared with that of the single-stage anaerobic digestion system with HRT of 20 days at 35 degrees C. Moreover, different microbial morphologies were observed in the acidogenic- and methanogenic-phase reactors, which resulted from the temperature control and HRT adjustment. All the above results indicated that 45 degrees C was the optimum temperature to inhibit the activity of methanogenic bacteria in the acidogenic phase, and temperature staging and phase separation was thus accomplished. The advantages of the TSBP process were also confirmed by a full-scale waste-activated sludge anaerobic digestion project which was an energy self-sufficient system.

  20. Digestion of frozen/thawed food waste in the hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid system.

    Stabnikova, O; Liu, X Y; Wang, J Y


    The hybrid anaerobic solid-liquid (HASL) system, which is a modified two-phase anaerobic digester, is to be used in an industrial scale operation to minimize disposal of food waste at incineration plants in Singapore. The aim of the present research was to evaluate freezing/thawing of food waste as a pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system. The hydrolytic and fermentation processes in the acidogenic reactor were enhanced when food waste was frozen for 24h at -20 degrees C and then thawed for 12h at 25 degrees C (experiment) in comparison with fresh food waste (control). The highest dissolved COD concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 16.9 g/l on day 3 in the control and 18.9 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The highest VFA concentrations in the leachate from the acidogenic reactors were 11.7 g/l on day 3 in the control and 17.0 g/l on day 1 in the experiment. The same volume of methane was produced during 12 days in the control and 7 days in the experiment. It gave the opportunity to diminish operational time of batch process by 42%. The effect of freezing/thawing of food waste as pre-treatment for its anaerobic digestion in the HASL system was comparable with that of thermal pre-treatment of food waste at 150 degrees C for 1h. However, estimation of energy required either to heat the suspended food waste to 150 degrees C or to freeze the same quantity of food waste to -20 degrees C showed that freezing pre-treatment consumes about 3 times less energy than thermal pre-treatment.

  1. Measuring Entropy Change in a Human Physiological System

    Satish Boregowda


    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel approach involving the use of Maxwell relations to combine multiple physiological measures to provide a measure of entropy change. The physiological measures included blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR, skin temperature (ST, electromyogram (EMG, and electrodermal response (EDR. The multiple time-series physiological data were collected from eight subjects in an experimental pilot study conducted at the Human Engineering Laboratory of NASA Langley Research Center. The methodology included data collection during a relaxation period of eighteen minutes followed by a sixty-minute cognitive task. Two types of entropy change were computed: (a entropy change (ΔSBP due to blood pressure, heart rate, and skin temperature and (b entropy change (ΔSEMG due to electromyogram, electrodermal response, and skin temperature. The results demonstrate that entropy change provides a valuable composite measure of individual physiological response to various stressors that could be valuable in the areas of medical research, diagnosis, and clinical practice.

  2. Physiological superiority of root system of inter-subspecific hybrid rice


    @@Physiology of root system, especially root system activity,is a very important physiological trait of rice, which directly affects rice growth and development of the aerial parts and yield. Inter-subspecific hybrid rice IIyou 2070and Ilyou 419, as well as their restorer lines 2070 and Zhong419, were used to study physiological traits of rice root system. Three years research indicated that in ter-subspecific hybrid rice had root systems of physiological superiority. Results were briefly showed as the follows:

  3. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.


    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...




    Full Text Available The geographical position of the Baia Mare Urban System (intra-hilly depression favours the occurrence of a wide range of extreme climate phenomena which, coupled with the industrial profile of the city (non-ferrous mining and metallurgical industry triggering typical emissions (CO2, SOX, particulate matters and Pb, might pose a significant threat to human health. The article is aiming to assess the occurrence, frequency and amplitude of these extreme climate phenomena based on monthly and daily extreme climatic values from Baia Mare weather station in order to identify the areas more exposed. A GIS-based qualitative-heuristic method was used, each extreme climatic hazard being evaluated on a 1 to 3 scale according to its significance/impact in the study area and assigned with a weight (w and a rank (r, resulting the climate hazard map for the warm semester of the year. The authors further relate the areas exposed to the selected extreme climatic events to socio-economic aspects: demographic and economic in order to delineate the spatial distribution of the environmental vulnerability in the Baia Mare Urban System.

  5. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A


    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  6. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system.

    Holzer, Peter


    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential.

  7. Excretion and detection of SARS coronavirus and its nucleic acid from digestive system

    Xin-Wei Wang; Xiao-Ming Wu; Wen-Jun Xiao; Xiu-Mei Zhu; Chang-Qing Gu; Jing Yin; Wei Wei; Wei Yao; Chao Liu; Jian-Feng Li; Guo-Rong Ou; Jin-Song Li; Min-Nian Wang; Tong-Yu Fang; Gui-Jie Wang; Yao-Hui Qiu; Huai-Huan Wu; Fu-Huan Chao; Jun-Wen Li; Ting-Kai Guo; Bei Zhen; Qing-Xin Kong; Bin Yi; Zhong Li; Nong Song; Min Jin


    AIM: To study whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) could be excreted from digestive system.METHODS: Cell culture and semi-nested RT-PCR were used to detect SARS-CoV and its RNA from 21 stool and urine samples, and a kind of electropositive filter media particles was used to concentrate the virus in 10 sewage samples from two hospitals receiving SAPS patients in Beijing in China.RESULTS: It was demonstrated that there was no live SARS-CoV in all samples collected, but the RNA of SARS-CoV could be detected in seven stool samples from SARS patients with any one of the symptoms of fever, malaise,cough, or dyspnea, in 10 sewage samples before disinfection and 3 samples after disinfection from the two hospitals.The RNA could not be detected in urine and stool samples from patients recovered from SARS.CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid of SARS-CoV can be excreted through the stool of patients into sewage system, and the possibility of SARS-CoV transmitting through digestive system cannot be excluded.

  8. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes

    Luis Antonio Gomez-Puerta

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001 and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20, gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.



    The authors prove the local existence and uniqueness of weak solution of a hyperbolic-parabolic system and establish the global existence of the weak solution for this system for the spatial dimension n = 1.

  10. Logic analysis of complex systems by characterizing failure phenomena to achieve diagnosis and fault-isolation

    Wong, J. T.; Andre, W. L.


    A recent result shows that, for a certain class of systems, the interdependency among the elements of such a system together with the elements constitutes a mathematical structure a partially ordered set. It is called a loop free logic model of the system. On the basis of an intrinsic property of the mathematical structure, a characterization of system component failure in terms of maximal subsets of bad test signals of the system was obtained. Also, as a consequence, information concerning the total number of failure components in the system was deduced. Detailed examples are given to show how to restructure real systems containing loops into loop free models for which the result is applicable.

  11. Design of Experimental Displacement Digester Systems%置换蒸煮实验装置的设计

    高致富; 侯顺利; 张锋; 杨海燕


    介绍了所设计的置换蒸煮实验装置的基本原理、系统构成及特点,本设计解决了以往置换蒸煮实验装置易堵塞、加热不均匀、取样难等问题.%In order to optimizing the technology of Displacement Digester System and realizing the domestication of the system,a simple scientific experimental device was developed.The technology process of Displacement Digester System is used in the laboratory experiment device.The parameters of the key parts of the digester were selected and calculated,then its structure was designed.The problems normally appeared in experimental Displacement Digester System device,including easily jamming,unevenly heating and difficultly sampling were solved in the experimental device developed by the authors with simple structure,lower cost and lower power consumption.This experimental device of Displacement Digester System can provide reliable experimental data for promoting the domestication of this technology.

  12. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno


    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  13. Procedures for identifying infectious prions after passage through the digestive system of an avian species.

    Fischer, Justin W; Nichols, Tracy A; Phillips, Gregory E; VerCauteren, Kurt C


    Infectious prion (PrP(Res)) material is likely the cause of fatal, neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases(1). Transmission of TSE diseases, such as chronic wasting disease (CWD), is presumed to be from animal to animal(2,3) as well as from environmental sources(4-6). Scavengers and carnivores have potential to translocate PrP(Res) material through consumption and excretion of CWD-contaminated carrion. Recent work has documented passage of PrP(Res) material through the digestive system of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a common North American scavenger(7). We describe procedures used to document passage of PrP(Res) material through American crows. Crows were gavaged with RML-strain mouse-adapted scrapie and their feces were collected 4 hr post gavage. Crow feces were then pooled and injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Mice were monitored daily until they expressed clinical signs of mouse scrapie and were thereafter euthanized. Asymptomatic mice were monitored until 365 days post inoculation. Western blot analysis was conducted to confirm disease status. Results revealed that prions remain infectious after traveling through the digestive system of crows and are present in the feces, causing disease in test mice.

  14. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano


    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  15. Electrochemical sensing system employing fructosamine 6-kinase enables glycated albumin measurement requiring no proteolytic digestion.

    Kameya, Miho; Tsugawa, Wakako; Yamada-Tajima, Mayumi; Hatada, Mika; Suzuki, Keita; Sakaguchi-Mikami, Akane; Ferri, Stefano; Klonoff, David C; Sode, Koji


    Currently available enzymatic methods for the measurement of glycated proteins utilize fructosyl amino acid/peptide oxidases (FAOXs/FPOXs) as sensing elements. FAOXs/FPOXs oxidize glycated amino acids or glycated dipeptides but they are not able to accept longer glycated peptides or intact glycated proteins as substrates. Therefore, pretreatment via proteolytic digestion is unavoidable with the current enzymatic methods, and there remains a need for simpler measurement methods for glycated proteins. In this study, in order to develop a novel sensing system for glycated albumin (GA), a marker for diabetes, with no requirement for proteolytic digestion, we created an electrochemical sensor based on fructosamine 6-kinase (FN6K) from Escherichia coli. Uniquely, FN6K can react directly with intact GA unlike FAOXs/FPOXs. The concentration of GA in samples was measured using a carbon-printed disposable electrode upon which FN6K as well as two additional enzymes, pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase were overlaid. A clear correlation between the response current and the concentration of GA was observed in the range of 20-100 µM GA, which is suitable for measurement of GA in diluted blood samples from both healthy individuals and patients with diabetes. The sensing system reported here could be applied to point-of-care-testing devices for measurement of glycated proteins. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Evolution of Accretion Phenomena in Massive Proto-Planetary Systems

    Grady, Carol A.

    Recent advances in our understanding of massive pre-main sequence stars have revealed that most of the optical, IR, and UV characteristics of these objects are dominated by processes associated with on-going accretion from the circumstellar disk. The IUE archives, while well stocked with observations of high accretion rate systems viewed essentially pole-on to the disk, are notably deficient in observations of the systems we now recognize as viewed through the circumstellar disk. Yet this is the orientation which is identical to the more evolved beta Pic system. Similarly, observations of proto-planetary systems in associations for which age estimates are available, and for which the IR and optical data suggest that we view the system through the disk are currently restricted to 1 object. We propose obtaining IUE data for the remaining edge-on Herbig Ae/Be stars accessible to IUE for which low dispersion spectra in both cameras are unavailable, one additional object, R CrA, for which there are no high dispersion spectra, and a group of high dispersion spectra of near-ZAMS proto-planetary candidates lacking IUE data, to study the evolution of continuum and spectral signatures of accretion in the innermost portions of the circumstellar disks of these proto-planetary systems. This study complements detailed studies of individual objects, and is needed to plan observing strategies for proto-planetary disk systems with ISO and HST.


    M. Simon


    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the




    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of a simplified dynamic controller with fuzzy logic controllers. The six degree-of-freedom simulation study focuses on the results with and without fuzzy logic controller. One area of interest is the performance of a simulated the cross coupling effect. The controller uses explicit models to produce the desired commands. In this paper the effect of the cross-coupling between channels on the overall performance of the flight system has been considered. Two fuzzy controllers have been added to the system to improve its performance. This paper presents the development and simulation of a modified system is presented using MatLab Simulink. Also it focuses on the use of fuzzy logic controller in model-based control of multiple-input, multiple-output systems. Here, we address the question of how the overall performance of the system is affected when both fuzzy logic controllers are applied at the same time. Simulation and experimental results of a flight system , as an illustrative example, are presented.

  19. When cooler is not better: Stochastic Resonance Phenomena in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Huelga, S; Huelga, Susana; Plenio, Martin


    We discuss stochastic resonance (SR) effects in weakly driven coupled quantum systems. We show that both dynamical and information theoretic measures of the system's response can be introduced that exhibit a non-monotonic behaviour as a function of the noise strength. We analyze the relation between lack of monotonicity in the response and the presence of quantum correlations, showing that there are parameter regimes where the breakdown of a linear response can be associated to the presence of entanglement. We also show that a chain of coupled spin systems can exhibit an array-enhanced response, where the sensitivity of a single resonator to a weak driving signal is enhanced as a result of the nearest-neighbour coupling. These results enlarge the domain where SR effects exist and should be observable in state-of-the-art arrays of superconducting qubits.

  20. Studies on structure and function of digestive system of Cymatium pileare


    The digestive system of Cyrnatium pileare consists of buccal cavity, oesophagus, stom ach, intestine, anus, salivary glands and liver. There is a contractible "Argobuccinum" form proboscis in the anterior extremity of its body, and the buccal cavity lies in the anterior part of the proboscis, with a pair of jaws and a piece of radular ribbon. The jaws have many neatly arranged sickleshaped sharpen denticles. Its dentition formula of radula is 2@ (7) 1@ (5~6) 1 (5~6) @1 (7) @2.In the middle of oesophagus, there is an expanded crop, which has the function of temporary food storage and preliminarily digesting food. The stomach is U-shaped and there are 2 entrances for liver ducts in its ventral side. The intestine is short and can be divided into 2 parts based on the structure of epithelia of their inner walls. The inner wall of foreintestine is stratified columnar epithelium, but the inner wall of hindintestine is pesudostratified columnar epithelium. The salivary gland of C. pileare is toxic gland and the toxin extracted from it plays a great role on its predation. The liver of C. pileare is compound tubuloacinar gland with mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex and lysosome in its glandular cells.

  1. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere


    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  2. Prioritization of VHTR system modeling needs based on phenomena identification, ranking and sensitivity studies.

    Vilim, R. B.; Pointer, W. D.; Wei, T. Y. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    Quantification of uncertainty is a key requirement for the design of a nuclear power plant and the assurance of its safety. Historically the procedure has been to perform the required uncertainty assessment through comparison of the analytical predictions with experimental simulations. The issue with this historical approach has always been that the simulations through experiments could not be at full scale for the practical reasons of cost and scheduling. Invariably, only parts of the system were tested separately or if integral testing was performed for the complete system, the size or scale of the experimental apparatus was significantly smaller than the actual plant configuration.

  3. Transport phenomena during vapor growth of optoelectronic material - A mercurous chloride system

    Singh, N. B.


    Crystal growth velocity was measured in a mercurous chloride system in a two-zone transparent furnace as a function of the Rayleigh number by varying a/L, where a is the radius of the growth tube and L is the transport length. Growth velocity data showed different trends at low and high aspect ratio, a result that does not support the velocity-aspect ratio trend predicted by theories. The system cannot be scaled on the basis of measurements done at a low aspect ratio. Some change in fluid flow behavior occurs in the growth tube as the aspect ratio increases.

  4. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan


    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  5. Numerical analysis of transport phenomena for designing of ejector in PEM forklift system

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud; Jabbari, Masoud


    In the present study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used to design an ejector for anode recirculation in an automotive PEMFC system. A CFD model is firstly established and tested against well-documented and relevant solutions from the literature, and then used for different...

  6. Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems

    Rezayi, Edward


    Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

  7. Spin-slip structure and central peak phenomena in singlet-doublet system: Praseodymium

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A theory is given for the central peaks observed in praseodymium, which is an effective singlet-doublet System of localized spins. The dominant peak is due to induced longitudinal magnetic ordering, which can be accounted for by mode-mode coupling theory. The second, broader peak is due to an ind...

  8. Time-Temperature Studies of High Temperature Deterioration Phenomena in Lubricant Systems: Synthetic Ester Lubricants


    measurements for ,.the pentanoate , n-Cs, through octanoate,, n-C 8 , tetraesters of pentaerythritol versus a’ reactivity parameter, I/N 3 (RH), based...2 sec- 1 2 reported by ,Agliullina et al. (5) for autoxidation of pentaerythrityl tetra- pentanoate , a system in which the availability of hydrogens

  9. Scaling-violation phenomena and fractality in the human posture control systems

    Thurner, S; Hanel, R; Ehrenberger, K


    By analyzing the movements of quiet standing persons by means of wavelet statistics, we observe multiple scaling regions in the underlying body dynamics. The use of the wavelet-variance function opens the possibility to relate scaling violations to different modes of posture control. We show that scaling behavior becomes close to perfect, when correctional movements are dominated by the vestibular system.

  10. Coherence theory and coherence phenomena in a closed spin 1/2 system

    Dannenberg, O


    We study a simplified Heisenberg spin model in order to clarify the idea of decoherence in closed quantum systems. For this purpose, we define a new concept: the coherence function $\\Xi(t)$, which describes the dynamics of coherence in the whole system, and which is linked with the total coarse-grained (von Neumann) entropy of all particles. We discuss in some detail a general coherence theory and its elementary results. For example, in the particular setup, decoherence diagonalises reduced density matrices in all possible basis sets. As expected, decoherence is understood as a statistical process that is caused by the dynamics of the system, similar to entropy. Moreover, the concept of decoherence time is applicable in closed systems. However, in most cases, the decay of off-diagonal elements differs from the usual $\\exp(-t/\\tau_d)$ behaviour. We have solved the form of decoherence time $\\tau_d$ in an infinite Heisenberg model with respect to density $\\rho$, spatial dimension $D$ and $\\epsilon$ in a $1/r^{\\e...

  11. Research Advances in the Inhibition of Long Chain Fatty Acid to Methanogenic Activity in Anaeroic Digestion System


    This article reviewed the inhibition mechanism of long chain fatty acid on the formation of anaerobic system, then thoroughly analyzed the inhibition factors of long chain fatty acid, and summarized the remission method to its inhibition, finally proposed some suggestions to further study on the influence of long chain fatty acid on anaerobic digestion system.

  12. Complex wave-interference phenomena: From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Pier A Mello


    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities: it describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for two-dimensional cavities.

  13. Bifurcation and hysteresis phenomena in thetwo-phase natural circulation system


    The static bifurcation of the two-phase natural circulation (TPNC)system was studiedtheoretically and numerically. By the DERPAR algorithm the solutiondiagram was calculated, which shows that the static bifurcationoccurs undersome conditions in the TPNC systems. Also, it shows that, in a region of multiplesolutions, the static instability may occur. It is defined as a region ofthermal-siphon instability induced flow rate jumping. By means of thesolution diagram, the stability margin can be determined in this region.Furthermore, the heat input at the peak of the solution diagram is defined as themaximum capacity of heating load that can be used to judge the capacityof the TPNC ofa given geometry topological structure. Meanwhile, it is interestingthat the TPNCsystemshave the hysteresis phenomenon defined as thermal-siphon hysteresis.Some parametriceffects related were also studied.

  14. Student’s Misconception of Digestive System Materials in MTs Eight Grade of Malang City and the Role of Teacher’s Pedadogic Competency in MTs

    Yuswa Istikomayanti


    Full Text Available Misconception research has important value in the development of students' thinking processes especially in science field. As the identification of important concepts that must be mastered by the students can be done, the teacher will easily able to emphasis the important or main concepts. This study aims to identify the students’ misconception in digestive system materials in eight grade of MTs and teacher pedagogic competence role. The survey was conducted in 8A (16 students and 8B (17 students MTs Muhammadiyah 1 and 8E (19 students Surya Buana Malang. The stages of research survey were: preparation of research goals (formulation, sample determination, preparation and instruments validation, data collection, and data analysis. The instruments used were: misconception test, student response questionnaire, learning observation guide, and teacher pedagogic competency form. The findings of the learning outcomes were discussed with the observer team, which then were assessed by using the assessment rubric and classified into the categories of student misconceptions. The results showed that the three teachers, neither certified nor uncertified were proved to be limited in overcoming misconceptions in the learning process; meanwhile, the results of students’ misconception test were mostly reach only level 3 (medium. Thus, the study of misconceptions of the digestive system material or other physiological material matter needs to get the attention of the teachers and educational practitioners.

  15. Mathematical Homogenization in the Modelling of Digestion in the Small Intestine

    Taghipoor, Masoomeh; Georgelin, Christine; Licois, Jean-René; Lescoat, Philippe


    Digestion in the small intestine is the result of complex mechanical and biological phenomena which can be modelled at different scales. In a previous article, we introduced a system of ordinary differential equations for describing the transport and degradation-absorption processes during the digestion. The present article sustains this simplified model by showing that it can be seen as a macroscopic version of more realistic models including biological phenomena at lower scales. In other words, our simplified model can be considered as a limit of more realistic ones by averaging-homogenization methods on biological processes representation.

  16. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    Jose Reyes


    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  17. Oscillatory integrals and phenomena beyond all algebriac orders with applications to homoclinic orbits in reversible systems

    Lombardi, Eric


    During the last two decades, in several branches of science (water waves, crystal growth, travelling waves in one dimensional lattices, splitting of separatrices,...) different problems appeared in which the key point is the computation of exponentially small terms. This self-contained monograph gives new and rigorous mathematical tools which enable a systematic study of such problems. Starting with elementary illuminating examples, the book contains (i) new asymptotical tools for obtaining exponentially small equivalents of oscillatory integrals involving solutions of nonlinear differential equations; (ii) implementation of these tools for solving old open problems of bifurcation theory such as existence of homoclinic connections near resonances in reversible systems.

  18. Environment-modulated Kondo phenomena in FePc/Au(111) adsorption systems

    Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Yang, Jinlong


    Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on electron transport through iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules adsorbed on the Au(111) surface have revealed that the measured Kondo conductance signature depends strongly on the specific adsorption site. To understand the physical origin of experimental observations, particularly the variation of Kondo features with the molecular adsorption site, we employ a combined density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach to investigate the electronic structure and Kondo correlation in FePc/Au(111) composite systems. The calculation results indicate that, for the on-top adsorption configuration, the two degenerate spin-unpaired dπ orbitals on the Fe center are coupled indirectly through substrate band states, leading to the Fano-like antiresonance line shape in the d I /d V spectra, while for the bridge adsorption configuration, the environment-induced couplings are largely suppressed because of the two different spin-unpaired d orbitals. Therefore, our work suggests that the environment-induced coupling as an essential physical factor could greatly influence the Fano-Kondo features in magnetic molecule/metal composites, and the crucial role of local orbital degeneracy and symmetry is discovered. These findings provide important insights into the electron correlation effects in complex solid-state systems. The usefulness and practicality of the combined DFT+HEOM method is also highlighted.

  19. Wireless Network of Collaborative Physiological Signal Devices in a U-Healthcare System

    Jung, Joonyoung; Kim, Daeyoung

    We designed and implemented collaborative physiological signal devices in a u-healthcare(ubiquitous healthcare) system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN) such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We show several collaborative physiological devices and propose WBAN mechanism such as a fast scanning algorithm, a dynamic discovery and installation mechanism, a reliable data transmission, a device access control for security, and a healthcare profile for u-healthcare system.

  20. Collective phenomena and non-finite state computation in a human social system.

    DeDeo, Simon


    We investigate the computational structure of a paradigmatic example of distributed social interaction: that of the open-source Wikipedia community. We examine the statistical properties of its cooperative behavior, and perform model selection to determine whether this aspect of the system can be described by a finite-state process, or whether reference to an effectively unbounded resource allows for a more parsimonious description. We find strong evidence, in a majority of the most-edited pages, in favor of a collective-state model, where the probability of a "revert" action declines as the square root of the number of non-revert actions seen since the last revert. We provide evidence that the emergence of this social counter is driven by collective interaction effects, rather than properties of individual users.

  1. Dynamical indicators for the prediction of bursting phenomena in high-dimensional systems

    Farazmand, Mohammad


    Drawing upon the bursting mechanism in slow-fast systems, we propose indicators for the prediction of such rare extreme events which do not require a priori known slow and fast coordinates. The indicators are associated with functionals defined in terms of Optimally Time Dependent (OTD) modes. One such functional has the form of the largest eigenvalue of the symmetric part of the linearized dynamics reduced to these modes. In contrast to other choices of subspaces, the proposed modes are flow invariant and therefore a projection onto them is dynamically meaningful. We illustrate the application of these indicators on three examples: a prototype low-dimensional model, a body forced turbulent fluid flow, and a unidirectional model of nonlinear water waves. We use Bayesian statistics to quantify the predictive power of the proposed indicators.

  2. Optimal design for problems involving flow and transport phenomena in saturated subsurface systems

    Mayer, Alex S.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, Cass T.

    Estimation problems arise routinely in subsurface hydrology for applications that range from water resources management to water quality protection to subsurface restoration. Interest in optimal design of such systems has increased over the last two decades and this area is considered an important and active area of research. In this work, we review the state of the art, assess important challenges that must be resolved to reach a mature level of understanding, and summarize some promising approaches that might help meet some of the challenges. While much has been accomplished to date, we conclude that more work remains before comprehensive, efficient, and robust solution methods exist to solve the most challenging applications in subsurface science. We suggest that future directions of research include the application of direct search solution methods, and developments in stochastic and multi-objective optimization. We present a set of comprehensive test problems for use in the research community as a means for benchmarking and comparing optimization approaches.

  3. System, method and computer-readable medium for locating physical phenomena

    Weseman, Matthew T [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID


    A method, system and computer product for detecting the location of a deformation of a structure includes baselining a defined energy transmitting characteristic for each of the plurality of laterally adjacent conductors attached to the structure. Each of the plurality of conductors includes a plurality of segments coupled in series and having an associated unit value representative of the defined energy transmitting characteristic. The plurality of laterally adjacent conductors includes a plurality of identity groups with each identity group including at least one of the plurality of segments from each of the plurality of conductors. Each of the plurality of conductors are monitored for a difference in the defined energy transmitting characteristic when compared with a baseline energy transmitting characteristic for each of the plurality of conductors. When the difference exceeds a threshold value, a location of the deformation along the structure is calculated.

  4. Studies on electrophoretically deposited nanostructured barium titanate systems and carrier transport phenomena

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar


    We report on the development of nanostructured barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) films on ~200-μm-thick Ag substrates by employing a cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique, where solid-state-derived BT nanoparticles are used as the starting material. Structural, morphological and compositional analyses of the as-synthesized BT nanoparticles and films were performed by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy studies. The synthesized nano-BT system has an average crystallite size of ~8.1 nm and a tetragonality ( c/ a) value ~1.003. To reveal current transport mechanism, the BT films possessing microporous structures and surrounded by homogeneously grown islands were assessed in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) conformation. The forward current conduction was observed to be purely thermionic up to respective voltages of ~1.4 and 2.2 V as for the fresh and 3-day aged samples. On the other hand, direct tunneling (DT)-mediated Ohmic feature was witnessed at a comparatively higher voltage, beyond which Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FN) dominates in the respective MIM junctions. The magnitude of current accompanied by FN process was observed to be stronger in reverse biasing than that of forward biasing case. The use of microporous BT films can offer new insights as regards regulated tunneling events meant for miniaturized nanoelectronic elements/components.

  5. Semiclassical investigation of the revival phenomena in a one-dimensional system

    Wang Zhexian [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Heller, Eric J [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    In a quantum revival, a localized wave packet re-forms or 'revives' into a compact reincarnation of itself long after it has spread in an unruly fashion over a region restricted only by the potential energy. This is a purely quantum phenomenon, which has no classical analog. Quantum revival and Anderson localization are members of a small class of subtle interference effects resulting in a quantum distribution radically different from the classical after long time evolution under classically nonlinear evolution. However, it is not clear that semiclassical methods, which start with the classical density and add interference effects, are in fact capable of capturing the revival phenomenon. Here we investigate two different one-dimensional systems, the infinite square well and Morse potential. In both the cases, after a long time the underlying classical manifolds are spread rather uniformly over phase space and are correspondingly spread in coordinate space, yet the semiclassical amplitudes are able to destructively interfere over most of coordinate space and constructively interfere in a small region, correctly reproducing a quantum revival. Further implications of this ability are discussed.

  6. Semiclassical investigation of the revival phenomena in a one-dimensional system

    Wang, Zhe-xian; Heller, Eric J.


    In a quantum revival, a localized wave packet re-forms or 'revives' into a compact reincarnation of itself long after it has spread in an unruly fashion over a region restricted only by the potential energy. This is a purely quantum phenomenon, which has no classical analog. Quantum revival and Anderson localization are members of a small class of subtle interference effects resulting in a quantum distribution radically different from the classical after long time evolution under classically nonlinear evolution. However, it is not clear that semiclassical methods, which start with the classical density and add interference effects, are in fact capable of capturing the revival phenomenon. Here we investigate two different one-dimensional systems, the infinite square well and Morse potential. In both the cases, after a long time the underlying classical manifolds are spread rather uniformly over phase space and are correspondingly spread in coordinate space, yet the semiclassical amplitudes are able to destructively interfere over most of coordinate space and constructively interfere in a small region, correctly reproducing a quantum revival. Further implications of this ability are discussed.

  7. Time trends of incidence of digestive system cancers in changle of China during :1988-2002

    Jun Tian; Jian-Shun Chen


    AIM: To analyze the incidence of digestive system cancer in Changle of China over a 15-year period.METHODS: The datasets were presented as timeseries of China-standardized annual incidence during 1988-2002. Linear regression model was used to analyze the incidence of stomach, liver, esophagus and colorectal cancers.RESULTS: Linear regression models for the time-series of stomach and esophagus cancer incidences for both men and women were statistically significant (P<0.05);Regression models for liver cancer and for colorectal cancer were statistically significant for men (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancers for both men and women had down tendencies. For men, liver cancer had a down trend of the incidence and colorectal cancer had an upward trend of the incidence rate.

  8. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  9. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.


    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  10. Theory of non-equilibrium critical phenomena in three-dimensional condensed systems of charged mobile nanoparticles.

    Kuzovkov, V N; Zvejnieks, G; Kotomin, E A


    A study of 3d electrostatic self-assembly (SA) in systems of charged nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the most difficult theoretical problems. In particular, the limiting case of negligible or very low polar media (e.g. salt) concentration, where the long-range NP interactions cannot be reduced to commonly used effective short-range (Yukawa) potentials, remains unstudied. Moreover, the present study has demonstrated that unlike the Debye-Hückel theory, a complete screening of the charges in SA kinetics (dynamic SA) is not always possible. Generally speaking, one has to take into account implicitly how each NP interacts with all other NPs (the true long-range interactions). Traditional theoretical methods allow us to monitor such electrostatic 3d system kinetics only for very short times, which is far from sufficient for understanding the dynamic SA. In this paper, combining an integrated analytical approach (the non-linear integro-differential kinetic equation for correlation functions) and reverse Monte Carlo in the 3d case, we have obtained a self-consistent solution of this challenging problem. We demonstrate, in particular, the existence of critical points and critical phenomena in the non-equilibrium kinetics in a 3d system of oppositely charged mobile NPs.

  11. Digestion, Excretion and Metabolism, Science (Experimental): 5346.03.

    Weiss, Alan; And Others

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of human physiology with emphasis on the process of digestion. The urinary system and urinary disorders are also discussed. The course is for the interested student and requires credit or background in previous biology programs. It is, in part, a second course in biology, but it is well within the range…

  12. The adaptability of physiological systems optimizes performance: new directions in augmentation

    Alicea, Bradly


    This paper contributes to the human-machine interface community in two ways: as a critique of the closed-loop AC (augmented cognition) approach, and as a way to introduce concepts from complex systems and systems physiology into the field. Examples will be given from human physiology and learning and memory. Finally, the alternate approach presented herein is considered as a preferable design alternate in human-machine systems.

  13. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley


    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  14. Early post-metamorphic, Carboniferous blastoid reveals the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms.

    Rahman, Imran A; Waters, Johnny A; Sumrall, Colin D; Astolfo, Alberto


    Inferring the development of the earliest echinoderms is critical to uncovering the evolutionary assembly of the phylum-level body plan but has long proven problematic because early ontogenetic stages are rarely preserved as fossils. Here, we use synchrotron tomography to describe a new early post-metamorphic blastoid echinoderm from the Carboniferous (approx. 323 Ma) of China. The resulting three-dimensional reconstruction reveals a U-shaped tubular structure in the fossil interior, which is interpreted as the digestive tract. Comparisons with the developing gut of modern crinoids demonstrate that crinoids are an imperfect analogue for many extinct groups. Furthermore, consideration of our findings in a phylogenetic context allows us to reconstruct the evolution and development of the digestive system in echinoderms more broadly; there was a transition from a straight to a simple curved gut early in the phylum's evolution, but additional loops and coils of the digestive tract (as seen in crinoids) were not acquired until much later.

  15. PREFACE: International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences: from Non-living to Living Systems

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Ohta, Hiroto; Murase, Masatoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo


    In this workshop recent advancements in experiments and theories were discussed on magnetism and superconductivity, emergent phenomena in biological material, chemical properties and economic problems of non-living and living systems. The aim of the workshop was to discuss old, but also new problems from a multidisciplinary perspective, and to understand the general features behind diversity in condensed matter physics, experimental chemistry and physics in biology and economic science. The workshop was broadly based, and was titled 'International & Interdisciplinary Workshop on Novel Phenomena in Integrated Complex Sciences from Non-living to Living Systems'. However, the primary focus was on magnetism and superconductivity, and NMR research into strongly correlated electrons. The meeting was held as an ICAM workshop, upon official approval in January 2010. Both young scientists and graduate students were invited. We hope that these young scientists had the chance to talk with invited speakers and organizers on their own interests. We thank the participants who contributed through their presentations, discussions and these papers to the advancement of the subject and our understanding. The proceedings are published here in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series (UK). We thank the International Advisory Committee for their advice and guidance: Evgeny Antipov Moscow State University, Russia Nicholas Curro University of California, Davis, USA Minghu Fang Zhejiang University, China Jurgen Haase University of Leipzig, Germany Takashi Imai McMaster University, Canada Peter Lemmens TU Braunschweig, Germany Herwig Michor Vienna TU, Austria Takamasa Momose University of British Columbia, Canada Raivo Stern NICPB, Estonia Louis Taillefer University of Sherbrooke, Canada Masashi Takigawa University of Tokyo, Japan This workshop was mainly organized by the International Research Unit of Integrated Complex System Science, Kyoto University, and was supported by ICAM

  16. Pretreatment Lymphocyte Monocyte Ratio Predicts Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with Digestive System Tumor: A Meta-Analysis

    Jingwen Zhang


    Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic value of pretreatment lymphocyte monocyte ratio (LMR in digestive system cancer patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to quantify the prognostic impact of this biomarker and assess its consistency in digestive system tumors. Methods. We searched “PubMed,” “Embase,” and “CBM” for published eligible studies before June 2016 and conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs for disease recurrence and mortality focusing on LMR. Subgroup analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Results. A total of 22 cohort studies enrolling 12829 patients with digestive system cancer were included. The summary results showed that lower LMR was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and tumor disease or recurrence-free survival (DFS/RFS in analyses using the studies reporting HRs either by the univariate analyses (HR = 1.32, HR = 1.35, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp. or by multivariate analyses (HR = 1.21, HR = 1.18, and HR = 1.26 for OS, CSS, and DFS/RFS, resp.. Conclusion. Our results support the fact that decreased LMR indicates worse prognosis in multiple digestive system tumors.

  17. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto


    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  18. The isolation and characterization of new C. thermocellum strains and the evaluation of multiple anaerobic digestion systems

    Lv, Wen

    The overall objective of my research was to improve the efficiencies of bioconversions that produce renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass. To this end, my studies addressed issues important to two promising strategies: consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) and anaerobic digestion (AD). CBP achieves saccharolytic enzyme production, hydrolysis, and fermentation in a single step and is considered to be the most cost-effective model. Anaerobic bacteria that can be used in CBP are highly desirable. To that end, two thermophilic and cellulolytic bacterial strains were isolated and characterized (Chapter 3). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, both strains CS7 and CS8 are closely related to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405. However, they had significantly higher specific cellulase activities and ethanol/acetate ratios than C. thermocellum ATCC 27405. As a result, CS7 and CS8 are two new highly cellulolytic and ethanologenic C. thermocellum strains, with application potentials in research and development of CBP. As some of the most promising AD processes, two temperature-phased AD (TPAD) systems, in comparison with a thermophilic single-stage AD (TSAD) system and a mesophilic two-stage AD (MTAD) system, were studied in treating high-strength dairy cattle manure. The TPAD systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified (AT-TPAD, Chapter 4) or operated at neutral pH (NT-TPAD, Chapter 5), were optimized at the thermophilic temperature of 50°C and a volume ratio between the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of 1:2. Despite similar methane productions, the NT-TPAD system achieved significantly higher volatile solid (VS) removal than the AT-TPAD system and needed no external pH adjustments (Chapter 6). At the same overall OLR, the TSAD system achieved the highest performance, followed by the NT-TPAD and the MTAD systems (Chapter 7). Each digester harbored distinct yet dynamic microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated or associated

  19. Anatomy of the Digestive System of Radix sp. (Bassomatophora: Lymnaeidae from Lake Taal, Batangas

    Aileen Joyce Cukingnan


    Full Text Available The digestive anatomy of Radix sp. from Taal Lake, Batangas, Philippines, was studied. The major differences with the other known lymnaeids previously described from the Philippines are found in the radular formula, presence of intestinal caecum, the orientation of the pylorus and the intestine, and the number of loops made by the intestine around the stomach and the digestive gland.

  20. Complex Dynamics in Physiological Systems: From Heart to Brain

    Dana, Syamal K; Kurths, Jürgen


    Nonlinear dynamics has become an important field of research in recent years in many areas of the natural sciences. In particular, it has potential applications in biology and medicine; nonlinear data analysis has helped to detect the progress of cardiac disease, physiological disorders, for example episodes of epilepsy, and others. This book focuses on the current trends of research concerning the prediction of sudden cardiac death and the onset of epileptic seizures, using the nonlinear analysis based on ECG and EEG data. Topics covered include the analysis of cardiac models and neural models. The book is a collection of recent research papers by leading physicists, mathematicians, cardiologists and neurobiologists who are actively involved in using the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to explore the functional behaviours of heart and brain under normal and pathological conditions. This collection is intended for students in physics, mathematics and medical sciences, and researchers in interdisciplinary areas...

  1. Experimental study on supercritical phenomena of WO3 solubility in NaCl-H2O system

    GONG; Qingjie(龚庆杰); CEN; Kuang(岑况); YU; Chongwen(於崇文)


    The solubility measurements of WO3 in NaCl-H2O system with 4.0% by weight salt were carried out to study the supercritical phenomena of solubility. These experiments were carried out using rapid-quench pressure vessels, with quantitative Na2WO4(2H2O, HCl, NaCl and H2O in Pt capsule to determine the solubility of WO3 from supersaturated solution. The pressure was kept at 34 MPa, which was near the critical pressure 31.4 MPa and the temperatures varied from 250℃ to 550℃. The experimental results indicate that the solubility of WO3 has the features of supercritical phenomenon in critical region and is sensitive to the change of system temperature and solvent density. The temperature and pressure in this experiment are close to those of ore-forming fluids in many tungsten deposits, so the features of supercritical geofluids can be helpful to investigating the ore-forming mechanism of tungsten deposit.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Thermal Striping Phenomena in a T-Junction Piping System Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Tanaka, Masa-Aki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Monji, Hideaki

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the simulation code “MUGTHES (MUlti Geometry simulation code for THErmal-hydraulic and Structure heat conduction analysis in boundary fitted coordinate)” has been developed to evaluate thermal striping phenomena that are caused by the turbulence mixing of fluids at different temperatures. In this paper, numerical schemes for thermal-hydraulic simulation employed in MUGTHES are described, including the LES model. A simple method to limit numerical oscillation is adopted in energy equation solutions. A new iterative method to solve the Poisson equation in the BFC system is developed for effective transient calculations. This method is based on the BiCGSTAB method and the SOR technique. As the code validation of MUGTHES, a numerical simulation in a T-junction piping system with the LES approach was conducted. Numerical results related to velocity and fluid temperature distributions were compared with existing water experimental data and the applicability of numerical schemes with the LES model in MUGTHES to the thermal striping phenomenon was confirmed.

  3. CoRes utilization for building PCK in pre-service teacher education on the digestive system topic

    Nugraha, Ikmanda


    Knowledge of teachers in learning activities in the classroom has a close relationship with how well and how much students learn. Recently, a promising development in teacher education has appeared that centers on the academic construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study was an exploratory study into a science teacher education program that seeks to build the foundations on which pre-service teachers can begin to build their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The program involved the use of Content Representations (CoRes), which was initially applied as component of a strategy for exploring and gaining insights into the PCK of in-service science teachers. This study involved the researcher and 20 students (third year) in a pre-service teacher education course (School Science I) in science education when the students worked to make content analysis on the digestive system topic. During the course, the students make their own CoRes through a workshop for digestive system topic individually, in pairs and whole class discussion. Data were recorded from students' CoRes, student reflective journals, interviews, and field notes recorded in the researcher's reflective journal. Pre-service teachers' comments from interviews and reflective journals were coded in relation to references about: (1) the effectiveness of variety strategies in building the knowledge bases required to design a CoRes and (2) their awareness and/or development of tentative components of future PCK for a digestive system topic as a result of CoRes construction. Observational data were examined for indications of increasing independence and competency on the part of student teachers when locating appropriate information for designing their CoRes. From this study, it is hoped that the pre-service science teachers are able to build knowledge and then transform it into a form of PCK for digestive system topic for their first classroom planning and teaching to teach digestive system

  4. Size and diffusion phenomena of AOT/alcohol/water system in the presence of morin by dynamic light scattering.

    Bhattarai, Ajaya; Wilczura-Wachnik, Hanna


    Presented paper is a continuation of our studies on morin interaction with AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) reversed micelles solutions in two solvents: ethanol and n-decanol. Now we focused on morin influence on size and diffusion phenomena in the system morin/solvent/AOT/water. In this paper precise measurements of dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the effects of temperature, solvents (alcohols), water on the size and diffusion of AOT reversed micelles in the morin/AOT/alcohol/water system are reported. The concentrations of AOT were varied from 0.51 to 0.78mol/L. Morin concentration in during auto-correlation function registration was not the same in each solvent because of its different solubility depending on the solvent. Water concentration in the studied systems was defined by R parameter according to relation: R=(H2O)/(AOT) and was equal 0 and 30 in ethanol, and 0 in n-decanol. DLS measurements were done at 298.15 and 308.15K. DLS experiment involved on detection two relaxation modes (fast and slow) in the systems containing AOT reversed micelles, water, morin and solvents (ethanol and n-decanol). The DLS data clearly show the solvent influence as well as morin presence on AOT reversed micelles size and consequently their diffusion coefficients. Contrary to n-decanol strong competition between morin and ethanol molecules in AOT reversed micelles palisade layer has been found. It suggests that morin molecules replaced ethanol in AOT reversed micelles and locate in their palisade layer strongly increasing AOT reversed micelles size. Furthermore, it was found a sharp increase in correlation radii of slow modes of AOT reversed micelles containing morin molecules and their diffusion coefficients diminishing.

  5. Highlights of pancreatobiliary endoscopy in international digestive endoscopy network 2012: how much has it advanced?

    Dong, Seok Ho


    The pancreatobiliary organ is composed of one of the most complicated structures and complex physiological functions among other digestive organs in our body. This is why endoscopic procedure in pancreaticobiliary system requires rather complicated techniques. In International Digestive Endoscopy Network (IDEN) 2012, many interesting pancreatobiliay endoscopy related topics were presented. Basic procedures like endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD), advanced techniques like endoscopic necrosectomy, prevention and management of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and spyglass system are reviewed in this highlight summary.

  6. Dynamical assessment of physiological systems and states using recurrence plot strategies.

    Webber, C L; Zbilut, J P


    Physiological systems are best characterized as complex dynamical processes that are continuously subjected to and updated by nonlinear feedforward and feedback inputs. System outputs usually exhibit wide varieties of behaviors due to dynamical interactions between system components, external noise perturbations, and physiological state changes. Complicated interactions occur at a variety of hierarchial levels and involve a number of interacting variables, many of which are unavailable for experimental measurement. In this paper we illustrate how recurrence plots can take single physiological measurements, project them into multidimensional space by embedding procedures, and identify time correlations (recurrences) that are not apparent in the one-dimensional time series. We extend the original description of recurrence plots by computing an array of specific recurrence variables that quantify the deterministic structure and complexity of the plot. We then demonstrate how physiological states can be assessed by making repeated recurrence plot calculations within a window sliding down any physiological dynamic. Unlike other predominant time series techniques, recurrence plot analyses are not limited by data stationarity and size constraints. Pertinent physiological examples from respiratory and skeletal motor systems illustrate the utility of recurrence plots in the diagnosis of nonlinear systems. The methodology is fully applicable to any rhythmical system, whether it be mechanical, electrical, neural, hormonal, chemical, or even spacial.

  7. Experimental Study of the Effect of Graphite Dispersion on the Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    Vaghetto, Rodolfo; Capone, Luigi; Hassan, Yassin A


    An experimental activity was performed to observe and study the effects of graphite dispersion and deposition on thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The small-scale RCCS experimental facility (16.5 x 16.5 x 30.4 cm) used for this activity represents half of the reactor cavity with an electrically heated vessel. Water flowing through five vertical pipes removes the heat produced in the vessel and releases it into the environment by mixing with cold water in a large tank. The particle image velocimetry technique was used to study the velocity field of the air inside the cavity. A set of 52 thermocouples was installed in the facility to monitor the temperature profiles of the vessel, pipe walls, and air. Ten grams of a fine graphite powder (average particle size 2 m) was injected into the cavity through a spraying nozzle placed at the bottom of the vessel. The temperatures and air velocity field were recorded and compared with the measurements obtained before the graphite dispersion, showing a decrease of the temperature surfaces that was related to an increase in their emissivity. The results contribute to the understanding of RCCS capability in an accident scenario.

  8. A New Coupled CFD/Neutron Kinetics System for High Fidelity Simulations of LWR Core Phenomena: Proof of Concept

    Jorge Pérez Mañes


    Full Text Available The Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT is investigating the application of the meso- and microscale analysis for the prediction of local safety parameters for light water reactors (LWR. By applying codes like CFD (computational fluid dynamics and SP3 (simplified transport reactor dynamics it is possible to describe the underlying phenomena in a more accurate manner than by the nodal/coarse 1D thermal hydraulic coupled codes. By coupling the transport (SP3 based neutron kinetics (NK code DYN3D with NEPTUNE-CFD, within a parallel MPI-environment, the NHESDYN platform is created. The newly developed system will allow high fidelity simulations of LWR fuel assemblies and cores. In NHESDYN, a heat conduction solver, SYRTHES, is coupled to NEPTUNE-CFD. The driver module of NHESDYN controls the sequence of execution of the solvers as well as the communication between the solvers based on MPI. In this paper, the main features of NHESDYN are discussed and the proof of the concept is done by solving a single pin problem. The prediction capability of NHESDYN is demonstrated by a code-to-code comparison with the DYNSUB code. Finally, the future developments and validation efforts are highlighted.

  9. [Current state of digestive system robotic surgery in the light of evidence based medicine].

    Ortiz Oshiro, Elena; Fernández-Represa, Jesús Alvarez


    The incorporation of robotics in minimally invasive surgery has had mixed reception in the different fields of digestive surgery. Nowadays we are exposed to a continuous stream of publications on robotic approach techniques and outcomes, which do not always provide objective criteria and whose value, through scientific evidence analysis, is sometimes arguable. With the aim of shedding light on current knowledge on digestive robotic surgery and giving an update of its possibilities, the authors analyse the abundant literature available on the different digestive robotic surgery procedures, and sum up their own experience.

  10. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.


    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study...... potential to create foam in a manure digester. Moreover, high organic loading of lipids and protein, and high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids also showed a strong tendency to create foaming during anaerobic digestion. Due to their great ability to stabilize foam, high organic loadings of Na...

  11. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P


    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  12. An off-the-shelf sensing system for physiological phosphates.

    Mallet, Alie M; Liu, Yuanli; Bonizzoni, Marco


    An off-the-shelf supramolecular sensing system was designed to discriminate biologically relevant phosphates in neutral water using multivariate data analysis. The system is based on an indicator displacement assay comprising only two unmodified commercially available components: a dendritic poly-electrolyte and a common fluorescent dye. Effective discrimination of nucleotide diphosphates and inorganic diphosphate was achieved through principal component analysis (PCA).

  13. [Endocannabinoid system and energy metabolism: physiology and pathophysiology].

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato


    The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system has recently been shown to control several metabolic functions by acting on peripheral tissues, such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the skeletal muscles and the endocrine pancreas. The relevance of the system is further strengthened by the notion that visceral obesity seems to be a condition in which an overactivation of the endocannabinoid system occurs, therefore drugs interfering with this overactivation by blocking CB1 receptor are considered as valuable candidates for the treatment of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors.

  14. Central nervous system physiology of electroreception, a review.

    Bell, C C


    There are several reasons why one can expect that the study of electric fish may prove instructive about general mechanisms of sensory processing and neuronal integration. These reasons include the following: the simplicity of the electrical signals which are the normal input and output; the availability of a variety of stereotyped behaviors to characterize the system as a whole; the case with which individual receptors or primary afferents can be activated; the demonstrated presence of corollary discharge and reafference mechanisms for motor control over sensory input; the presence of highly specialized CNS structures which have evolved to meet the unusual demands of the electrosensory system. Work relating to these and other aspects of the electrosensory systems is discussed with an emphasis on the potential which these systems offer.

  15. The anatomy and physiology of the locomotor system.

    Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles

    Mobilisation is one of the activities of living. The term locomotor system refers to those body tissues and organs responsible for movement. Nurses and healthcare workers should be familiar with the body structures that enable mobilisation to assist those in their care with this activity. This article outlines the structure and function of the locomotor system, including the skeleton, joints, muscles and muscle attachments. Two common bone disorders, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are also considered.

  16. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor.

    Sejdić, E; Millecamps, A; Teoli, J; Rothfuss, M A; Franconi, N G; Perera, S; Jones, A K; Brach, J S; Mickle, M H


    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18-35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults.

  17. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    E Prabhakar Reddy


    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  18. Small Fish Species as Powerful Model Systems to Study Vertebrate Physiology in Space

    Muller, M.; Aceto, J.; Dalcq, J.; Alestrom, P.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Goerlich, R.; Schiller, V.; Winkler, C.; Renn, J.; Eberius, M.; Slenzka, K.


    Small fish models, mainly zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes), have been used for many years as powerful model systems for vertebrate developmental biology. Moreover, these species are increasingly recognized as valuable systems to study vertebrate physiology, pathology, pharmacology and toxicology, including in particular bone physiology. The biology of small fishes presents many advantages, such as transparency of the embryos, external and rapid development, small size and easy reproduction. Further characteristics are particularly useful for space research or for large scale screening approaches. Finally, many technologies for easily characterizing bones are available. Our objective is to investigate the changes induced by microgravity in small fish. By combining whole genome analysis (microarray, DNA methylation, chromatin modification) with live imaging of selected genes in transgenic animals, a comprehensive and integrated characterization of physiological changes in space could be gained, especially concerning bone physiology.

  19. Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein

    Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Knulst, Andre; Wagner, Stefan; Scheiner, Otto; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Breiteneder, Heimo


    Kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. Digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (Act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of fo

  20. Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems.

    Janaswamy, Srinivas


    Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds.

  1. Spare capacity and phenotypic flexibility in the digestive system of a migratory bird: defining the limits of animal design.

    McWilliams, Scott R; Karasov, William H


    Flexible phenotypes enable animals to live in environments that change over space and time, and knowing the limits to and the required time scale for this flexibility provides insights into constraints on energy and nutrient intake, diet diversity and niche width. We quantified the level of immediate and ultimate spare capacity, and thus the extent of phenotypic flexibility, in the digestive system of a migratory bird in response to increased energy demand, and identified the digestive constraints responsible for the limits on sustained energy intake. Immediate spare capacity decreased from approximately 50% for birds acclimated to relatively benign temperatures to less than 20% as birds approached their maximum sustainable energy intake. Ultimate spare capacity enabled an increase in feeding rate of approximately 126% as measured in birds acclimated for weeks at -29°C compared with +21°C. Increased gut size and not tissue-specific differences in nutrient uptake or changes in digestive efficiency or retention time were primarily responsible for this increase in capacity with energy demand, and this change required more than 1-2 days. Thus, the pace of change in digestive organ size may often constrain energy intake and, for birds, retard the pace of their migration.

  2. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  3. A versatile physiological data analysis system using an Intel 8080 microprocessor.

    Hyde, D; Nice, E G; Oakley, P J


    A microprocessor based physiological data processor has been realised. The system controls the data flow from physiological experiments and performs on-line mean and variance calculations with an output in graphical form. The analyser accepts one data point every 0.5 ms and has a capacity of 128 records each containing 800 data points. Post stimulus histogram and interval histogram analysis programs have also been written and implemented.

  4. Study of pathological changes in digestive system of domestic pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city

    M. G. Saeed


    Full Text Available One hundred diseased cases of pigeons (Columba livia in Mosul city were examined, 67 birds (67% showed pathologicallesions in digestive system. Most of the gross and histopathological lesions occurred in intestine (29.3% followed byoropharynx, liver, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, and pancreas the values (20.8%, 16.6%, 12.5%, 10.4%, 6.2%, 4.2%respectively. Gross lesions of intestine showed severe tape worms infestation with petechial hemorrhage in some cases,histopathologically there were catarrhal enteritis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis were less, and desquamation of mucosawith bacterial colonies. Gross lesions of oropharynx, esophagus and crop in most cases were yellow caseated masses ornecrotic material. In some cases white diphtheritic membrane with thickening of mucosa in esophagus, crop and proventriculuswere founded, petichial hemorrhage on the mucosa of proventriculus were less some cases. Histopathological lesions oforopharynx and esophagus were thickening of mucosa and presence of necrotic caseated foci on the submucosa. In crop therewere epithelial hyperplasia and in some cases infiltration of inflammatory cells with cocobacilli bacteria and desquamation ofepithelial cells were founded. In proventriculus desquamation and necrosis of epithelial cells of mucus glands with infiltrationof inflammatory cells. Gross lesions in liver and pancreas were limited represented by enlargement and congestion, histopathologically coagulative necrosis of hepatic cells with cocobacilli bacteria, pancreas showed two types of inflammationone was non-suppurative and another was suppurative.

  5. Integrated system for remotely monitoring critical physiological parameters

    Alexakis, S.; Karalis, S.; Asvestas, P.


    Monitoring several human parameters (temperature, heart rate, blood pressure etc.) is an essential task in health care in hospitals as well as in home care. This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated, embedded system that includes an electrocardiograph of nine leads and two channels, a digital thermometer for measuring the body temperature and a power supply. The system provides networking capabilities (wired or wireless) and is accessible by means of a web interface that allows the user to select the leads, as well as to review the values of heart rate (beats per minute) and body temperature. Furthermore, there is the option of saving all the data in a Micro SD memory card or in a Google Spreadsheet. The necessary analog circuits for signal conditioning (amplification and filtering) were manufactured on printed circuit boards (PCB). The system was built around Arduino Yun, which is a platform that contains a microcontroller and a microprocessor running a special LINUX distribution. Furthermore, the Arduino Yun provides the necessary network connectivity capabilities by means of the integrated Wi-Fi and Ethernet interfaces. The web interface was developed using HTML pages with JavaScript support. The system was tested on simulated data as well as real data, providing satisfactory accuracy regarding the measurement of the heart rate (±3 bpm error) and the temperature (±0.3°C error).

  6. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md


    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  7. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F


    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Changes of nitric oxide system and lipid peroxidation parameters in the digestive system of rats under conditions of acute stress, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Fomenko Iryna


    Full Text Available The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in combination with being physiologically stressed often occurs in in the course of different pathologies. This situation may result in the alteration of digestive system functioning. The effect of stress brings about changes in the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, arginase, cyclooxygenase (COX and lipid peroxidation, whereas the use of NSAIDs interrupts the multiple functions of the cell via the inhibition of prostaglandins (PGs synthesis. Taking into account that NOS and COX-systems are connected in their regulation, the aim of the study was to determine the role played by NOS and lipid peroxidation under conditions of the combined action of NSAIDs and stress. In our study, male rats were used. The NSAIDs (naproxen - a non-selective COX inhibitor, celecoxib - a selective COX-2 blocker, and the compound 2A5DHT (which is the active substance of dual COX, and the lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitor, darbufelone were all administered at a dose 10 mg/kg, prior to water restraint stress (WRS. WRS brought about an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosal and muscular membranes, as well as in the pancreas. Because of this, constitutive NOS izoform (cNOS and arginase activities decreased. Moreover, the MDA concentration increased, indicating the development of oxidative stress. In our work, pretreatment with naproxen, as in the WRS model, engendered a decrease in iNOS activity. What is more, administration of Celecoxib did not change iNOS activity, as compared to WRS alone, and it showed a tendency to reduce lipid peroxidation. In addition, 2A5DHT prior WRS brought about a decrease of iNOS activity, with the subsequent rise of cNOS activity. Of note, MDA concentration decreased in all studied organs, indicating the reduction of lipid peroxidation under the action of the darbufelone active substance.

  9. Apple biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and in postharvest according to production system

    Carlos Roberto Martins


    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala', and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'. The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

  10. Development of a portable multi-channel system for plant physiological signal recording

    Ting Li


    Full Text Available Bioelectrical signals can reflect physiological state of organs or tissues in plants and have a significant potential value in research of plant stress tolerance. In order to study the relationship between environment factors and electrical signals in plant, a portable multi-channel physiological signal acquisition system which relevant in plant physiology research was developed. Environment parameters and electrical signals can be measured in different channels by the acquisition system simultaneously and the measurement data will be displayed in an embedded integrated touch screen which is the system processing core. The system was validated to be stable and reliable after the calibration and repeated experiments of recording electrical signals in Helianthus annuus L.

  11. Method and System for Physiologically Modulating Videogames and Simulations which Use Gesture and Body Image Sensing Control Input Devices

    Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Stephens, Chad L. (Inventor); Habowski, Tyler (Inventor)


    Method for physiologically modulating videogames and simulations includes utilizing input from a motion-sensing video game system and input from a physiological signal acquisition device. The inputs from the physiological signal sensors are utilized to change the response of a user's avatar to inputs from the motion-sensing sensors. The motion-sensing system comprises a 3D sensor system having full-body 3D motion capture of a user's body. This arrangement encourages health-enhancing physiological self-regulation skills or therapeutic amplification of healthful physiological characteristics. The system provides increased motivation for users to utilize biofeedback as may be desired for treatment of various conditions.

  12. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B


    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  13. Anatomy and physiology of the afferent visual system.

    Prasad, Sashank; Galetta, Steven L


    The efficient organization of the human afferent visual system meets enormous computational challenges. Once visual information is received by the eye, the signal is relayed by the retina, optic nerve, chiasm, tracts, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic radiations to the striate cortex and extrastriate association cortices for final visual processing. At each stage, the functional organization of these circuits is derived from their anatomical and structural relationships. In the retina, photoreceptors convert photons of light to an electrochemical signal that is relayed to retinal ganglion cells. Ganglion cell axons course through the optic nerve, and their partial decussation in the chiasm brings together corresponding inputs from each eye. Some inputs follow pathways to mediate pupil light reflexes and circadian rhythms. However, the majority of inputs arrive at the lateral geniculate nucleus, which relays visual information via second-order neurons that course through the optic radiations to arrive in striate cortex. Feedback mechanisms from higher cortical areas shape the neuronal responses in early visual areas, supporting coherent visual perception. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the afferent visual system, in combination with skilled examination, allows precise localization of neuropathological processes and guides effective diagnosis and management of neuro-ophthalmic disorders.

  14. Are the collective phenomena a universal feature of the hadronic matter created in p-p, p-A and A-A colliding systems?

    Flores, Eleazar Cuautle


    Collective phenomena in ion-ion collisions are well-known, but the research in small systems, like proton-proton and proton-lead, is starting both from the experimental and theoretical side. In this paper, we present a short review of the most important observables related to flow, as well as phenomenological results to explain the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider results. Different variables and their relations to collectivity in small systems are discussed.

  15. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    Joonyoung Jung


    Full Text Available We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discovery and installation, reliable data transmission, device access control, and a healthcare profile for ubiquitous healthcare system.

  16. Student Response (Clicker) Systems: Preferences of Biomedical Physiology Students in Asian Classes

    Hwang, Isabel; Wong, Kevin; Lam, Shun Leung; Lam, Paul


    Student response systems (commonly called "clickers") are valuable tools for engaging students in classroom interactions. In this study, we investigated the use of two types of response systems (a traditional clicker and a mobile device) by students in human physiology courses. Our results showed high student satisfaction with the use of…

  17. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus.

    Minekus, M; Alminger, M; Alvito, P; Ballance, S; Bohn, T; Bourlieu, C; Carrière, F; Boutrou, R; Corredig, M; Dupont, D; Dufour, C; Egger, L; Golding, M; Karakaya, S; Kirkhus, B; Le Feunteun, S; Lesmes, U; Macierzanka, A; Mackie, A; Marze, S; McClements, D J; Ménard, O; Recio, I; Santos, C N; Singh, R P; Vegarud, G E; Wickham, M S J; Weitschies, W; Brodkorb, A


    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of nutrients and non-nutrients or the digestibility of macronutrients (e.g. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) are used for screening and building new hypotheses. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization. Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. their mixtures (e.g. pancreatin and bile salts), and the ratio of food bolus to digestive fluids, have also been discussed at length. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiologically relevant conditions that can be applied for various endpoints, which may be amended to accommodate further specific requirements. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes. This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the production of more comparable data in the future.

  18. Insights into bread melanoidins: fate in the upper digestive tract and impact on the gut microbiota using in vitro systems.

    Helou, Cynthia; Denis, Sylvain; Spatz, Madeleine; Marier, David; Rame, Véronique; Alric, Monique; Tessier, Frédéric J; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale


    Bread melanoidins are heterogeneous, nitrogen-containing, brown macromolecules generated during the last stages of the Maillard reaction in bread. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact and fate of these bread melanoidins in the human gastrointestinal tract using in vitro systems. Batch systems as well as the TNO gastrointestinal tract were used for studying the digestion of various bread samples. These samples included bread crumb, bread crust and two bread-crust-simulating models: a fiber-free model (gluten, starch and glucose heated together) and its control, free of Maillard reaction products (gluten heated separately than starch and glucose). Furthermore, the impact of these two bread-crust-simulating models on the gut microbiota was assessed using a static anaerobic batch system. Bread melanoidins from bread crust and its model were shown to be partially digested by amylases and proteases, suggesting that these melanoidins have peptidic as well as glycosidic bonds in their skeleton. The impact of bread melanoidins from the bread-crust-simulating models and their digestion products on the gut microbiota revealed an individual-dependent response for most flora except for enterobacteria. This flora decreased by -22%, -48% & -100% depending on the individual. Thus, bread melanoidins seem to exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting enterobacteria.

  19. An integrative approach to space-flight physiology using systems analysis and mathematical simulation

    Leonard, J. I.; White, R. J.; Rummel, J. A.


    An approach was developed to aid in the integration of many of the biomedical findings of space flight, using systems analysis. The mathematical tools used in accomplishing this task include an automated data base, a biostatistical and data analysis system, and a wide variety of mathematical simulation models of physiological systems. A keystone of this effort was the evaluation of physiological hypotheses using the simulation models and the prediction of the consequences of these hypotheses on many physiological quantities, some of which were not amenable to direct measurement. This approach led to improvements in the model, refinements of the hypotheses, a tentative integrated hypothesis for adaptation to weightlessness, and specific recommendations for new flight experiments.

  20. Cosmic rays and other space phenomena dangerous for the Earth's civilization: Foundation of cosmic ray warning system and beginning steps

    Lev, Dorman


    difference between consequences Alerts became much smaller than errors. In our report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Weather Effects Influenced on Satellites Operation, Technologies, Biosphere and People Health" it was shown that very important element of Space Weather, influenced on satellites operation, technologies, and people health are strong magnetic storms, accompanied usually by CR Forbush effects. We discuss here on the possibility to include in the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" possibility to forecast this phenomenon, also dangerous for the Earth's Civilization. In the report "Cosmic Rays and other Space Phenomena Influenced on the Earth's Climate" on this Conference it was shown that very big changes in climate, dangerous for the Earth's Civilization, are caused by interactions of Solar system with molecular-dust clouds (caused the Great Ice Periods during many thousand years). Very dangerous for the Earth's Civilization are also nearby supernova explosions with great influence on biosphere and climate. We show that by CR data in the frame of "Cosmic Ray Warning System" is possible to forecast for many years before starting these dangerous phenomena, so the Earth's Civilization will have enough time for preparing to the new type of life. For this forecasting we need to add to the "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in near future several CR stations for continue measuring CR with much higher energies (1013 - 1014 eV). We hope to organize the mostly automatic working "Cosmic Ray Warning System" in cooperation with Azerbaijan, Israel, and many CR stations in the World. The Project will be open for any country and organizations (ESA, NASA and so on) and will be start as soon as possible. In the first 3 - 5 years we hope that forecasting of radiation hazards will be made fully automatically as it was described in this report. In the next 5-10 years the Project will be expanded for forecasting dangerous magnetic storms (in this case we need to use also muon telescopes data), and

  1. Evaluating a model of anaerobic digestion of organic wastes through system identification

    Anex, R.P.; Kiely, G.


    Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), on its own or co-digested with primary sewage sludge (PSS), produces high quality biogas, suitable as renewable energy. Parameter estimation and evaluation of a two-stage mathematical model of the anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of MSW and PSS are described. Measured data are from a bench scale laboratory experiment using a continuously stirred tank reactor and operated at 36 C for 115 days. The two-stage model simulates acidogenesis and methanogenesis, including ammonia inhibition. Model parameters are estimated using an output error, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Sensitivity of the estimated parameter values and the model outputs to non-estimated model parameters and measurement errors are evaluated. The estimated mathematical model successfully predicts the performance of the anaerobic reactor. Sensitivity results provide guidance for improving the model structure and experimental procedures.

  2. Coupling System for Food Wastes Anaerobic Digestion and Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production with Ralstonia eutropha


    A new technology was developed to couple the anaerobic digestion of food wastes with production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids were produced during food wastes anaerobic digestion and their concentrations reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4 and 32.7 g/L, respectively under appropriate digestion conditions. The fermentative acids were transferred through a dialysis membrane to an air-lift reactor for PHA synthesis by Ralstonia eutropha. Dry cell concentration and PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6%, respectively. The obtained PHA was a copolymer of (-hydroxybutyrate (HB) and (-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8% (mole ratio) of HV units in polymer.

  3. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors


    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by high level of ammonia (NH4 +/I\\IH3) is the most serious problem existing in biogas plants. No viable/applicable method to overcome this problem has been found up to now. This invention proposes an innovative submersible bio-electrochemical membrane...... reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...

  4. Microscopic morphology and histochemistry of the digestive system of a tropical freshwater fish Trichomycterus brasiliensis (Lütken (Siluroidei, Trichomycteridae

    Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The digestive system of Trichomycterus brasiliensis (Lütken, 1874, a small sized tropical Teleostean fish widely distributed in South America, was studied. Tissue samples were prepared for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Trichomycterus brasiliensis shows stratified esophagus epithelium with taste buds and goblet cells with neutral and acid mucus at the anterior region. The stomach is caecal, presenting a pyloric valve with neutral mucus cells. At the terminal portion it is surrounded by a thick muscular wall. The intestine shows two loops; the epithelium is single columnar, with acid and neutral mucus in goblet cells. Multicellular intestinal glands are absent. Granular cells are often seen in the mucosa, less in the submucosa but were not observed in the muscularis. After the intestine-rectal valve, the rectum shows lower mucosal folds, more goblet cells and a thicker muscularis. No lobes were observed at the liver. Small regions of pancreatic tissue may be identified within the hepatic tissue mainly surrounding vessels and ducts. A compact pancreas may also be observed ventrally to the stomach and covering the bile duct. The possible significance of the heterogeneous character of the digestive tube mucosubstances is discussed. The digestive system of T. brasiliensis presents structural characteristics of a predator fish.

  5. Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.

  6. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos


    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values ABO (X(2): 2.635; p-value=0.451), Secretor (X(2): 0.056; p-value=0.812) or Lewis (X(2): 2.092; p-value=0.351) histo-blood group phenotypes between patients and controls. However, B plus AB Secretor phenotypes were prevalent in pooled data from megaesophagus and megacolon patients (OR: 5.381; 95% CI: 1.230-23.529; p-value=0.011; pc=0.022) in comparison to A plus O Secretor phenotypes. The tissue antigen variability resulting from the combined action of ABO and Secretor histo-blood systems is associated with the digestive forms of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  7. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    A. R. Sajjadinia


    Full Text Available Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The results showed that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis active radiation (PAR and water use efficiency were higher in aquaponics compared to hydroponics, while, stomatal resistance and leaf surface temperature were higher in hydroponics. However, there was no significant difference in leaf surface temperature in hydroponics and aquaponics. It seems that due to better eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in aquaponics, its growth and development will be better in this system.

  8. Spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.T. van; Moll, H.C.


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can play an important role in achieving renewable goals set within the Netherlands which strives for 40 PJ bio-energy in the year 2020. This research focusses on reaching this goal with locally available biomass waste flows (e.g. manures, grasses, harvest remains, municipal

  9. Effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming in manure digestion systems

    Boe, Kanokwan; Kougias, Panagiotis; Pacheco, F.


    Manure contains several compounds that can potentially cause foaming during anaerobic digestion. Understanding the effect of substrates and intermediate compounds on foaming tendency and stability could facilitate strategies for foaming prevention and recovery of the process. In this study, the e......-oleate or gelatine were considered to be the main potential foaming problem....

  10. Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization.

    Barboza, P S; Bennett, A; Lignot, J-H; Mackie, R I; McWhorter, T J; Secor, S M; Skovgaard, N; Sundset, M A; Wang, T


    The digestive system is the interface between the supply of food for an animal and the demand for energy and nutrients to maintain the body, to grow, and to reproduce. Digestive systems are not morphologically static but rather dynamically respond to changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the diet and the level of food intake. In this article, we discuss three themes that affect the ability of an animal to alter digestive function in relation to novel substrates and changing food supply: (1) the fermentative digestion in herbivores, (2) the integration of cardiopulmonary and digestive functions, and (3) the evolution of dietary specialization. Herbivores consume, digest, and detoxify complex diets by using a wide variety of enzymes expressed by bacteria, predominantly in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Carnivores, such as snakes that feed intermittently, sometimes process very large meals that require compensatory adjustments in blood flow, acid secretion, and regulation of acid-base homeostasis. Snakes and birds that specialize in simple diets of prey or nectar retain their ability to digest a wider selection of prey. The digestive system continues to be of interest to comparative physiologists because of its plasticity, both phenotypic and evolutionary, and because of its widespread integration with other physiological systems, including thermoregulation, circulation, ventilation, homeostasis, immunity, and reproduction.

  11. The attachment system and physiology in adulthood: normative processes, individual differences, and implications for health.

    Robles, Theodore F; Kane, Heidi S


    Attachment theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding intersections between personality and close relationships in adulthood. Moreover, attachment has implications for stress-related physiology and physical health. We review work on normative processes and individual differences in the attachment behavioral system, as well as their associations with biological mechanisms related to health outcomes. We highlight the need for more basic research on normative processes and physiology and discuss our own research on individual differences in attachment and links with physiology. We then describe a novel perspective on attachment and physiology, wherein stress-related physiological changes may also be viewed as supporting the social-cognitive and emotion regulatory functions of the attachment system through providing additional energy to the brain, which has implications for eating behavior and health. We close by discussing our work on individual differences in attachment and restorative processes, including sleep and skin repair, and by stressing the importance of developing biologically plausible models for describing how attachment may impact chronic illness.

  12. The Effect of Digestion and Drug Load on Halofantrine Absorption from Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS)

    Michaelsen, Maria Hotoft; Wasan, Kishor M.; Sivak, Olena


    A super-saturated self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (super-SNEDDS), containing the poorly water-soluble drug halofantrine (Hf) at 150% of equilibrium solubility (Seq), was compared in vitro and in vivo with a conventional SNEDDS (75% of Seq) with respect to bioavailability and digestibility....... Further, the effect of digestion on oral absorption of Hf from SNEDDS and super-SNEDDS was assessed by incorporation of the lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat) into the SNEDDS. The SNEDDS contained soybean oil/Maisine 34-I (1:1), Kolliphor RH40, and ethanol at a ratio of 55:35:10, w/w percent....... For the dynamic in vitro lipolysis, the precipitation of Hf at 60 min was significantly larger for the super-SNEDDS (66.8 ± 16.4%) than for the SNEDDS (18.5 ± 9.2%). The inhibition of the in vitro digestion by orlistat (1% (w/w)) lowered drug precipitation significantly for both the super-SNEDDS (36.8 ± 1...

  13. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P


    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  14. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P


    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  15. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  16. Case Studies in a Physiology Course on the Autonomic Nervous System: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Zimmermann, Martina


    The introduction of case studies on the autonomic nervous system in a fourth-semester physiology course unit for Pharmacy students is described in this article. This article considers how these case studies were developed and presents their content. Moreover, it reflects on their implementation and, finally, the reception of such a transformation…

  17. Preliminary Study on Establishing the New System of Assessment and Evaluation Of "Athletic Physiology"

    Qian, Liu


    In the light of the problems existing in assessment of the course of "athletic physiology" in universities at present, this article makes reflections upon the assessment mode of students for this course and takes a general survey on development of the evaluation system by comprehensively employing both the quantitative method and…

  18. Case Studies in a Physiology Course on the Autonomic Nervous System: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Zimmermann, Martina


    The introduction of case studies on the autonomic nervous system in a fourth-semester physiology course unit for Pharmacy students is described in this article. This article considers how these case studies were developed and presents their content. Moreover, it reflects on their implementation and, finally, the reception of such a transformation…

  19. Dark fermentation, anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells: An integrated system to valorize swine manure and rice bran.

    Schievano, Andrea; Sciarria, Tommy Pepè; Gao, Yong Chang; Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Zanardo, Marina; Quiao, Wei; Dong, Renjie; Adani, Fabrizio


    This work describes how dark fermentation (DF), anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial fuel cells (MFC) and solid-liquid separation can be integrated to co-produce valuable biochemicals (hydrogen and methane), bioelectricity and biofertilizers. Two integrated systems (System 1: AD+MFC, and System 2: DF+AD+MFC) are described and compared to a traditional one-stage AD system in converting a mixture (COD=124±8.1gO2kg(-1)Fresh Matter) of swine manure and rice bran. System 1 gave a biomethane yield of 182 LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, while System 2 gave L yields of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane of 27.3±7.2LH2kg(-1)COD-added and 154±14LCH4kg(-1)COD-added, respectively. A solid-liquid separation (SLS) step was applied to the digested slurry, giving solid and liquid fractions. The liquid fraction was treated via the MFC-steps, showing power densities of 12-13Wm(-3) (500Ω) and average bioelectricity yields of 39.8Whkg(-1)COD to 54.2Whkg(-1)COD.

  20. Using a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the energetic value of corn for ducks.

    Zhao, F; Zhang, L; Mi, B M; Zhang, H F; Hou, S S; Zhang, Z Y


    Two experiments were conducted to develop a computer-controlled digestion system to simulate the digestion process of duck for predicting the concentration of ME and the metabolizability of gross energy (GE) in corn. In a calibration experiment, 30 corn-based calibration samples with a previously published ME concentration in 2008 were used to develop the prediction models for in vivo energetic values. The linear relationships were established between in vivo ME concentration and in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) concentration, and between in vivo metabolizability of GE (ME/GE) and in vitro digestibility of GE (IVDE/GE), respectively. In a validation experiment, 6 sources of corn with previously published ME concentration in 2008 randomly selected from the primary corn-growing regions of China were used to validate the prediction models established in the calibration experiment. The results showed that in calibration samples, the IVDE concentration was positively correlated with the AME (r = 0.9419), AMEn (r = 0.9480), TME (r = 0.9403), and TMEn concentration (r = 0.9473). Similarly, the IVDE/GE was positively correlated with the AME/GE (r = 0.95987), AMEn/GE (r = 0.9641), TME/GE (r = 0.9588), and TMEn/GE (r = 0.9637). The coefficient of determination greater than 0.88 and 0.91, and residual SD less than 45 kcal/kg of DM and 1.01% were observed in the prediction models for ME concentrations and ME/GE, respectively. Twenty-nine out of 30 calibration samples showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2.4% between determined and predicted values for 4 ME (AME, AMEn, TME, and TMEn) and for 4 ME/GE (AME/GE, AMEn/GE, TME/GE, and TMEn/GE), respectively. Using prediction models developed from 30 calibration samples, 6 validation samples further showed differences less than 100 kcal/kg of DM and 2% between determined and predicted values for ME and ME/GE, respectively. Therefore, the computer-controlled simulated digestion system can be used to predict the ME and ME

  1. Transport phenomena in a high pressure crystal growth system: In situ synthesis for InP melt

    Zhang, H.; Prasad, V.; Anselmo, A. P.; Bliss, D. F.; Iseler, G.


    The physical phenomena underlying the "one-step" in situ synthesis and high pressure growth of indium phosphide crystals are complex. A high resolution computer model based on multizone adaptive grid generation and curvilinear finite volume discretization is used to predict the flow and temperature fields during the synthesis of the InP melt. Simulations are performed for a range of parameters, including Grashof number, crucible rotation, and location of the injector. These parameters affect the gas flow in a high pressure liquid-encapsulated Czochralski (HPLEC) furnace significantly, and have a strong influence on the melt synthesis and its control.

  2. An Identification Method of Magnetizing Inrush Current Phenomena in Distribution System using with Aitken's Δ2-process

    Ozeki, Takayuki; Naitoh, Tadashi; Toyama, Atsushi; Satoh, Kohki; Takeda, Keiki; Ohta, Fumihiko

    In this paper, the authors propose an improved identification method of the magnetizing inrush current phenomena. To improve the estimation of the saturation on/off time, the Aitken's Δ2-process is adopted. And a new index δI, which is a variation current, is introduced. The merits of Aitken's Δ2-process are the simple algorithm and the high precision to oscillation noise. Then, the proposed method is adapted to a measured data, in which the oscillation noise is caused. The proposed method gives a high precision in these cases.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study for the multidimensional phenomena of the ECC bypass in the DVI system downcomer during reflood phase of the LBLOCA

    Song, Chul Hwa; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Yun, Byong Jo; Euh, Dong Jin; Kwon, Tae Soon


    In the present study, a new scaling methodology, 'Modified Linear Scaling', was developed which can reproduce the multidimensional ECC behaviors in the DVI system downcomer and its applicability was experimentally and analytically evaluated. An exploratory test was performed to identify the mechanism and flow patterns of the ECC bypass and to investigate the effect of the downcomer geometry on the ECC bypass. Based on the observation results, an analysis for the two-dimensional film flow was conducted, which was found to the dominant flow regime in the DVI system downcomer and it introduced the Wallis parameters as the major scaling parameters of the direct ECC bypass. From the experiments and analysis, scaling requirements of the multidimensional phenomena were derived that the aspect ratio of the test facility and the film spreading width of the ECC should be preserved in the proto and reduced model. The modified linear scaling was developed which can satisfy the scaling requirements from the two-dimensional two-fluid equations and some important phenomena, which may not be fully represented by the equations, were additionally analyzed as a local phenomena scaling. The applicability of the scaling methodology is experimentally and analytically evaluated from the separate effect tests for the direct ECC bypass and sweep-out in various scales of the test sections and the developed analytical models.

  4. Investigating physiological characteristics of mint in the Raft aquaponic system and perlite medium

    H. R. Roosta


    Full Text Available Aquaponic is a combination of fish and plant cultivated in recirculating systems. Fish culture in closed recirculating systems causes organic waste accumulation in the system. If these metabolites are used for plant nutrition, they are not mere waste, but have economical value and however benefit the fish production systems. Most aquaponic systems are designed as perlite-filled media, thin layer of nutrient solution, or Raft system. Photosynthesis parameters and water relations are good indexes for recognition of healthy plants and are used as tools for studying physiological conditions of plants. In this experiment, mint plants were cultivated in Raft aquaponic system and perlite medium. In Raft system, plant roots were suspending in water and absorbed water from pot bottom. Whereas in perlite system, roots were in the perlite medium and irrigation water was applied from top of the pots. The plants grown in Raft system showed mineral elements’ deficiency as leaf chlorosis. Photosynthesis and water parameters analysis showed that photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, mezophyll efficiency, water use efficiency and photosynthesis active radiation were higher in the plants grown in perlite than in raft aquaponic system. On the other hand, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature and sub-stomatal CO2 were higher in the raft aquaponic system than perlite medium. Thus, due to better physiological conditions of mint plants, perlite medium might yield better results compared to raft aquaponic system.

  5. A generic organ based ontology system, applied to vertebrate heart anatomy, development and physiology.

    Bertens, Laura M F; Slob, Joris; Verbeek, Fons J


    We present a novel approach to modelling biological information using ontologies. The system interlinks three ontologies, comprising anatomical, developmental and taxonomical information, and includes instances of structures for different species. The framework is constructed for comparative analyses in the field of evolutionary development. We have applied the approach to the vertebrate heart and present four case studies of the functionality of the system, focusing on cross-species comparisons, developmental studies, physiological studies and 3D visualisation.

  6. Challenges of Teaching Physiology in an Integrated System-Based Curriculum

    Hasan, Zuheir; Sequeira, Reginald


    The transformation of a traditional discipline-based medical curriculum into a system-based integrated curriculum often poses dilemmas to faculty involved in teaching basic medical sciences. This paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology to medical students in a system-based curriculum. Some of these challenges include: defining the core curriculum, curriculum links, sequencing curriculum content, interdisciplinary integration, and student assessment. A number of relevant issues in...

  7. Physiologically activated phase transition systems for improved ocular retention of ketorolac tromethamine

    Sunil Thakor; Imran Vhora; Jagruti Desai; Sneha Thakkar; Hetal Thakkar


    In present investigation, novel physiologically activated phase transition systems for Ketorolac Tromethamine was developed. In-situ gelling systems: pH sensitive gel using carbopol 980 and HPMC K100LV, ion sensitive gel using gallan gum and temperature sensitive gel using Poloxamer 407 and Poloxamer 188 were developed. The drug content, content uniformity, pH, optical transmittance, rheological property, bioadhesive strength, in-vitro drug release, ocular irritation and stability study were ...

  8. An innovative bioelectrochemical-anaerobic digestion-coupled system for in-situ ammonia recovery and biogas enhancement: process performance and microbial ecology

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini


    Ammonia (NH4+/NH3) inhibition during anaerobic digestion process is one of the most frequent problems existing in biogas plants, resulting in unstable process and reduced biogas production. In this study, we developed a novel hybrid system, consisted of a submersed microbial resource recovery cell (SMRC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), to prevent ammonia toxicity during anaerobic digestion by in-situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. In batch experiment, the ammonia c...

  9. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Mizuno, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yoshikado, H.; Kondo, H.; Kaneho, N.; Saegusa, N.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    This paper describes the assessment method of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas. The heat island phenomena were classified into meso-scale with 100 km-scale, block-scale with several km-scale, and building-scale with 100 m-scale. Urban thermal environment simulation model was developed in response to each scale. For the development, regional data using aircraft and artificial satellite observations, surface observation and thermal environment observation at Shinjuku new central city of Tokyo, and artificial waste heat actual survey data in the southern Kanto district were utilized. Results of the urban thermal environment simulation were introduced as an application of this model. Temperature distributions of the heat island in the Kanto district were simulated with considering urban conditions near Tokyo and without considering it. Daily changes of wall surfaces of high buildings and road surface were calculated. Increase in the air temperature in the back stream of building roofs with increased temperature was determined. 4 figs.

  10. Studies on Interfacial Phenomena in Titanium Carbide/Liquid Steel Systems for Development of Functionally Graded Material

    Kiviö, Miia; Holappa, Lauri; Louhenkilpi, Seppo; Nakamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro


    In modern materials' applications, versatile, often contradictory requirements are set for properties like high strength, hardness, and toughness. However, e.g., in steel castings, typically only certain surfaces should be hard and wear resistant, whereas the other "bulk" might have only standard properties. Then the critical parts of the surface should be "locally reinforced" to get functionally graded material. Expensive alloying elements are saved, and manufacturing stages are minimized. Titanium carbide is an extremely hard material widely applied in carbide tools. It could be used to reinforce steel castings. When TiC particles are added to liquid steel, wettability, stability, and dissolution are key phenomena that should be understood to better design and control manufacturing processes. In this work, the interfacial phenomena and reactions between TiC and iron/steel melts were examined by wetting experiments with special emphasis on the influence of Cr, Ni, and Mo. No significant effect on wettability was observed by Ni or Mo. High Cr melts showed somewhat higher contact angles. Partial penetration of liquid metal took place in the substrate along the grain boundaries. Ni seemed to promote penetration. During longer experiments, re-precipitation of carbides occurred on the liquid droplet influencing the apparent wetting angle. Cr and Mo promoted carbide formation.

  11. Digestive Diseases

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  12. CRISPR/Cas systems: new players in gene regulation and bacterial physiology

    David eWeiss


    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems are bacterial defenses against foreign nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages, plasmids or other sources. These systems are targeted in an RNA-dependent, sequence-specific manner, and are also adaptive, providing protection against previously encountered foreign elements. In addition to their canonical function in defense against foreign nucleic acid, their roles in various aspects of bacterial physiology are now being uncovered. We recently revealed a role for a Cas9-based Type II CRISPR-Cas system in the control of endogenous gene expression, a novel form of prokaryotic gene regulation. Cas9 functions in association with two small RNAs to target and alter the stability of an endogenous transcript encoding a bacterial lipoprotein (BLP. Since BLPs are recognized by the host innate immune protein Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2, CRISPR-Cas-mediated repression of BLP expression facilitates evasion of TLR2 by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida, and is essential for its virulence. Here we describe the Cas9 regulatory system in detail, as well as data on its role in controlling virulence traits of Neisseria meningitidis and Campylobacter jejuni. We also discuss potential roles of CRISPR-Cas systems in the response to envelope stress and other aspects of bacterial physiology. Since ~45% of bacteria and ~83% of Archaea encode these machineries, the newly appreciated regulatory functions of CRISPR-Cas systems are likely to play broad roles in controlling the pathogenesis and physiology of diverse prokaryotes.

  13. Prognostic value of CD166 expression in cancers of the digestive system: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Chao Ni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Many studies have reported the prognostic predictive value of CD166 as a cancer stem cell marker in cancers of the digestive system; however, its predictive value remains controversial. Here, we investigate the correlation between CD166 positivity in digestive system cancers and clinicopathological features using meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science through March of 2013 was performed. Only articles containing CD166 antigen immunohistochemical staining in cancers of the digestive system were included,including pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Data comparing 3- and 5-year overall survival along with other clinicopathological features were collected. RESULTS: Nine studies with 2553 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the analysis. The median rate of CD166 immunohistochemical staining expression was 56% (25.4%-76.3%. In colorectal cancer specifically, the results of a fixed-effects model indicated that CD166-positive expression was an independent marker associated with a smaller tumor burden (T category; RR = 0.93, 95%, CI: 0.88-0.98 but worse spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category; RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30. The 5-year overall survival rate was showed relationship with cytoplasmic positive staining of CD166 (RR = 1.47 95% 1.21-1.79, but no significant association was found in the pool or any other stratified analysis with 3- or 5- year overall survival rate. CONCLUSION: Based on the published studies, different cellular location of CD166 has distinct prognostic value and cytoplasmic positive expression is associated with worse prognosis outcome. Besides, our results also find CD166 expression indicate advanced T category and N-positive status in colorectal cancer specifically.

  14. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei


    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  15. Challenges of Teaching Physiology in an Integrated System-Based Curriculum.

    Hasan, Zuheir; Sequeira, Reginald


    The transformation of a traditional discipline-based medical curriculum into a system-based integrated curriculum often poses dilemmas to faculty involved in teaching basic medical sciences. This paper examines the challenges of teaching physiology to medical students in a system-based curriculum. Some of these challenges include: defining the core curriculum, curriculum links, sequencing curriculum content, interdisciplinary integration, and student assessment. A number of relevant issues including defining the core physiology content, faculty expertise, and coping and adapting to curriculum transitions are discussed from a personal perspective. For successful implementation of a system-based curriculum and to overcome the challenges, educational issues should be debated in regional and international forums.

  16. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob


    A need for improvement of food waste (FIAT) pre-treatment methods has been recognized, but few life cycle assessments (LCA) of FIN management systems have considered the pre-treatment with respect to input energy, loss of organic material and nutrients for anaerobic digestion (AD) and/or further...... treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  17. Application of super-twisting observers to the estimation of state and unknown inputs in an anaerobic digestion system.

    Sbarciog, M; Moreno, J A; Vande Wouwer, A


    This paper presents the estimation of the unknown states and inputs of an anaerobic digestion system characterized by a two-step reaction model. The estimation is based on the measurement of the two substrate concentrations and of the outflow rate of biogas and relies on the use of an observer, consisting of three parts. The first is a generalized super-twisting observer, which estimates a linear combination of the two input concentrations. The second is an asymptotic observer, which provides one of the two biomass concentrations, whereas the third is a super-twisting observer for one of the input concentrations and the second biomass concentration.

  18. Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: Research Advances in Physiological Functions and Their Applications%非消化寡糖的生理功能研究进展及其应用

    闫冰雪; 霍样样; 刘璐璐; 王现勇; 王志祥; 陈文


    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOS),such as chitosan,xylan,fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and soybean oligosaccharides can not be absorbed and degraded by gastric acid and gastric enzymes,but they possess a variety of physiological functions.Research advances in physiological functions on NDOS were reviewed in this article,including decreasing high blood fat,sugar and cholesterol contents,improving immunity,strengthening haematogenous,promoting mineral absorption,improving intestinal flora and anti-oxidation,etc.The applications of NDOS in poultry,pigs,ruminants,aquaculture,feeds and agriculture were also presented.%非消化寡糖如壳寡糖、低聚木糖、果寡糖、大豆低聚糖等,它们本身不能被机体胃酸、胃酶降解吸收,但其具有多种生理功能.本文从降低血糖、血脂和血清胆固醇及提高动物机体免疫力、增强造血功能、促进矿物质元素吸收、改善消化道菌群结构、提高机体抗氧化功能等方面综述了近十年非消化寡糖的生理功能研究进展,并浅谈了其在家禽、猪、反刍动物、水产养殖、饲料工业、农业等多个领域的应用现状及应用前景.


    I. V. Panova


    Full Text Available The important part in the group of biological compounds, participating in the regulation of the functions of the gastro-intestinal tract, is assigned to endothelial factors because of their impact on the majority of physiological and pathophysiological processes of the digestive system. The article provides information about physiological role of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 and presents a review of scientific data on the participation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of many digestive system diseases, emphasizing chronic inflammatory disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The authors accentuate the importance of endothelium endocrine function research in children with esophagogastroduodenal disorders at the beginning of puberty, which is the critical period of ontogenesis.

  20. The on-bead digestion of protein corona on nanoparticles by trypsin immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticle.

    Hu, Zhengyan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa


    Proteins interacting with nanoparticles would form the protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles in biological systems, which would critically impact the biological identities of nanoparticles and/or result in the physiological and pathological consequences. The enzymatic digestion of protein corona was the primary step to achieve the identification of protein components of the protein corona for the bottom-up proteomic approaches. In this study, the investigation on the tryptic digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin on a magnetic nanoparticle was carried out for the first time. As a comparison with the usual overnight long-time digestion and the severe self-digestion of free trypsin, the on-bead digestion of protein corona by the immobilized trypsin could be accomplished within 1h, along with the significantly reduced self-digestion of trypsin and the improved reproducibility on the identification of proteins by the mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. It showed that the number of identified bovine serum (BS) proteins on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles was increased by 13% for the immobilized trypsin with 1h digestion as compared to that of using free trypsin with even overnight digestion. In addition, the on-bead digestion of using the immobilized trypsin was further applied on the identification of human plasma protein corona on the commercial Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which leads the efficient digestion of the human plasma proteins and the identification of 149 human plasma proteins corresponding to putative critical pathways and biological processes.

  1. Modulation of lipid digestibility using structured emulsion-based delivery systems: comparison of in vivo and in vitro measurements.

    Li, Yan; Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yeonhwa; McClements, David Julian


    Emulsion-based delivery systems are finding increasing application to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and to control the biological fate of ingested lipids. These systems can be designed to encapsulate lipophilic components, and then release them at specific locations within the gastrointestinal tract. The current study evaluated the performance of four emulsion-based delivery systems with different structures: (A) conventional emulsions; (B) small microcluster emulsions; (C) large microcluster emulsions; (D) filled hydrogel beads. These systems were fabricated from protein-coated lipid droplets, alginate, and/or calcium. The mean diameters (d₄₃) of the particles in these systems were 0.36, 4.7, 200, and 510 μm, respectively. The fate of the delivery systems within the gastrointestinal tract was ascertained by introducing them into rat stomachs. Confocal microscopy showed that system D remained intact in the stomach, but systems A, B and C exhibited considerable disruption leading to droplet coalescence. No intact delivery systems were observed within the small intestine using optical microscopy. Gas chromatography analysis using a marker lipid (tridecanoic acid) demonstrated that absorption was increasingly inhibited as the size of the droplet-biopolymer complexes increased, i.e., A > B > C > D. These results are in good qualitative agreement with previous in vitro digestion studies using similar delivery systems. This study showed that an in vitro digestion model is a useful predictive tool for in vivo feeding studies, and that encapsulation is an effective strategy to control the fate of lipids within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

  2. Formulation and physiological and biopharmaceutical issues in the development of oral lipid-based drug delivery systems.

    Wasan, K M


    The rapidly increasing availability of drug receptor structural characteristics has permitted the receptor-guided synthesis of potential new drug molecules. This synthesis strategy frequently results in the creation of polycyclic and highly hydrophobic compounds, with attendant poor oral bioavailability resulting from low solubility and slow dissolution rate in the primarily aqueous contents of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In an attempt to improve the solubility-limited bioavailabiliy associated with these compounds, formulators have turned to the use of lipid excipients in which the compounds can be solubilized prior to oral administration. This new class of excipients presents the pharmaceutical scientist with a number of new challenges at all stages of the formulation development process, beginning with the excipient selection and stability assessment of the prototype formulation, up to and including scale-up and mass production of the final market-image product. The interaction of lipid-based formulations with the gastrointestinal system and associated digestive processes presents additional challenges and opportunities that will be understood more fully as we begin to unravel the intricacies of the GI processing of lipid excipients. For example, an increasing body of evidence has shown that certain lipids are capable of inhibiting both presystemic drug metabolism and drug efflux by the gut wall mediated by p-glycoprotein (PGP). And, it is well known that lipids are capable of enhancing lymphatic transport of hydrophobic drugs, thereby reducing drug clearance resulting from hepatic first-pass metabolism. This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding oral lipid-based formulation development and scale-up issues and the physiological and biopharmaceutical aspects pertinent to the development of an orally bioavailable and efficacious dosage form.

  3. The interplay of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of starch in in vitro enzymic systems.

    Warren, Frederick J; Zhang, Bin; Waltzer, Gina; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil


    In vitro hydrolysis assays are a key tool in understanding differences in rate and extent of digestion of starchy foods. They offer a greater degree of simplicity and flexibility than dynamic in vitro models or in vivo experiments for quantifiable, mechanistic exploration of starch digestion. In the present work the influence of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase activities on the digestion of maize and potato starch granules was measured using both glucose and reducing sugar assays. Data were analysed through initial rates of digestion, and by 1st order kinetics, utilising logarithm of slope (LOS) plots. The rate and extent of starch digestion was dependent on the activities of both enzymes and the type of starch used. Potato required more enzyme than maize to achieve logarithmic reaction curves, and complete digestion. The results allow targeted design of starch digestion experiments through a thorough understanding of the contributions of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase to digestion rates.

  4. Two-phase (acidogenic-methanogenic) anaerobic thermophilic/mesophilic digestion system for producing Class A biosolids from municipal sludge.

    Rubio-Loza, L A; Noyola, A


    Two different arrangements of two-phase anaerobic sludge systems were operated treating a mixture of primary and secondary sludge. Two steady state periods were evaluated: the first acidogenic thermophilic phase was operated at hydraulic retention times of 3 and 2 days and the second methanogenic (mesophilic and thermophilic) phases at 13 and 10 days. The two-phase systems had an efficient removal of pathogens and parasites, achieving values lower than those specified for Class A biosolids, according to the Mexican Standard NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002. The first thermophilic phase achieved almost complete destruction of pathogens and parasites by itself. During the second steady state period, volatile fatty acids accumulated in the second methanogenic phases (HRT of 10 days and an organic load of 3 kg VS/m(3)d) indicating that the systems were overloaded, mainly the mesophilic digester. In this case, the accumulation of propionic acid may be related to a deficiency of micronutrients. The results show that the two-phase thermophilic/mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion may be considered as an adequate option for the production of Class A biosolids.

  5. Microwave tomography of extremities: 1. Dedicated 2D system and physiological signatures

    Semenov, Serguei; Nair, Bindu [School of Medicine, Keele University, ISTM, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB (United Kingdom); Kellam, James; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael [Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28203 (United States); Sizov, Yuri [TRINITI, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Nazarov, Alexei [INTEGRIT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pavlovsky, Andrey [DIGIMEQ, Moscow (Russian Federation); Posukh, Vitaly, E-mail: [Institute of Laser Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Microwave tomography (MWT) is a novel imaging modality which might be applicable for non-invasive assessment of functional and pathological conditions of biological tissues. Imaging of the soft tissue of extremities is one of its potential applications. The feasibility of this technology for such applications was demonstrated earlier. This is the first of two companion papers focused on an application of MWT for imaging of the extremity's soft tissues. The goal of this study is to assess the technical performance of the developed 2D MWT system dedicated for imaging of functional and pathological conditions of the extremity's soft tissues. Specifically, the system's performance was tested by its ability to detect signals associated with physiological activity and soft tissue interventions (circulatory related changes, blood flow reduction and a simulated compartmental syndrome)-the so-called physiological signatures. The developed 2D MWT system dedicated to the imaging of animal extremities demonstrates good technical performance allowing for stable and predictable data acquisition with reasonable agreement between the experimentally measured electromagnetic (EM) field and the simulated EM field within a measurement domain. Using the system, we were able to obtain physiological signatures associated with systolic versus diastolic phases of circulation in an animal extremity, reperfusion versus occlusion phases of the blood supply to the animal's extremity and a compartment syndrome. The imaging results are presented and discussed in the second companion paper.

  6. Detection of physiological changes after exercise via a remote optophysiological imaging system

    Sun, Yu; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Zheng, Jia; Greenwald, Stephen; Chambers, Jonathon; Zhu, Yisheng


    A study of blood perfusion mapping was performed with a remote opto-physiological imaging (OPI) system coupling a sensitive CMOS camera and a custom-built resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED) ringlight. The setup is suitable for the remote assessment of blood perfusion in tissue over a wide range of anatomical locations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and stability of the OPI system when measuring a cardiovascular variable of clinical interest, in this case, heart rate. To this end, the non-contact and contact photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals obtained from the OPI system and conventional PPG sensor were recorded simultaneously from each of 12 subjects before and after 5-min of cycling exercise. The time-frequency representation (TFR) method was used to visualize the time-dependent behavior of the signal frequency. The physiological parameters derived from the images captured by the OPI system exhibit comparable functional characteristics to those taken from conventional contact PPG pulse waveform measurements in both the time and frequency domains. Finally and more importantly, a previously developed opto-physiological model was employed to provide a 3-D representation of blood perfusion in human tissue which could provide a new insight into clinical assessment and diagnosis of circulatory pathology in various tissue segments.

  7. Applying systems biology methods to the study of human physiology in extreme environments.

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Thiele, Ines


    Systems biology is defined in this review as 'an iterative process of computational model building and experimental model revision with the aim of understanding or simulating complex biological systems'. We propose that, in practice, systems biology rests on three pillars: computation, the omics disciplines and repeated experimental perturbation of the system of interest. The number of ethical and physiologically relevant perturbations that can be used in experiments on healthy humans is extremely limited and principally comprises exercise, nutrition, infusions (e.g. Intralipid), some drugs and altered environment. Thus, we argue that systems biology and environmental physiology are natural symbionts for those interested in a system-level understanding of human biology. However, despite excellent progress in high-altitude genetics and several proteomics studies, systems biology research into human adaptation to extreme environments is in its infancy. A brief description and overview of systems biology in its current guise is given, followed by a mini review of computational methods used for modelling biological systems. Special attention is given to high-altitude research, metabolic network reconstruction and constraint-based modelling.

  8. 3D Reconstruction of the Digestive System in Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Embryos and Paralarvae during the First Month of Life

    Raquel Fernández-Gago


    Full Text Available Octopus vulgaris aquaculture is limited due to poor biological knowledge of the paralarval stages (e.g., digestive system functionality, their nutritional requirements (e.g., adequate live diet and standardization of rearing techniques. These factors are important in explaining the high mortality rate observed in this developmental stage under culture conditions. For a better understanding of nutrition biology of this species, we investigated the 3D microanatomy of the digestive tract of the embryo and paralarvae during the first month of life. O. vulgaris paralarvae digestive system is similar to that in the adult. The “descending branch” has a dorsal position and is formed by the buccal mass, oesophagus and crop. Ventrally, the “ascending branch” is formed by the intestine and the anus. The digestive gland, the posterior salivary glands and the inner yolk sac (in the case of the embryo and hatched paralarvae are located between the “ascending” and “descending” branches. In the curve of the U-shaped digestive tract, a caecum and the stomach can be found. The reconstructions reveal that anatomically the digestive system is already complete when the paralarvae hatch. The reconstruction of the buccal mass at different post-hatching days has demonstrated that all the necessary structures for food intake are present. However, the radula surface in contact with the pharynx is very small on the first day of life. Although the digestive system has all the structures to feed, the digestive gland and radula take longer to reach full functionality. We have established four development periods: embryonic, early post-hatching, late post-hatching and juvenile-adult. The differentiation between these periods was done by type of feeding (endogenous or exogenous, the state of maturation and hence functionality of the digestive gland, type of growth (linear, no net, or exponential, and measurement of the arm lengths with respect to the mantle

  9. Mathematical modeling and validation in physiology applications to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems

    Bachar, Mostafa; Kappel, Franz


    This volume synthesizes theoretical and practical aspects of both the mathematical and life science viewpoints needed for modeling of the cardiovascular-respiratory system specifically and physiological systems generally.  Theoretical points include model design, model complexity and validation in the light of available data, as well as control theory approaches to feedback delay and Kalman filter applications to parameter identification. State of the art approaches using parameter sensitivity are discussed for enhancing model identifiability through joint analysis of model structure and data. Practical examples illustrate model development at various levels of complexity based on given physiological information. The sensitivity-based approaches for examining model identifiability are illustrated by means of specific modeling  examples. The themes presented address the current problem of patient-specific model adaptation in the clinical setting, where data is typically limited.

  10. An inflight recorder prototype for the inflight physiological data acquisition system 3

    Meisner, R. E.


    A prototype for the Inflight Recorder component of the Inflight Physiological Data Acquisition System was built. The Inflight Recorder is a remote data acquisition computer for sampling physiological data. Characteristics of the recorder's design were solid-state, microprocessor controlled, expandability, 16 sensor inputs, and 122 samples per second. Demonstration of battery operation for four hours and unobstructive size characteristics awaits further testing. Following a hardware requirements analysis, the prototype was built using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. Components featured in the design were a CMOS microprocessor; Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memories (EEPROM); a monolithic, 16 channel, analog to digital converter; and Magnetic Bubble Memories (MBM). In addition to building the IR prototype, several development tools have been constructed. One was a EEPROM Programmer. Another was an MBM Interactive Development System. A third was a hardware front panel for debugging IR software. User's manuals for these tools appear in appendices to the thesis.

  11. Growth and structure of the digestive system of pacu larvae fed microencapsulated diet produced experimentally

    Olívia Cristina Camilo Menossi; Rodrigo Takata; María Isabel Sánchez-Amaya; Thiago Mendes de Freitas; Manuel Yúfera; Maria Célia Portella


    Foram comparados os efeitos de diferentes dietas e da transição alimentar sobre o desempenho zootécnico e a morfologia do trato digestório de larvas de pacu alimentadas com duas dietas comerciais e uma dieta experimental microencapsulada produzida por gelificação interna. Larvas com quatro dias de vida receberam os seguintes protocolos alimentares: somente náuplios de artêmia em quantidades crescentes (controle positivo); larvas mantidas em jejum (controle negativo); três tipos de alimento fo...

  12. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.

    Furness, J B; Poole, D P


    The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders

  13. Implementation of a System for Physiological Status Monitoring by using Tactical Military Networks

    Goce Stevanoski


    Full Text Available E-health sensors are continuing to become more advanced and more reliable in monitoring the human physiological status. There is a continuous scope for improvement in their implementation in different emergency situations. Military organisations can take an advantage of this technology for applying physiological status monitoring on personnel engaged in military operations. This implementation is driven by continuous enhancements of existing communication equipment that produces more data capable radio networks in military environment. Based on these technologies we are proposing system communication architecture for applying real-time physiological status monitoring for personnel engaged in military operations. To examine the proposed architecture, a laboratory testing was performed. The laboratory work included a definition of military communication equipment, testing the received data with custom developed algorithm based on Markov decision process for automating the medical emergency protocol (MDP-AMEP and implementation of adequate data protocols for data transmitting. Obtained results showed that physiological status of the military personnel can be successfully monitored by using tactical military network.

  14. Investigation of endothelial growth using a sensors-integrated microfluidic system to simulate physiological barriers

    Rajabi Taleieh


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a microfluidic system based on transparent biocompatible polymers with a porous membrane as substrate for various cell types which allows the simulation of various physiological barriers under continuous laminar flow conditions at distinct tunable shear rates. Besides live cell and fluorescence microscopy, integrated electrodes enable the investigation of the permeability and barrier function of the cell layer as well as their interaction with external manipulations using the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS method.

  15. Integrated Bioenergy and Food Production—A German Survey on Structure and Developments of Anaerobic Digestion in Organic Farming Systems

    Benjamin Blumenstein


    Full Text Available Rising global energy needs and limited fossil fuel reserves have led to increased use of renewable energies. In Germany, this has entailed massive exploitation of agricultural biomass for biogas generation, associated with unsustainable farming practices. Organic agriculture not only reduces negative environmental impacts, organic farmers were also prime movers in anaerobic digestion (AD in Germany. This study’s aim was to identify the structure, development, and characteristics of biogas production associated with organic farming systems in order to estimate further development, as well as energetic and associated agronomic potentials. Surveys were conducted among organic farms with AD technology. 144 biogas plants could be included in the analysis. Total installed electrical capacity was 30.8 MWel, accounting for only 0.8% of the total installed electrical capacity in the German biogas sector. Recently, larger plant types (>250 kWel with increased use of (also purchased energy crops have emerged. Farmers noticed increases in yields (22% on average and quality of cash crops in arable farming through integrated biogas production. In conclusion, although the share of AD in organic farming is relatively small it can provide various complementary socio-ecological benefits such as the enhancement of food output through digestate fertilization without additional need for land, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock manures and soils. However, to achieve this eco-functional intensification, AD systems and their management have to be well adapted to farm size and production focus and based primarily on residue biomass.

  16. Developing a computer-controlled simulated digestion system to predict the concentration of metabolizable energy of feedstuffs for rooster.

    Zhao, F; Ren, L Q; Mi, B M; Tan, H Z; Zhao, J T; Li, H; Zhang, H F; Zhang, Z Y


    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-controlled simulated digestion system (CCSDS) for predicting apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) using in vitro digestible energy (IVDE) content of feeds for roosters. In Exp. 1, the repeatability of the IVDE assay was tested in corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal with 3 assays of each sample and each with 5 replicates of the same sample. In Exp. 2, the additivity of IVDE concentration in corn, soybean meal, and cottonseed meal was tested by comparing determined IVDE values of the complete diet with values predicted from measurements on individual ingredients. In Exp. 3, linear models to predict AME and TME based on IVDE were developed with 16 calibration samples. In Exp. 4, the accuracy of prediction models was tested by the differences between predicted and determined values for AME or TME of 6 ingredients and 4 diets. In Exp. 1, the mean CV of IVDE was 0.88% (range = 0.20 to 2.14%) for corn, wheat, rapeseed meal, and cottonseed meal. No difference in IVDE was observed between 3 assays of an ingredient, indicating that the IVDE assay is repeatable under these conditions. In Exp. 2, minimal differences (system accurately predicted AME or TME on 17 of the 26 samples and may be a promising method to predict the energetic values of feed for poultry.

  17. Ultrastructure of the digestive system and the fate of midgut during embryonic development in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Strus, Jasna; Klepal, Waltraud; Repina, Janja; Tusek-Znidaric, Magda; Milatovic, Masa; Pipan, Ziva


    Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in embryos and larvae of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber was investigated by light bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy. During marsupial ontogenetic development the event-dependent staging was used to discriminate the various embryonic stages. At the late embryo stage the differentiation of the ectodermal part of the gut into the complex filtering foregut and the hindgut with absorptive and transporting functions is accomplished. The gut of the marsupial manca larva is fully developed and similar to that of the adult. In early embryos the endodermal midgut gland primordia are filled with yolk and lipid globules. In late embryos the epithelium of paired midgut gland tubes is composed of two cell types; one of them exhibits orange autofluorescence. The endodermal cells located between the foregut and the midgut glands of late embryos form the prospective midgut. The cells have electron dense cytoplasm, abundant glycogen fields, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and numerous vesicles. In the adults the endodermal cells of the midgut remain only in the midgut gland ducts which connect the midgut glands and the foregut. Details of the cellular ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the ectodermal and endodermal parts of the digestive system during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber provide data for further phylogenetic and comparative studies in peracaridan crustaceans and other arthropods.

  18. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B


    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (Pgrowth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly.

  19. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.


    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and

  20. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.


    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and Have

  1. A review of the physiology of the canine digestive tract related to the development of in vitro systems

    Smeets-Peeters, M.; Watson, T.; Minekus, M.; Havenaar, R.


    Food and nutrition studies in animals and human beings often meet with technical difficulties and sometimes with ethical questions. An alternative to research in living animals is the dynamic multicompartmental in vitro model for the gastrointestinal tract described by Minekus et al. (1995) and Have

  2. [Effects of smoking on the thyroid gland, digestive system, kidney and bone].

    Underner, M; Hadjadj, S; Beauchant, M; Bridoux, F; Debiais, F; Meurice, J-C


    In addition to being a major cardiovascular risk factor, smoking promotes or worsens thyroid, digestive, renal and bone diseases. Smoking is positively associated with hyperthyroidism. It is associated with Graves' disease and it especially increases the risk of the development of severe exophthalmos. In contrast, smoking might exert a protective action for thyroid carcinoma. Smoking increases the severity of hepatic lesions in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Smoking accelerates the progression of primary biliary cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Smoking increases risk of both hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. While Crohn's disease is associated with smoking, ulcerative colitis is largely a disease of non smokers. Smoking increases risk of development of both renal cell carcinoma and chronic nephropathies, particularly in types 1 and 2 diabetes. Smoking is a risk factor for decreased bone density and is associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture. Smoking is related to the development of rheumatoid arthritis and may adversely influence its severity. Smoking might be considered a risk factor for the development of several thyroid, digestive, renal and bone diseases. Consequently, smoking prevention and cessation programs must be strongly encouraged among the patients concerned.

  3. Comprehensive assessments of measures mitigating heat island phenomena in urban areas; Heat shinku wo riyoshita daikibo reibo system no kaihatsu

    Ishitani, H.; Yamada, K.; Yamaji, K.; Matsuhashi, T.; Iizuka, E.; Suzuki, T.; Genchi, H.; Komiyama, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes actual condition and measures against heat island (HI) phenomena in large urban areas with buildings. Tokyo was selected as a model. To extract typical pattern of daily change of air temperature, statistic analysis was conducted using the existing air temperature data at 100 points in and near the city of Tokyo. As a result, five patterns were obtained, i.e., central city, sea/land water affecting zone, thickly settled suburbs, garden city, and countryside. Each one point was selected in each pattern, to measure the underground temperature. It was found that the effect of HI can be easily evaluated from the underground temperature. It was suggested that the HI effect in the central city is estimated to be around 3.6 {degree}C. The measures mitigating HI were divided into the thermal balance improvement in the whole district and the temperature improvement of living space by homogenization or inhomogenization. Energy conservation was investigated for improving the thermal balance which can be practically conducted. According to the measures, it was found that the air temperature in the central city can be decreased by about 0.5 {degree}C at maximum. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Noyes, H. Pierre


    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  5. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    Ponath, H-E


    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  6. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Noyes, H P


    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ``historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ``paranormal phenomena'' might --- but need not --- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be {\\it defined} as contradicting physics.

  7. Evaluation of Physiological Control Systems for Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices: An In-Vitro Study.

    Pauls, Jo P; Stevens, Michael C; Bartnikowski, Nicole; Fraser, John F; Gregory, Shaun D; Tansley, Geoff


    Rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) show weaker response to preload and greater response to afterload than the native heart. This may lead to ventricular suction or pulmonary congestion, which can be deleterious to the patient's recovery. A physiological control system which optimizes responsiveness of LVADs may reduce adverse events. This study compared eight physiological control systems for LVAD support against constant speed mode. Pulmonary (PVR) and systemic (SVR) vascular resistance changes, a passive postural change and exercise were simulated in a mock circulation loop to evaluate the controller's ability to prevent suction and congestion and to increase exercise capacity. Three active and one passive control systems prevented ventricular suction at high PVR (500 dyne s cm(-5)) and low SVR (600 dyne s cm(-5)) by decreasing LVAD speed (by 200-515 rpm) and by increasing LVAD inflow cannula resistance (up to 1000 dyne s cm(-5)) respectively. These controllers increased LVAD preload sensitivity (to 0.196-2.415 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)) compared to the other control systems and constant speed mode (0.039-0.069 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)). The same three active controllers increased pump speed (600-800 rpm) and thus LVAD flow by 4.5 L min(-1) during exercise which increased exercise capacity. Physiological control systems that prevent adverse events and/or increase exercise capacity may help improve LVAD patient conditions.

  8. A Database as a Service for the Healthcare System to Store Physiological Signal Data.

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Lin, Tsai-Huei


    Wearable devices that measure physiological signals to help develop self-health management habits have become increasingly popular in recent years. These records are conducive for follow-up health and medical care. In this study, based on the characteristics of the observed physiological signal records- 1) a large number of users, 2) a large amount of data, 3) low information variability, 4) data privacy authorization, and 5) data access by designated users-we wish to resolve physiological signal record-relevant issues utilizing the advantages of the Database as a Service (DaaS) model. Storing a large amount of data using file patterns can reduce database load, allowing users to access data efficiently; the privacy control settings allow users to store data securely. The results of the experiment show that the proposed system has better database access performance than a traditional relational database, with a small difference in database volume, thus proving that the proposed system can improve data storage performance.

  9. Detecting physiological systems with laser speckle perfusion imaging of the renal cortex.

    Scully, Christopher G; Mitrou, Nicholas; Braam, Branko; Cupples, William A; Chon, Ki H


    Laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) has become an increasingly popular technique for monitoring vascular perfusion over a tissue surface. However, few studies have utilized the full range of spatial and temporal information generated by LSPI to monitor spatial properties of physiologically relevant dynamics. In this study, we extend the use of LSPI to analyze renal perfusion dynamics over a spatial surface of ~5 × 7 mm of renal cortex. We identify frequencies related to five physiological systems that induce temporal changes in renal vascular perfusion (cardiac flow pulse, respiratory-induced oscillations, baroreflex components, the myogenic response, and tubuloglomerular feedback) across the imaged surface and compare the results with those obtained from renal blood flow measurements. We find that dynamics supplied from global sources (cardiac, respiration, and baroreflex) present with the same frequency at all locations across the imaged surface, but the local renal autoregulation dynamics can be heterogeneous in their distribution across the surface. Moreover, transfer function analysis with forced blood pressure as the input yields the same information with laser speckle imaging or renal blood flow as the output during control, intrarenal infusion of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester to enhance renal autoregulation, and intrarenal infusion of the rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 to inhibit vasomotion. We conclude that LSPI measurements can be used to analyze local as well as global renal perfusion dynamics and to study the properties of physiological systems across the renal cortex.

  10. Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Model Systems: Tumor Biology and Physiology

    Robert J. Gillies


    Full Text Available A solid tumor presents a unique challenge as a system in which the dynamics of the relationship between vascularization, the physiological environment and metabolism are continually changing with growth and following treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies have demonstrated quantifiable linkages between the physiological environment, angiogenesis, vascularization and metabolism of tumors. The dynamics between these parameters continually change with tumor aggressiveness, tumor growth and during therapy and each of these can be monitored longitudinally, quantitatively and non-invasively with MRI and MRS. An important aspect of MRI and MRS studies is that techniques and findings are easily translated between systems. Hence, pre-clinical studies using cultured cells or experimental animals have a high connectivity to potential clinical utility. In the following review, leaders in the field of MR studies of basic tumor physiology using pre-clinical models have contributed individual sections according to their expertise and outlook. The following review is a cogent and timely overview of the current capabilities and state-of-the-art of MRI and MRS as applied to experimental cancers. A companion review deals with the application of MR methods to anticancer therapy.


    Grigus, Ya I; Mikhaylova, O D; Gorbunov A Yu; Vakhrushev, Ya M


    The article describes the physiological role of magnesium in the human body and its importance for metabolic processes. The reasons for the development of magnesium deficiency and hypermagnesaemia and its clinical symptoms are shown. The specialties of magnesium metabolism disturbances in gastroenterological pathology are described. Particular attention paid to the correction of magnesium levels with deviations of its content in the organism.

  12. The apelinergic system: the role played in human physiology and pathology and potential therapeutic applications.

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Ferreira-Martins, João; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F


    Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions as well as the therapeutic implications that might, therefore, be investigated.

  13. Differences Between Passive And Active Cooling Systems In Gender, Physiological Responses, Thermal Sensation And Productivity

    Schellen, Lisje; Loomans, Marcel; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter


    could occur due to application of low energy/exergy cooling systems, on human thermal comfort, physiological responses, and productivity. Furthermore, focus is on the differences between gender. This paper presents preliminary results obtained from experiments with four test subjects. To examine...... ventilation (To=26oC), active cooling by convection through (2) mixing and (3) displacement ventilation, active cooling by radiation (4) through the ceiling and mixing ventilation (5) through the floor and mixing ventilation and (6) through the floor and displacement ventilation. Three female subjects visited...... the climate room on two occasions: (1) and (4). During the experiments both physiological responses and thermal sensation were measured. To assess the productivity and performance a ‘Remote Performance Measurement’ (RPM) method was used....

  14. [Physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata and its possible use in biological life support systems].

    Shepelev, E Ia; Tkhyok, N; Meleshko, G I; Antonian, A A; Galkina, T B


    The principal physiological and ecological characteristics of Azolla pinnata were investigated in order to determine its potential use in biological life support systems. Plant requirements for biogenic elements were specified in order to develop balanced nutrient mixtures for continuous cultivation. Data on the growth and development, photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation rate, and biochemical composition of the plant were obtained for optimal cultivation conditions. The plant biomass contains large quantities of carotenoids and sulfur-containing amino acids, which are deficient in unicellular algae. This makes Azolla an attractive source of the above compounds for biological life support systems and other applications.

  15. Effects of cryoprotectants on the viability and activity of freeze dried recombinant yeasts as novel oral drug delivery systems assessed by an artificial digestive system.

    Blanquet, Stéphanie; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Erick; Perrier, Céline; Denis, Sylvain; Hébrard, Géraldine; Alric, Monique


    The aim of this study was to investigate, in a gastric-small intestinal system TIM-1, the effect of cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the heterologous P450 73A1 and their ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Yeasts were lyophilized in suspensions of trehalose, maltose, lactose, or a milk proteins/trehalose mix. Freeze-dried or native yeasts and trans-cinnamic acid were introduced simultaneously into TIM-1 at the beginning of digestion. Yeast survival rate was evaluated by cell counting in the ileal effluents. P450 73A1 activity was followed by HPLC assay of p-coumaric acid. Freeze-dried yeasts showed high tolerance to digestive conditions. Nevertheless, their survival rate was lower than that of non-dried cells (around 80% whatever the protective agent vs. 96%). The ability of recombinant freeze-dried S. cerevisiae to perform a bioconversion reaction in the digestive tract was shown with all the protectants. The highest trans-cinnamic acid conversion rate (24 vs. 41% for native yeasts) was obtained with the milk proteins/trehalose mix. These results show that freeze-drying might be considered for the pharmaceutical formulation of new drug delivery systems based on orally administered recombinant yeasts and that TIM-1 could be a helpful tool for the pre-screening of oral dosage forms.

  16. Establishment of systemic Brucella melitensis infection through the digestive tract requires urease, the type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide O antigen.

    Paixão, Tatiane A; Roux, Christelle M; den Hartigh, Andreas B; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Dandekar, Satya; Santos, Renato L; Tsolis, Renée M


    Human brucellosis is caused mainly by Brucella melitensis, which is often acquired by ingesting contaminated goat or sheep milk and cheese. Bacterial factors required for food-borne infection of humans by B. melitensis are poorly understood. In this study, a mouse model of oral infection was characterized to assess the roles of urease, the VirB type IV secretion system, and lipopolysaccharide for establishing infection through the digestive tract. B. melitensis strain 16M was consistently recovered from the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver beginning at 3 or 7 day postinfection (dpi). In the gut, persistence of the inoculum was observed up to 21 dpi. No inflammatory lesions were observed in the ileum or colon during infection. Mutant strains lacking the ureABC genes of the ure1 operon, virB2, or pmm encoding phosphomannomutase were constructed and compared to the wild-type strain for infectivity through the digestive tract. Mutants lacking the virB2 and pmm genes were attenuated in the spleen (P melitensis transited rapidly through polarized enterocyte monolayers containing M-like cells; however, transit through monolayers containing only enterocytes was reduced or absent. These results indicate that B. melitensis is able to spread systemically from the digestive tract after infection, most likely through M cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

  17. Innovative ammonia stripping with an electrolyzed water system as pretreatment of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge for anaerobic digestion.

    Park, Seyong; Kim, Moonil


    In this study, the anaerobic digestion of thermally hydrolyzed wasted sludge (THWS) with a high concentration of ammonia was carried out through combining with an ammonia stripping and an electrolyzed water system (EWS). The EWS produced acidic water (pH 2-3) at the anode and alkaline water (pH 11-12) at the cathode with an electro-diaphragm between the electrodes that could be applied to ammonia stripping. The ammonia stripping efficiency was strongly dependent on the pH and aeration rate, and the ammonium ion removal rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. From the BMP test, the methane yield of THWS after ammonia stripping using the EWS was 2.8 times higher than that of the control process (raw THWS without ammonia stripping). Furthermore, both methane yield and ammonium removal efficiency were higher in this study than in previous studies. Since ammonia stripping with the EWS does not require any chemicals for pH control, no precipitated sludge is produced and anaerobic microorganisms are not inhibited by cations. Therefore, ammonia stripping using the EWS could be an effective method for digestion of wastewater with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen.

  18. Enhancement of biogas production by co-digestion of potato pulp with cow manure in a CSTR system.

    Sanaei-Moghadam, Akbar; Abbaspour-Fard, Mohammad Hossein; Aghel, Hasan; Aghkhani, Mohammad Hossein; Abedini-Torghabeh, Javad


    Anaerobic digestion (AD) process is a well-established method to generate energy from the organic wastes both from the environmental and economical perspectives. The purpose of present study is to evaluate energy production from potato wastes by incorporating cow manure into the process. Firstly, a laboratory pilot of one-stage biogas production was designed and built according to continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The setup was able to automatically control the environmental conditions of the process including temperature, duration, and rate of stirring. AD experiment was exclusively performed on co-digestion of potato peel (PP) and cow manure (CM) in three levels of mixing ratio including 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 (PP:CM), and 0:100 as control treatment based on the volatile solid (VS) weight without adding initial inoculums. After hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 days on average 193, 256, 348, and 149 norm liter (LN) (kg VS)(-1), methane was produced for different mixing ratios, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that these gas productions are significantly different. The average energy was determined based on the produced methane which was about 2.8 kWh (kg VS)(-1), implying a significant energy production potential. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of treatments was about 61%, showing that it can be leached significantly with high organic matter by the employed pilot. The energy efficiency of 92% of the process also showed the optimum control of the process by the pilot.

  19. Exceptionally preserved Cambrian trilobite digestive system revealed in 3D by synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    Mats E Eriksson

    Full Text Available The Cambrian 'Orsten' fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown. Here, we report the first non-biomineralised tissues from a juvenile polymerid trilobite, represented by digestive structures, glands, and connective strands harboured in a hypostome from the Swedish 'Orsten' fauna. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy enabled three-dimensional internal recordings at sub-micrometre resolution. The specimen provides the first unambiguous evidence for a J-shaped anterior gut and the presence of a crop with a constricted alimentary tract in the Trilobita. Moreover, the gut is Y-shaped in cross section, probably due to a collapsed lumen of that shape, another feature which has not previously been observed in trilobites. The combination of anatomical features suggests that the trilobite hypostome is functionally analogous to the labrum of euarthropods and that it was a sophisticated element closely integrated with the digestive system. This study also briefly addresses the preservational bias of the 'Orsten' fauna, particularly the near-absence of polymerid trilobites, and the taphonomy of the soft-tissue-harbouring hypostome.

  20. Large scale physiological readjustment during growth enables rapid, comprehensive and inexpensive systems analysis

    Larsen David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapidly characterizing the operational interrelationships among all genes in a given organism is a critical bottleneck to significantly advancing our understanding of thousands of newly sequenced microbial and eukaryotic species. While evolving technologies for global profiling of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites are making it possible to comprehensively survey cellular physiology in newly sequenced organisms, these experimental techniques have not kept pace with sequencing efforts. Compounding these technological challenges is the fact that individual experiments typically only stimulate relatively small-scale cellular responses, thus requiring numerous expensive experiments to survey the operational relationships among nearly all genetic elements. Therefore, a relatively quick and inexpensive strategy for observing changes in large fractions of the genetic elements is highly desirable. Results We have discovered in the model organism Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 that batch culturing in complex medium stimulates meaningful changes in the expression of approximately two thirds of all genes. While the majority of these changes occur during transition from rapid exponential growth to the stationary phase, several transient physiological states were detected beyond what has been previously observed. In sum, integrated analysis of transcript and metabolite changes has helped uncover growth phase-associated physiologies, operational interrelationships among two thirds of all genes, specialized functions for gene family members, waves of transcription factor activities, and growth phase associated cell morphology control. Conclusions Simple laboratory culturing in complex medium can be enormously informative regarding the activities of and interrelationships among a large fraction of all genes in an organism. This also yields important baseline physiological context for designing specific perturbation experiments at

  1. Development of a multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki


    A multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors was newly developed. The analysis system consists of the mechanistic numerical analysis codes, SERAPHIM, TACT, and RELAP5. The SERAPHIM code calculates the multicomponent multiphase flow and sodium-water chemical reaction caused by discharging of pressurized water vapor. Applicability of the SERAPHIM code was confirmed through the analyses of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium. The TACT code was developed to calculate heat transfer from the reacting jet to the adjacent tube and to predict the tube failure occurrence. The numerical models integrated into the TACT code were verified through some related experiments. The RELAP5 code evaluates thermal hydraulic behavior of water inside the tube. The original heat transfer correlations were corrected for the tube rapidly heated by the reacting jet. The developed system enables evaluation of the wastage environment and the possibility of the failure propagation.

  2. An Attempt at Evaluation of the Remnant Influence On the Occurrence of Seismic Phenomena in a Room-and-Pillar Mining System with Roof Deflection

    Adach-Pawelus, Karolina; Butra, Jan; Pawelus, Daniel


    Experience gained until now underground mining worldwide and in Poland indicates that remnants may have an impact on the occurrence of seismic phenomena. Remnants are stress concentration sites encompassing both the deposit and the layers of rock mass located above and below the undisturbed rock. In the case where stresses in the remnant exceed its strength, it may collapse, and under unfavourable geomechanical conditions, stress-induced rockburst may occur. Remnants may also cause breaking of strong roof layers above their edges, which results in the occurrence of high-energy shocks (Salustowicz [30], Adach [3], Adach and Butra [4]). This article presents the possibility of utilizing numerical modeling to evaluate the influence of remnant upon the occurrence of seismic phenomena. The results of numerical calculations performed for a model room-and-pillar mining system with roof deflection under the conditions of copper ore mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) are presented. Numerical calculations in a plane strain state were performed by means of Phase2 v. 8.0 software for the analyzed mining system in which remnant was left behind. The results of numerical modeling showed that sudden fracturing of roof layers above the mined out space may occur on the edge of the remnant. This may cause a shock with very high energy, and under the appropriate conditions, this may lead to the rockburst phenomenon.

  3. [The role of endocannabinoid system in physiological and pathological processes in the eye].

    Nadolska, Krystyna; Goś, Roman


    Plant of Cannabis sativa/ marihuana except for its psychotropic effects possesses a range of pharmacological properties, that has been utilized for medical purposes over a period of millenia. Investigations concerning biochemical mechanism of action of the main and most active pharmacological compound of Cannabis sativa, cannabinoid 9-THC, contributed to the discovery of cannabinoid receptors both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues, that mediated actions of this substance. The discovery made possible identification of a new, endogenous signaling system reffered to as the endocannabinoid system. Besides cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the system includes it's endogenic ligands (endocannabinoids) and compounds that participate in their biosynthesis and inactivation. Structure and functioning of the endocannabinoid system is conservative in all vertebrates. It's activation with plant, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids has an influence on multiple physiological and pathological processes within the eye.

  4. Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems--the role in bacterial physiology and application in molecular biology.

    Bukowski, Michal; Rojowska, Anna; Wladyka, Benedykt


    Bacteria have developed multiple complex mechanisms ensuring an adequate response to environmental changes. In this context, bacterial cell division and growth are subject to strict control to ensure metabolic balance and cell survival. A plethora of studies cast light on toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems as metabolism regulators acting in response to environmental stress conditions. Many of those studies suggest direct relations between the TA systems and the pathogenic potential or antibiotic resistance of relevant bacteria. Other studies point out that TA systems play a significant role in ensuring stability of mobile genetic material. The evolutionary origin and relations between various TA systems are still a subject of a debate. The impact of toxin-antitoxin systems on bacteria physiology prompted their application in molecular biology as tools allowing cloning of some hard-to-maintain genes, plasmid maintenance and production of recombinant proteins.

  5. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Natochin, Iu V


    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  6. Complex fission phenomena

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W


    Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)


    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Fascin-1与消化系恶性肿瘤%Fascin-1 and digestive system carcinomas

    周亮; 王德盛


    Invasion and metastasis are major reasons for poor prognosis of digestive system carcinomas. Motility and migratory capacity are important in contributing to tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Fascin-1 is a globular actin crosslinking protein that can form parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and is involved in cell adhesion, movement, and signal transduction. In vitro up-regulation of Fascin-1 can increase migration and invasion capacity of cells, while down-regulation of Fascin-1 can decrease migration and invasion capacity of cells. Many studies show that up-regulation of Fascin-1 expression is significantly associated with worse prognosis, poorer differentiation, advanced TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis in patients with digestive system carcinomas. Therefore, Fascin-1 may have prognostic value as an early biomarker for more aggressive digestive system carcinomas and may be a potential therapeutic target for tumor invasion and metastasis.%侵袭转移是造成消化系恶性肿瘤患者预后不良的主要原因之一.而肿瘤细胞的运动和迁徙能力在肿瘤的侵袭转移过程中起到了重要作用.Fascin-1是一种肌动蛋白结合蛋白,其主要功能是在细胞突起内形成平行束结构,并参与细胞黏附、移动以及信号转导等.体外实验发现过表达Fascin-1能够增加细胞的侵袭和迁移能力,而抑制Fascin-1的表达则能够降低细胞的侵袭转移.在许多消化系恶性肿瘤组织中,研究发现Fascin-1的上调表达与预后不良,肿瘤的低分化,TNM分期以及淋巴结和远处器官转移密切相关.因此Fascin-1可能作为消化系恶性肿瘤新的预后预测分子及肿瘤侵袭转移可能的治疗靶点.

  9. Vasopressin V1a and V1b receptors: from molecules to physiological systems.

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Egashira, Nobuaki; Hiroyama, Masami; Nonoguchi, Hiroshi; Tanoue, Akito


    The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is essential for a wide range of physiological functions, including water reabsorption, cardiovascular homeostasis, hormone secretion, and social behavior. These and other actions of AVP are mediated by at least three distinct receptor subtypes: V1a, V1b, and V2. Although the antidiuretic action of AVP and V2 receptor in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts is relatively well understood, recent years have seen an increasing understanding of the physiological roles of V1a and V1b receptors. The V1a receptor is originally found in the vascular smooth muscle and the V1b receptor in the anterior pituitary. Deletion of V1a or V1b receptor genes in mice revealed that the contributions of these receptors extend far beyond cardiovascular or hormone-secreting functions. Together with extensively developed pharmacological tools, genetically altered rodent models have advanced the understanding of a variety of AVP systems. Our report reviews the findings in this important field by covering a wide range of research, from the molecular physiology of V1a and V1b receptors to studies on whole animals, including gene knockout/knockdown studies.

  10. Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Monedero, Vicente; Revilla-Guarinos, Ainhoa; Zúñiga, Manuel


    Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB are microorganisms of great relevance for health and food production as the group spans from starter organisms to pathogens. Whereas the role of TCSs in pathogenic LAB (most of them belonging to the family Streptococcaceae) has focused the attention, the roles of TCSs in commensal LAB, such as most species of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae, have been somewhat neglected. However, evidence available indicates that TCSs are key players in the regulation of the physiology of these bacteria. The first studies in food-associated LAB showed the involvement of some TCSs in quorum sensing and production of bacteriocins, but subsequent studies have shown that TCSs participate in other physiological processes, such as stress response, regulation of nitrogen metabolism, regulation of malate metabolism, and resistance to antimicrobial peptides, among others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S


    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  12. Millisecond phenomena in mass accreting neutron stars

    van der Klis, M.; Cohen, L.


    The past twelve years have seen the discovery, with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of several long-predicted phenomena associated with the accretion of matter onto a neutron star in a binary (double) star system. These phenomena are observed in the strong X-ray emission produced by these

  13. Lipids in the nervous system: from biochemistry and molecular biology to patho-physiology.

    Cermenati, Gaia; Mitro, Nico; Audano, Matteo; Melcangi, Roberto C; Crestani, Maurizio; De Fabiani, Emma; Caruso, Donatella


    Lipids in the nervous system accomplish a great number of key functions, from synaptogenesis to impulse conduction, and more. Most of the lipids of the nervous system are localized in myelin sheaths. It has long been known that myelin structure and brain homeostasis rely on specific lipid-protein interactions and on specific cell-to-cell signaling. In more recent years, the growing advances in large-scale technologies and genetically modified animal models have provided valuable insights into the role of lipids in the nervous system. Key findings recently emerged in these areas are here summarized. In addition, we briefly discuss how this new knowledge can open novel approaches for the treatment of diseases associated with alteration of lipid metabolism/homeostasis in the nervous system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipidomics.

  14. Systems Biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Physiology and its DNA Damage Response

    Fazio, Alessandro

    set of growth dependent genes by using a multi-factorial experimental design. Moreover, new insights into the metabolic response and transcriptional regulation of these genes have been provided by using systems biology tools (Chapter 3). One of the prerequisite of systems biology should......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism in biology, being widely used in fundamental research, the first eukaryotic organism to be fully sequenced and the platform for the development of many genomics techniques. Therefore, it is not surprising that S. cerevisiae has also been widely...... used in the field of systems biology during the last decade. This thesis investigates S. cerevisiae growth physiology and DNA damage response by using a systems biology approach. Elucidation of the relationship between growth rate and gene expression is important to understand the mechanisms regulating...

  15. Closeout final report on a demonstration test and evaluation of the Cannon Low-NOx Digester System



    Cannon Boiler Works Inc. has been investigating a system for removing NOx from the exhaust gases of furnaces, gas turbines, chemical reactors, incinerators, and boilers. Computer simulations, bench-scale and pilot plant tests have proved that the system is capable of removing substantially all of the NOx from natural gas fired equipment exhaust streams. Originally designated as the Cannon NOx Digester, it has recently been renamed the Low Temperature Oxidation (LTO) System for NOx and SOx Reduction. The principal elements in the system are a fan, heat exchanger, oxidation chamber, spray chamber acting as a gas/liquid absorber, demister, an ozone generator, liquid oxygen storage or dry air supply system for the ozonator, chemical storage and metering system for the caustic neutralizer, and a data acquisition and control system. Most of the ozone is consumed in converting NOx to N{sub 2}O{sub 5} which hydrates to nitric acid which is then scrubbed out of the gas as it passes through the absorber. CO also reacts with ozone to form CO{sub 2} which is subsequently scrubbed out with NaOH. A demonstration, planned for the Alta Dena Dairy located near Los Angeles and in violation of California`s air quality regulations for natural gas fired boilers, was started, delayed due to boiler modifications, and will be continued shortly with new funding. This paper describes the LTO process and presents results from the initial demonstration.

  16. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet


    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  17. Application of an Automated System for the Processing of VLF signals to Detect, Analyze and Classify Seismic-Ionospheric Precursor Phenomena

    Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Thomas; Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso


    This paper studies the development and application of an automated system based on Predictive Modular Neural Networks (PREMONNs) and Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) along with the necessary backend development of database classification required to provide a fully integrated system for detecting disturbances that can be attributed to seismic-ionospheric precursor phenomena using VLF radio signals. The aforementioned system can analyze all the relevant data and bring forth and adaptively discriminate different characteristics in the received signals, in real time in order to provide data segments of interest that can be correlated to subsequent seismic phenomena and can be classified with respect to pre-recorded samples of previous points of interest (POIs). PREMONNs as it was demonstrated in previous studies can be used for time-series switching detection and can be applied to the detection of POIs , whereas SOMs have been extensively used in unsupervised pattern recognition and classification of datasets. For the purpose of this paper, data acquired in Thessaloniki (40.59N, 22,78E) from the VLF station in Tavolara, Italy (ICV station Lat 40.923, Lon. 9.731) for over two years (December 2010 - December 2012) are used. The receiver was developed by Elettronika Srl, and is part of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). The received VLF signal is normalized and then processed using the Empirical Mode Decomposition Method (EMD). The resulting data are passed to an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on PREMONNs trained specifically for this purpose and the output from that stage is passed onto a classifier based on SOMs to compare and classify points of interest based on a current database of received signals and identifying and storing new ones for future reference. The efficacy of the detection and the results of the aforementioned process is then discussed and results are presented. Therefore, based on the results it may be

  18. Biotic and abiotic dynamics of a high solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system.

    Walter, Andreas; Probst, Maraike; Hinterberger, Stephan; Müller, Horst; Insam, Heribert


    A solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system for biomethane production was observed in 12 three-week batch fermentations. Reactor performance was monitored using physico-chemical analysis and the methanogenic community was identified using ANAEROCHIP-microarrays and quantitative PCR. A resilient community was found in all batches, despite variations in inoculum to substrate ratio, feedstock quality, and fluctuating reactor conditions. The consortia were dominated by mixotrophic Methanosarcina that were accompanied by hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanocorpusculum. The relationship between biotic and abiotic variables was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance. High amounts of biogas were produced in batches with high copy numbers of Methanosarcina. High copy numbers of Methanocorpusculum and extensive percolation, however, were found to negatively correlate with biogas production. Supporting these findings, a negative correlation was detected between Methanocorpusculum and Methanosarcina. Based on these results, this study suggests Methanosarcina as an indicator for well-functioning reactor performance.

  19. [Hemorrhagic shock revealing multiple digestive microaneurysms in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Case report and literature review].

    Anquetil, C; Stavris, C; Chanson, N; Lambert, M; Hachulla, E; Launay, D; Hatron, P Y


    The vascular disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) result from various mechanisms and presentations (inflammatory disease or vasculitis, atherosclerosis). We report on a 34-year-old man with cutaneous, articular, neurological and nephrologic SLE. He presented with catastrophic haemorrhage on microaneurysm rupture of the left hepatic artery. After blood transfusions and immunosuppressive treatments, his condition improves. Uncommon complication in SLE patients, digestive vasculitis with microaneurysms may occur as in polyarteritis nodosa. In the literature, we identified 10 additional cases of hepatic microaneurysms in SLE patients. The main issue is an earlier diagnosis in order to give appropriate treatment and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of randomised trials on diseases in the digestive system registered in a retrospective analysis

    Wildt, Signe; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Liselotte


    Objectives To evaluate the adequacy of reporting of protocols for randomised trials on diseases of the digestive system registered in and the consistency between primary outcomes, secondary outcomes and sample size specified in and published...... trials. Methods Randomised phase III trials on adult patients with gastrointestinal diseases registered before January 2009 in were eligible for inclusion. From all data elements in the database required by the International Committee of Medical Journal...... Editors (ICMJE) member journals were extracted. The subsequent publications for registered trials were identified. For published trials, data concerning publication date, primary and secondary endpoint, sample size, and whether the journal adhered to ICMJE principles were extracted. Differences between...

  1. 'Integrative Physiology 2.0': Integration of systems biology into physiology and its application to cardiovascular homeostasis

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. van der Velden (Jolanda); A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk)


    textabstractSince the completion of the Human Genome Project and the advent of the large scaled unbiased '-omics' techniques, the field of systems biology has emerged. Systems biology aims to move away from the traditional reductionist molecular approach, which focused on understanding the role of s

  2. Physiological functions of the small GTPase Arf6 in the nervous system.

    Akiyama, Masahiro; Kanaho, Yasunori


    The small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays important roles in membrane dynamics-based neuronal cell events such as neurite outgrowth and spine formation. However, physiological functions of Arf6 in the nervous system at whole animal level have not yet been explored. We have recently generated conditional knockout mice lacking Arf6 in neurons or oligodendrocytes of central nervous system (CNS) or both cell lineages, and analyzed them. We found that ablation of Arf6 gene from neurons, but not from oligodendrocytes, caused the defect in axon myelination at the fimbria of hippocampus (Fim) and corpus callosum (CC). We also found that migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) from the subventricular zone to the Fim and CC in mice lacking Arf6 in neurons was impaired. Finally, it was found that secretion of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a guidance factor for OPC migration, from hippocampi lacking Arf6 was impaired. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Arf6 in neurons of the CNS plays an important role in OPC migration by regulating secretion of FGF-2 from neurons, thereby contributing to the axon myelination. Here, we discuss our current understanding of physiological functions of Arf6 in the nervous system.

  3. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  4. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 19

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)


    This is the 19th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 5 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Reports on two conferences, one on adaptation to high altitudes, and one on space and ecology are presented. A book review of a recent work on high altitude physiology is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  5. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 11

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor)


    This is the eleventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of four new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated. Additional features include the translation of a paper presented in Russian to the United Nations, a review of a book on space ecology, and report of a conference on evaluating human functional capacities and predicting health. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 30 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, aviation physiology, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, group dynamics, genetics, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.


    Beata Bień


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the impact of inorganic coagulants and polyelectrolytes and their common action on sonicated digested sludge. Sonication of sludge samples was carried out under static conditions for 60, 120 and 180 seconds. The ultrasonic wave of f = 20 kHz and two different amplitudes of A = 15.25 μm was used in tests. The coagulant PIX123 and the polyelectrolyte Zetag 8160 were used for conditioning. On the basis of CST test the doses of chemical reagents were chosen for conditioning. The results showed the effect of application of the PIX123 and Zetag 8160 and their combination on non-sonicated and sonicated sludge. The lowest CST was achieved for non-sonicated sludge while polyelectrolyte was applied. For sonicated sludge better results were achieved when PIX123 was used. The combination of coagulant and polyelectrolyte allowed to achieve COD reduction, but the best results were achieved for sludge prepared by PIX123. The application of Zetag8160 in this case was not satisfactory.

  7. A stretchable and flexible system for skin-mounted measurement of motion tracking and physiological signals.

    Pinghung Wei; Raj, Milan; Yung-Yu Hsu; Morey, Briana; DePetrillo, Paolo; McGrane, Bryan; Xianyan Wang; Lin, Monica; Keen, Bryan; Papakyrikos, Cole; Lowe, Jared; Ghaffari, Roozbeh


    In this paper, we present a stretchable wearable system capable of i) measuring multiple physiological parameters and ii) transmitting data via radio frequency to a smart phone. The electrical architecture consists of ultra thin sensors (<; 20 μm thick) and a conformal network of associated active and passive electronics in a mesh-like geometry that can mechanically couple with the curvilinear surfaces of the human body. Spring-like metal interconnects between individual chips on board the device allow the system to accommodate strains approaching ~30% A representative example of a smart patch that measures movement and electromyography (EMG) signals highlights the utility of this new class of medical skin-mounted system in monitoring a broad range of neuromuscular and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. A Doppler Radar System for Sensing Physiological Parameters in Walking and Standing Positions

    Malikeh Pour Ebrahim


    Full Text Available Doppler radar can be implemented for sensing physiological parameters wirelessly at a distance. Detecting respiration rate, an important human body parameter, is essential in a range of applications like emergency and military healthcare environments, and Doppler radar records actual chest motion. One challenge in using Doppler radar is being able to monitor several patients simultaneously and in different situations like standing, walking, or lying. This paper presents a complete transmitter-receiver Doppler radar system, which uses a 4 GHz continuous wave radar signal transmission and receiving system, to extract base-band data from a phase-shifted signal. This work reports experimental evaluations of the system for one and two subjects in various standing and walking positions. It provides a detailed signal analysis of various breathing rates of these two subjects simultaneously. These results will be useful in future medical monitoring applications.

  9. Age Dimension Homeostasis of Physiological Systems, a Slow Dynamics Model in Biology

    Kurachi, K.; Yasui, M.; Isobe, T.; Suenaga, E.; Kurachi, S.


    Throughout the life span, complex physiological systems are regulated by specific age related mechanisms, thus maintaining the age axis homeostasis. Our efforts for understanding the underlying mechanisms began about a decade ago, successfully discovering the very fist such a mechanism, we called the ASE/AIE-mediated age-related regulatory mechanism of gene expression. This mechanism can explain the major feature of the age-related increase profile of blood coagulation activity. Global analyses of the mouse liver genes and proteins revealed heir highly dynamic and complex age-related regulation, suggesting the existence of several major phases over the life span. These studies facilitate a systematic investigation into the regulatory mechanisms of age-axis homeostasis, a slow dynamics system of the complex biological systems.

  10. A simple physiologic pulsatile perfusion system for the study of intact vascular tissue.

    Conklin, B S; Surowiec, S M; Lin, P H; Chen, C


    Perfusion vascular culture models may provide a useful link between cell culture models and animal culture models by allowing a high level of control over important parameters while maintaining physiologic structure. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new vascular culture system for pulsatile perfusion culture of intact vascular tissue. The system generates a pulsatile component of flow by means of a cam-driven syringe and a peristaltic pump and compliance chamber. Cams were designed, constructed and tested to simulate canine femoral and common carotid artery flows. The mean pressure was adjusted between 60 and 200 mmHg without significantly affecting flow rate, flow waveform, or the pressure waveform. Porcine common carotid artery segments were cultured in this pulsatile perfusion system. The viability of vascular segments was tested after various culture times with a functional assay that demonstrated both smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell response to vasomotor challenge.

  11. An extra-uterine system to physiologically support the extreme premature lamb

    Partridge, Emily A.; Davey, Marcus G.; Hornick, Matthew A.; McGovern, Patrick E.; Mejaddam, Ali Y.; Vrecenak, Jesse D.; Mesas-Burgos, Carmen; Olive, Aliza; Caskey, Robert C.; Weiland, Theodore R.; Han, Jiancheng; Schupper, Alexander J.; Connelly, James T.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Rychik, Jack; Hedrick, Holly L.; Peranteau, William H.; Flake, Alan W.


    In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed `amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb. We show that fetal lambs that are developmentally equivalent to the extreme premature human infant can be physiologically supported in this extra-uterine device for up to 4 weeks. Lambs on support maintain stable haemodynamics, have normal blood gas and oxygenation parameters and maintain patency of the fetal circulation. With appropriate nutritional support, lambs on the system demonstrate normal somatic growth, lung maturation and brain growth and myelination.

  12. Protocol: optimising hydroponic growth systems for nutritional and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants


    Background Hydroponic growth systems are a convenient platform for studying whole plant physiology. However, we found through trialling systems as they are described in the literature that our experiments were frequently confounded by factors that affected plant growth, including algal contamination and hypoxia. We also found the way in which the plants were grown made them poorly amenable to a number of common physiological assays. Results The drivers for the development of this hydroponic system were: 1) the exclusion of light from the growth solution; 2) to simplify the handling of individual plants, and 3) the growth of the plant to allow easy implementation of multiple assays. These aims were all met by the use of pierced lids of black microcentrifuge tubes. Seed was germinated on a lid filled with an agar-containing germination media immersed in the same solution. Following germination, the liquid growth media was exchanged with the experimental solution, and after 14-21 days seedlings were transferred to larger tanks with aerated solution where they remained until experimentation. We provide details of the protocol including composition of the basal growth solution, and separate solutions with altered calcium, magnesium, potassium or sodium supply whilst maintaining the activity of the majority of other ions. We demonstrate the adaptability of this system for: gas exchange measurement on single leaves and whole plants; qRT-PCR to probe the transcriptional response of roots or shoots to altered nutrient composition in the growth solution (we demonstrate this using high and low calcium supply); producing highly competent mesophyll protoplasts; and, accelerating the screening of Arabidopsis transformants. This system is also ideal for manipulating plants for micropipette techniques such as electrophysiology or SiCSA. Conclusions We present an optimised plant hydroponic culture system that can be quickly and cheaply constructed, and produces plants with similar

  13. Ion exchange phenomena

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.


    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  14. Rheological phenomena in focus

    Boger, DV


    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  15. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    Sideman, Samuel


    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  16. Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects.

    Mishchenko, Michael I; Rosenbush, Vera K; Kiselev, Nikolai N


    The totality of new and previous optical observations of a class of high-albedo solar system objects at small phase angles reveals a unique combination of extremely narrow brightness and polarization features centered at exactly the opposition. The specific morphological parameters of these features provide an almost unequivocal evidence that they are caused by the renowned effect of coherent backscattering.

  17. Comparative performance and microbial community of single-phase and two-phase anaerobic systems co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure

    Panichnumsin, P.; Ahring, B.K.; Nopharatana, A.


    In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, whi...

  18. The Control Strategies of Radiation Injuries to the Digestive System%核辐射对消化系统损害的防治策略

    耿超; 林森


    消化系统中多个器官具有细胞代谢快、易受核射线损伤的特点,成为骨髓以外最容易遭受核辐射破坏的身体部位.日本核电站的泄露事故,使核辐射再度成为世界的焦点.随着人们对电离辐射认识的增加,核辐射对消化系统的损害也逐渐受到重视.本文通过对消化系统的损害机制的研究,论述了核辐射对消化系统的损害的防护和治疗策略.%Tissues and organs of the digestive system which often metabolize fast and are susceptible to the nuclear radiation are the most vulnerable to radiation injuries accept bone marrow. Recently, due to the leakage of Japanese nuclear power plant, people around the world focus on the problem of nuclear radiation once again. With increased understanding of ionizing radiation, radiation injuries to digestive system are gradually recognized. So this paper studies the mechanism of the digestive system injuries and discusses the prevention and treatment strategies for radiation injuries to digestive system.

  19. A Physiological and Behavioral Mechanism for Leaf Herbivore-Induced Systemic Root Resistance.

    Erb, Matthias; Robert, Christelle A M; Marti, Guillaume; Lu, Jing; Doyen, Gwladys R; Villard, Neil; Barrière, Yves; French, B Wade; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C J; Gershenzon, Jonathan


    Indirect plant-mediated interactions between herbivores are important drivers of community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. Among the most striking examples are the strong indirect interactions between spatially separated leaf- and root-feeding insects sharing a host plant. Although leaf feeders generally reduce the performance of root herbivores, little is known about the underlying systemic changes in root physiology and the associated behavioral responses of the root feeders. We investigated the consequences of maize (Zea mays) leaf infestation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars for the root-feeding larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of maize. D. virgifera strongly avoided leaf-infested plants by recognizing systemic changes in soluble root components. The avoidance response occurred within 12 h and was induced by real and mimicked herbivory, but not wounding alone. Roots of leaf-infested plants showed altered patterns in soluble free and soluble conjugated phenolic acids. Biochemical inhibition and genetic manipulation of phenolic acid biosynthesis led to a complete disappearance of the avoidance response of D. virgifera. Furthermore, bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed a direct link between the avoidance response of D. virgifera and changes in soluble conjugated phenolic acids in the roots of leaf-attacked plants. Our study provides a physiological mechanism for a behavioral pattern that explains the negative effect of leaf attack on a root-feeding insect. Furthermore, it opens up the possibility to control D. virgifera in the field by genetically mimicking leaf herbivore-induced changes in root phenylpropanoid patterns.

  20. Wearable monitoring systems for psychological and physiological state assessment in a naturalistic environment.

    Paradiso, R; Faetti, T; Werner, S


    Wearable monitoring systems based on Smart Fibers and Interactive Textile (SFIT) platforms combine imperceptible sensing and computing functions with an interactive communication network. The integration into clothes of bio-potential sensors for health monitoring provides daily physiological parameters through a continuous, personalized, self-made detection of vital signs and the tracking of behavioral indicators of the subject. SFIT platforms can be used unobtrusively into the routinely daily activity to perform remote monitoring of persons in different circumstances and situations: during controlled exercises and diagnostic procedures as a biofeedback tool, during the usual daily life, during sleep or even to monitor behavioral indexes and mood disorders. Treatment of stress may include also training in cognitive-behavioral skills. Moreover, physiological signs and behavioral monitoring based on a multivariable approach leads to an enhanced sensitivity and specificity of these systems for the prediction of critical events. This paper presents two applications: a platform used in the frame of PSYCHE project, based on textile platforms and portable sensing devices for the long term and short term acquisition of data from patients affected by mood disorders and a platform addressing healthy subjects, based on biofeedback methodology, designed for the training of professional drivers named Mental Bio.