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Sample records for digestion heat treatment

  1. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse waste (SHW): influence of heat and pressure pre-treatment in biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X; Otero, M; Morán, A

    2010-10-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (34+/-1 degrees C) of pre-treated (for 20 min at 133 degrees C, >3 bar) slaughterhouse waste and its co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) have been assessed. Semi-continuously-fed digesters worked with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 d and organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2 and 2.6 kg VS(feed)/m(3)d for digestion and co-digestion, respectively, with a previous acclimatization period in all cases. It was not possible to carry out an efficient treatment of hygienized waste, even less so when OFMSW was added as co-substrate. These digesters presented volatile fatty acids (VFA), long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and fats accumulation, leading to instability and inhibition of the degradation process. The aim of applying a heat and pressure pre-treatment to promote splitting of complex lipids and nitrogen-rich waste into simpler and more biodegradable constituents and to enhance biogas production was not successful. These results indicate that the temperature and the high pressure of the pre-treatment applied favoured the formation of compounds that are refractory to anaerobic digestion. The pre-treated slaughterhouse wastes and the final products of these systems were analyzed by FTIR and TGA. These tools verified the existence of complex nitrogen-containing polymers in the final effluents, confirming the formation of refractory compounds during pre-treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells following in vitro digestion: effects of heat treatments of pork meat and pH of the digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Anne D; Bukhave, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    The present in vitro studies report on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells from pepsin and pepsin+pancreatin-digested pork meat proteins at pH values between 4.6 and 7 mimicking conditions in the duodenum and the proximal jejunum, respectively. Heat treatment of the pork meat resulted in increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested samples to Caco-2 cells at pH 4.6. The major enhancing effects on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells were observed after pepsin digestion in the pH range 4.6-6.0, whereas the pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples resulted in negligible iron uptake in Caco-2 cells at pH 7. Thus, the results emphasize the importance of separating pepsin-digested and pepsin+pancreatin-digested proteins during in vitro studies on iron availability. Furthermore, the present results showed the pH dependency of iron uptake anticipated. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid was verified by increased iron uptake from pepsin-digested pork meat samples at pH 4.6, while no effect of ascorbic acid was observed at pH 7 in pepsin+pancreatin-digested samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Complexation of rice starch/flour and maize oil through heat moisture treatment: Structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples. The higher moisture content of HMT was also favorable for the amylose-lipid complex formation. Differences in starch digestion properties were found for NRS-MO and NRF-MO complex. All of the NRS/NRF complexed MO after cooking showed lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents compared with the control sample, therein NRS-/NRF- MO 20% exhibited the highest sum of the slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. In general, HMT had a greater impact on the in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of flour samples compared with starch counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  8. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, L; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Stern, M D; Martinsson, K

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (pruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (pruminants.

  9. Impact of heat-moisture and annealing treatments on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches from different colored sweet potato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Phan Thanh Bao; Ngoc, Luu Bui Bao; Hoa, Phan Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Hung, Pham Van

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the change in physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches isolated from colored sweet potato varieties under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing treatment (ANN). The results showed that morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sweet potato starches remained unchanged after the HMT or ANN. The HMT significantly reduced peak viscosity, breakdown and setback and significantly increased pasting temperature, trough and final viscosities of the sweet potato starches. The swelling powers and solubility of the heat-moisture treated starches were significantly lower than those of the native or annealed starches. The decreased rapid digestible starch and the increased slowly digestible and resistant starch contents of the sweet potato starches after HMT or ANN as compared to those of the native starches were observed. The resistant starch (RS) contents of the heat-moisture treated sweet potato starches were in a range of 30.6-39.3%, significantly higher than those of the annealed starches (28.8-32.0%). The strong impact of the HMT on physicochemical properties and RS formation of the sweet potato starches compared to the ANN might be due to the high stability of the occurred interactions between starch molecules and amylopectin chains during treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production in a system using anaerobic digester sludge without heat-treatment as a biomass source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    A study at a Canadian waste treatment plant showed that raw sewage entering had nine times the energy content needed to run the plant. Therefore plants such as these could potentially become net energy producers. A common practice in laboratory-scale demonstration units is to use heat treatments to kill methanogens that consume hydrogen and retain only spore-forming fermentative bacteria. This heat treatment is energy intensive and therefore would be best omitted from a large-scale operation. Also, methanogens seem to be ubiquitous and it may not be possible to prevent their reintroduction in a commercial set up. This paper reports on studies to see if methanogens can be kept to an acceptable level by control of pH and by keeping the solids retention time down to about ten hours. When fed glucose the reactor initially had a productivity of approximately 7.9 per cent. After purging with carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas, productivity increased to more than 20 per cent on the first day. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens then established themselves in the reactor, reducing hydrogen productivity during the second non-purged phase by 80 per cent. The methods examined did not eliminate hydrogen-consuming methanogens for longer than a week, and thus it was suggested that the matter needs further study. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  14. Nutrient digestibility of Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) bean in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, L): Effects of heat treatment and levels of incorporation in diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahouda, M; Toléba, S S; Youssao, A K I; Hambuckers, A; Dangou-Sapoho, R; Martin, G B; Fillet, M; Hornick, J-L

    2009-09-01

    1. Mucuna pruriens var. utilis is a legume, the seeds of which are scarcely used in animal diets owing to their high content of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-Dopa). 2. Experiments were conducted on guinea fowl to assess the effects of two types of heat processing (cooking and toasting) on chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of Mucuna seeds offered alone or incorporated at three concentrations (40, 120 or 200 g/kg) in complete diets. 3. Diets containing 200 g/kg seeds had more crude fibre and less ether extract. L-Dopa content increased with the amount of Mucuna inclusion. Cooking reduced markedly L-Dopa content while toasting had no effect. When fed alone, Mucuna seeds dramatically decreased feed intake. 4. Feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) were not influenced by the complete diets. Cooking significantly increased crude fibre digestibility. 5. It is suggested that cracked and cooked Mucuna bean can be incorporated at a safe level of 120 g/kg in complete diets for guinea fowl production.

  15. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo-inositol pentaki......The aim was to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment, microbial phytase addition and feeding strategy (dry feeding v. fermented liquid feeding) on degradation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) and formation and further degradation of lower inositol phosphates (myo...... × 4 Latin square with four pigs fed four diets. A basal wheat/barley-based diet was fed either as non-heat-treated or heat-treated (steam-pelleted at 90°C). The heat-treatment resulted in an inactivation of plant phytase below detectable level. Diet 1 (non-heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 2...... (heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 3 (as diet 2 but with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg as fed) fed dry); diet 4 (as diet 3 fed liquid (fermented for 17.5 h nighttime and 6.5 h daytime at 20°C with 50% residue in the tank)). Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was included as marker and ATTD was determined both...

  16. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank J. Hartz

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  17. Municipal Development of Anaerobic Digestion/ Combined Heat and Power in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Brenda

    With a commercial food waste ban going into effect in Massachusetts in October 2014, businesses, institutions, and municipalities are considering alternatives to landfills and incinerators for organic waste. Anaerobic digestion is one such alternative. Similar to composting, but in an environment devoid of oxygen, anaerobic digestion produces byproducts such as methane (which can be burned for heat or electricity) and liquid or solid digestate (which can be used as fertilizer, cattle bedding, and more). Thus, disposal of food waste and other organic materials can become a source of revenue rather than just an expense. Municipalities interested in developing anaerobic digestion/combined heat and power (AD/CHP) facilities have the benefit of desirable options for sites, such as landfill gas facilities and wastewater treatment plants, and potential feedstocks in source-separated residential or municipal food waste or wastewater. This thesis examines the opportunities and challenges for municipal development of AD/CHP facilities in Massachusetts.

  18. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and Cys. However, no differences between CM-HT and CM-LT were observed. In conclusion, regardless of the concentration of CP and the processing used, canola meal provides less DE and ME to pigs than corn and SBM, and the SID of AA in canola meal is less than in SBM. The processing

  19. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  20. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Processed Meat Protein and Heat-Stable Peptide Marker Identification Using Microwave-Assisted Tryptic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Montowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to rapid examination of proteins and peptides in complex food matrices are of great interest to the community of food scientists. The aim of the study is to examine the influence of microwave irradiation on the acceleration of enzymatic cleavage and enzymatic digestion of denatured proteins in cooked meat of five species (cattle, horse, pig, chicken and turkey and processed meat products (coarsely minced, smoked, cooked and semi-dried sausages. Severe protein aggregation occurred not only in heated meat under harsh treatment at 190 °C but also in processed meat products. All the protein aggregates were thoroughly hydrolyzed aft er 1 h of trypsin treatment with short exposure times of 40 and 20 s to microwave irradiation at 138 and 303 W. There were much more missed cleavage sites observed in all microwave-assisted digestions. Despite the incompleteness of microwave-assisted digestion, six unique peptide markers were detected, which allowed unambiguous identification of processed meat derived from the examined species. Although the microwave-assisted tryptic digestion can serve as a tool for rapid and high-throughput protein identification, great caution and pre-evaluation of individual samples is recommended in protein quantitation.

  2. Digestibility and antigenicity of β-lactoglobulin as affected by heat, pH and applied shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Toheder; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ramchandran, Lata

    2017-02-15

    Processing induced conformational changes can modulate digestibility of food allergens and thereby their antigenicity. Effect of different pH (3, 5, 7), temperature (room temperature, 120°C) and shear (0s(-1), 1000s(-1)) on simulated gastrointestinal digestibility of β-lg and post digestion antigenic characteristics have been studied. At all pH levels unheated β-lg showed resistance to peptic digestion with high antigenic value while it was fairly susceptible to pancreatin with moderate reduction in antigenicity. Heating at 120°C significantly improved both peptic and pancreatic digestion attributed to structural alterations that resulted in much lower antigenicity; the level of reduction being pH dependant. The lowest antigenicity was recorded at pH 5. Shearing (1000s(-1)) had a minor impact reducing digestibility and thereby enhancing antigenicity of unheated β-lg at pH 5 and 7 slightly; however in conjunction with heating (120°C) it reduced antigenicity further irrespective of the pH. Overall, treatment at pH 5, 120°C and 1000s(-1) could potentially reduce post digestion antigenicity of β-lg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  4. ENERGY SLUDGE PROCESSING IN A SEPARATE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DIGESTER POMORZANY IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Iżewska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomorzany Sewage Treatment Plant in Szczecin ensures the required parameters of treated sewage. However, due to higher efficiency of sewage treatment, more sludge is produced after the treatment process. In the examined sludge treatment plant, primary sludge is gravitationally thickened to the content of about 5% of dry matter, and the excessive is thickened in mechanical compactors up to 6% of dry matter. Settlements preliminary and excessive after compaction is discharged to the sludge tank where a pump is forced into two closed digesters. Each digester has the capacity of 5069 m3. At a temperature of about 37 °C a mesophilic digestion is performed. Biogas, that is produced in the chamber, is stored in two-coat tanks with the capacity of 1500 m3 each and after desulphurization with the biosulfex method (which results with obtaining elemental sulphur it is used as fuel in cogeneration units. The aim of this study was to determine amount of energy given by sewage sludge in the form of heat during the process of methane digestion (primary and excessive. These amounts were determined on the basis of chemical energy balance of sewage carried into and out of Separate Sludge Digesters and produced biogas within 24h. The study determined that the percentage value of average chemical energy amount turned into heat and discharged with produced methane in relation to chemical energy of sewage carried into the first digester in Pomorzany Treatment Plant in Szczecin was in the range of 47.86 ± 9.73% for a confidence level of 0.95. On average 80.86 ± 33.65% was emitted with methane and 19.14 ± 33.65% of energy was changed into heat.

  5. Acid-digestion treatment of plutonium-containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, H.; Kemmler, G.; Krause, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid-Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the acid-digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU, with its original tray digestion vessel, has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boil-off rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve-hour day, five-day week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high-rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat-transfer surface, which is expected to provide at least twice the water boil-off rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form. (author)

  6. Low-heat, mild alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Tom; Walker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment under mild heat conditions (100°C or 212°F) on the anaerobic co-digestion of switchgrass. The effects of alkaline concentration, types of alkaline, heating time and rinsing were evaluated. In addition to batch studies, continuous-feed studies were performed in triplicate to identify potential digester operational problems caused by switchgrass co-digestion while accounting for uncertainty due to digester variability. Few studies have examined anaerobic digestion of switchgrass or the effects of mild heating to enhance alkaline pretreatment prior to biomass digestion. Results indicate that pretreatment can significantly enhance digestion of coarse-ground (≤ 0.78 cm particle size) switchgrass. Energy conversion efficiency as high as 63% was observed, and was comparable or superior to fine-grinding as a pretreatment method. The optimal NaOH concentration was found to be 5.5% (wt/wt alkaline/biomass) with a 91.7% moisture level. No evidence of operational problems such as solids build-up, poor mixing, or floating materials were observed. These results suggest the use of waste heat from a generator could reduce the concentration of alkaline required to adequately pretreat lignocellulosic feedstock prior to anaerobic digestion.

  7. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1977-11-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester, a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  8. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  9. Heat damage and in vitro starch digestibility of puffed wheat kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Stefano; Hidalgo, Alyssa; Masotti, Fabio; Stuknytė, Milda; Brandolini, Andrea; De Noni, Ivano

    2015-12-01

    The effect of processing conditions on heat damage, starch digestibility, release of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and antioxidant capacity of puffed cereals was studied. The determination of several markers arising from Maillard reaction proved pyrraline (PYR) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as the most reliable indices of heat load applied during puffing. The considerable heat load was evidenced by the high levels of both PYR (57.6-153.4 mg kg(-1) dry matter) and HMF (13-51.2 mg kg(-1) dry matter). For cost and simplicity, HMF looked like the most appropriate index in puffed cereals. Puffing influenced starch in vitro digestibility, being most of the starch (81-93%) hydrolyzed to maltotriose, maltose and glucose whereas only limited amounts of AGEs were released. The relevant antioxidant capacity revealed by digested puffed kernels can be ascribed to both the new formed Maillard reaction products and the conditions adopted during in vitro digestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma assisted heat treatment: annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunatto, S F; Guimaraes, N V

    2009-01-01

    This work comprises a new dc plasma application in the metallurgical-mechanical field, called plasma assisted heat treatment, and it presents the first results for annealing. Annealing treatments were performed in 90% reduction cold-rolled niobium samples at 900 deg. C and 60 min, in two different heating ways: (a) in a hollow cathode discharge (HCD) configuration and (b) in a plasma oven configuration. The evolution of the samples' recrystallization was determined by means of the microstructure, microhardness and softening rate characterization. The results indicate that plasma species (ions and neutrals) bombardment in HCD plays an important role in the recrystallization process activation and could lead to technological and economical advantages considering the metallic materials' heat treatment application. (fast track communication)

  11. Effect of heat and homogenization on in vitro digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Ren, Daxi X; Van Hekken, Diane L; Bonnaillie, Laetitia; Paul, Moushumi; Kwoczak, Raymond; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Central to commercial fluid milk processing is the use of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization to ensure the safety and quality of milk, and homogenization to prevent creaming of fat-containing milk. Ultra-high-temperature sterilization is also applied to milk and is typically used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated, specialty milk products or to provide shelf-stable milk. The structures of the milk proteins and lipids are affected by processing but little information is available on the effects of the individual processes or sequences of processes on digestibility. In this study, raw whole milk was subjected to homogenization, HTST pasteurization, and homogenization followed by HTST or UHT processing. Raw skim milk was subjected to the same heating regimens. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion using a fasting model was then used to detect the processing-induced changes in the proteins and lipids. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, gastric pepsin digestion of the milk samples showed rapid elimination of the casein and α-lactalbumin bands, persistence of the β-lactoglobulin bands, and appearance of casein and whey peptide bands. The bands for β-lactoglobulin were eliminated within the first 15min of intestinal pancreatin digestion. The remaining proteins and peptides of raw, HTST, and UHT skim samples were digested rapidly within the first 15min of intestinal digestion, but intestinal digestion of raw and HTST pasteurized whole milk showed some persistence of the peptides throughout digestion. The availability of more lipid droplets upon homogenization, with greater surface area available for interaction with the peptides, led to persistence of the smaller peptide bands and thus slower intestinal digestion when followed by HTST pasteurization but not by UHT processing, in which the denatured proteins may be more accessible to the digestive enzymes. Homogenization and heat processing also affected the ζ-potential and free fatty acid release

  12. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  13. Biological treatment of sludge digester liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdrecht, M C M; Salem, S

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in side stream processes offers a good potential for upgrading wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that need to meet stricter effluent standards. Removing nutrients from these internal process flows significantly reduces the N-load to the main treatment plant. These internal flows mainly result from the sludge processing and have a high temperature and a high concentration of ammonia. Therefore, the required reactor volumes as well as the required aerobic SRT are small. Generally, biological treatment processes are more economical and preferred over physical-chemical processes. Recently, several biological treatment processes have been introduced for sludge water treatment. These processes are available now on the activated sludge market (e.g. SHARON, ANAMMOX and BABE processes). The technologies differ in concept and in the limitations guiding the application of these processes for upgrading WWTPs. This paper reviews and compares different biological alternatives for nitrogen removal in side streams. The limitations for selecting a technology from the available ones in the activated sludge market are noted and analysed. It is stressed that the choice for a certain process is based on more aspects than pure process engineering arguments.

  14. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: sewage characteristics;…

  15. Thermochemical treatment of biogas digestate solids to produce organic fertilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelopoulos, Athanasios

    digestate, are acknowledged for their potential to serve as organic amendments and fertilizers however, their characteristics constitutes them prone to N losses, and their management (handling, storage, transportation) costly. Thermal drying of manures is known to facilitate transportation by volume...... reduction, nutrient concentration and hygienization of the final product. However, thermal treatment of ammonium rich organic wastes such as digestate solids has been linked with relative high volatilization of NH3 and therefore decrease in N fertilizing value of the final product. Temperature and air...... solids had low N fertilizing value due to the excessive loses of inorganic N during the drying process. On the contrary, acidification minimized ammonia volatilization from solids during the thermal treatment with direct impact on the N fertilizing value of acid treated solids. In addition, acidification...

  16. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  17. Conversion of sewage treatment plants on sludge digestion. Energetic and economic optimization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Theo G.; Gretzschel, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Investigations within the framework of the state-commissioned project ''Re-evaluation of wastewater purification plants with anaerobic sludge treatment with due consideration to framework conditions in terms of the energy and the wastewater management situation in Rhineland-Palatinate'', abbreviated ''NAwaS'', have shown that due to the rise in energy prices and availability of innovative techniques and methods it can be economically efficient, from a plant capacity of 10,000 inhabitants upwards, to convert sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Findings from the NAwaS project show the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to have a large potential for the conversion of sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Depending on the rate of price increase as well as interest rates the use of digester gas could permit an increase in electricity output by up to 50% over today's levels. Moreover, converted plants would be able to almost completely cover their own heat demand and in addition permit energy savings totalling an expected 5 kWh/(inhabitant x a). If one incorporates the possibilities offered by the procurement of sludge or suitable co-substrates from outside sources, by retrofitting sewage plants with combined heat and power stations or micro gas turbines as well as by process optimisation in existing digestion plants, this gives a further significant increase in potential production capacity and hence economic efficiency. In some of the sewage plants the above measures for saving energy and boosting energy production will even lead to energy self-sufficiency. [de

  18. 29 CFR 1919.80 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.80 Section 1919.80 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.80 Heat treatment. (a) Wherever heat treatment of any loose gear is recommended by the manufacturer, it shall be carried out in...

  19. 29 CFR 1919.36 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.36 Section 1919.36 Labor Regulations...) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.36 Heat treatment. (a) The annealing of wrought iron gear required by this part shall be...

  20. Influência da germinação e do processamento térmico na digestibilidade proteica e atividade de inibição de tripsina de grãos de quinoa The effect of germination and heat treatment on the protein digestibility and trypsin inhibition activity of quinoa grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia de Miguel Amistá

    2013-03-01

    nutritional characteristics of the quinoa seed proteins, such as protease inhibition and in vitro protein digestibility, were evaluated during the germination process (2, 4 and 6 days and after different heat treatments, including mild heating at 40 ºC and 45 ºC, and boiling. The germination processes evaluated here caused a significant decrease in the trypsin inhibition activity, but did not increase protein digestibility. However all the heat treatments used caused improvements in protein digestibility, even at low temperatures. The heat treatment at 45 ºC for 30 minutes was sufficient to increase the protein digestibility to the same level as that produced by boiling, which could be a positive observation for those who consume minimally processed grains.

  1. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  2. Surface engineering and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of a Conference organised jointly by The Institute of Metals and The Centre for Exploitation of Science and Technology (CEST). It sets out to review this role and point the way to the future by collecting together a series of invited papers written by noted authorities in their fields. The opening review by CEST highlights the economic and industrial importance of Surface Engineering and is followed by a group of four articles devoted to specific branches of industry. Several technical papers then describe various aspects of the development of heat treatment over the last twenty-five years. These are followed by papers describing advances made possible by new technologies such as plasma, laser and ion beam. A separate abstract has been prepared for a paper on materials aspects of ion beam technology. (author)

  3. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  4. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A; O'Meara, Patrick F; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-11-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65-75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 L biogas /person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 L biogas /p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH 3 -N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment.

  5. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65–75°C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets built above a floating dome digester and one heat pasteurization system to sanitize the digested effluent. ADPLs are simple systems, with no moving parts and relying on gravity-induced flows. Adoption at the two sites was successful, and residents reported that the systems had little to no odor or flies. ADPLs were monitored for biogas production and temperatures in the pasteurization system. ADPLs serving 17 and 35 residents produced on average 16 and 11 Lbiogas/person/day (maximum of 20 and 15 Lbiogas/p/d), respectively. The temperature in the sterilization system was greater than 65°C on 58% and 87% of sampling days during the most stable period of operation. Treated effluent was analyzed periodically for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), pH, and fecal coliform (FC). On average, the effluent at the two locations contained 4,540 and 6,450 mg COD/L (an 85% or 89% reduction of the estimated input), 2,050 and 3,970 mg BOD/L, and 2,420 and 4,760 mg NH3-N, respectively, and greater than 5 log reductions of FC (nondetectable) in the sterilization tank. Results from this field study show that anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal sludge can provide enough energy to pasteurize digester effluent and that the ADPL may be a suitable option for on-site fecal sludge treatment. PMID:27924135

  6. Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-02-22

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods.

  7. Effect of Simulated Heat Stress on Digestibility, Methane Emission and Metabolic Adaptability in Crossbred Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated heat stress on digestibility and methane (CH4 emission. Four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C temperature with a relative humidity of 40% to 50% in a climatic chamber from 10:00 hours to 15:00 hours every day for 27 days. The physiological responses were recorded at 15:00 hours every day. The blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, and 21st days and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. After 21 days, fecal and feed samples were collected continuously for six days for the estimation of digestibility. In the last 48 hours gas samples were collected continuously to estimate CH4 emission. Heat stress in experimental animals at 35°C and 40°C was evident from an alteration (p<0.05 in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, water intake and serum thyroxin levels. The serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activity and protein, urea, creatinine and triglyceride concentration changed (p<0.05, and body weight of the animals decreased (p<0.05 after temperature exposure at 40°C. The dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p<0.05 at 40°C exposure. The dry matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05 at 35°C compared to 25°C and 30°C exposure whereas, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05 at 35°C than 40°C thermal exposure. The CH4 emission/kg DMI and organic matter intake (OMI declined (p<0.05 with increase in exposure temperature and reached its lowest levels at 40°C. It can be concluded from the present study that the digestibility and CH4 emission were affected by intensity of heat stress. Further studies are necessary with respect to ruminal microbial changes to justify the variation in the digestibility and CH4 emission during differential heat stress.

  8. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  9. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  11. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  12. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  13. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  15. 29 CFR 1919.16 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Heat treatment. 1919.16 Section 1919.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels' Cargo Gear § 1919.16 Heat treatment. (a) All chains (other...

  16. Pediatric heat-related illness: recommendations for prevention and management [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Roberta J; Kim, Tommy Y; Chaudhari, Pradip

    2017-08-22

    Infants, children, and adolescents are at increased risk for heat-related illness due to their inability to remove themselves from dangerous environments. Evidence shows that morbidity and mortality from heat illness is related to the length of time core temperature is elevated, so rapid reduction and accurate serial measurements are crucial to prevention of organ system damage and death. The primary methods of patient cooling are conduction (ice-water immersion, cold packs) and convection (moisture and moving air). The choice of method used may depend on availability of equipment, but there is evidence that can guide optimal use of resources. This issue presents evidence-based recommendations and best practices in heat-illness resuscitation, including managing children who are obese, have special needs or take medications, and advocacy for prevention strategies. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Kim, J.I.; Syn, C.K.

    1978-06-01

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties

  18. Enzyme treatment to decrease solids and improve digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of anaerobic digestion of primary sewage sludge is to convert the carbonaceous material contained in the solids into methane and carbon dioxide. The products of digestion are therefore gases, stabilised sludge solids which are subsequently dewatered and disposed of, and sludge liquor which is generally further ...

  19. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  20. Sludge digesters - important components of biological sewage treatment systems. Faulbehaelter - wichtige Bausteine der biologischen Abwasserklaerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perthen, R [Ing.-Buero Perthen, Schwabach (Germany)

    1992-05-01

    Following some general explanations regarding the function of sludge digesters as components of sewage treatment systems, the paper deals with a sludge digester system in Bottrop. It consists of four egg-shaped reactors with a useful content of 15 000 m[sup 3]. The plant is designed for daily digestion of 3 000 m[sup 3] and a period of digestion of 20 days. Briefly described are the design blueprints tendered, special proposals regarding the construction of the shells and for the design of the base or foundation, as well as the actual construction work and special static and design features. (LU).

  1. Electro-Kinetic Pumping with Slip Irreversibility in Heat Exchange of CSP-Powered Bio-Digester Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedengbe, Emmanuel; Rosen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Parametric studies of the effects of slip irreversibility in concentrating solar power (CSP)-powered bio-digester assemblies are investigated. Complexities regarding the identification of the appropriate electro-kinetic phenomena for certain electrolyte phases are reviewed. The application of exergy analysis to the design of energy conversion devices, like solar thermal collectors, for the required heat of formation in a downdraft waste food bio-digester, is discussed. Thermal management in t...

  2. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING RATE PRODUCT AT HIGH HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of computing and mathematical modeling are all widely used in the study of various heat exchange processes that provide the ability to study the dynamics of the processes, as well as to conduct a reasonable search for the optimal technological parameters of heat treatment.This work is devoted to the identification of correlations among the factors that have the greatest effect on the rate of heating of the product at hightemperature heat sterilization in a stream of hot air, which are chosen as the temperature difference (between the most and least warming up points and speed cans during heat sterilization.As a result of the experimental data warming of the central and peripheral layers compote of apples in a 3 liter pot at high-temperature heat treatment in a stream of hot air obtained by the regression equation in the form of a seconddegree polynomial, taking into account the effects of pair interaction of these parameters. 

  4. Heat Treatment of Tools in Light Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. A.

    2005-09-01

    Heat treatment processes for some tools (knitting needles, travelers for thimbles of spinning and doubling frames, thread-forming spinnerets) used for the production of cloths, hosiery, and other articles) in the knitting and textile industries are considered. Problems of the choice of steel and the kind and parameters of heat treatment are discussed in connection with the special features of tool design and operating conditions.

  5. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-02-15

    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations in the fracture toughness of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of heat-treatment and heat-to-heat variations on the J Ic fracture toughness response of Alloy 718 was examined at room and elevated temperatures using the multiple-specimen R-curve technique. Six heats of alloy 718 were tested in the conventional and modified heat-treated conditions. The fracture toughness response for the modified superalloy was found to be superior to that exhibited by the conventional material. Heat-to-heat variations in the J Ic response of Alloy 718 were observed in both heat-treated conditions; the modified treatment exhibited much larger variability. The J Ic and corresponding K Ic fracture toughness values were analyzed statistically to establish minimum expected toughness, values for use in design and safety analyses. 26 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs

  7. 49 CFR 179.400-12 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.400-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.400-12 Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner tank is not... be attached before postweld heat treatment. Welds securing the following need not be postweld heat...

  8. State-of-the-art of anaerobic digestion technology for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeshwari, K.V.; Balakrishnan, M.; Kansal, A.; Kusum Lata; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Darbari Seth Block

    2000-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the most suitable option for the treatment of high strength organic effluents. The presence of biodegradable components in the effluents coupled with the advantages of anaerobic process over other treatment methods makes it an attractive option. This paper reviews the suitability and the status of development of anaerobic reactors for the digestion of selected organic effluents from sugar and distillery, pulp and paper, slaughterhouse and dairy units. In addition, modifications in the existing reactor designs for improving the efficiency of digestion has also been suggested. (author)

  9. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  10. Anaerobic digestion for treatment of stillage from cellulosic bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhuoli; Mohan, Gayathri Ram; Ingram, Lonnie; Pullammanappallil, Pratap

    2013-09-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of stillage from a cellulosic ethanol process that uses sugarcane bagasse as feedstock was investigated. A biochemical methane potential (BMP) of 200 ml CH4 at STP (g VS)(-1) was obtained. The whole stillage was separated into two fractions: a fraction retained on 0.5 mm screen called residue and a fraction passing through 0.5 mm screen called filtrate. About 70% of total methane yield of stillage was produced from the filtrate. The filtrate was anaerobically digested in a 15 L semi-continuously fed digester operated for 91 days at HRTs of 21 and 14 days and organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.85 and 2.39 g COD L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield from the stillage from the digester was about 90% of the yield from the BMP assays. The influent soluble COD (sCOD) was reduced from between 35.4 and 38.8 g COD (L(-1)) to between 7.5 and 8 g COD (L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  12. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  13. Failures of tool steels after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez-Gonzalez, G.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the work was to determine the most common defects occuring in tool steels of the AISI D-2, S-1, 0-1 and W-2 series during thermal treatment. Defects were evaluated by metallographic analyses, a method used to determine and recognize micro structural defects and their origin in order to be able to eliminate and correct some of the stages that are caused by heat treatment. Results show a large number of defects due to irregularities during thermal heating such as excess or lack of temperature, heating time, and atmosphere, rectifying and handling in service and, to a lesser extent, poor design. In conclusion, with the results obtained for each of the thermal treatments it is necessary to define, particularly the values each of these variables should have since they affect the material properties. (Author)

  14. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  15. Study of a biogas digester feed in energy by a solar-water heating collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miri, R.; Tou, I.

    2006-01-01

    heating, the lighting and manure with high fertilising potential (stabilised mud) like amendments for the arable lands. The production of biogas could be regarded as an economic solution, decentralised and ecological with these problems through energy autonomy and a durable agricultural development of the rural zones. The bio-methane remains an energy ignored in Algeria, that in spite of several attempts at use which were undertaken since the Forties and even if it does not form part of our sociological cultural and economic traditions, it must represent the best solution to the already mentioned problems. Our study propose to produce bio-methane starting from the animal manure (dung of cows). For that an experimental device was designed and carried out. It consists of digester of 800 litters, of a gas meter bell of 600 litters, of a device of heating applied with a solar-fired heater which ensures a mesophile temperature to him and of a system of agitation of the substrate. The experimental study made it possible to optimize the process of production, for a domestic application and also to develop a system temperature control required at the entry of digester ranging between 25 and 40 degree centigrade. The model is quasi-autonomous. The achievement of this objective of research will make it possible, as we hope for it, to lay down a policy of digester installation of on a national scale.(Author)

  16. Lowcost automated control for steel heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambaldi, Edimilson; Magalhães, Ricardo R.; Barbosa, Bruno H.G.; Silva, Sandro P. da; Ferreira, Danton D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Control the furnace temperature measured by thermocouple and adjusts it. • Activating the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation. • Appling heat treatments to steels by a low-cost controller. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a low cost, automated furnace control system for the heat treatment of steel. We used an open source electronic prototyping platform to control the furnace temperature, thus reducing human interaction during the heat process. The platform can be adapted to non-controlled commercial furnaces, which are often used by small businesses. A Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller was implemented to regulate the furnace temperature based on a defined heat treatment cycle. The embedded system activates the furnace resistors through Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), allowing for control of electrical power supplied to the furnace. Hardening and tempering were performed on standard steel samples using a traditional method (visual inspection without temperature control) as well the embedded system with PID feedback control. The results show that the proposed system can reproduce an arbitrary heat treatment curve with accuracy and provide the desired final hardness as inferred through metallographic analysis. In addition, we observed a 6% saving in energy consumption using the proposed control system. Furthermore, the estimated cost to implement the system is 42% lower than a commercial controller model implemented in commercial furnaces.

  17. Digestive Gland from Aplysia depilans Gmelin: Leads for Inflammation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia P. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of marine organisms for human nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes has revealed important chemical prototypes for the discovery of new drugs, stimulating compounds isolation and syntheses of new related compounds with biomedical application. Nowadays, it is well known that inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases and the interest in the search for marine natural products with anti-inflammatory potential has been increasing. The genus Aplysia belongs to the class Gastropoda, having a wide geographical distribution and including several species, commonly known as sea hares. Aplysia depilans Gmelin is usually found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to the French coast. In these marine organisms, most of the digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the digestive gland. This work aimed to explore the chemical composition and bioactivity of the methanol extract from A. depilans digestive gland. Therefore, fatty acids and carotenoids were determined by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Twenty-two fatty acids and eight carotenoids were identified for the first time in this species. The A. depilans digestive gland revealed to be essentially composed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and xanthophylls. Regarding the anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, it was observed that this matrix has capacity to reduce nitric oxide (NO and L-citrulline levels, which suggests that its compounds may act by interference with inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taking into account the results obtained, A. depilans digestive gland may be a good source of nutraceuticals, due to their richness in health beneficial nutrients, such as carotenoids and long-chain PUFA.

  18. Characterization of silica polymorphs in kaolins by X-ray diffraction before and after phosphoric acid digestion and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Sibel; Oenal, Mueserref; Sarikaya, Yueksel; Bozdogan, Ihsan

    2005-01-01

    To characterize silica polymorphs (silicas) in some kaolins, orthophosphoric acid digestion (240 deg. C, 15 min), and thermal treatment (1050 deg. C, 24 h) were applied to eight samples. The original, digested, and heated samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystalline silica quartz (SiO 2 ) was identified from the standard XRD patterns of the original kaolins; all contained quartz. On the other hand, hydrated partially crystalline silicas (SiO 2 .nH 2 O), such as well-ordered opal-C and opal-CT, were not readily distinguished from high-temperature crystalline silica, α-cristobalite, using standard XRD patterns of the original kaolins because, sharp and intense characteristic XRD peaks (h k l = 1 0 1) centered near 0.4 nm for opal-C, opal-CT, and α-cristobalite coincided. In order to distinguish these silicas the XRD patterns of the digested and heated samples were evaluated. It was observed that the 1 0 1 peaks disappear and sharpen in the course of digestion and heating, respectively. Because, the crystallinity of α-cristobalite does not change by these treatments, it was concluded that the kaolins contain opal-C and opal-CT or their mixtures in amorphous opal-A (SiO 2 .nH 2 O), but not α-cristobalite, which is probably human carcinogen. Because, the crystallinity increases in order opal-CT and opal-C, the narrowing in width at half-maximum peak height (FWHM) 1 0 1 must be more for opal-CT than opal-C by heating. Therefore, to distinguish opal-CT and opal-C from each other, the FWHM values before and after the heating process, were examined. Based on the results, it was estimated that six kaolins contain opal-CT in opal-A matrix, one kaolin contains only opal-A in a trace amount, and one kaolin contains non-opals

  19. 49 CFR 179.220-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.220-11 Section 179... Postweld heat treatment. (a) Postweld heat treatment of the inner container is not a specification requirement. (b) Postweld heat treatment of the cylindrical portions of the outer shell to which the anchorage...

  20. 49 CFR 179.500-6 - Heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat treatment. 179.500-6 Section 179.500-6...-6 Heat treatment. (a) Each necked-down tank shall be uniformly heat treated. Heat treatment shall... treatment of alternate steels shall be approved. All scale shall be removed from outside of tank to an...

  1. Acid digestion and pressurization control in combustible radwaste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Grelecki, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to process radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September, 1977, and is currently undergoing nonradioactive shakedown tests. Radioactive operation is expected in May, 1978. Because of uncertainties in waste composition and reactivity, the system was required to contain pressurizations. This led to the development of a simple and inexpensive system, which is capable of attenuating a shock wave from a full scale vapor detonation. The system has potential application in a wide spectrum of chemical reactors, since the fabrication materials are resistant to a very wide range of corrosive chemical attack

  2. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    biomass blending (20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from......The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...

  3. Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

    2014-11-01

    Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically

  4. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05. Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05. The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05. Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05, respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05. Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP, and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05. It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth

  5. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  6. Assembly for melting and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.

    1976-11-01

    Laboratory scale production of alloys having a precise alloying materials content and the exact heat treatment of metallurgical specimens are discussed. The design and assembly of two relevant instruments are described. These instruments include a laboratory vacuum induction furnace and a specially designed glass lathe, that enables even an unskilled operator to encapsulate and seal metallurgical specimens in glass capsules. (author)

  7. Effect of heat treatment temperature on microstructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results of electrochemical performance measurements for the HCSs as anode material for lithium ion batteries indicate that the discharge capacity of the HCSs is improved after heat treatment at 800°C compared with the as-prepared HCSs and have a maximum value of 357 mAh/g and still retains 303 mAh/g after 40 ...

  8. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  10. Plasma treatment of heat-resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V A; Kosmachev, P V; Skripnikova, N K; Bezukhov, K A

    2015-01-01

    Refractory lining of thermal generating units is exposed to chemical, thermal, and mechanical attacks. The degree of fracture of heat-resistant materials depends on the chemical medium composition, the process temperature and the material porosity. As is known, a shortterm exposure of the surface to low-temperature plasma (LTP) makes possible to create specific coatings that can improve the properties of workpieces. The aim of this work is to produce the protective coating on heat-resistant chamotte products using the LTP technique. Experiments have shown that plasma treatment of chamotte products modifies the surface, and a glass-ceramic coating enriched in mullite is formed providing the improvement of heat resistance. For increasing heat resistance of chamotte refractories, pastes comprising mixtures of Bacor, alumina oxide, and chamot were applied to their surfaces in different ratios. It is proved that the appropriate coating cannot be created if only one of heat-resistant components is used. The required coatings that can be used and recommended for practical applications are obtained only with the introduction of powder chamot. The paste composition of 50% chamot, 25% Bacor, and 25% alumina oxide exposed to plasma treatment, has demonstrated the most uniform surface fusion. (paper)

  11. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  12. High strength sewage treatment in a UASB reactor and an integrated UASB-digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Nidal

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of high strength sewage was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-digester system. The one-stage UASB reactor was operated in Palestine at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10h and at ambient air temperature for a period of more than a year in order to asses the system response to the Mediterranean climatic seasonal temperature fluctuation. Afterwards, the one-stage UASB reactor was modified to a UASB-digester system by incorporating a digester operated at 35 degrees C. The achieved removal efficiencies in the one-stage UASB reactor for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD were 54, 71, 34, 23%, and -7%, respectively during the first warm six months of the year, and achieved only 32% removal efficiency for COD total over the following cold six months of the year. The modification of the one-stage UASB reactor to a UASB-digester system had remarkably improved the UASB reactor performance as the UASB-digester achieved removal efficiencies for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD of 72, 74, 74, 62 and 70%. Therefore, the anaerobic treatment of high strength sewage during the hot period in Palestine in a UASB-digester system is very promising.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of organic by-products from meat-processing industry. The effect of pre-treatments and co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a multi-beneficial biological treatment during which micro-organisms degrade organic material producing biogas (i.e. methane) and stabilised end-product (i.e. digestate). Methane is a versatile renewable energy source and digestate can be used as an organic fertiliser and/or soil improver. Because of the increasing consumption and tightening environment and health legislation, production of organic wastes suitable for anaerobic digestion increases. Animal by-products (ABP) from the meat-processing industry are often rendered (contaminated material), used as feedstock (in fur breeding), or composted. However, ABPs studied could not be utilised in fodder or in animal food production and have currently been rendered or directed to composting, despite being mostly considered unsuitable for composting. Many ABPs are energy-rich, wet and pasty materials and suitable for the anaerobic digestion process. Moreover, suitable pre-treatment to hydrolyse solid materials and/or co-digestion of two or several materials may improve the anaerobic digestion with ultimate goal to increase the methane production, stabilisation and reusability of digestate. The case chosen for more detailed research was that of a middle-sized Finnish meat-processing industry. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of different ABPs presently available for treatment as raw material for anaerobic digestion. Another objective was to enhance the anaerobic digestion process via specific pre-treatments and co-digestion cases with the ultimate aim to increase the methane production and the quality of the digestate. The general goal was to observe the overall process from the perspective of real-circumstances in Finland to rise to needs in practice and to produce exploitable information for adopting sustainable development locally and case-specifically into practice via versatile anaerobic digestion technology. The ABPs studied were highly bio-degradable and especially

  14. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Digges, Thomas

    1966-01-01

    .... Chemical compositions, heat treatments, and some properties and uses are presented for structural steels, tool steels, stainless and heat-resisting steels, precipitation-hardenable stainless steels...

  15. Fabrication techniques to eliminate postweld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochhead, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Postweld heat treatments to reduce residual stresses (stress relief operations) have been a common practice in the pressure vessel industry for a large number of years. A suitable heat treatment operation can, in particular for low alloy steels, have additional beneficial effects, i.e. a reduction in peak hardness values in the heat-affected zone, an improvement in weld metal properties, and a lowering of the adverse effects of the welding process on the mechanical properties of the parent material adjacent to the weld metal. However, continuing studies in the field of brittle fracture, improved parent materials, and more sophisticated nondestructive testing techniques have led to the elimination of such a practice in ever-increasing thickness ranges and types of material. For instance, the recently issued BS 5500 compared with BS 1113 (1969) lifts the thickness limit requiring stress relief in certain circumstances from 19 to 35mm for C steels. With respect to materials the CEGB has stated that as a result of successful operational experience it will no longer be necessary to postweld heat treat butt welds in 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo tubes of certain dimensions. Despite this trend, over a period of years a number of instances have arisen where, because of some factor, postweld heat treatment, although perhaps desirable, is not possible. This Paper describes several such examples. It must be noted that the examples quoted consist of relatively important and major items. It has been necessary within the confines of this Paper to condense the reports. It is hoped that no significant factors have been omitted. (author)

  16. Microalgae treatment removes nutrients and reduces ecotoxicity of diluted piggery digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchino, Marta; Tigini, Valeria; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Mussat Sartor, Rocco; Bona, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Liquid digestate is considered as an important by-product of anaerobic digestion of agriculture wastes. Currently, it is very often directly spread on local agricultural land. Yet recently concerns on its environmental risk of this processing has begun to rise. On the other hand, investigations on the effectiveness of microalgae for wastewater treatment have started to consider also this complex matrix. In this study, we cultured the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in diluted digestate coming from the anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and corn, with the aim to significantly reduce its toxicity and its very high nutrient concentration. For this purpose, a battery of toxicity tests composed of four acute and two chronic bioassays was applied after the alga cultivation. Results were compared with those obtained in the initial characterization of the digestate. Results show that highly diluted piggery digestate can be a suitable medium for culturing microalgae, as we obtained a high removal efficiency (>90%) for ammonia, total nitrogen and phosphate, though after a few days phosphorus limitation occurred. Toxicity was significantly reduced for all the organisms tested. Possible solutions for optimizing this approach avoiding high dilution rates are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electro-Kinetic Pumping with Slip Irreversibility in Heat Exchange of CSP-Powered Bio-Digester Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O.B. Ogedengbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parametric studies of the effects of slip irreversibility in concentrating solar power (CSP-powered bio-digester assemblies are investigated. Complexities regarding the identification of the appropriate electro-kinetic phenomena for certain electrolyte phases are reviewed. The application of exergy analysis to the design of energy conversion devices, like solar thermal collectors, for the required heat of formation in a downdraft waste food bio-digester, is discussed. Thermal management in the silicon-based substrate of the energy system is analyzed. The rectangular-shaped micro-channels are simulated with a finite-volume, staggered coupling of the pressure-velocity fields. Entropy generation transport within the energy system is determined and coupled with the solution procedure. Consequently, the effects of channel size perturbation, Reynolds number, and pressure ratios on the thermal performance and exergy destruction are presented. A comparative analysis of the axial heat conduction for thermal management in energy conversion devices is proposed.

  18. Nonaccidental injury in pediatric patients: detection, evaluation, and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyyagura, Gunjan; Beucher, Meghan; Bechtel, Kirsten; Pade, Kathryn H

    2017-07-21

    Emergency clinicians are likely to encounter physical abuse in children, and they must be prepared to recognize its many manifestations and take swift action. Pediatric nonaccidental injury causes considerable morbidity and mortality that can often be prevented by early recognition. Nonaccidental injuries present with a wide array of symptoms that may appear to be medically inconsequential (such as bruising in a premobile infant), but are actually sentinel injuries indicative of child abuse. This issue provides guidance regarding factors that contribute to abuse in children, key findings on history and physical examination that should trigger an evaluation for physical abuse, and laboratory and radiologic tests to perform when child abuse is suspected. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  19. Sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal syndrome: recognition and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Olmedo, Ruben E; Kim, Jeremy

    2017-03-22

    Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents. Managing withdrawal symptoms requires a patient-specific approach that takes into account the physiologic pathways of the particular drugs used as well as the patient's age and comorbidities. Adjunctive therapies include alpha agonists, beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. Newer pharmacological therapies offer promise in managing withdrawal symptoms. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  20. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD rem for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  1. Slaughterhouse by-products treatment using anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukazis, Ioannis; Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the use of animal by-products (ABP) as substrates for anaerobic digestion, aiming at methane production. Specifically, four ABP of Category 2 and 3, namely (i) stomach and rumen, (ii) stomach contents, (iii) breasts and reproductive organs and (iv) bladders and intestines with their contents, were selected. The methane potential of each ABP was initially determined, while the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of ABP with two agroindustrial waste, i.e. orange peels and olive leaves was also studied. To this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP), as well as semi-continuous assays were respectively conducted. In the latter, the effect of the variation in the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production was investigated. Results obtained from BMP assays showed that the samples containing breasts and reproductive organs, bladders and intestine, and stomach and rumen, had higher methane potentials of 815, 787 and 759 mLCH 4,STP /gVS, respectively. Moreover, according to the results of the semi-continuous assays, maximum methane yields between 253 and 727mLCH 4 /gVS fed were obtained at an OLR of 0.8gVS/L/d. The only case in which methanogenesis inhibition phenomena, due to increased ammonia concentrations, were observed, was the assay being fed with a mixture of breasts and reproductive organs and orange peels, at the highest OLR. This inhibition phenomenon was attributed to an inappropriate C/N ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  3. Zero-valent iron enhanced methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge after heat and alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Quan, Xie

    2015-04-01

    Heat or alkali pretreatment is the effective method to improve hydrolysis of waste sludge and then enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. However the pretreatment may inactivate the methanogens in the sludge. In the present work, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used to enhance the methanogenic activity in anaerobic sludge digester under two methanogens-suppressing conditions, i.e. heat-pretreatment and alkali condition respectively. With the addition of ZVI, the lag time of methane production was shortened, and the methane yield increased by 91.5% compared to the control group. The consumption of VFA was accelerated by ZVI, especially for acetate, indicating that the acetoclastic methanogenesis was enhanced. In the alkali-condition experiment, the hydrogen produced decreased from 27.6 to 18.8 mL when increasing the ZVI dosage from 0 to 10 g/L. Correspondingly, the methane yield increased from 1.9 to 32.2 mL, which meant that the H2-utilizing methanogenes was enriched. These results suggested that the addition of ZVI into anaerobic digestion of sludge after pretreated by the heat or alkali process could efficiently recover the methanogenic activity and increase the methane production and sludge reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heating System of High Temperature Biogas Digester by Solar Energy and Methane Liquid Heat Recovery Heat Pump%太阳能-沼液余热式热泵高温厌氧发酵加温系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓梅; 石惠娴; 朱洪光; 龙惟定

    2012-01-01

    A heating system of biogas digester was developed to avoid area limitations of buried wells in the heating system of biogas digester by ground-source heat pump, in which the heat energy was supplied by hot water from waste heat recovery coupled with solar- assisted heat pump. The key parameters such as the heat load of digester, waste heat recovery rate of the methane liquid, medium and high heat pump, the solar energy collector area and so on werecalculated. The results show that this system can guarantee the temperature of 50+2℃ in the digester, the heat recovery rate of the methane liquid can reach upto 70%. The system is characterized by that the solar energy and waste heat recovery of the methane liquid serve as the low-graded heat sources of the heat pump. There a're three kinds of running modes including the sloar energy heating directly, the solar energy low level heat sources heat pump, and the combination of the solar energy and waste heat recovery low - graded heat resources heat pump and so on. The waste heat recovery technique can make full use of energy of the system and prevent thermal pollution.%针对地源热泵式沼气池加温系统需要打地埋井及铺设地埋管受地质水质局限等问题,系统构建了太阳能—沼液余热式热泵高温厌氧发酵加温系统.对系统发酵池热负荷、沼液余热回收率、中高温热泵机组、太阳能集热装置等关键参数进行了理论计算,得出系统能够保证发酵池温度50±2℃,沼液余热回收量可以达到系统总需要热量的70%.系统特点在于采用太阳能和沼液余热联合作为中高温热泵低位热源并确立其三种运行模式,包括太阳能直接加温模式,太阳能低位热源—热泵加热模式和太阳能—沼液余热回收联合式热泵加温模式.

  5. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  6. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...... the laser beam as close as possible. After welding, the samples were quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and tested for hardness. The metallurgical phases are analysed and briefly described. A comparison between purely laser welded samples and induction heat-treated laser welded samples is made......In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...

  7. Improving methodology in open vessel digestion with a graphite heating block (T7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainrath, P.; Conrads, B.; Ross, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Open block digestion systems have been very popular in environmental analysis over the past decades, but have consistently suffered from the major drawback of their sensitivity against corrosion and the subsequent risk of contamination. Therefore block digestion systems have not been considered state-of-the-art technology in trace and ultra trace sample preparation. Graphite block digestion systems are well established in North America and are recently becoming more frequently considered in Europe. These systems overcome the deficiencies of the traditional systems, made from stainless steel or aluminum, because the block is manufactured from graphite and typically coated with a fluoro-polymer to present the possibility metallic contamination from the surface of the system during the handling of the samples. Graphite block systems present an alternative to the current mainstream technology of open and closed vessel microwave assisted digestion systems, as they allow large numbers of samples to be digested simultaneously, thus overcoming one of the major weaknesses of closed vessel systems. More recently a number of improvements in the technology has been developed for graphite block digestion systems and studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of such improvements. The paper presented will deal with the technological improvements: monitoring and control of sample temperature vs. monitoring of block temperature, elimination of cross contamination effects during open vessel block digestion, evaporation of samples for pre-concentration or multiple digestion steps, addressing the needs of various labs and applications for block digesters. The effects of those developments will be discussed; application examples and finally an outlook into possible future trends for graphite block digestion systems will be given. (author)

  8. 49 CFR 179.200-11 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.200-11 Section 179.200-11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. When specified in § 179.201-1, after welding is complete, postweld heat treatment...

  9. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 °C prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Lu, J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared tothermophilic digestion, mainly because of the lower energy requirements and higher stability of the process. However, the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process is usually characterised by accelerated...... studyinvestigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 °C on thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion of primaryand secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondarysludge at 70 °C enhanced the removal of organic matter and the methane production during...... the subsequentanaerobic digestion step at 55 °C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present inprimary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic stepsuggesting that the same efficiencies in organic matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained...

  10. Effect of Heating Method on Alteration of Protein Molecular Structure in Flaxseed: Relationship with Changes in Protein Subfraction Profile and Digestion in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Nazir; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-02-04

    This study evaluated the effect of heating methods on alteration of protein molecular structure in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in relation to changes in protein subfraction profile and digestion in dairy cows. Seeds from two flaxseed varieties, sampled from two replicate plots at two locations, were evaluated. The seeds were either maintained in their raw state or heated in an air-draft oven (dry heating) or autoclave (moist heating) for 60 min at 120 °C or by microwave irradiation (MIR) for 5 min. Compared to raw seeds, moist heating decreased (P RUP) content (36.0 ± 5.19 to 46.9 ± 2.72% CP) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (61.0 ± 2.28 to 63.8 ± 2.67% RUP). Dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the protein subfraction profile and rumen degradation kinetics, whereas MIR increased (P RUP content from 36.0 ± 5.19 to 40.4 ± 4.67% CP. The MIR and dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the amide I to amide II ratio, but moist heating decreased (P RUP (R 2 = 0.71), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R 2 = 0.72). Overall, heat-induced changes in protein nutritive value and digestion were strongly associated with heat-induced alteration in protein molecular structures.

  11. Viscose liquid heat treatment using plate scraper heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Rashkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work analyzes the use of different types of heat exchangers, depending on the technology of production. It is taken the detail analysis of the ways of applicability of various types of heat exchangers, depending on the viscosity of the processed product. It is posed the problem of the analytical determination of the required area of heat exchange with the use of differential equations of heat transfer in a moving liquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution, without taking in account the energy dissipation.

  12. Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2013-06-01

    Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-Digestion Liquor Treatment in the Method Combining Chemical Precipitation with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuglarz Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure filtration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3 in the purified post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5.

  14. Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency.

  15. Primary Treatment and Sludge Digestion Workshop. Second Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to upgrade the knowledge of experienced wastewater treatment plant operators. Each of the sixteen lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. The body of the text provides content information, procedure outlines,…

  16. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste

  17. Mortality of insect life stages during simulated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Heat treatment for insect disinfestation uses elevated air temperatures that are lethal to stored-product insects. Heat treatment has been demonstrated in our research to offer a reduced-risk alternative to fumigation or residual pesticide use in empty bins. Heat is also compatible with organic gr...

  18. Efficacy of heat treatment for disinfestation of concrete grain silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate heat treatment for disinfestations of empty concrete elevator silos. A Mobile Heat Treatment Unit was used to introduce heat into silos to attain target conditions of 50°C for at least 6 h. Ventilated plastic containers with a capacity of...

  19. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an appropriate technique for the treatment of sludge before final disposal and it is employed worldwide as the oldest and most important process for sludge stabilization. In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared to thermophilic...... digestion. Furthermore, thermal pre-treatment is suitable for the improvement of stabilization, enhancement of dewatering of the sludge, reduction of the numbers of pathogens and could be realized at relatively low cost especially at low temperatures. The present study investigates (a) the differences...... between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge and (b) the effect of the pretreatment at 70 degreesC on mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. The pretreatment step showed very positive effect on the methane potential and production rate upon...

  20. 49 CFR 179.100-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.100-10 Section 179...-10 Postweld heat treatment. (a) After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded... treatment is prohibited. (c) Tank and welded attachments, fabricated from ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171...

  1. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  2. Efficiency and safety of the intraluminal stent as a treatment malignant obstruction of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xixiang; Si Tongguo; Pan Xiaohui; Yang Hui; Nan Yi; Huang Linfen; Feng Xiaofeng; Mao Aiwu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of intraluminal stent as a treatment of malignant obstruction of digestive tract and esophago-bronchial fistula. Methods: In total 71 patients suffered with malignant obstruction or esophago-bronchial fistula were treated with permanent nickel-titanium alloy, partially covered stents. All the procedures were performed under DSA guidance. Inserted via the oral anal access, the stents were placed at the sites of obstructions or the fistulas. Esophagogram or colonogram were done before and post the intervention. The clinical efficiency was assessed by function of swallowing or defecation in follow-up. Results: In 62 patients (96.9%), function of swallowing was restored after the stent was placed in upper digestive tract without drinking triggered coughing. Symptoms were immediately relieved after the stent was placed in sigmoid colon or rectum. Displacement of stents was seen in 2 cases (2.8%); restenosis in 2 (2.8%); hoarse voice was noted in 1 case (1.4%); intense thoracic pain was complained in 2 cases (2.8%); mild pain was noted in 12 cases (16.9%); and massive hemorrhage was complicated in 1 case (1.4%). All complications were successfully controlled after proper treatment. Conclusion: It is an effective, easy and safe method to treat malignant obstruction of digestive tract or esophago-bronchial fistula using partially covered nickel-titanium alloy stent. (authors)

  3. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  4. Digested livestock wastewater treatment using gamma-ray irradiation and struvite crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Sang Ryul; Nam, Youn Ku; Lee, Myun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Livestock wastewater generally contains high strength of organics (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), phosphate phosphorus (PO 4 3- -P) and suspended solids. It is very difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. In this study, struvite crystallization was carried out to treat the digested livestock wastewater. 1.0 :1.2 :1.2 was determined as an optimal NH 4 + :Mg 2+ : PO 4 3- mol ratio of struvite crystallization. For the digested livestock wastewater, COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P removal efficiencies by struvite crystallization were 72.4%, 98.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Gamma-ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. The enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency could be obtained by the pretreatment of gamma-ray irradiation due to the decrease of COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P concentration

  5. Anaerobic digestion technology in livestock manure treatment for biogas production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Ismail M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Ghazi, Tinia I.; Omar, Rozita

    2012-06-15

    This article reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas production from livestock manure wastes and compares the operating and performance data for various anaerobic process configurations. It examines different kinds of manure waste treatment techniques and the influence of several parameters on biogas and methane yield. The comparison indicates that a variety of different operational conditions, various reactor configurations such as batch reactors, continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR), plug flow reactor (PFR), up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD), and continuous one- and two-stage systems, present a suitable technology for the AD of livestock manure waste. Main performance indicators are biogas and methane yield, degradation of volatile solids (VS), higher loading, and process stability with a short retention time. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmel Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. Results From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220. The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content. Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I

  7. Effects of heat treatment on the radiosensitivity of Salmonellae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Yang, J.S.; Lee, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    When the food poisoning bacteria Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were treated with radiation (cobalt-60 γ-rays) and heat (10 minutes at 45 0 C or 50 0 C), their sterilizing effect was revealed differently depending on the order of treatments. Post-irradiation heating showed a synergistic effect whereas pre-irradiation heating revealed the opposite effect and the effects differed slightly with heating temperature. (author)

  8. Digestive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prolapse Esophagus problems, such as stricture (narrowing) and achalasia Liver problems, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis ... has received extra training in the diagnosis and treatment of the digestive disorders. Other health care providers ...

  9. 49 CFR 179.300-10 - Postweld heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postweld heat treatment. 179.300-10 Section 179.300-10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Postweld heat treatment. After welding is complete, steel tanks and all attachments welded thereto, must be...

  10. Effect of heat treatment on structure and magnetic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fe46Co35Ni19/CNTs nanocomposites have been prepared by an easy two-step route including adsorption and heat treatment processes. We investigated the effect of heat treatment conditions on structure, morphology, nanoparticle sizes and magnetic properties of the Fe46Co35Ni19 alloy nanoparticles attached on the ...

  11. 7 CFR 58.236 - Pasteurization and heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization and heat treatment. 58.236 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.236 Pasteurization and heat treatment. All milk and... is handled according to sanitary conditions approved by the Administrator. (a) Pasteurization. (1...

  12. Effect of heat treatment temperature on binder thermal conductivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1975-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivities of a pitch and a polyfurfuryl alcohol binder residue was investigated. Graphites specially prepared with these two binders were used for the experiments. Measured thermal conductivities were treated in terms of a two-component system, and the binder thermal conductivities were calculated. Both binder residues showed increased thermal conductivity with increased heat treatment temperature

  13. Effect of urea treatment on digestibility and utilization of sorghum straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine male goats and nine castrated lambs were randomly divided into three groups of six animals to receive one of three experimental diets in a digestion trial. Diet S, provided chopped sorghum straw (SS, 28/ concentrate (C and 10/ Dolichos lablab hay (D. Diet Su1 provided SS containing 2/ urea, 24/ C and 12/ D, and diet Sue1 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 25/ C and 14/ D. Twenty four lambs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals to receive one of three diets in a 56-day growth trial; diet S2 provided SS plus 60/ C; diet Su2 provided SS containing 2/ urea plus 60/ C, and diet Sue2 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 60/ C. The digestion trial showed higher (P<.05 daily intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber for S, than for Sue1 and Su1. Dry matter intake was 55.93; 39.42 and 42.34 g[kgE0.75E-1 for S1, Su1 and Sue1, respectively. Dry matter intake was slightly higher for lambs [50 g[kgE0.75E-1] than for goats [42 g[kE0.75E-1]. There was no effect of dietary treatments on apparent nutrient digestibility. During the growth trial, intake of straw varied from 17.97 (S2 to 24.78 g[kgE0.75E-1 (Sue2, but differences were not significant. Daily gain did not differ between treatments. Total feed intake and feed efficiency were only slightly affected by dietary treatments. Average feed intake was 4.36/ of body weight. High concentrate intakes may have upset the effect of urea treatment and silo fermentation in this study.

  14. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide layers prepared via PEO of zirconium were subjected to heat treatment. • Surface characteristics were determined for the obtained oxide coatings. • Heat treatment led to the partial destruction of the anodic oxide layer. • Pitting corrosion resistance of zirconium was improved after the modification. - Abstract: Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500–800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment

  15. Anaerobic Digestion I. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasmith, E. E.

    This lesson is the first of a two-part series on anaerobic digestion. Topics discussed include the five basic functions of an anaerobic digester, basic theory of the biological processes involved, basic equipment necessary for digestion, and the products of digestion. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's…

  16. New Nomenclatures for Heat Treatments of Additively Manufactured Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew H.; Collins, Peter C.; Williams, James C.

    2017-07-01

    The heat-treatment designations and microstructure nomenclatures for many structural metallic alloys were established for traditional metals processing, such as casting, hot rolling or forging. These terms do not necessarily apply for additively manufactured (i.e., three-dimensionally printed or "3D printed") metallic structures. The heat-treatment terminology for titanium alloys generally implies the heat-treatment temperatures and their sequence relative to a thermomechanical processing step (e.g., forging, rolling). These designations include: β-processing, α + β-processing, β-annealing, duplex annealing and mill annealing. Owing to the absence of a thermomechanical processing step, these traditional designations can pose a problem when titanium alloys are first produced via additive manufacturing, and then heat-treated. This communication proposes new nomenclatures for heat treatments of additively manufactured titanium alloys, and uses the distinct microstructural features to provide a correlation between traditional nomenclature and the proposed nomenclature.

  17. Thermoluminescent determination of prehistoric heat treatment of chert artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, C.L.; Zimmerman, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years archeologists have become interested in the extent to which prehistoric peoples heat-treated chert prior to shaping it into tools. Thermoluminescent determination of the radiation dose accumulated by an artifact since it was formed or last heated provides a simple, reliable test for such heat treatment. This test can be applied to single artifacts without the need for raw source material for comparison. Results on 25 artifacts from four sites indicate that, for many chert sources, color and luster are not useful indicators of heat treatment by prehistoric peoples

  18. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes and pre-treatment to enhance biogas production from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion and pre-treatment have been recognized as effective, low-cost and commercially viable approaches to reduce anaerobic digestion process limitations and improve biogas yields. In our previous batch-scale study, fat, oil, and grease (FOG) was investigated as a suitable potential co-substrate, and thermo-chemical pre-treatment (TCPT) at pH = 10 and 55 °C improved CH4 production from FOG co-digestions. In this project, co-digestions with FOG were studied in bench-scale two-stage thermophilic semi-continuous flow co-digesters with suitable TCPT (pH = 10, 55 °C). Overall, a 25.14 ± 2.14 L/d (70.2 ± 1.4% CH4) biogas production was obtained, which was higher than in the two-stage system without pre-treatment. The results could provide valuable fundamental information to support full-scale investigations of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes.

  20. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  1. Comparing the impact of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds were compared. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole a...

  2. Effect of heat–moisture treatment on digestibility of different cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.) Lam) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Suraji; Gunaratne, Anil; Ranaweera, K K D S; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Different heat–moisture levels were applied to native starches from different cultivars of sweet potatoes available in Sri Lanka (Wariyapola red, Wariyapola white, Pallepola variety, Malaysian variety and CARI 273) to study the digestibility level. Samples were treated with 20, 25, and 30% moisture at 85°C and 120°C for 6 h and in vitro starch digestibility was tested with porcine pancreatin enzyme. A range of 19.3–23.5% digestibility was shown by the native starches with no significant difference (P digestibility level of the hydrothermally modified starches and the moisture content showed a positive impact on the digestibility. Heat–moisture treatment at 85°C brought an overall increase in digestibility and temperature beyond 85°C had a negative impact. No significant difference (P digestibility was observed with 20% and 25% moisture at 85°C and increased level were seen at 85°C and 30% moisture. PMID:25473497

  3. A Study of Ballast Water Treatment Using Engine Waste Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajoo; Yaakob, Omar; Koh, Kho King; Adnan, Faizul Amri bin; Ismail, Nasrudin bin; Ahmad, Badruzzaman bin; Ismail, Mohd Arif bin

    2018-05-01

    Heat treatment of ballast water using engine waste heat can be an advantageous option complementing any proven technology. A treatment system was envisaged based on the ballast system of an existing, operational crude carrier. It was found that the available waste heat could raise the temperatures by 25 °C and voyage time requirements were found to be considerable between 7 and 12 days to heat the high volumes of ballast water. Further, a heat recovery of 14-33% of input energies from exhaust gases was recorded while using a test rig arrangement representing a shipboard arrangement. With laboratory level tests at temperature ranges of around 55-75 °C, almost complete species mortalities for representative phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria were observed while the time for exposure varied from 15 to 60 s. Based on the heat availability analyses for harvesting heat from the engine exhaust gases(vessel and test rig), heat exchanger designs were developed and optimized using Lagrangian method applying Bell-Delaware approaches. Heat exchanger designs were developed to suit test rig engines also. Based on these designs, heat exchanger and other equipment were procured and erected. The species' mortalities were tested in this mini-scale arrangement resembling the shipboard arrangement. The mortalities realized were > 95% with heat from jacket fresh water and exhaust gases alone. The viability of the system was thus validated.

  4. A biogas plant for the digestion of distillery residue in combination with waste water treatment; Biogasanlage fuer die Vergaerung von Destillationsrueckstaenden in Kombination mit der Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, A.; Vetter, H.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project at a Swiss food-processing company that produces fruit juices and beverages containing fruit components. The company uses an anaerobic pre-treatment plant to treat effluents before they are discharged to a local municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The report describes the installation, which generates biogas that is used to provide heating energy for the processes used in the extraction process. The monitoring and measurement system is described and figures are quoted for energy production in the company's facilities. Also, the energy savings in the local WWTP resulting from the reduced energy consumption of the aeration blowers as a result of the pre-treatment of the wastes are discussed. Operational aspects of the installation are examined. including temperature effects on the digestion process, control strategies and waste air treatment.

  5. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  6. Effect of heat treatment on carbon steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Harun.

    1987-01-01

    The heat treatment to improve the altered properties of carbon steel pipe welds is described. Pipe critical components in oil, gasification and nuclear reactor plants require adequate room temperature toughness and high strength at both room and moderately elevated temperatures. Microstructure and microhardness across the welds were changed markedly by the welding process and heat treatment. The presentation of hardness fluctuation in the welds can produce premature failure. A number of heat treatments are suggested to improve the properties of the welds. (author) 8 figs., 5 refs

  7. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge—comparison of thermal pretreatments with thermal inter-stage treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment methods for improved anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge were evaluated. Pretreatments at moderate thermal (water bath at 80 °C), high thermal (loop autoclave at 130–170 °C) and thermo-chemical (170 °C/pH 10) conditions prior to AD in batch vials (40 days/37 °....... CONCLUSION: Thermal treatment of waste activated sludge for improved anaerobic digestion seems more effective when applied as an inter-stage treatment rather than a pretreatment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry...

  9. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic treatment of Tequila vinasses in a CSTR-type digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Acosta, Hugo Oscar; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Alcaraz-González, Víctor; González-Alvarez, Víctor; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Tequila industries in general produce great volumes of effluents with high pollutant loads, which are discharged (untreated or partially treated) into natural receivers, thus causing severe environmental problems. In this contribution, we propose an integrated system as a first step to comply with the Mexican ecological norms and stabilize the anaerobic treatment of Tequila vinasses with main design criteria: simple and easy operation, reduce operating time and associated costs (maintenance), integrated and compact design, minimal cost of set-up, start-up, monitoring and control. This system is composed of a fully instrumented and automated lab-scale CSTR-type digester, on-line measuring devices of key variables (pH, temperature, flow rates, etc.), which are used along with off-line readings of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biogas composition, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids to guarantee the operational stability of the anaerobic digestion process. The system performance was evaluated for 200 days and the experimental results show that even under the influence of load disturbances, it is possible to reduce the COD concentration to 85% in the start-up phase and up to 95% during the normal operation phase while producing a biogas with a methane composition greater than 65%. It is also shown that in order to maintain an efficient treatment, the buffering capacity (given by the alkalinity ratio, alpha = intermediate alkalinity/total alkalinity) must be closely monitored.

  11. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  12. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.; Payao Filho, Joao da C.

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  13. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to

  14. Heat Transfer Analysis of Localized Heat-Treatment for Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacob D.

    Many of the projects utilizing Grade 91 steel are large in scale, therefore it is necessary to assemble on site. The assembly of the major pieces requires welding in the assembly; this drastically changes the superior mechanical properties of Grade 91 steel that it was specifically developed for. Therefore, because of the adverse effects of welding on the mechanical properties of Grade 91, it is necessary to do a localized post weld heat treatment. As with most metallic materials grade 91 steel requires a very specific heat treatment process. This process includes a specific temperature and duration at that temperature to achieve the heat treatment desired. Extensive research has been done to determine the proper temperatures and duration to provide the proper microstructure for the superior mechanical properties that are inherent to Grade 91 steel. The welded sections are typically large structures that require local heat treatments and cannot be placed in an oven. The locations of these structures vary from indoors in a controlled environment to outdoors with unpredictable environments. These environments can be controlled somewhat, however in large part the surrounding conditions are unchangeable. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods to accurately apply the surrounding conditions and geometries to a theoretical model in order to provide the proper requirements for the local heat treatment procedure. Within this requirement is the requirement to define unknowns used in the heat transfer equations so that accurate models can be produced and accurate results predicted. This study investigates experimentally and numerically the heat transfer and temperature fields of Grade 91 piping in a local heat treatment. The objective of this thesis research is to determine all of the needed heat transfer coefficients. The appropriate heat transfer coefficients are determined through the inverse heat conduction method utilizing a ceramic heat blanket. This will be done

  15. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration as a post-treatment of biogas plant digestates for producing concentrated fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camilleri Rumbau, Maria Salud; Norddahl, Birgir; Wei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Biogas plant digestate liquid fractions can be concentrated by microfiltration and ultrafiltration. Two types of microfiltration membranes (polysulphone (PS) and surface-modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) were used to process digestate liquid fractions, and to assess their applicability in ...

  16. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  18. Changes in digestibility and cell - wall constituents of some agricultural by-products due to gamma irradiation and urea treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Guenther, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different doses of gamma irradiation (0. 100, 150, 200 KGy) or different concentrations of urea (0, 2, 3, and 5 g urea/100 g DM) on in-vitro organic matter digestibility (JVOMD), digestible energy (IVDE), gross energy (GE) nd cell-wall constituents: neutral-detergent fibre, acid-detergent fibre and acid=detergent lignin, have been evaluated in wheat straw, cotton seed shell, peanut shell, soybean shell, extracted olive cake and extracted unpeeled sunflower seeds. The results indicated that gamma irradiation or urea treatments increased the digestible energy values significantly. (p<0.05) and these were attributed to the increases IVOMD and decreases cell-wall constituents of treated samples. The experimental agricultural by-products do not respond to the treatments in the same amount in increasing the IVOMD. There was no significant effect of irradiation and urea treatments on GE. Combined treatments had slightly less effect in increasing IVDE as the addition of both effects. The treatment of 200 KGy and 5% urea resulted in a larger increase in the digestible energy and a better effect by reducing the concentration of the cell-wall constituents even more than what occurred using a single treatment. However, the combination of irradiation with urea treatments could reduce the applied irradiation doses for increasing the IVDE in some studied agricultural by-products. (author)

  19. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%, based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%. Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L, including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  20. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-09-15

    Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  1. Assessing the integration of forward osmosis and anaerobic digestion for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Ngo, Huu H; Guo, Wenshan; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    This study assessed the performance and key challenges associated with the integration of forward osmosis (FO) and anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Using a thin film composite polyamide FO membrane, maximising the pre-concentration factor (i.e. system water recovery) resulted in the enrichment of organics and salinity in wastewater. Biomethane potential evaluation indicated that methane production increased correspondingly with the FO pre-concentration factor due to the organic retention in the feed solution. At 90% water recovery, about 10% more methane was produced when using NaOAc compared with NaCl because of the contribution of biodegradable reverse NaOAc flux. No negative impact on anaerobic digestion was observed when wastewater was pre-concentrated ten-fold (90% water recovery) for both draw solutes. Interestingly, the unit cost of methane production using NaOAc was slightly lower than NaCl due to the lower reverse solute flux of NaOAc, although NaCl is a much cheaper chemical. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of seaweed bioactives in the control of digestion: implications for obesity treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D; Houghton, David; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Seaweeds are an underutilised nutritional resource that could not only compliment the current western diet but potentially bring additional health benefits over and above their nutritional value. There are four groups of seaweed algae; green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophycae), blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Seaweeds are rich in bioactive components including polysaccharides and polyphenols. Polysaccharides content, such as fucoidan, laminarin, as well as alginate is generally high in brown seaweeds which are also a source of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phlorotannin, stilbenes and lignans. These components have been shown to reduce the activity of digestive enzymes, modulating enzymes such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pepsin and lipase. This review discusses the effect of several of these components on the digestive processes within the gastrointestinal tract; focusing on the effect of alginate on pancreatic lipase activity and its potential health benefits. Concluding that there is evidence to suggest alginate has the potential to be used as an obesity treatment, however, further in vivo research is required and an effective delivery method for alginate must be designed.

  3. Improved process for the treatment of bituminous materials. [two heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-04-30

    A continuous process for recovering valuable hydrocarbon oils from solid minerals adapted to produce such oils upon application of heat, consists of reducing the raw minerals to a powder, suspending the powdered minerals in a gaseous medium and subjecting the suspension thus formed to heat treatment in a primary reaction zone, followed by heat treatment in a secondary reaction zone separate from the primary reaction zone. The temperature during the second of said treatments being substantially higher than that of the first.

  4. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  5. Digestibility and energetic value of agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g Dm) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  6. Digestibility and energetic value of some agricultural wastes as affected by gamma irradiation and chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    2001-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the changes in the values of in-vitro apparent organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) of wheat straw, sunflower seed shell, olive cake wood, date palm seeds and peanut shell after spraying with different concentrations of hydrobromic acid (HBr) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0,3,6 ml HBr and 3,6 g NaOH/25 ml water/100 g DM) or after exposure to various doses of gamma radiation (0, 20, 40, 60 kGy). Results indicated that, except for the date palm seeds, the chemical treatments with either HBr or NaOH significantly (P<0.05) increased IVOMD, Me and NEL values for all treated samples. The experimental agricultural wastes did not respond equally to the chemical treatments investigated, i.e. they differ in the induced increases pertaining to their IVOMD, ME and NEL. The highest changes in the studied parameters due to chemical treatments were obtained when applying the 6% concentration. There was no significant effect (P<0.05) of irradiation on IVOMD, ME and NEL values for all treated samples. Moreover, the combined treatments of irradiation and hydrobromic acid or sodium hydroxide were found to have no significant affects on the IVOMD, ME and NEL values compared to the individual chemical treatments. (author)

  7. Application of gamma radiation and heat treatment for the preparation of fish protein concentrates from Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, S.B.K.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Limitations in the conventional procedures for the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPG), such as residual toxicity of the solvents and loss in functional properties necessitate the need for evolving newer methods. A simple method has been developed for the preparation of FPC from the muscle of Bombay duck employing radiation-heat combination treatments. This involves extraction of the muscle proteins in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 5 percent sodium chloride, pH 7.5, irradiation at a dose of 100-250 krad followed by heat treatment at 60 degC for 10 min. The procedure permits the precipitation of fibrillar proteins to the extent of 83 percent. There is no change in the digestibility of the precipitated proteins as revealed by the tryptic hydrolysis. These results point to the synergestic effect of radiation and heat on the precipitation of proteins - an observation that has high potential for scaling up as a new process. (author)

  8. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. How well do 46 full-scale Danish anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants perform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Hjorth; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Background. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a key technology for a sustainable future and is employed worldwide to produce biogas and degrade organic wastes. The strong emphasis on circular economy at Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has had the consequence that many plants utilise AD...... comparing the different plants since the chemical parameters analysed, analytical methods and sensors used, and possibilities for accessing data, varied a lot. The survey proved that there is need for standardisation of chemical analyses and equipment. Data suggested that, in most cases, thermal hydrolysis...... and operation. Research question. The main objective was to learn how the Danish ADs treating wastewater sludge are operated, and investigate whether correlations between performance and microbiology could be identified. Methods. We conducted a six-year survey of operational data from 46 ADs at 22 Danish WWTPs...

  10. Pelvic inflammatory disease: diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugg, Charles Walter; Taira, Taku; Zaurova, Milana

    2016-12-22

    Pelvic inflammatory disease is a common disease that is associated with significant complications including infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ruptured tubo-ovarian abscess, and ectopic pregnancy. The diagnosis may be delayed when the presentation has nonspecific signs and symptoms. Even when it is properly identified, pelvic inflammatory disease is often treated suboptimally. This review provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, disposition, and follow-up of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Arranging follow-up of patients within 48 to 72 hours and providing clear patient education are fundamental to ensuring good patient outcomes. Emerging issues, including new pathogens and evolving resistance patterns among pelvic inflammatory disease pathogens are reviewed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  11. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS.

  12. Effect of heat-treatment on elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.; James, L.A.

    1978-05-01

    The room temperature and elevated temperature fatigue-crack growth behavior of two heats of Alloy 718 was characterized within a linear-elastic fracture mechanics framework. Two different heat-treatments were used: the ''conventional'' (ASTM A637) treatment, and a ''modified'' heat-treatment designed to improve the toughness of Alloy 718 base metal and weldments. Heat-to-heat variations in the fatigue-crack propagation behavior were observed in the conventionally-treated material. On the other hand, no heat-to-heat variations were observed in the modified condition. Furthermore, both heats of Alloy 718 exhibited superior fatigue-crack growth resistance when given the modified heat-treatment. Electron fractographic examination of Alloy 718 fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that the operative crack growth mechanisms were dependent on heat-treatment, temperature, and ΔK level

  13. Effect of heat moisture treatment and annealing on physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red sorghum starch was physically modified by annealing and heat moisture treatment. The swelling power and solubility increased with increasing temperature range (60-90°), while annealing and heatmoisture treatment decreased swelling power and solubility of starch. Solubility and swelling were pH dependent with ...

  14. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollo, Seth [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Onyango, Maurice S. [Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Ochieng, Aoyi, E-mail: ochienga@vut.ac.za [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated AD and photodegradation is suitable for treatment of distillery effluent. • AD process is effective in COD and BOD reduction but not colour removal. • UV photodegradation is efficient in colour and DON removal. • UV photodegradation as a post treatment technique achieved high efficiencies. • UV pre-treatment inhibited biogas production in the succeeding anaerobic process. -- Abstract: Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds.

  16. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S.; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated AD and photodegradation is suitable for treatment of distillery effluent. • AD process is effective in COD and BOD reduction but not colour removal. • UV photodegradation is efficient in colour and DON removal. • UV photodegradation as a post treatment technique achieved high efficiencies. • UV pre-treatment inhibited biogas production in the succeeding anaerobic process. -- Abstract: Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds

  17. Effect of Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process-Anaerobic digestion treatment on concentrations on phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of the recently implemented Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process™-Anaerobic Digestion (TH-AD) solids treatment method on concentrations of 4 phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge samples was explored in this study. Samples were analysed for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthal...

  18. Anaerobic pre-treatment of sewage under low temperature (15 [degrees] C) conditions in an integrated UASB-digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.J.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to amend the UASB by the means of incorporating a digester for anaerobic sewage treatment in the Middle East region.

    A literature search of the various parameters that mightaffect the solid liquid separation process by filtration

  19. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  20. Comparing the effect of homogenization and heat processing on the properties and in vitro digestion of milk from organic and conventional dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Ren, D X; Tomasula, P M

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of homogenization and heat processing on the chemical and in vitro digestion traits of milk from organic and conventional herds. Raw milk from organic (>50% of dry matter intake from pasture) and conventional (no access to pasture) farms were adjusted to commercial whole and nonfat milk fat standards, and processed with or without homogenization, and with high-temperature-short-time or UHT pasteurization. The milk then underwent in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of milk from organic and conventional herds showed that the milks responded to processing in similar ways. General composition was the same among the whole milk samples and among the nonfat milk samples. Protein profiles were similar, with intact caseins and whey proteins predominant and only minor amounts of peptides. Whole milk samples from grazing cows contained higher levels of α-linolenic (C18:3), vaccenic (C18:1 trans), and conjugated linoleic acids, and lower levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids than samples from nongrazing cows. Processing had no effect on conjugated linoleic acid and linolenic acid levels in milk, although homogenization resulted in higher levels of C8 to C14 saturated fatty acids. Of the 9 volatile compounds evaluated, milk from grazing cows contained lower levels of 2-butanone than milk from nongrazing cows, and milk from both farms showed spikes for heptanal in UHT samples and spikes for butanoic, octanoic, nonanoic, and N-decanoic acids in homogenized samples. At the start of in vitro digestion, nonfat raw and pasteurized milk samples formed the largest acid clots, and organic milk clots were larger than conventional milk clots; UHT whole milk formed the smallest clots. Milk digests from grazing cows had lower levels of free fatty acids than digests from nongrazing cows. In vitro proteolysis was similar in milk from both farms and resulted in 85 to 95% digestibility. Overall, milk from organic/grass-fed and conventional

  1. Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Apintanapong, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

  2. Effects of Physico-Chemical Post-Treatments on the Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production in wastewater treatment plants is increasing worldwide due to the increasing population. This work investigated the effects of ultrasonic (ULS, ultrasonic-ozone (ULS-Ozone and ultrasonic + alkaline (ULS+ALK post-treatments on the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Three conditions were tested with different hydraulic retention times (HRT, 10 or 20 days and sludge recycle ratios (R = QR/Qin (%: 50 or 100%. Biogas yield increased by 17.8% when ULS+ALK post-treatment was applied to the effluent of a reactor operating at 20 days HRT and at a 100% recycle ratio. Operation at 10 days HRT also improved the biogas yield (277 mL CH4/g VSadded (VS: volatile solids versus 249 mL CH4/g VSadded in the control. The tested post-treatment methods showed 4–7% decrease in effluent VS. The post-treatment resulted in a decrease in the cellular ATP (Adenosine tri-phosphate concentration indicating stress imposed on microorganisms in the reactor. Nevertheless, this did not prevent higher biogas production. Based on the results, the post-treatment of digested sludge or treating the sludge between two digesters is an interesting alternative to pre-treatments.

  3. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment

  4. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman [Department of Food Science, School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber’s surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber’s surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber’s surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  5. Effects of aqueous ammonia treatment on fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tang Pei; Hassan, Osman

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of aqueous ammonia reflux and soaked treatment on the fiber's surface morphology and enzymatic digestibility of empty fruit bunch fiber (EFBF). The surface morphological changes of the fiber after aqueous ammonia treatment was linked to the sugars yield by enzymatic hydrolysis. The effectiveness of 6.25% aqueous ammonia treatment in improving enzymatic digestibility of EFBF was initially studied in reflux system and by soaking. The results showed that soaked treatment was more effective than reflux system. Further study on soaked treatment of EFBF was carried out by increasing the ammonia concentration to 12.50%. Soaking in aqueous ammonia was conducted at 30°C and 50°C for 24 hours. The results of enzymatic hydrolysis showed that sugar yield from EFBF soaked in 12.50% aqueous ammonia at 50°C was the highest. Approximately 242.91±15.50 mg/g EFBF of xylose and 320.49±28.31 mg/g EFBF of glucose were produced by the action of enzyme Cellic Ctec 2. Results of scanning electron microscopic showed that aqueous ammonia treatment by soaking had caused a more severe structural distortion on the fiber's surface and higher removal of silica bodies that embedded on the fiber than those in reflux system. The changes on the fiber's surface morphology were believed is the contributing factor that improved the enzymatic digestibility of EFBF after aqueous ammonia treatment.

  6. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eco-efficient post treatment of digestate from farm and collective biogas plants to improve nutrients (N&P) recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémier, Anne; Béline, Fabrice; Déchaux, Claire

    an opportunity to improve nutrient recycling from organic waste through the development of an eco-effi cient post-treatment system. In this context, LCA was applied to evaluate the sustainability of diff erent raw digestate post-treatment technologies regarding recycling of nutrients from agricultural...... and organic waste to agricultural soils for decreased resource depletion and climate mitigation. Substitution of the use of N and P mineral fertilizers with recycled soil health improver or organic fertilizers products as function of fi ve diff erent post-treatment technologies and raw digestate...... characteristics was evaluated. A particular attention was carried to (1) the gaseous emissions (NH3 and N2O) from process (post-treatment) but also after land spreading and (2) the carbon cycle considering the CO2 carbon costs of fertiliser production and the soil carbon sequestration benefit....

  8. Heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1977. Civil engineering technical report No. 222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.B. Jr.; Owen, W.F.; Stuckey, D.C.; Young, L.Y.; McCarty, P.L.

    1977-06-30

    This report represents the results of the first year of study on the heat treatment of organics to increase its biodegradability by anaerobic bacteria for the microbial production of methane. The purpose of this study is to develop a means for increasing the yield and reducing the cost of methane, a useful energy source. The procedures being evaluated are heat treatment at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C, under pH ranges of 1 to 13. Included in this report are results on: (1) lignocellulose digestion and acclimation to its products from heat treatment; (2) the fate of waste activated sludge and its cellular nitrogenous compounds; and (3) the biodegradability of model compounds likely to be formed during heat treatment.

  9. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Desensitization of stainless steels by laser surface heat-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    1987-11-01

    Laser heating was applied for the desensitization heat-treatment of the surface layer in the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel. The degree of sensitization was examined by EPR technique and the 10 % oxalic acid electrolytic etch test. The CO/sub 2/ laser with maximum power of 1.5 kW was used for heat-treatment. Time-Temperature-Desensitization diagram (TTDS diagram) for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were developed by calculation assuming the chromium diffusion control for desensitization which might occur when the chromium depleted zone was healed up due to dissolution of chromium carbide and chromium diffusion from the matrix being heated at the solution annealing temperatures. TTDS diagrams calculated agree fairly well with ones determined by corrosion tests. Laser irradiation conditions (e.g., Laser power, beam diameter and traveling velocity) required for desensitization of sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were calculated using additivity rule from the TTDS diagram calculated and theoretical thermal curve of laser heating derived from the heat conduction theory. After laser beam irradiated under an optimum condition predicted by calculation, the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel restored complete resistance to intergranular corrosion.

  11. Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mayank; Ponselvan, F. Infant Anto; Malviya, Jodha Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Srivastava, Vimal Chandra, E-mail: vimalcsr@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Mall, Indra Deo, E-mail: id_mall2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-15

    The present paper deals with chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of a bio-digester effluent (BDE) in a batch electrocoagulation (EC) reactor using iron electrode. A central composite (CC) experimental design has been employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters on the COD removal efficiency. The parameters studied are current density (j): 44.65-223.25 A/m{sup 2}; initial pH (pH{sub 0}): 2-8; inter-electrode distance (g): 1-3 cm and electrolysis time (t): 30-150 min. The results have been analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R{sup 2} = 0.8547) and satisfactory prediction for second-order regression model. Graphical response surface and contour plots have been used to locate the optimum values of studied parameters. Maximum COD and color reduction of 50.5% and 95.2%, respectively, was observed at optimum conditions. Present study shows that EC technique can be employed in distilleries to reduce the pollution load before treatment in aerobic treatment plants to meet the discharge standards.

  12. Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Ponselvan, F. Infant Anto; Malviya, Jodha Ram; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mall, Indra Deo

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of a bio-digester effluent (BDE) in a batch electrocoagulation (EC) reactor using iron electrode. A central composite (CC) experimental design has been employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters on the COD removal efficiency. The parameters studied are current density (j): 44.65-223.25 A/m 2 ; initial pH (pH 0 ): 2-8; inter-electrode distance (g): 1-3 cm and electrolysis time (t): 30-150 min. The results have been analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R 2 = 0.8547) and satisfactory prediction for second-order regression model. Graphical response surface and contour plots have been used to locate the optimum values of studied parameters. Maximum COD and color reduction of 50.5% and 95.2%, respectively, was observed at optimum conditions. Present study shows that EC technique can be employed in distilleries to reduce the pollution load before treatment in aerobic treatment plants to meet the discharge standards.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion II. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasmith, E. E.

    This lesson is the second of a two-part series on anaerobic digestion. Topics discussed include classification of digester by function, roof design, and temperature range, mixing systems, gas system components, operational control basics, and general safety considerations. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The…

  14. Aerobic Digestion. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson is a basic description of aerobic digestion. Topics presented include a general process overview discussion of a typical digester's components, factors influencing performance, operational controls, and biological considerations for successful operation. The lesson includes an instructor's guide and student workbook. The instructor's…

  15. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  16. Impact Toughness and Heat Treatment for Cast Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for transforming a cast component made of modified aluminum alloy by increasing the impact toughness coefficient using minimal heat and energy. The aluminum alloy is modified to contain 0.55%-0.60% magnesium, 0.10%-0.15% titanium or zirconium, less than 0.07% iron, a silicon-tomagnesium product ratio of 4.0, and less than 0.15% total impurities. The shortened heat treatment requires an initial heating at 1,000deg F. for up to I hour followed by a water quench and a second heating at 350deg F. to 390deg F. for up to I hour. An optional short bake paint cycle or powder coating process further increase.

  17. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  18. Heat treatment effect on ductility of nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnakov, K.K.; Khasin, G.A.; Danilov, V.F.; Oshchepkov, B.V.; Listkova, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Causes of low ductility of the KhN75MBTYu and KhN78T alloys were studied along with the heat treatment effects. Samples were tested at 20, 900, 1100, 1200 deg C. Large amount of inclusions was found in intercrystalline fractures of the above low-ductile alloys. The inclusions of two types took place: (α-Al 2 O 3 , FeO(Cr 2 O 3 xAl 2 O 3 )) dendrite-like ones and large-size laminated SiO 2 , FeO,(CrFe) 2 O 3 inclusions situated as separate colonies. Heat treatment of the alloys does not increase high-temperature impact strength and steel ductility. The heating above 1000 deg C leads to a partial dissolution and coagulation of film inclusions which results in an impact strength increase at room temperature

  19. In vitro digestion and physicochemical characteristics of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The digestibility and molecular structure of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low-pressure treatment (LPT) was investigated. Amino acid induced a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and decrease in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) after LPT. The reason is the formation of ester bond between the molecular chains of amino acid and starch. Low pressure treatment altered greatly the morphology of corn starch mixed with or without amino acid. After LPT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for starch-amino acid complex. An increase in size distribution was obvious after LPT and the size distribution curves provided from a new variety. We found that higher enthalpy and relative crystallinity of the starch-amino acid complex were associated with a higher SDS content. It can be inferred that LPT had a greater impact on the digestion and structural characterization of corn starch mixed with amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on brewer's yeast fermentation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharandiuk, Tetiana; Kosiv, Ruslana; Palianytsia, Liubov; Berezovska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of temperature treatment of brewer's yeast strain Saflager W-34/70 at temperatures of -17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C on their fermentative activity was studied. It was established that the freezing of yeast leads to a decrease of fermentation activity in directly proportional to the duration way. Fermentative activity of yeast samples can be increased by 20-24% by heat treatment at 35 °C during 15-30 minutes.

  1. Heat treatment effect on impact strength of 40Kh steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.K.; Novikov, S.A.; Sobolev, Yu.S.; Yukina, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies on the effect of heat treatment on strength and pattern of 40Kh steel impact failure. Loading levels corresponding to macroscopic spalling microdamage initiation in the material are determined for three initial states. Metallographic study on the spalling failure pattern for 40Kh steel in different initial states and data on microhardness measurement are presented

  2. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray ...

  3. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Diamond; TiO2 film; heat treatment temperature; anti-oxidation; mechanical properties. 1. Introduction. Due to its ..... figure 4a, which was due to the change of chemical envi- ronment of ... graphite, diamond, diamond-like carbon and carbon.10.

  4. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... ween 450 and 660 m altitudes in Cide-Sehdagi (Gercek et al., 1998; Dogu ... changes continue as the temperature is increased in ... Heat treatment slows water uptake and wood cell wall absorbs ...... The Effect of Boiling Time.

  5. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of ... Some of the products developed by thermal treat- .... boards were stored uncontrolled condition in an unheated room for .... These results can be explained with material loses in ...... Finland-state of the art.

  6. Application of microjet in heat treatment of aluminium bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Górny

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of a CuAl10Fe4Ni4 bronze subjected to solution heat treatment and toughening were examined. In solution heattreatment, a microjet was used to raise the cooling rate. A slight increase of mechanical properties was observed.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF INTERCRITICAL HEAT TREATMENTS ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercritical heat treatment on 0.14wt%C 0.56wt%Mn 0.13wt%Si struc- ... Table 1: Chemical composition of the steel used (wt. %) with its critical temperature (calculated). C. Mn. Si. Ni. S ... primary austenitic grain size hardening and.

  8. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of heat treatment (55°C/20 min) on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities and total phenolic compounds was investigated in Algerian dates (Deglet Nour variety) at Tamar (fully ripe) stage and in dates stored for 5 months at ambient temperature and in cold storage (10°C). Results obtained ...

  9. Laser heat treatment of welds for various stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.; Predescu, C.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the post - weld heat treatment of a duplex stainless steel. Welded joint samples were surface - treated using the same laser source adopted during welding in order to counterbalance the excess of ferrite formed in the welding process.

  10. Effects of heat treatment on density, dimensional stability and color ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties and color change of Pinus nigra wood which has high industrial use potential and large growing stocks in Turkey. Wood samples which comprised the material of the study were obtained from an industrial plant. Samples were ...

  11. Siloxane removal and sludge disintegration using thermo-alkaline treatments with air stripping prior to anaerobic sludge digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Fujime, Motochika; Takaoka, Masaki; Fujimori, Takashi; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Siloxanes hamper the energy-use of anaerobic digestion biogas. • D5 siloxane was considered as target compound in this study. • The treatment removed 80% of D5 in sewage sludge at 55 °C and 135 g-NaOH kg −1 -VTS. • D5 removal and the disintegration of VSS in the sludge were correlated. • At the optimal conditions, the costs of anaerobic digestion were notably diminished. - Abstract: A thermo-alkaline treatment with air stripping was applied before anaerobic sludge digestion for both siloxane removal and sludge disintegration. The treatment was expected to increase the amount of biogas produced and to reduce the amount of siloxane in the gas. Adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the sludge improved the removal of siloxane from the sludge, with approximately 90% of the siloxane removed to the gas phase using a thermo-alkaline treatment. Over 80% of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) could be removed under the following conditions: 55 °C treatment temperature, 135 g-NaOH kg −1 volatile total solids (VTS), and 0.5 L min −1 air-stripping rate. The disintegration ratio of volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the sludge was correlated with the D5 removal ratio. Because most of the siloxane was adsorbed to, or was contained in the VSS, the siloxane removal ratio increased with VSS disintegration. Finally, the energy consumption and operational costs of this system were evaluated for several scenarios. Thermo-alkaline treatment at the indicated operational conditions had the lowest operating costs for a 400 m 3 day −1 anaerobic sludge digestion system

  12. Heat treatment giving a stable high temperature micro-structure in cast austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Donald L.; Lemkey, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    A novel micro-structure developed in a cast austenitic stainless steel alloy and a heat treatment thereof are disclosed. The alloy is based on a multicomponent Fe-Cr-Mn-Mo-Si-Nb-C system consisting of an austenitic iron solid solution (.gamma.) matrix reinforced by finely dispersed carbide phases and a heat treatment to produce the micro-structure. The heat treatment includes a prebraze heat treatment followed by a three stage braze cycle heat treatment.

  13. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  14. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  15. Effects of inoculum source and co-digestion strategies on anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Dolores; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús M

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at selecting a suitable strategy to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils (WVO). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted at 35 °C to evaluate the effects of substrate mix ratio between a mixture of WVO residues (M) and pig manure (PM) co-digesting by using different inocula. Inoculum from an industrial digester fed with organic waste from hotels, restaurants and catering leftovers (HORECA) showed higher methanogenic activity (55.5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)) than municipal wastewater treatment plant (mWWTP) inoculum (42.6 mL CH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)). Furthermore, the results showed that the resistance to WVO residues toxicity was higher for the HORECA sludge than for the mWWTP sludge. HORECA inoculum produced more biogas in all the assays. Moreover, the resulting biogas was of better quality, containing an average of 71.1% (SD = 1.6) methane compared to an average of 69.5% (SD = 1.2) methane for test with mWWTP sludge. The maximum degradation rate occurred at the higher PM mix ratio (M/PM:1/3), reaching 26.7 ± 4.3 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) for mWWTP inoculum, versus 42.0 ± 1,5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) achieved for HORECA inoculum. A high reduction of volatile solids (between 70% and 81%) was obtained with both inocula at all M/PM ratios assayed (1/0, 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 v/v) but, bearing in mind the operation of a full-scale anaerobic plant, the optimal scenario assayed corresponds to the ratio M/PM: 1/3 v/v where shorter lag periods will make it possible to operate at lower hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine

    OpenAIRE

    Forbis-Stokes, Aaron A.; O'Meara, Patrick F.; Mugo, Wangare; Simiyu, Gelas M.; Deshusses, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine (ADPL) is a self-contained and energy neutral on-site sanitation system using anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge to generate biogas and then uses the biogas to pasteurize the digester effluent at 65?75?C to produce a safe effluent that can be reused locally as a fertilizer. Two ADPL systems were installed on residential plots with 17 and 35 residents in a peri-urban area outside of Eldoret, Kenya. Each system comprised three toilets bui...

  17. Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Aubry, Laurent; Ferreira, Claude; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Gatellier, Philippe; Rémond, Didier; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2012-03-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo.

  18. A new paradigm for heat treatment of alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinovshikov, Y., E-mail: ust@ftiudm.ru

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • The sign of the ordering energy in alloys varies with the temperature. • Each temperature of heating leads to formation of its characteristic microstructure. • Quenching of alloys is a totally unnecessary and useless operation. - Abstract: The article considers the consequences in the field of heat treatment of alloys that could follow the introduction of the concept of phase transition ordering-phase separation into common use. By example of the Fe{sub 50}Cr{sub 50} alloy, industrial carbon tool steel and Ni{sub 88}Al{sub 12} alloy, it is shown that this transition occurs at a temperature, which is definite for each system, that the change of the sign of the chemical interaction between component atoms reverses the direction of diffusion fluxes in alloys, which affects changes in the type of microstructures. The discovery of this phase transition dramatically changes our understanding of the solid solution, changes the ideology of alloy heat treatment. It inevitably leads to the conclusion about the necessity of carrying out structural studies with the help of TEM in order to adjust the phase diagrams of the systems where this phase transition has been discovered. Conclusions have been made that quenching of alloys from the so-called region of the solid solution, which is usually performed before tempering (aging) is a completely unnecessary and useless operation, that the final structure of the alloy is formed during tempering (aging) no matter what the structure was before this heat treatment.

  19. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Madalena; Baptista, Patrícia; Duarte, Elizabeth; Moreira, António L N

    2018-01-02

    Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment. In this study, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry was investigated in a continuously stirred tank reactor, with a mechanical pre-treatment. Experiments were conducted at 37°C, with hydraulic retention times of 23 days and increasing shares of horse manure, corresponding to different horse manure to pig slurry ratios (HM:PS) equal to 0:100, 10:90, 13:87 and 20:80, in terms of percentage of inlet volatile solids (%VS inlet). The results show that the best synergetic effect between the microbial consortia of pig slurry and the high Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of horse manure is obtained for the mixture of 20:80%VS inlet, yielding the highest specific methane production (SMP = 142.6 L kg TCOD -1 ) and the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) reduction (68.5%), due to the high volatile dissolved solids content and soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand ratio (SCOD/TCOD). Thus, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry is shown to be a promising approach for biogas production and as a waste treatment solution. Furthermore, the analysis provides a methodology for the pre-treatment of these substrates and to investigate into the best combination for improved biogas production.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX

    2009-11-03

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

  2. Novel magnetic heating probe for multimodal cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional materials consisting of polymers and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are highly sought after in the field of biomedical engineering. These materials offer new opportunities for the development of novel cancer treatment modalities that can increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In this paper, a novel probe for multimodal cancer treatment is proposed and analyzed. The probe is essentially a cannula with two main parts: a distal heat generating tip made of a magnetic nanocomposite and a proximal insulated shaft. A description of the concept and functional operations of the probe is presented. In an effort to assess its feasibility, the authors evaluated the ability of probe tip (made of PMMA-Fe3O4 nanocomposite) to generate heat in biological tissue using alternating magnetic field (AMF) parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use. Heat generation by MNPs was determined using the linear response theory. The effects of Fe3O4 volume fraction on heat generation as well as treatment time on the thermal dose were studied. The finite element method model was tested for its validity using an analytical model. Lesions were revealed to have an ellipsoidal shape and their sizes were affected by treatment time. However, their shapes remained unchanged. The comparison with the analytical model showed reasonably a good agreement to within 2%. Furthermore, the authors' numerical predictions also showed reasonable agreement with the experimental results previously reported in the literature. The authors' predictions demonstrate the feasibility of their novel probe to achieve reasonable lesion sizes, during hyperthermic or ablative heating using AMF parameters (field strength and frequency) that are acceptable for human use.

  3. Comparative study of heat transfer and wetting behaviour of conventional and bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Peter; Prabhu, K. Narayan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, P.O. Srinivasnagar 575 025 Mangalore, Karnataka State (India)

    2008-02-15

    An investigation was conducted to study the suitability of vegetable oils as bioquenchants for industrial heat treatment. The study involved the assessment of the severity of quenching and wetting behaviour of conventional and vegetable oil quench media. Quench severities of sunflower, coconut and palm oils were found to be greater than mineral oil. The quench severity of aqueous media is greater than oil media although their wettability is poor as indicated by their higher contact angles. A dimensionless contact angle parameter defined in this work is found to be a better parameter to compare the wetting behaviour with heat transfer. (author)

  4. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ploidy Manipulation of Zebrafish Embryos with Heat Shock 2 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Destiny L.; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole duplication, this method results in a precise cell division stall during the second cell cycle. The precise one-cycle division stall, coupled to unaffected DNA duplication, results in whole genome duplication. Protocols associated with this method include egg and sperm collection, UV treatment of sperm, in vitro fertilization and heat pulse to cause a one-cell cycle division delay and ploidy duplication. A modified version of this protocol could be applied to induce ploidy changes in other animal species. PMID:28060351

  6. Grain Refinement of Low Carbon Martensitic Steel by Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolebina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-carbon steels have good corrosion and technological properties. Hot deformation is the main operation in manufacturing the parts from these steels. So one of the important properties of the material is a property of plasticity. The grain size significantly influences on the ductility properties of steel. The grain size of steel depends on the chemical composition of the crystallization process, heat treatment, and steel machining. There are plenty methods to have grain refinement. However, taking into account the large size of the blanks for the hydro turbine parts, the thermal cycling is an advanced method of the grain refinement adaptable to streamlined production. This work experimentally studies the heat treatment influence on the microstructure of the low-carbon 01X13N04 alloy steel and proposes the optimal regime of the heat treatment to provide a significantly reduced grain size. L.M. Kleiner, N.P. Melnikov and I.N. Bogachyova’s works focused both on the microstructure of these steels and on the influence of its parameters on the mechanical properties. The paper focuses mainly on defining an optimal regime of the heat treatment for grain refinement. The phase composition of steel and temperature of phase transformation were defined by the theoretical analysis. The dilatometric experiment was done to determine the precise temperature of the phase transformations. The analysis and comparison of the experimental data with theoretical data and earlier studies have shown that the initial sample has residual stress and chemical heterogeneity. The influence of the heat treatment on the grain size was studied in detail. It is found that at temperatures above 950 ° C there is a high grain growth. It is determined that the optimal number of cycles is two. The postincreasing number of cycles does not cause further reducing grain size because of the accumulative recrystallization process. Based on the results obtained, the thermal cycling

  7. The effects of gamma irradiation in combination with NaCl treatment on digestibility of rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Z.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatments have been conducted to increase the nutritive value of rice straw as an animal feed. Rice straw was sprayed by sodiumchloride solution prior to gamma irradiation. The sodiumchloride concentration in straw were 0, 1, and 2% ( gNaCl/100 g rice straw), and irradiation dose were 0, 5, 10, and 15 Mrad. Result indicated that the combined treatments significantly increased (p<0.01) dry matter digestibility of rice straw. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction between gamma irradiation and sodiumchloride treatment was observed. (authors). 11 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  9. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  10. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  11. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat treatments of TiAl-Cr-V casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Z.J.; Ma, J.L.; Wu, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The need to investigate various kinds of fine microstructure based on casting TiAl alloy led to development of a multiple-stage heat treatment procedure. The first stage required the transformation of as-cast lamellar structure into near-gamma structure, followed by required transformation of near-gamma structure into various kinds of fine microstructure. The as-cast lamellar structure can be changed into near-gamma structure by annealing the alloy at 1,200 C for at least 50 hours. During the annealing process, two mechanisms are involved in transforming the lamellar structure into a near-gamma structure. One is the discontinuous coarsening (DC) process, and the other is the continuous coarsening (CC) process. With the near-gamma structure as an initial structure, the alloy being heat-treated in the γ + α and in the α fields can produce various kinds of microstructure with fine grain size. These microstructure significantly differ from the microstructure produced by heat-treating the deformed lamellar structure. Results of the investigation show that careful control of the time of the heat-treatment process in the single a field can produce a fine fully lamellar structure

  13. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  14. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  15. The heat treatment of steel. A mathematical control problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemberg, Dietmar; Kern, Daniela

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this paper is to show how the heat treatment of steel can be modelled in terms of a mathematical optimal control problem. The approach is applied to laser surface hardening and the cooling of a steel slab including mechanical effects. Finally, it is shown how the results can be utilized in industrial practice by a coupling with machine-based control. (orig.)

  16. Deep heat muscle treatment: A mathematical model - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogulu, A.; Bestman, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    The flow of blood during deep heat muscle treatment is studied in this paper. We model the blood vessel as a long tube in circular section whose radius varied slowly. Under the Boussinesq approximation, we seek asymptotic series expansions for the velocity components, temperature and pressure about a small parameter, ε, characterizing the radius variation. The study reveals mathematically why physicians recommend a hot bath for cuts and physiotherapists use ice packs for bruises. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  17. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  18. Comparison between ozone and ultrasound disintegration on sludge anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G

    2012-03-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of ultrasound (mechanical) and ozone (chemical) pre-treatment on the performances of excess sludge semi-continuous digestion. Sludge solubilisation has been investigated by varying specific energy input. For each pre-treatment, long anaerobic digestion tests were carried out by two parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with untreated waste activated sludge, and the other one was fed with disintegrated sludge. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of both pre-treatments, the specific energy was maintained approximately the same. The digestion tests were carried out to investigate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion performance (total biogas production, volatile solids removal, sludge dewaterability) and to assess the heat balance. Results obtained from the digestion of sonicated sludge at 4% disintegration degree (≈ 2500 kJ/kg TS) showed that the ultrasound pre-treatment may be effective both in increasing VS destruction (+19%) and cumulative biogas production (+26%). On the contrary, the digestion test with ozonized sludge (ozone dose of 0.05 g O(3)/g TS corresponding to ≈ 2000 kJ/kg TS) did not indicate a significant improvement on the digestion performances. By doubling the ozone dose an improvement in the organics removal and cumulative biogas production was observed. Relevant differences in terms of colloidal charge and filterability were discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave heat treatment as a substitute for conventional treatment of palm oil fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid H Al-Fayadh; Nor Azura Masabbir Ali

    1996-01-01

    Microwave energy has become a sound method of heat treatment because of its high penetration power, cleanliness and possible economic significance. In this research, microwave heat was used as a substitute for conventional blanching method of palm oil fruits. Microwave treatment at 2450 MHz and 800 watts gave very close color and frn,frying characteristics to oil of blanched fruits after one minute exposure time. However, five minutes of microwave heat gave severe husk oil discoloration after 49 hours of deep frying, compared to all oils extracted from fruits treated by either low, microwave exposure time or conventional steam treatment. Kernel oil, after five minutes of microwave treatment, was less discolored than both steam or microwave-treated fruits for one minute. More carotenes and discoloration compounds may be contributed to discoloration during microwave treatments. Oil chemical constants of both husk and kernel oils treated by microwave heat were close to those treated by conventional heat. Further research is needed to investigate detailed oil characteristics and evaluate the feasibility study for using microwave energy, as a substitute for conventional heat in palm oil industry

  20. Simulations of Precipitate Microstructure Evolution during Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaisheng; Sterner, Gustaf; Chen, Qing; Jou, Herng-Jeng; Jeppsson, Johan; Bratberg, Johan; Engström, Anders; Mason, Paul

    Precipitation, a major solid state phase transformation during heat treatment processes, has for more than one century been intensively employed to improve the strength and toughness of various high performance alloys. Recently, sophisticated precipitation reaction models, in assistance with well-developed CALPHAD databases, provide an efficient and cost-effective way to tailor precipitate microstructures that maximize the strengthening effect via the optimization of alloy chemistries and heat treatment schedules. In this presentation, we focus on simulating precipitate microstructure evolution in Nickel-base superalloys under arbitrary heat treatment conditions. The newly-developed TC-PRISMA program has been used for these simulations, with models refined especially for non-isothermal conditions. The effect of different cooling profiles on the formation of multimodal microstructures has been thoroughly examined in order to understand the underlying thermodynamics and kinetics. Meanwhile, validations against several experimental results have been carried out. Practical issues that are critical to the accuracy and applicability of the current simulations, such as modifications that overcome mean-field approximations, compatibility between CALPHAD databases, selection of key parameters (particularly interfacial energy and nucleation site densities), etc., are also addressed.

  1. THE HEAT TREATMENT ANALYSIS OF E110 CASE HARDENING STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID TOLOUEI-RAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates mechanical and microstructural behaviour of E110 case hardening steel when subjected to different heat treatment processes including quenching, normalizing and tempering. After heat treatment samples were subjected to mechanical and metallographic analysis and the properties obtained from applying different processes were analysed. The heat treatment process had certain effects on the resultant properties and microstructures obtained for E110 steel which are described in details. Quenching produced a martensitic microstructure characterized by significant increase in material’s hardness and a significant decreased in its impact energy. Annealed specimens produced a coarse pearlitic microstructure with minimal variation in hardness and impact energy. For normalized samples, fine pearlitic microstructure was identified with a moderate increase in hardness and significant reduction in impact energy. Tempering had a significant effect on quenched specimens, with a substantial rise in material ductility and reduction of hardness with increasing tempering temperature. Furthermore, Results provide additional substantiation of temper embrittlement theory for low-carbon alloys, and indicate potential occurrence of temper embrittlement for fine pearlitic microstructures.

  2. Heat treatment trials for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors using Nb 3 Sn strands are used in ITER toroidal fields (TF) coils. Heat treatment generates thermal strain in CIC conductors because of the difference in thermal expansion between the Nb 3 Sn strands and the stainless-steel jacket. The elongation/shrinkage of the TF conductor may make it impossible to insert a wound TF conductor into the groove of a radial plate. In addition, it is expected that the deformation of the winding due to heat treatment-based release of the residual force in the jacket may also make it impossible to insert the winding in the groove, and that correcting the winding geometry to allow insertion of the winding may influence the superconducting performance of the TF conductor. The authors performed several trials using heat treatment as the part of activities in Phase II of TF coil procurement aiming to resolve the above-mentioned technical issues, and evaluated the elongations of 0.064, 0.074 and 0.072% for the straight and curved conductors and 1/3-scale double-pancake (DP) winding, respectively. It was confirmed that correction if the deformed winding did not influence the superconducting performance of the conductor. (author)

  3. Waste treatment and energy production from small-scale wastewater digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Stephanie; Maile-Moskowitz, Ayella; Eaton, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Three tubular anaerobic digestion (AD) systems were installed in Haiti to treat black water (toilet-based wastewater), including a three cell 36m 3 clinic digester (CD), a two cell 2m 3 hotel digester (HD), and a three-cell 3m 3 farm digester (FD) for worker use. During digestion, total coliforms were reduced by 99.1%, E. coli by 98.5%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.6%. Nutrients in the effluent averaged 99.4mg/L NH 4 + and 10.6mg/L PO 4 2- , producing an effective organic fertilizer. Average biogas production in CD was 108L/d, with 65.4% CH 4 . Survey participants (n=573) were willing to pay $0.10-0.30 per use for sanitation facilities. Seventy-two percent of the rural population surveyed in Cange, Haiti lacked access to improved sanitation due to financial constraints. The economic analysis calculated an investment cost for a shared toilet AD systems of $16-$47 (USD) per person based on daily use at design capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  5. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45 degrees prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk, weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  6. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45/sup 0/ prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in a plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  7. Hybrid fuzzy logic control of laser surface heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Jose Antonio; Ocana, Jose Luis; Molpeceres, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced hybrid fuzzy logic control system for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to increase significantly the uniformity and final quality of the obtained product, reducing the rejection rate and increasing the productivity and efficiency of the treatment. Basically, the proposed hybrid control structure combines a fuzzy logic controller, with a pure integral action, both fully decoupled, improving the performances of the process with a reasonable design cost, since the system nonlinearities are fully compensated by the fuzzy component of the controller, while the integral action contributes to eliminate the steady-state error

  8. Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-cooling and heat treatment on antioxidant enzymes profile of mango and banana. ... In banana, pre-cooling treatment (8 ºC) and heat treatment followed by cooling reduced CAT activity in peel and pulp, whereas POX activity increased. Pre-cooling and heat treatments altered normal homeostasis of these fruits, ...

  9. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  10. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams--black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR--decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented for an enhanced primary treatment or, in some situations, as a main treatment. Two reactor configurations were extensively studied; accumulation system (AC) and UASB septic tank at 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. Due to long retention times in an AC reactor, far stabilisation of treated medium can be accomplished with methanisation up to 60%. The AC systems are the most suitable to apply when the volume of waste to be treated is minimal and when a direct reuse of a treated medium in agriculture is possible. Digested effluent contains both liquid and solids. In a UASB septic tank, efficient separation of solids and liquid is accomplished. The total COD removal was above 80% at 25 degrees C. The effluent contains COD and nutrients, mainly in a soluble form. The frequency of excess sludge removal is low and sludge is well stabilised due to a long accumulation time.

  11. The DSA diagnosis, artery embolization combined with low dose of vasopressin infusion treatment for lower digestive tract hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoxin; Dou Yongchong; Zhang Yanfang; Shen Xinying; Xu Jianmin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) diagnosis and interventional treatment for lower digestive tract hemorrhage of unknown reasons. Methods: DSA was performed in 32 patients with unknown etiologic lower digestive tract hemorrhage. The locations and causes of hemorrhage were determined by angiography according to the demonstration of contrast medium extravasation, abnormal vasculature and tumor staining. Superselective arterial embolization was performed with retaining catheter of low dose vasopressin infusion for 12 hours of hemostasis. Results: Seventy-five percent of the lesions were identified by DSA with 2 cases of intestinal typhoid, 1 intestinal tuberculosis, 14 cases of vascular malformation and 7 cases of tumor. Hemostasis was succeeded in 20 of 24 patients. The rate of success was 83.3%. Conclusions: DSA and interventional therapy are of great value in diagnosing and treating patients with lower digestive tract hemorrhage of unknown reasons and even those undergone unsuccessful conservative treatment. Low dose vasopressin infusion through retained catheter is safe and efficient after superselective arterial embolization. (authors)

  12. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [es

  13. Prevalence and persistence of potentially pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion treatment of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; de Oliveira Fortunato, Samuel; da Costa Carneiro, Jailton; Otenio, Marcelo Henrique; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2014-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion figures as a sustainable alternative to avoid discharge of cattle manure in the environment, which results in biogas and biofertilizer. Persistence of potentially pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria during anaerobic digestion of cattle manure was evaluated. Selective cultures were performed for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined and a decay of all bacterial groups was observed after 60days. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected both the influent and effluent. GPC, the most prevalent group was highly resistant against penicillin and levofloxacin, whereas resistance to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam and chloramphenicol was frequently observed in the ENT and NFR groups. The data point out the need of discussions to better address management of biodigesters and the implementation of sanitary and microbiological safe treatments of animal manures to avoid consequences to human, animal and environmental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric control, heat treatment with stainless steel foil wrapping, pack carburization heat treatment and vacuum heat treatment. The results showed that stainless steel foil wrapping could restrict decarburization process, resulting in a constant hardness profile as vacuum heat treatment does. However, the tempering characteristic between these two heat treatment methods is different. Results from the gas nitrided samples showed that the thickness and the hardness of the nitrided layer is independent of the carbon content in H13 steel.

  15. Technical project of complex fast cycle heat treatment of hydrogenous coal preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseev, V. A.; Andrienko, V. G.; Pileckij, V. G.; Urvancev, A. I.; Gvozdyakov, Dmitry Vasilievich; Gubin, Vladimir Evgenievich; Matveev, Aleksandr Sergeevich; Savostiyanova, Ludmila Viktorovna

    2015-01-01

    Problems of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation site creation in leading fast cycle heat treatment complex were considered. Conditions for effective use of electrostatic methods of heat-treated milled hydrogenous coal preparation were set. Technical project of heat treatment of milled hydrogenous coal preparation site was developed including coupling of working equipment complex on fast heat treatment and experimental samples of equipment being designed for manufacturing. It was ...

  16. Effect of heat treatment on antimycotic activity of Sahara honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of the temperature on honey colour, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity and to evaluate the correlation between these parameters. Methods: Sahara honey were heated up to 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C for 15, 30 and 60 min, and their colour intensity, polyphenol contents and antimycotic capacity. The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenol contents (TPC. The antimycotic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Candida albicans (C. albicans and Candida glabrata (C. glabrata. Results: Initial values for TPC in Sahara honey ranged from 0.55 to 1.14 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey, with the average value of 0.78 mg of gallic acid per kg of honey. The TPC values after heat-treatment were 0.54 to 1.54 with the average value of 1.49 mg. The minimal inhibitory concentrations before heat-treatment of Sahara honey against C. albicans and C. glabrata ranged from 3.06%-12.5% and 50% respectively. After heat-treatment the minimal inhibitory concentrations between 12.5% and 50% for C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively. The diameters of inhibition zones of Sahara honey with 50% concentration varied from (12.67-15.00 mm by C. albicans to (14.33-15.67 mm by C. glabrata. The diameters of inhibition zones after heat-treatment at 25 and 50 °C for 15.30 and 60 min ranged from (2.00-18.67 mm by C. albicans to (8.00-16.67 mm by C. glabrata. Statistically significant relations between the TPC and the colour intensity of Sahara honey (r=0.99, P<0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that the TPC and colour is not correlated with the antimycotic capacity. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first report on the antimycotic capacity of Sahara honey.

  17. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  18. Treatment of Anaerobic Digester Effluent Using Acorus calamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincam, Tararag; Brix, Hans; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2018-01-01

    The responses of Acorus calamus under greenhouse conditions for 56 days when exposed to three dilutions (25%, 50%, and undiluted) of anaerobic digester effluent from a swine farm were determined. Plant growth, morphology, pigments, and minerals in plant tissues as well as water quality were inves...

  19. Applicability of Solid Solution Heat Treatments to Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present research work evaluates the influence of both density and size on the treatability of Aluminum-based (6000 series foam-parts subjected to a typical solid solution heat treatment (water quenching. The results are compared with those obtained for the bulk alloy, evaluating the fulfilment of cooling requirements. Density of the foams was modeled by tomography analysis and the thermal properties calculated, based on validated density-scaled models. With this basis, cooling velocity maps during water quenching were predicted by finite element modeling (FEM in which boundary conditions were obtained by solving the inverse heat conduction problem. Simulations under such conditions have been validated experimentally. Obtained results address incomplete matrix hardening for foam-parts bigger than 70 mm in diameter with a density below 650 kg/m3. An excellent agreement has been found in between the predicted cooling maps and final measured microhardness profiles.

  20. Process performance assessment of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patricio; Barriga, Felipe; Álvarez, Claudia; González, Zenón; Vidal, Gladys

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestate quality of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment. Both stages of pre-treatment contributed to chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, with an overall factor of 11.4 ± 2.2%. Pre-treatment led to 19.1, 24.0 and 29.9% increased methane yields at 30, 15 and 7.5 days solid retention times (SRT), respectively, without affecting process stability or accumulation of intermediates. Pre-treatment decreased up to 4.2% water recovery from the digestate, but SRT was a more relevant factor controlling dewatering. Advanced digestion showed 2.4-3.1 and 1.5 logarithmic removals of coliforms and coliphages, respectively, and up to a 58% increase in the concentration of inorganics in the digestate solids compared to conventional digestion. The COD balance of the process showed that the observed increase in methane production was proportional to the pre-treatment solubilization efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conversion of sewage treatment plants on sludge digestion. Energetic and economic optimization potential; Umstellung von Klaeranlagen auf Schlammfaulung. Energetisches und oekonomisches Optimierungspotenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Theo G.; Gretzschel, Oliver [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). tectraa-Zentrum fuer innovative Abwassertechnologien; Hansen, Joachim [Luxembourg Univ., Kirchberg (Luxembourg). Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Wasserbau; Siekmann, Klaus; Jakob, Juergen [Ingenieurgesellschaft Dr. Siekmann - Partner GmbH, Thuer (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Investigations within the framework of the state-commissioned project ''Re-evaluation of wastewater purification plants with anaerobic sludge treatment with due consideration to framework conditions in terms of the energy and the wastewater management situation in Rhineland-Palatinate'', abbreviated ''NAwaS'', have shown that due to the rise in energy prices and availability of innovative techniques and methods it can be economically efficient, from a plant capacity of 10,000 inhabitants upwards, to convert sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Findings from the NAwaS project show the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to have a large potential for the conversion of sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Depending on the rate of price increase as well as interest rates the use of digester gas could permit an increase in electricity output by up to 50% over today's levels. Moreover, converted plants would be able to almost completely cover their own heat demand and in addition permit energy savings totalling an expected 5 kWh/(inhabitant x a). If one incorporates the possibilities offered by the procurement of sludge or suitable co-substrates from outside sources, by retrofitting sewage plants with combined heat and power stations or micro gas turbines as well as by process optimisation in existing digestion plants, this gives a further significant increase in potential production capacity and hence economic efficiency. In some of the sewage plants the above measures for saving energy and boosting energy production will even lead to energy self-sufficiency. [German] Die Untersuchungen innerhalb des Landesprojektes ''Neubewertung von Abwasserreinigungsanlagen mit anaerober Schlammbehandlung vor dem Hintergrund der energetischen Rahmenbedingungen und der abwassertechnischen Situation in Rheinland-Pfalz - NAwaS'' haben aufgezeigt, dass aufgrund der gestiegenen Energiepreise und mit innovativen

  2. Investigation of heat distribution during magnetic heating treatment using a polyurethane–ferrofluid phantom-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, F.; Rahn, H.; Odenbach, S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic heating treatment can be used as an adjuvant treatment for cancer therapy. In this therapy, magnetic nanoparticles are enriched inside the tumour and exposed to an alternating magnetic field. Due to magnetic losses the temperature in the tumour rises. The resulting temperature profile inside the tumour is useful for the therapeutic success. In this context heat transfer between tissue with nanoparticles and tissue without nanoparticles is a highly important feature which is actually not understood in detail. In order to investigate this, a phantom has been created which can be used to measure the temperature profile around a region enriched with magnetic nanoparticles. This phantom is composed of a material, which has similar thermal conductivity as human tissue. A tempered water bath surrounds the phantom to establish a constant surrounding temperature simulating the heat sink provided by the human body in a real therapeutic application. It has been found that even at a low concentration of magnetic nanoparticles around 13 mg/ml, sufficient heating of the enriched region can be achieved. Moreover it has been observed that the temperature drops rapidly in the material surrounding the enriched region. Corresponding numerical investigations provide a basis for future recalculations of the temperature inside the tumour using temperature data obtained in the surrounding tissue. - Highlights: • The temperature profile by magnetic hyperthermia was examined. • A model was built to get a deeper understanding of the temperature profile. • The temperature profile of the model inside magnetic fields was measured. • Based on the model a simulation of the temperature profile was performed. • The simulated temperature profile agreed well with the measured profile

  3. Effects of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Qunying Mou; Yiqiang Wu; Yuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effect of heat treatment on some physical properties of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) was investigated. Wood specimens were subjected to heat treatment at 160, 180, 200 and 220°C for 1, 2, 3 and 4h. The results show that heat treatment resulted in a darkened color, decreased moisture performance and increased dimensional stability of...

  4. Optimization of properties of parts in the heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpis, Kh.I.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of parts of the improved steel depending considerably on the structure obtained after the tempering have been investigated. It is shown that in many cases properties of steel with the structure of the tempered lower bainite are no worse than the properties of steels with the structure of tempered martensite. At certain dimensions of parts and under certain conditions of cooling tempering degree is determined with calcination. Calcination of steel is evaluated by the dispersion bands of hardness obtained using the method of end quenching. Account of the calcination when steels are selected permits to optimize part properties during heat treatment [ru

  5. COMPUTERIZED HEAT-TREATMENT IN A ZIMBABWEAN FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Collier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Zimbabwe's current economic problems, parts of the manufacturing industry are turning their attention to the possibility of utilising local design talent in upgrading their manufacturing plants. This paper describes a project undertaken by the National University of Science and Technology to convert the heat-treatment process in a major manufacturing plant from semi -manual to a computerized one. The system comprises microcontroller connection to the furnaces and sensors, and communicates with a central computer on which software for a windowed user-interface is hosted. Experimental results for the system are presented, and a strategy for other companies in the same predicament is proposed.

  6. The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg -1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

  7. A Novel Process Configuration for Anaerobic Digestion of Source-Sorted Household Waste Using Hyper-Thermophilic Post-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    A novel reactor configuration was investigated for anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). An anaerobic hyper-thermophilic (68°C) reactor R68 was implemented as a post–treatment step for the effluent of a thermophilic reactor R1 (55°C) in order to enhance...... hydrolysis of recalcitrant organic matter, improve sanitation and ease the stripping of ammonia from the reactor. The efficiency of the combined system was studied in terms of methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production at different hydraulic retention times (HRT...

  8. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  9. Review of enhanced processes for anaerobic digestion treatment of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyuan; Han, Zeyu; Yang, Jie; Ye, Tianyi; Yang, Fang; Wu, Nan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-02-01

    Great amount of sewage sludge had been produced each year, which led to serious environmental pollution. Many new technologies had been developed recently, but they were hard to be applied in large scales. As one of the traditional technologies, anaerobic fermentation process was capable of obtaining bioenergy by biogas production under the functions of microbes. However, the anaerobic process is facing new challenges due to the low fermentation efficiency caused by the characteristics of sewage sludge itself. In order to improve the energy yield, the enhancement technologies including sewage sludge pretreatment process, co-digestion process, high-solid digestion process and two-stage fermentation process were widely studied in the literatures, which were introduced in this article.

  10. Cost effective and economic method for cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa for the simultaneous treatment of biogas digester wastewater and biogas production

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sharma; Avanish K Tiwari; G. Sanjay Kumar; Bhawna Y. Lamba

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have recently received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of bio fuels and for the treatment of waste water. In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was cultivated in biogas digester wastewater. The growth kinetics of the algae as well as the bio-remediation effect on the waste water was studied. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa can utilize the nitrogen content present in biogas digester wastewater as a substrate for its growth. The growth of microalgae was found to...

  11. How well do 46 full-scale Danish anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants perform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Hjorth; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    (2016): Identifying the abundant and active microorganisms common to full-scale anaerobic digesters. bioRxiv.doi.org/10.1101/104620. 2. McIlroy, S.J., R.H. Kirkegaard, B. McIlroy, M. Nierychlo, J.M. Kristensen, S.M. Karst, M. Albertsen and P.H. Nielsen (2017): MiDAS 2.0: An ecosystem-specific taxonomy...

  12. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy

  13. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2016-10-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  14. Waste heat recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phi Wah Tooi

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Konzen in-house designed anaerobic digester system for the POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) treatment process is one of the registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Malaysia. It is an organic wastewater treatment process which achieves excellent co-benefits objectives through the prevention of water pollution and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is estimated to be 40,000 to 50,000 t-CO 2 per year. The anaerobic digester was designed in mesophile mode with temperature ranging from 37 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius. A microorganisms growth is optimum under moderately warm temperature conditions. The operating temperature of the anaerobic digester needs to be maintained constantly. There are two waste heat recovery systems designed to make the treatment process self-sustaining. The heat recovered will be utilised as a clean energy source to heat up the anaerobic digester indirectly. The first design for the waste heat recovery system utilises heat generated from the flue gas of the biogas flaring system. A stainless steel water tank with an internal water layer is installed at the top level of the flare stack. The circulating water is heated by the methane enriched biogas combustion process. The second design utilizes heat generated during the compression process for the biogas compressor operation. The compressed biogas needs to be cooled before being recycled back into the digester tank for mixing purposes. Both the waste heat recovery systems use a design which applies a common water circulation loop and hot water tank to effectively become a closed loop. The hot water tank will perform both storage and temperature buffer functions. The hot water is then used to heat up recycled sludge from 30 degree Celsius to 45 degree Celsius with the maximum temperature setting at 50 degree Celsius. The recycled sludge line temperature will be measured and monitored by a temperature sensor and transmitter, which will activate the

  15. Hierarchical Cu precipitation in lamellated steel after multistage heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingdong; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    The hierarchical distribution of Cu-rich precipitates (CRPs) and related partitioning and segregation behaviours of solute atoms were investigated in a 1.54 Cu-3.51 Ni (wt.%) low-carbon high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel after multistage heat treatment by using the combination of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). Intercritical tempering at 725 °C of as-quenched lathlike martensitic structure leads to the coprecipitation of CRPs at the periphery of a carbide precipitate which is possibly in its paraequilibrium state due to distinct solute segregation at the interface. The alloyed carbide and CRPs provide constituent elements for each other and make the coprecipitation thermodynamically favourable. Meanwhile, austenite reversion occurs to form fresh secondary martensite (FSM) zone where is rich in Cu and pertinent Ni and Mn atoms, which gives rise to a different distributional morphology of CRPs with large size and high density. In addition, conventional tempering at 500 °C leads to the formation of nanoscale Cu-rich clusters in α-Fe matrix. As a consequence, three populations of CRPs are hierarchically formed around carbide precipitate, at FSM zone and in α-Fe matrix. The formation of different precipitated features can be turned by controlling diffusion pathways of related solute atoms and further to tailor mechanical properties via proper multistage heat treatments.

  16. Modernization and efficiency of heat treatment and heating up plants; Modernisierung und Effizienz von Thermoprozessanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Peter [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kuehn, Friedhelm [Ingenieurbuero fuer Waermebehandlung, Industrieoefen und Energieberatung, Muelheim (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A goal of this contribution is to show, using examples of the thermal heat treatment industry and the thermal processing units used there (Beltype plants, routary hearth, walking hearth, walking beam, pusher type furnaces and gas carburizing plants as well as case hardening plants), which increases in efficiency within and outside of the actual thermal treatment process and the necessary thermal processing units for the order are available today. From the possibilities of the reduction of energy employment resulting from that, a high potential for the discharge of the environment can be derived. The economic effect concerning energy employment and saving possibilities will also be considered. Concluding, examples of case-hardening show which variants of a change of process present themselves partially in the future, in order to achieve substantial production increases and thus energy cost reductions. (orig.)

  17. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Bravi, Andrea; Wright-Beatty, Heather E; Green, Geoffrey; Seely, Andrew J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS). Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains. Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

  18. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  20. Heat treatment control of Bi-2212 coils: I. Unravelling the complex dependence of the critical current density of Bi-2212 wires on heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Ye, Liyang

    2018-01-01

    A robust and reliable heat treatment is crucial for developing superconducting magnets from several superconductors especially Bi-2212. An improper heat treatment may significantly reduce the critical current density Jc of a Bi-2212 superconducting coil, even to zero, since the Jc of Bi-2212 wires is sensitive to parameters of its heat treatment (partial melt processing). To provide an essential database for heat treating Bi-2212 coils, the dependence of Jc on heat treatment is studied systematically in 11 industrial Bi-2212 wires, revealing several common traits shared between these wires and outlier behaviors. The dependence of the Jc of Bi-2212 on heat treatment is rather complex, with many processing parameters affecting Jc, including the peak processing temperature Tp, the time at the peak temperature tp, the time in the melt tmelt, the rate at which Bi-2212 melt is initially cooled CR1, the rate at which the solidification of Bi-2212 melt occurs CR2, and the temperature Tq at which the cooling rate switches from CR1 to CR2. The role of these parameters is analyzed and clarified, in the perspective of heat treating a coil. Practical advices on heat treatment design are given. The ability of a Bi-2212 coil to follow the prescribed recipe decreases with increasing coil sizes. The size of a coil that can be properly heat treated is determined.

  1. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G. (U. South Australia); (EPA); (Monash)

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  3. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Specially designed fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system was developed. • Hybrid operation performed better at part loads than single inverter operation. • The applied heat pump can work stably over a wide range of heat load variations. • Heat energy potential of treated effluent was better than influent. • The heat pump’s COP from the field test was 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. - Abstract: Among many options to improve energy self-sufficiency in sewage treatment plants, heat extraction using a heat pump holds great promise, since wastewater contains considerable amounts of thermal energy. The actual heat energy demand at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) varies widely with time; however, the heat pumps typically installed in WWTPs are of the on/off controlled fixed-speed type, thus mostly run intermittently at severe part-load conditions with poor efficiency. To solve this mismatch, a specially designed, fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system incorporating a fixed-speed compressor and an inverter-driven, variable-speed compressor was developed and tested in a real WWTP. In this hybrid configuration, to improve load response and energy efficiency, the base-heat load was covered by the fixed-speed compressor consuming relatively less energy than the variable-speed type at nominal power, and the remaining varying load was handled by the inverter compressor which exhibits a high load-match function while consuming relatively greater energy. The heat pump system developed reliably extracted heat from the treated effluent as a heat source for heating and cooling purposes throughout the year, and actively responded to the load changes with a high measured coefficient of performance (COP) of 4.06 for heating and 3.64 for cooling. Moreover, this hybrid operation yielded a performance up to 15.04% better on part loads than the single inverter operation, suggesting its effectiveness for improving annual energy saving when

  4. Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking on the methane yield and composition of digested manure fibers applying different ammonia concentrations and treatment durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. In the present study, Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) in six different concentrations in ammonia (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 32%) and for 1, 3 and 5 days...... at 22°C was applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester. A methane yield increase from 76% to 104% was achieved during the first series of experiments, while the difference in reagent concentration did not considerably affect the methane yield...... is a very promising treatment resulting to an overall increase of the methane yield of digested manure fibers from 76 to 265% depending on the conditions and the batch of digested fibers used (an even higher increase of 190-265% was achieved during the 2nd series of experiments, where different AAS...

  5. Gas injection to inhibit migration during an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Myron Ira; Vinegar; Harold J.; Baker, Ralph Sterman; Heron, Goren

    2010-11-30

    Methods of treating a subsurface formation are described herein. Methods for treating a subsurface treatment area in a formation may include introducing a fluid into the formation from a plurality of wells offset from a treatment area of an in situ heat treatment process to inhibit outward migration of formation fluid from the in situ heat treatment process.

  6. Drivers of microbial community composition in mesophilic and thermophilic temperature-phased anaerobic digestion pre-treatment reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Dennis, Paul G; Lim, Hui J; Tyson, Gene W; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is an emerging technology that facilitates improved performance and pathogen destruction in anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by optimising conditions for 1) hydrolytic and acidogenic organisms in a first-stage/pre-treatment reactor and then 2) methogenic populations in a second stage reactor. Pre-treatment reactors are typically operated at 55-65 °C and as such select for thermophilic bacterial communities. However, details of key microbial populations in hydrolytic communities and links to functionality are very limited. In this study, experimental thermophilic pre-treatment (TP) and control mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) reactors were operated as first-stages of TPAD systems treating activated sludge for 340 days. The TP system was operated sequentially at 50, 60 and 65 °C, while the MP rector was held at 35 °C for the entire period. The composition of microbial communities associated with the MP and TP pre-treatment reactors was characterised weekly using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) supported by clone library sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The outcomes of this approach were confirmed using 454 pyrosequencing of gene amplicons and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). TP associated bacterial communities were dominated by populations affiliated to the Firmicutes, Thermotogae, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. In particular there was a progression from Thermotogae to Lutispora and Coprothermobacter and diversity decreased as temperature and hydrolysis performance increased. While change in the composition of TP associated bacterial communities was attributable to temperature, that of MP associated bacterial communities was related to the composition of the incoming feed. This study determined processes driving the dynamics of key microbial populations that are correlated with an enhanced hydrolytic functionality of the TPAD system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of human digestive cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Eigo

    2007-01-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphic applications of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) for noninvasive detection and visualization of target tumors have grown immensely, and it suggests that Mabs can reach specifically to the targeted tumors in the human body. Radionuclides, cytotoxic drugs and anti-cancer drugs can be coupled to these specific MAbs to detect the extent of disease and/or to treat the tumors. Many of such immunoconjugates were studied for targeting therapy for cancer in animal experiments and some of them have applied to human. In this paper, we described the existing status of application of Mabs for diagnosis and immunotargeting therapy of digestive cancers. (author)

  8. Jaundice in the emergency department: meeting the challenges of diagnosis and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Todd; Wheatley, Matthew; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    There are approximately 52,000 visits a year to emergency departments for patients presenting with jaundice. While many of these patients will not have immediately life-threatening pathology, it is essential that the emergency clinician understands the pathophysiology of jaundice, as this will guide the appropriate workup to detect critical diagnoses. Patients who present with jaundice could require intravenous antibiotics, emergent surgery, and, in severe cases, organ transplantation. This issue will focus on the challenge of evaluating and treating the jaundiced patient in the ED using the best available evidence from the literature. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  9. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  10. Evaluation of carbon diffusion in heat treatment of H13 tool steel under different atmospheric conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, Maziar; Pasang, Timotius; Chen, Zhan; Neitzert, Thomas; Au, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Although the cost of the heat treatment process is only a minor portion of the total production cost, it is arguably the most important and crucial stage on the determination of material quality. In the study of the carbon diffusion in H13 steel during austenitization, a series of heat treatment experiments had been conducted under different atmospheric conditions and length of treatment. Four austenitization atmospheric conditions were studied, i.e., heat treatment without atmospheric contro...

  11. Influence of heat treatment on corrosive resistance of concrete steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Suliga, I.; Kusinski, J.; Jazowy, R.

    1998-01-01

    The reinforcing bars are essential elements of ferro-concrete structures. During the building structure service the reinforcing bars should co-operate with surrounding concrete. Any bonding defects as well as corrosion induced strength reduction may result in construction failure. The reinforcing steel working environment is determined by concrete chemical and phase composition and surrounding environmental properties. The aggressive corrosive activity of the letter implies necessity of effective ways development to protect elements against corrosion. The effect of heat treatment, increased Si content in steel on corrosion resistance of reinforcing steel in concrete was studied in the current work. Corrosion tests and metallographic examinations proved a positive influence of hardening and Si enrichment on corrosion resistance of reinforcing bars in ferro-concrete structures. (author)

  12. Zr-2.5 Nb microstructure evolution during heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campitelli, Emiliano N.; Banchik, Abrahan D.; Versaci, Raul A.

    1999-01-01

    This work has the following two basic objectives: 1) To gain experience in the preparation of thin layers of zirconium alloys to be used as T.E.M specimens. To construct a double jet thinning prototype able to perform this task with appropriate finishing and reproducible results to be used in a future work (point 2). To become familiar with the relevant parameters of the thinning process and to apply this experience in the prototype. The layers must have sufficient area with good transmission and mechanical support, free of deformations and defects polishing. 2) To perform T.E.M. observations and metallographies to study the microstructural evolution during heat treatments of Zr-2.5 Nb alloy samples. These samples were obtained from a pressure tube similar to those used in Candu power plants, in the as-received condition. This alloy served, in this application, to replace Zircaloy-2, for better creep and corrosion resistance. (author)

  13. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-11-15

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to improve the heating quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical benefit of online treatment planning during treatment of pelvic tumors heated with the AMC-8 locoregional hyperthermia system. For online adaptive hyperthermia treatment planning, a graphical user interface was developed. Electric fields were calculated in a preprocessing step using our in-house-developed finite-difference-based treatment planning system. This allows instant calculation of the temperature distribution for user-selected phase-amplitude settings during treatment and projection onto the patient's computed tomographic scan for online visualization. Online treatment planning was used for 14 treatment sessions in 8 patients to reduce the patients' reports of hot spots while maintaining the same level of tumor heating. The predicted decrease in hot spot temperature should be at least 0.5°C, and the tumor temperature should decrease less than 0.2°C. These predictions were compared with clinical data: patient feedback about the hot spot and temperature measurements in the tumor region. In total, 17 hot spot reports occurred during the 14 sessions, and the alternative settings predicted the hot spot temperature to decrease by at least 0.5°C, which was confirmed by the disappearance of all 17 hot spot reports. At the same time, the average tumor temperature was predicted to change on average -0.01°C (range, -0.19°C to 0.34°C). The measured tumor temperature change was on average only -0.02°C (range, -0.26°C to 0.31°C). In only 2 cases the temperature decrease was slightly larger than 0.2°C, but at most it was 0.26°C. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning is

  15. Treatment of corn ethanol distillery wastewater using two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ráduly, B; Gyenge, L; Szilveszter, Sz; Kedves, A; Crognale, S

    In this study the mesophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of corn bioethanol distillery wastewater is investigated in laboratory-scale reactors. Two-stage AD technology separates the different sub-processes of the AD in two distinct reactors, enabling the use of optimal conditions for the different microbial consortia involved in the different process phases, and thus allowing for higher applicable organic loading rates (OLRs), shorter hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and better conversion rates of the organic matter, as well as higher methane content of the produced biogas. In our experiments the reactors have been operated in semi-continuous phase-separated mode. A specific methane production of 1,092 mL/(L·d) has been reached at an OLR of 6.5 g TCOD/(L·d) (TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand) and a total HRT of 21 days (5.7 days in the first-stage, and 15.3 days in the second-stage reactor). Nonetheless the methane concentration in the second-stage reactor was very high (78.9%); the two-stage AD outperformed the reference single-stage AD (conducted at the same reactor loading rate and retention time) by only a small margin in terms of volumetric methane production rate. This makes questionable whether the higher methane content of the biogas counterbalances the added complexity of the two-stage digestion.

  16. Andrographolide powder treatment as antifeedant decreased digestive enzyme activity from Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madihah, Malini, Desak Made; Roviani, Hana; Rani, Nessa Vidya; Hermawan, Wawan

    2018-02-01

    Andrographolide, an active compound of Andrographis paniculata, has shown antifeedant activity against Plutella xylostella larvae by disrupting the midgut histological structures. This study aims to determine the activity of andrographolide in crystallized powder form against several digestive enzymes from the midgut of 4th instar P. xylostella larvae. The concentrations used were 0 (control), 1000, 1600, 2500, 4000 and 6500 ppm with four replications each. No-choice antifeedant test with leaf disc method is used in a bioassay for 24 hours. The midgut was dissected from 2nd until 6th segment of 4th instar larvae and was homogenized in iced-buffer solution. Furthermore, larvae's midgut samples were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm, 4°C for 20 min and the supernatant is used as enzyme source. The results showed that andrographolide significantly reduces the amylase, invertase, protease and trypsin activity, as well as total protein concentration compared with control (p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides information about the mode of action of andrographolide in inhibiting feed activity by the reduced digestive enzyme activity of 4th instar P. xylostella larvae.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion Effluents (ADEs) Treatment Coupling with Chlorella sp. Microalgae Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Szwaja, Stanisław; Kisielewska, Marta

    2018-02-01

      Nutrient removal effectiveness from anaerobic digestion effluents (ADEs) by Chlorella sp. cultivation and microalgae biomass productivity were evaluated in this study. The results showed that the highest Chlorella sp. biomass productivities of 386.5 ± 24.1 mg dry weight/L•d and 338.3 ± 11.0 mg dry weight/L•d were respectively obtained with the anaerobically digested effluent of municipal wastewater sludge and effluent from a fermentation tank treating dairy wastewater. Lower (p effluents of maize silage and swine slurry and cattle manure. The increase of the initial ammonia nitrogen concentration in ADEs to the level of 160 mg/L did not encourage Chlorella sp. productivity because of phosphorus limitation. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 99.7%, 98.6%, 88.2%, and 58.7%, respectively, depending on the source of ADE, but not on the initial ammonia nitrogen concentrations.

  18. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  19. Effect of heat treatment of whole cottonseed on in vitro, in situ and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Amino acid flow, heat treatment, protein degradation, whole cononseed. * Author to whom ... heat-treated soybearu were compared with raw soybeans, it was found that ... et al., 1985; Faldet & Sarter, 1989) while milk fat percenrage.

  20. Structural steels for power generating equipment and heat and chemical heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of structural steels for power generating equipment and for reactor engineering, in particular, is elucidated. Noted is utilization of the 15Kh2NMFA steels for the WWER-1000 reactor vessels, the 10GN2MFA steels for steam generators, pressurizers, vessels of the automatic emergency shut down and safety system; the 00Kh12N3DL steel for cast pump vessels and main locking bars. The recommendations on heat treatment of big forgings, for instance, ensuring the necessary complex of mechanical properties are given. Diffusion chromizing with subsequent nitriding of austenitic steels which increase durability of the components in BN reactors more than 4 times, is practised on a large scale

  1. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  2. The effects of fermentation and enzymatic treatment of pea on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Senz, M; Kozłowski, K; Boros, D; Wisniewska, M; Rose, D; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2017-10-01

    The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C. Nine corn-wheat-soybean diets were formulated by supplying 10%, 20% and 30% of the required CP with either native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas. Performance was recorded weekly and at the end of the experiment (day 35), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP, amino acids (AA), crude fat, starch, Ca, P and K were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA using GLM procedure with a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Both processes reduced α-galactosides, phytate, trypsin inhibitor activity and resistant starch in peas. Increasing levels of pea products up to 300 g/kg diet, reduced BW gain and feed intake (P⩽0.05). Broilers fed diets containing enzymatically treated pea had the best feed conversion ratio at day 35. Different types of pea product and their inclusion levels had no effect on AID of all nutrients. The interaction between type of the pea products and inclusion levels was significant for AID of starch. For native pea diets, 10% group showed similar AID of starch to 20% native pea but it had higher AID than 30% native pea. For fermented and enzymatically treated groups, all three levels displayed similar AID of starch. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment and fermentation could improve the nutritional quality of pea. Inclusion of enzymatically treated pea in broiler diets could improve broiler performance compared with other pea

  3. Digestion with initial thermophilic hydrolysis step for sanitation and enhanced methane extraction in wastewater treatment plants; Roetning med inledande termofilt hydrolyssteg foer hygienisering och utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin [BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Johannesson, Sofia [AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    Thermophilic (55 deg) pre-hydrolysis has been shown to improve methane yield, organics reduction and/or treatment capacity when applied to anaerobic digestion (Persson m. fl. 2010). The method has also proven to kill off pathogens, making it an interesting hygienisation alternative to pasteurisation. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has opened up for the possibility to validate new methods for hygienisation, if the pathogen reduction can be proven to be efficient enough. Thermophilic pre-hydrolysis has several possible advantages to pasteurization; e. g. district heating of lower temperature can be used, the stability of the process may increase, as well as the efficiency and extent of the digestion process. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of thermophilic pre-hydrolysis on anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge with respect to: 1. Biogas/methane production and solids reduction. 2. Correlations between substrate properties, process conditions and effect on the AD process. 3. Pathogen reduction efficiency. 4. Operational consequences. Laboratory trials in continuous and batch mode were conducted on sewage sludge from four Swedish wastewater treatment plants. In the trials thermophilic pre-hydrolysis with consecutive mesophilic AD was compared to conventional one-step mesophilic AD, as well as pre-pasteurisation with consecutive AD. For all the tested sludge samples the reduction of TS and VS increased as a result of thermophilic pre-hydrolysis prior to mesophilic AD. The results with respect to methane yield were not as straightforward. Increased production of biogas was achieved in pilot scale, but the methane production did not improve. In the laboratory trials the effect on methane production varied from -8 % till +18 % for the sludge samples tested. The most positive results were achieved in the test that had the highest organic load and that was fed with a sludge that was low in fat and high in carbohydrates, compared to the

  4. Study of thermal pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste by TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Gómez, Xiomar; Blanco, Daniel; Cuetos, María José; Fernández, Belén; Flotats, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to describe the effect of pasteurization as a hygienic pre-treatment of animal by-products over biogas production. Piggery and poultry meat wastes were used as substrates for assessing the anaerobic digestion under batch conditions at mesophilic range. Poultry waste was characterized by high protein and carbohydrate content, while piggery waste presented a major fraction of fat and lower carbohydrate content. Results from anaerobic digestion tests showed a lower methane yield for the pre-treated poultry sample. TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy allowed the qualitative identification of recalcitrant nitrogen-containing compounds in the pre-treated poultry sample, produced by Maillard reactions. In the case of piggery waste, the recalcitrant compounds were not detected and its biodegradability test reported higher methane yield and production rates. TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy were demonstrated to be useful tools for explaining results obtained by anaerobic biodegradability test and in describing the presence of inhibitory problems.

  5. Cold adaptation and replicable microbial community development during long-term low-temperature anaerobic digestion treatment of synthetic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C; Hughes, D; Mahony, T; Cysneiros, D; Ijaz, U Z; Smith, C J; O'Flaherty, V

    2018-07-01

    The development and activity of a cold-adapting microbial community was monitored during low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LtAD) treatment of wastewater. Two replicate hybrid anaerobic sludge bed-fixed-film reactors treated a synthetic sewage wastewater at 12°C, at organic loading rates of 0.25-1.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m-3 d-1, over 889 days. The inoculum was obtained from a full-scale anaerobic digestion reactor, which was operated at 37°C. Both LtAD reactors readily degraded the influent with COD removal efficiencies regularly exceeding 78% for both the total and soluble COD fractions. The biomass from both reactors was sampled temporally and tested for activity against hydrolytic and methanogenic substrates at 12°C and 37°C. Data indicated that significantly enhanced low-temperature hydrolytic and methanogenic activity developed in both systems. For example, the hydrolysis rate constant (k) at 12°C had increased 20-30-fold by comparison to the inoculum by day 500. Substrate affinity also increased for hydrolytic substrates at low temperature. Next generation sequencing demonstrated that a shift in a community structure occurred over the trial, involving a 1-log-fold change in 25 SEQS (OTU-free approach) from the inoculum. Microbial community structure changes and process performance were replicable in the LtAD reactors.

  6. Saving energy resources during heat treatment - the most important problem of the branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadernovskiy, V V; Firger, I V

    1980-01-01

    Natural gas fired thermal furnaces expend significantly less fuel than electric furnaces with an equal quality of metal heating. An important reserve in power reserve economy is the use of the forging heat in an article for heat treatment (TOB), where besides the power resources, metal is also saved as a result of the reduction in the volume of heating means and production spaces. From the experience in the progressive enterprises of the branch, in a number of cases it is possible to combine heating for plastic deformation with heating for primary or secondary heat treatment. Other measures are examined which save power resources in heat treatment: the use of thermal furnaces for aerodynamic heating, the use of local heat treatment, the reduction in the duration of the heat treatment processes, savings in the power carriers during heat treatment in furnaces with a roll out hearth. Fibrous refractory materials are being used more and more as fettling materials in the construction of thermal furnaces.

  7. Local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients during the heat treatment of a workpiece in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, W.M.; Kong, L.X.; Hodgson, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    The heat-transfer coefficients around a workpiece immersed in an electrically heated heat treatment fluidised bed were studied. A suspension probe designed to simulate a workpiece of complex geometry was developed to measure local total and radiative heat-transfer coefficients at a high bed temperature. The probe consisted of an energy-storage region separated by insulation from the fluidised bed, except for the measuring surface, and a multi-thermocouple measurement system. Experiments in the fluidised bed were performed for a fluidising medium of 120-mesh alumina, a wide temperature range of 110-1050 deg. C and a fluidising number range of 1.18-4.24. It was found that the workpiece surface temperature has a more significant effect on heat transfer than the bed temperature. The total heat-transfer coefficient at the upper surface of the workpiece sharply decreased at the start of heating, and then steadily increased as heating progressed, while a sharp decrease became a rapid increase and then a slow increase for the radiative heat-transfer coefficient. A great difference in the heat-transfer coefficients around the workpiece was observed

  8. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. → Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. → Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. → The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 o C or 65 o C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  9. Methods for microwave heat treatment of manufactured components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B.

    2010-08-03

    An apparatus for heat treating manufactured components using microwave energy and microwave susceptor material. Heat treating medium such as eutectic salts may be employed. A fluidized bed introduces process gases which may include carburizing or nitriding gases. The process may be operated in a batch mode or continuous process mode. A microwave heating probe may be used to restart a frozen eutectic salt bath.

  10. Enhancement of waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic digestion by means of pre- and intermediate treatments. Technical and economic analysis at a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Giuseppe; Cerutti, Alberto; Zanetti, Mariachiara; Scibilia, Gerardo; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Ruffino, Barbara

    2018-06-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most commonly applied end-treatment for the excess of waste activated sludge (WAS) generated in biological wastewater treatment processes. The efficacy of different typologies of pre-treatments in liberating intra-cellular organic substances and make them more usable for AD was demonstrated in several studies. However, the production of new extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) that occur during an AD process, due to microbial metabolism, self-protective reactions and cell lysis, partially neutralizes the benefit of pre-treatments. The efficacy of post- and inter-stage treatments is currently under consideration to overcome the problems due to this unavoidable byproduct. This work compares three scenarios in which low-temperature (<100 °C) thermal and hybrid (thermal+alkali) lysis treatments were applied to one sample of WAS and two samples of digestate with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 7 and 15 days. Batch mesophilic digestibility tests demonstrated that intermediate treatments were effective in making the residual organic substance of a 7-day digestate usable for a second-stage AD process. In fact, under this scenario, the methane generated in a two-stage AD process, with an in-between intermediate treatment, was 23% and 16% higher than that generated in the scenario that considers traditional pre-treatments carried out with 4% NaOH at 70 and 90 °C respectively. Conversely, in no cases (70 or 90 °C) the combination of a 15-day AD process, followed by an intermediate treatment and a second-stage AD process, made possible to obtain specific methane productions (SMPs) higher than those obtained with pre-treatments. The results of the digestibility tests were used for a tecno-economic assessment of pre- and intermediate lysis treatments in a full scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP, 2,000,000 p.e.). It was demonstrated that the introduction of thermal or hybrid pre-treatments could increase the revenues from the

  11. Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater in a UASB-Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel treatment chain for low strength domestic sewage includes low temperature anaerobic treatment as the main process. It can improve the energy efficiency of sewage treatment compared with conventional aerobic sewage treatment. A combination of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor and

  12. Effects of Heat-treatments on the Mechanical Strength of Coated YSZ: An Experimental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Sørensen, Bent F.; Linderoth, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical strength of thin, symmetric sandwich specimens consisting of a dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate coated with a porous NiO–YSZ layer at both major faces was investigated. Specimens were loaded in uniaxial tension to failure following heat treatments at various...... temperatures. In comparison with the YSZ material, the failure strength of coated specimens was found to increase for heat treatments at 1100°C, but decreased again with further increased heat-treatment temperatures....

  13. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Shin, Jingyeong; Choi, Sangki; Shin, Seung Gu; Park, Ki Young; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Young Mo

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) sludge and non-CEPT (conventional sedimentation) sludge were comparatively operated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The highest methane yield (692.46±0.46mL CH 4 /g VS removed in CEPT sludge) was observed in mesophilic AD of CEPT sludge. Meanwhile, thermophilic conditions were more favorable for the removal of total antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, no measurable difference in the fates and removal of ARGs and class 1 integrin-integrase gene (intI1) was observed between treated non-CEPT and CEPT sludge. However, redundancy analysis indicated that shifts in bacterial community were primarily accountable for the variations in ARGs and intI1. Network analysis further revealed potential host bacteria for ARGs and intI1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ISG15 in the tumorigenesis and treatment of cancer: An emerging role in malignancies of the digestive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chaohui; Sheng, Xinyi; Ma, Min; Xia, Man; Ouyang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene 15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) encodes an IFN-inducible, ubiquitin-like protein. The ISG15 protein forms conjugates with numerous cellular proteins that are involved in a multitude of cellular functions, including interferon-induced immune responses and the regulation of cellular protein turnover. The expression of ISG15 and ISG15-mediated conjugation has been implicated in a wide range of human tumors and cancer cell lines, but the roles of ISG15 in tumorigenesis and responses to anticancer treatments remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the findings of recent studies with regard to the role of ISG15 pathways in cancers of the digestive system. PMID:27626310

  15. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  16. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  17. Effect of heat-treatment on toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Jasmin binti Baba

    1991-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two types of heat-treatment have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperature is discussed also

  18. Effect of heat treatment of toughness and strength properties of C-Mn steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad bin Harun; Goh Kian Seong; Yasmin binti Baba

    1989-01-01

    The strength and toughness of the heat-treated and tempered C-Mn are studied. Two type of heat-treatments have been carried out with the specimens in an argon gas. The variation in the fracture surfaces of the heat-treated and tempered specimens with impact test temperatures also is discussed. (author)

  19. Calculation and Designing of Up-to-Date Gas-Flame Plants for Metal Heating and Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Тimoshpolsky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of development trends in the CIS machine-building industry and current status of the heating and heat treatment furnaces of main machine-building enterprises of the Republic of Belarus as of the 1st quarter of 2008 is given in the paper.The paper presents the most efficient engineering solutions from technological and economic point of view that concern calculation and designing of up-to-date gas-flame plants which are to be applied for modernization of the current heating and heat treatment furnaces of the machine-building enterprises in the Republic of Belarus.A thermo-technical calculation of main indices of the up-to-date gas-flame plant has been carried out in the paper.

  20. Microstructural evolution of aluminide coatings on Eurofer during heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanumurthy, K.; Krauss, W.; Konys, J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of ceramic coatings are essential for the realization of Demo fusion reactor beyond ITER. These functional coatings have to be stable at high temperatures, provide insulating coatings to reduce MHD effects and also act as corrosion barriers to reduce tritium permeation. Some of important development of high temperature coatings are CVD process, powder slurry coatings, hot-dip aluminization and plasma detonation jet processes. Recently Galvono-Al (ECA) process is being used for depositing Al from organic electrolyte, where Al is existing as an toluol-based Al(C x H y ) complex. The deposit is performed under Ar cover gas at 100 deg C with a deposit rate of 10-12 μm/hr. This process is suitable for coating large and complex shaped assemblies and is a well established industrial process for coating Al for wide range of applications including automobile industry. In order to study the effect of high temperature on these coatings, few Al coated on Eurofer specimens were obtained from M/s. Rasant-Alcotec, Germany. The thickness of these coating is around 20 μm. The objective of the presents studies is to subject these coatings to standard heat treatment schedule of Eurofer and study the evolution of microchemistry and microstructure

  1. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  2. Treatment of anaerobic sludge digester effluents by the CANON process in an air pulsing SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Pozo, M.J.; Jarpa, M.; Figueroa, M.; Franco, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite) process was successfully developed in an air pulsing reactor type SBR fed with the supernatant from an anaerobic sludge digester and operated at moderately low temperatures (18-24 o C). The SBR was started up as a nitrifying reactor, lowering progressively the dissolved oxygen concentration until reaching partial nitrification. Afterwards, an inoculation with sludge containing Anammox biomass was carried out. Nitrogen volumetric removal rates of 0.25 g N L -1 d -1 due to Anammox activity were measured 35 d after inoculation even though the inoculum constituted only 8% (w/w) of the biomass present in the reactor and it was poorly enriched in Anammox bacteria. The maximal nitrogen removal rate was of 0.45 g N L -1 d -1 . By working at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.5 mg L -1 in the bulk liquid, nitrogen removal percentages up to 85% were achieved. The reactor presented good biomass retention capacity allowing the accumulation of 4.5 g VSS L -1 . The biomass was composed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) forming fluffy structures and granules with an average diameter of 1.6 mm. These granules were composed by Anammox bacteria located in internal anoxic layers surrounded by an external aerobic layer where AOB were placed.

  3. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hsu, Julia [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C were found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.

  4. Heat treatment device for extending the life of a pressure vessel, particularly a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, P.; Mueller, E.; Poerner, H.; Weber, R.

    1979-01-01

    A support body in the form of an insulating cylinder is tightly sealed by connected surfaces at its outer circumference to the inner wall of the pressure vessel. It forms an annular heating space. The heat treatment or tempering of the pressure vessel takes place with the reactor space empty and screened from the outside by ceiling bolts. Heating gas or an induction winding can be used as the means of heating. (DG) [de

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties of Ni based soft magnetic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ruan, Hui; Chen, Dengming; Li, Kejian; Guo, Donglin; Shao, Bin

    2018-04-20

    A Ni-based alloy was heat treated by changing the temperature and ambient atmosphere of the heat treatment. Morphology, crystal structure, and physical performance of the Ni-based alloy were characterized via SEM, XRD, TEM, and PPMS. Results show that due to the heat treatment process, the grain growth of the Ni-based alloy and the removal of impurities and defects are promoted. Both the orientation and stress caused by rolling are reduced. The permeability and saturation magnetization of the alloy are improved. The hysteresis loss and coercivity are decreased. Higher heat treatment temperature leads to increased improvement of permeability and saturation magnetization. Heat treatment in hydrogen is more conducive to the removal of impurities. At the same temperature, the magnetic performance of the heat-treated alloy in hydrogen is better than that of an alloy with heat treatment in vacuum. The Ni-based alloy shows an excellent magnetic performance on 1,373 K heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. In this process, the µ m , B s , P u , and H c of the obtained alloy are 427 mHm -1 , 509 mT, 0.866 Jm -3 , and 0.514 Am -1 , respectively. At the same time, the resistivity of alloy decreases and its thermal conductivity increases in response to heat treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  7. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  8. Study of critical dependence of stable phases in Nitinol on heat treatment using electrical resistivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchil, J.; Mohanchandra, K.P.; Kumara, K.G.; Mahesh, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Phase transformations in 40% cold-worked Nitinol as a function of heat treatment have been studied using electrical resistivity variation with temperature. The stabilisation of austenitic, rhombohedral and martensitic phases is shown to critically depend on the temperatures of heat treatment by the analysis of temperature dependence of electrical resistivity in heating and cooling parts of the cycle. Characteristic values of electrical resistivity of the stable phases are determined. The R-phase has been found to form continuously with increasing heat-treatment temperature starting from room temperature and to suddenly disappear beyond heat-treatment at 683 K. The observed presence or absence of R-phase is confirmed by heat capacity measurements as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  9. Effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on methane production from fat, oil and grease (FOG) and synthetic kitchen waste (KW) in anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2013-02-01

    The effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on the methane production potential of anaerobic co-digestion with synthetic kitchen waste (KW) or fat, oil and grease (FOG) were investigated. Non-linear regressions were fitted to accurately assess and compare the methane production from co-digestion under the various pre-treatment conditions and to achieve representative simulations and predictions. Ultrasonic pre-treatment was not found to improve methane production effectively from either FOG co-digestion or KW co-digestions. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment could increase methane production yields from both FOG and KW co-digestions. COD solubilization was found to effectively represent the effects of pre-treatment. A comprehensive evaluation indicated that the thermo-chemical pre-treatments of pH=10, 55°C and pH=8, 55°C provided the best conditions to increase methane production from FOG and KW co-digestions, respectively. The most effective enhancement of biogas production (288±0.85mLCH(4)/g TVS) was achieved from thermo-chemically pre-treated FOG co-digestion, which was 9.9±1.5% higher than FOG co-digestion without thermo-chemical pre-treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of heat treatment in food processing machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Torben; Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The velocity and temperature fields of a shear thinning fluid in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) are calculated using the finite element method. By tracking and timingparticles through the heat exchanger residence time and thermal time distributions are computed. The resi...

  11. Feasibility study of green wastes composting with digested and dewatering sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi Fard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composting as a waste management technology is becoming more widespread. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and to find the most effective composting process for the ratio of green waste, digested and dewatered sludge from Chonibieh wastewater treatment plant in the west region of Ahvaz. Methods: The composting time was 23 days and the evaluated parameters in this period of the study were organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N, moisture content and pH. The C/N ratio was maintained at 30 with weight:weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 (digested and dewatered sludge to green waste. Results: It was observed that vessel R3 produced higher quality of compost with final total nitrogen (1.28%, final total phosphorus (0.71%, final total organic carbon (TOC (25.78% and C/N (20.65% within the 23 days of composting. While vessel R1 produced higher final total nitrogen and total phosphorus with lower amount of total coliform indicating suitable quality of composting. Therefore, the results showed that the characteristics of dewatered sludge mixed with green waste proportion of green waste significantly influenced the compost quality and process dynamics. The results also showed that the quality of final products in all the conditions was in agreement with Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. However, the moisture content ratios were lower than the mentioned guidelines. With regards to microbial quality, all three ratios were in agreement with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Iranian guidelines. Conclusion: It is suggested that the final product of composting can be safely used in farmland and green space.

  12. Post-treatment of anaerobically digested swine slurry in algal-bacterial enclosed photo bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, R.; Gonzalez, C.; Villaverde, S.; Garcia Encina, P.

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of livestock effluents is receiving an increasing attention in Europe due to the recent shift from extensive to intensive farming and to the high organic and nutrient concentration of these wastewaters. Despite constituting one of most cost-effective treatment technologies for the removal of the organic matter, the application of anaerobic processes to the treatment of livestock effluents is still limited by the poor nutrient removal efficiencies achieved, which usually requires a further post treatment (nitrification+denitrification or enhanced biological phosphorous removal). (Author)

  13. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia produce biogas either directly from the wastewater or from anaerobic digestion of the primary and/or secondary sludge, which in turn is used to create energy. Some WWTPs produce electricity from the biogas to either support the treatment plant or to export the electricity to the grid or both. High-strength organic wastes such as fats, oil and grease, food waste, commercial (restaurant) waste and brewery waste are attractive biogas sources that can be realised through co-digestion with the sludge from wastewater treatment. Co-digestion of high-strength waste can be a tricky business due to the varying nature of the waste, special handling requirements, and potential digester process issues like foaming. However, experiences over the past decade have helped identify mitigation measures and advanced designs to reduce these risks. Several WWTPs in the US accept fats, oil and grease (FOG) as a feedstock for co-digestion, and CH2M Hill has been involved in various capacities on some of those projects. The Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Johnson County, Kansas, includes an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of FOG wastes from local restaurants and industrial sources. FOG waste receipts are handled using a separate onsite liquid receiving facility, and the FOG tanks and pipes are heated to minimise clogging. Co-digestion of FOG enhanced the gas production to fuel a 2.1 megawatt biogas co-generation system. Other CH2M Hill FOG co-digestion projects are FOG addition to the incinerator at the Hampton Roads Sanitation District in Virginia; FOG co-digestion at the Pinellas County in Florida; and FOG co-digestion and co-generation at the Essex Junction in Vermont. This experience was recently expanded to the co-digestion of other high-strength organic waste for Yarra Valley Water (YVW) and City West Water (CWW) in Victoria. The potential high-strength waste

  14. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  15. Heat Treatment of Gas-Atomized Powders for Cold Spray Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, William A.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2018-02-01

    This communication demonstrates the efficacy of heat treatment on the improved deposition characteristics of aluminum alloy powders. A novel furnace was constructed for solutionizing of feedstock powders in an inert atmosphere while avoiding sintering. This furnace design achieved sufficiently high cooling rates to limit re-precipitation during powder cooling. Microscopy showed homogenization of the powder particle microstructures after heat treatment. Cold spray deposition efficiency with heat-treated powders substantially increased for the alloys AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075.

  16. Heat stroke during long-term clozapine treatment: should we be concerned about hot weather?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; Oliveira, Lucas Mendes; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the case of a patient with schizophrenia on clozapine treatment who had an episode of heat stroke. Case description During a heat wave in January and February 2014, a patient with schizophrenia who was on treatment with clozapine was initially referred for differential diagnose between systemic infection and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, but was finally diagnosed with heat stroke and treated with control of body temperature and hydration. Comments This report aims to...

  17. Effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate glass, containing copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shejnina, T.G.; Gutner, S.Kh.; Anan'in, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment duration on phase separation of sodium borosilicate (SBS) glass, containing copper is studied. It is stated that phase separation close to equilibrium one is attained under 12 hours of heat treatment of SBS glass containing copper

  18. Industrial heat treatment of R-HPDC A356 automotive brake callipers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment of rheo-high pressure die cast (R-HPDC) A356 brake callipers has produced good mechanical properties on the laboratory scale. An industrial heat treatment is required to evaluate the applicability and conformance of the R-HPDC A356...

  19. Relaxation of residual stress in MMC after combined plastic deformation and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Ceretti, M.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Manescu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron Diffraction shows that plastic pre-deformation and heat treatments have opposite effects on the residual stress in Al-SiC p composites. The thermal micro residual stress is relaxed or even reversed by pre-strains above 0.2%, but restored by heat treatments. The sense of relaxation changes above 400 deg. C (the mixing temperature)

  20. Influence of heat treatment on magnesium alloys meant to automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, G.; Moldovan, P.; Bojin, D.; Sillekens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the heat treatment realized on magnesium alloys, from AZ80 and ZK60 class. These alloys are destined to replace the conventional ferrous and aluminum alloys in automotive industry. It was realized the heat treatment, T5 - artificially aging, and it were

  1. Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) on poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyong; Yoon, Young-Man; Han, Seong Kuk; Kim, Daegi; Kim, Ho

    2017-06-01

    This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) of poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion. This assessment was carried out to ascertain the optimal HTP temperature. The solubilization and physical properties efficacy was investigated by capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF), and particle size. In addition, the anaerobic digestion was investigated through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and subsequent statistical analysis using the modified Gompertz model. HTP was found to have improved the solubilization of the PSW sludge with increasing HTP temperature. In addition, the results of the CST, TTF, and particle size decreased with increasing HTP temperature. These results of the assessment that was conducted in this study confirm that the HTP process indeed modifies the physical properties of PSWs to enhance the solubilization of organic solids. Nevertheless, the results of the BMP tests and the modified Gompertz model analysis show that the optimal HTP temperature of PSWs for anaerobic digestion is 190°C. These findings show that to achieve high conversion efficiency, an accurately designed pre-treatment step must be included in the overall anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MiDAS 2.0: an ecosystem-specific taxonomy and online database for the organisms of wastewater treatment systems expanded for anaerobic digester groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Bianca; Nierychlo, Marta; Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Karst, Søren Michael; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly viewed as a resource, with anaerobic digester technology being routinely implemented for biogas production. Characterising the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment facilities and their anaerobic digesters is considered key to their optimal design and operation. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allows high-throughput monitoring of these systems. The MiDAS field guide is a public resource providing amplicon sequencing protocols and an ecosystem-specific taxonomic database optimized for use with wastewater treatment facility samples. The curated taxonomy endeavours to provide a genus-level-classification for abundant phylotypes and the online field guide links this identity to published information regarding their ecology, function and distribution. This article describes the expansion of the database resources to cover the organisms of the anaerobic digester systems fed primary sludge and surplus activated sludge. The updated database includes descriptions of the abundant genus-level-taxa in influent wastewater, activated sludge and anaerobic digesters. Abundance information is also included to allow assessment of the role of emigration in the ecology of each phylotype. MiDAS is intended as a collaborative resource for the progression of research into the ecology of wastewater treatment, by providing a public repository for knowledge that is accessible to all interested in these biotechnologically important systems. http://www.midasfieldguide.org. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Co-treatment of fruit and vegetable waste in sludge digesters. An analysis of the relationship among bio-methane generation, process stability and digestate phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa; Cucina, Mirko

    2014-09-01

    The co-digestion of a variable amount of fruit and vegetable waste in a waste mixed sludge digester was investigated using a pilot scale apparatus. The organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 1.46 kg VS/m(3) day to 2.8 kg VS/m(3) day. The hydraulic retention time was reduced from 14 days to about 10 days. Specific bio-methane production increased from about 90 NL/kg VS to the maximum value of about 430 NL/kg VS when OLR was increased from 1.46 kg VS/m(3) day to 2.1 kg VS/m(3) day. A higher OLR caused an excessive reduction in the hydraulic retention time, enhancing microorganism wash out. Process stability evaluated by the total volatile fatty acids concentration (mg/l) to the alkalinity buffer capacity (eq. mg/l CaCO3) ratio (i.e. FOS/TAC) criterion was 2.46 kg VS/m(3) day, GI decreased rapidly. This corresponding trend between FOS/TAC and GI was further investigated by the definition of the GI ratio (GIR) parameter. Comparison between GIR and FOS/TAC suggests that GI could be a suitable criterion for evaluating process stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of heat treatment on the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carada, Paulo Teodoro D. L. [Master’s student in the Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto Prefecture, 610-0394 (Japan); Fujii, Toru; Okubo, Kazuya [Professor in the Faculty of Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto Prefecture, 610-0394 (Japan)

    2016-05-18

    Natural fibers are utilized in various ways. One specific application of it, is in the field natural fiber composite (NFC). Considerable amount of researches are conducted in this field due to rising concerns in the harmful effects of synthetic materials to the environment. Additionally, these researches are done in order to overcome the drawbacks which limit the wide use of natural fiber. A way to improve NFC is to look into the reinforcing component (natural fiber). Treatments, which are classified as mechanical or chemical in nature, can be done in order to improve the performance of the natural fiber. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of heat treatment in the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber. In addition, the response of mechanical properties after exposure to high moisture environment of heat-treated kenaf fibers was observed. Heat treatment was done for one hour with the following heating temperatures: 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the crystallinity index of kenaf fibers after heat treatment. The results showed that increase in tensile strength can be attained when kenaf fibers are heat treated at 140 °C. However, the tensile modulus showed inconsistency with respect to heat treatment temperature. The computed crystallinity index of the fiber matched the tensile strength observed in non-treated and heat-treated kenaf fibers. The results obtained in this study can be used for applications where heat treatment on kenaf fibers is needed.

  5. Study of heat treatment parameters for large-scale hydraulic steel gate track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-zhou Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance external hardness and strength, a large-scale hydraulic gate track should go through heat treatment. The current design method of hydraulic gate wheels and tracks is based on Hertz contact linear elastic theory, and does not take into account the changes in mechanical properties of materials caused by heat treatment. In this study, the heat treatment parameters were designed and analyzed according to the bearing mechanisms of the wheel and track. The quenching process of the track was simulated by the ANSYS program, and the temperature variation, residual stress, and deformation were obtained and analyzed. The metallurgical structure field after heat treatment was predicted by the method based on time-temperature-transformation (TTT curves. The results show that the analysis method and designed track heat treatment process are feasible, and can provide a reference for practical projects.

  6. Heat treatment evaluation of steel ASTM A-131 grade A by X-Ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Francisco; Feio, Luciana Gaspar; Costa, Ednelson Silva; Rodrigues, Lino Alberto Soares; Braga, Eduardo Magalhaes, E-mail: juniorferrer93@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study evaluates the residual stress of naval steel ASTM A-131 grade A before and after heat treatment. Residual stresses were determined by the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD). Before heat treatment the residual stress measurements were made at 36 (thirty six) points distributed in a specimen with dimensions of 400 mm long, 200 mm wide and 95 mm thick, then the plate under analysis was brought to the oven for the implementation of heat treatment. To check the performance of the heat treatment, the plate was again subjected to XRD measurements of the same points previously measured in order to compare the residual stresses. As result, there was a reduction of residual stresses with the application of heat treatment. References: [1] COLPAERT, H. Metalografia dos Produtos Siderurgicos Comuns. 4 Edição. Editora Blucher. Saõ Paulo, SP, 2008. [2] HILL, R. Princípios de Metalurgia Física, 1992. (author)

  7. Dimensional Behavior of Matrix Graphite Compacts during Heat Treatments for HTGR Fuel Element Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Cho, Moon Sung

    2015-01-01

    The carbonization is a process step where the binder that is incorporated during the matrix graphite powder preparation step is evaporated and the residue of the binder is carbonized during the heat treatment at about 1073 K. This carbonization step is followed by the final high temperature heat treatment where the carbonized compacts are heat treated at 2073-2173 K in vacuum for a relatively short time (about 2 hrs). In order to develop a fuel compact fabrication technology, and for fuel matrix graphite to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions, which has a strong influence on the further steps and the material properties of fuel element. In this work, the dimensional changes of green compacts during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated when compacts have different densities from different pressing conditions and different final heat treatment temperatures are employed, keeping other process parameters constant, such as the binder content, carbonization time, temperature and atmosphere (two hours ant 1073K and N2 atmosphere). In this work, the dimensional variations of green compacts during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated when compacts have different densities from different pressing conditions and different final heat treatment temperatures are employed

  8. Scenedesmus-based treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluent of anaerobic digester and bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a microalgae-based technology was employed to treat wastewater and produce biodiesel at the same time. A local isolate Scenedesmus sp. was found to be a well suited species, particularly for an effluent from anaerobic digester (AD) containing low carbon but high nutrients (NH3-N=273mgL(-1), total P=58.75mgL(-1)). This algae-based treatment was quite effective: nutrient removal efficiencies were over 99.19% for nitrogen and 98.01% for phosphorus. Regarding the biodiesel production, FAME contents of Scenedesmus sp. were found to be relatively low (8.74% (w/w)), but overall FAME productivity was comparatively high (0.03gL(-1)d(-1)) due to its high biomass productivity (0.37gL(-1)d(-1)). FAMEs were satisfactory to the several standards for the biodiesel quality. The Scenedesmus-based technology may serve as a promising option for the treatment of nutrient-rich wastewater and especially so for the AD effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combining high-rate aerobic wastewater treatment with anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at a pulp and paper mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Björn; Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2018-05-01

    The activated sludge process within the pulp and paper industry is generally run to minimize the production of waste activated sludge (WAS), leading to high electricity costs from aeration and relatively large basin volumes. In this study, a pilot-scale activated sludge process was run to evaluate the concept of treating the wastewater at high rate with a low sludge age. Two 150 L containers were used, one for aeration and one for sedimentation and sludge return. The hydraulic retention time was decreased from 24 hours to 7 hours, and the sludge age was lowered from 12 days to 2-4 days. The methane potential of the WAS was evaluated using batch tests, as well as continuous anaerobic digestion (AD) in 4 L reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Wastewater treatment capacity was increased almost four-fold at maintained degradation efficiency. The lower sludge age greatly improved the methane potential of the WAS in batch tests, reaching 170 NmL CH 4 /g VS at a sludge age of 2 days. In addition, the continuous AD showed a higher methane production at thermophilic conditions. Thus, the combination of high-rate wastewater treatment and AD of WAS is a promising option for the pulp and paper industry.

  10. Sequential Combination of Electro-Fenton and Electrochemical Chlorination Processes for the Treatment of Anaerobically-Digested Food Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Uk; Yoo, Ha-Young; Kim, Seonghun; Chung, Kyung-Mi; Park, Yong-Gyun; Hwang, Kwang-Hyun; Hong, Seok Won; Park, Hyunwoong; Cho, Kangwoo; Lee, Jaesang

    2017-09-19

    A two-stage sequential electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) oxidation followed by electrochemical chlorination (EC) was demonstrated to concomitantly treat high concentrations of organic carbon and ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) in real anaerobically digested food wastewater (ADFW). The anodic Fenton process caused the rapid mineralization of phenol as a model substrate through the production of hydroxyl radical as the main oxidant. The electrochemical oxidation of NH 4 + by a dimensionally stable anode (DSA) resulted in temporal concentration profiles of combined and free chlorine species that were analogous to those during the conventional breakpoint chlorination of NH 4 + . Together with the minimal production of nitrate, this confirmed that the conversion of NH 4 + to nitrogen gas was electrochemically achievable. The monitoring of treatment performance with varying key parameters (e.g., current density, H 2 O 2 feeding rate, pH, NaCl loading, and DSA type) led to the optimization of two component systems. The comparative evaluation of two sequentially combined systems (i.e., the E-Fenton-EC system versus the EC-E-Fenton system) using the mixture of phenol and NH 4 + under the predetermined optimal conditions suggested the superiority of the E-Fenton-EC system in terms of treatment efficiency and energy consumption. Finally, the sequential E-Fenton-EC process effectively mineralized organic carbon and decomposed NH 4 + -N in the real ADFW without external supply of NaCl.

  11. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  12. Effect of heat treatment on polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2006-12-18

    Dec 18, 2006 ... enzymes in plant and its resistance to heat has been reported by a ... sintered glass funnel and washed with cold acetone under low vacuum ... Peroxidase activity was determined by measuring the colour deve- lopment at ...

  13. Ploidy Manipulation of Zebrafish Embryos with Heat Shock 2 Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baars, Destiny L.; Takle, Kendra A.; Heier, Jonathon; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of ploidy allows for useful transformations, such as diploids to tetraploids, or haploids to diploids. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, specifically the generation of homozygous gynogenetic diploids is useful in genetic analysis because it allows the direct production of homozygotes from a single heterozygous mother. This article describes a modified protocol for ploidy duplication based on a heat pulse during the first cell cycle, Heat Shock 2 (HS2). Through inhibition of centriole...

  14. Interactions between goethite particles subjected to heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Koch, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of heating on the magnetic properties of particles of nanocrystalline goethite by use of Mossbauer spectroscopy. Heating at 150 degrees C for 24 h leads to a change in the quadrupole shift in the low-temperature spectra, indicating a rotation of the sublattice...... magnetization directions. Fitting of quantiles, derived from the asymmetrically broadened spectra between 80 and 300 K, to the superferromagnetism model indicates that this change is due to a stronger magnetic coupling between the particles....

  15. Concurrent Lactic and Volatile Fatty Acid Analysis of Microbial Fermentation Samples by Gas Chromatography with Heat Pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin; WipaCharles; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Organic acid analysis of fermentation samples can be readily achieved by gas chromatography (GC), which detects volatile organic acids. However, lactic acid, a key fermentation acid is non-volatile and can hence not be quantified by regular GC analysis. However the addition of periodic acid to organic acid samples has been shown to enable lactic acid analysis by GC, as periodic acid oxidizes lactic acid to the volatile acetaldehyde. Direct GC injection of lactic acid standards and periodic acid generated inconsistent and irreproducible peaks, possibly due to incomplete lactic acid oxidation to acetaldehyde. The described method is developed to improve lactic acid analysis by GC by using a heat treated derivatization pre-treatment, such that it becomes independent of the retention time and temperature selection of the GC injector. Samples containing lactic acid were amended by periodic acid and heated in a sealed test tube at 100°C for at least 45 min before injecting it to the GC. Reproducible and consistent peaks of acetaldehyde were obtained. Simultaneous determination of lactic acid, acetone, ethanol, butanol, volatile fatty acids could also be accomplished by applying this GC method, enabling precise and convenient organic acid analysis of biological samples such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation processes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Gas Furnace with Pulsed Feeding of the Heating Agent for Volume Precision Heat Treatment of CCM Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Egorova, V. M.; Gusev, S. V.

    2001-05-01

    A standard chamber batch furnace of the Severstal' plant has been modified for precision heat treatment of CCM rolls. The certification tests of a charge of rolls from steel 24KhM1F have shown the technical and economical advantages of the new design.

  17. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  19. Experimental assessment of factors influencing dewatering properties of thermophilically digested biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianpeng; Mavinic, Donald S.; Kelly, Harlan G.; Ramey, William D.

    2003-07-01

    Beneficial land application of processed wastewater sludges (biosolids) is a cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable option for the final disposal of sludges, because nutrients and organic matters in the sludge are recovered and reused as a resource. Thermophilic sludge digestion produces Class A biosolids, which can be reused without restrictions. Recent experience from full-scale thermophilic sludge digestion facilities in North America revealed that, dewatering thermophilically digested biosolids required more polymers to condition than mesophilically digested biosolids. This paper reports a laboratory study that investigated factors having significant impacts on dewatering properties of digested biosolids, and assessed the relationship among digestion, dewatering properties, and characteristics of thermophilically digested biosolids. The experimental work used batch-operated, bench-scale aerobic sludge digesters. Dewaterability was measured as Capillary Suction Time (CST). The study found that feed sludge composition significantly affected dewaterability of digested sludge. Higher percentage of the secondary sludge in the feed sludge corresponded to more significant deterioration in dewaterability. The effect of thermophilic digestion temperatures on dewaterabilty was rapid, occurred within 3-hour of digestion, indicting a heat shock effect, rather than a microbiological effect. When a high shear was applied to the sludge in digesters, it resulted In a significant deterioration in dewaterability in the digested sludge. It appears there was a strong correlation between dewaterability and extracellular biopolymers. Enzymes (protease) treatment confirmed that role of extracellular proteins in affecting the dewatering properties of thermophilic biosolids, also revealed the complex nature of biopolymers' effect on dewaterability. Such effects might be due to protein-polysaccharides interactions, hydrogen bonding, or hydrophilic and hydrophobic

  20. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  1. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  2. Dynamical Treatment of Virialization Heating in Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In a hierarchical picture of galaxy formation virialization continually transforms gravitational potential energy into kinetic energies of the baryonic and dark matter. For the gaseous component the kinetic, turbulent energy is transformed eventually into internal thermal energy through shocks and viscous dissipation. Traditionally this virialization and shock heating has been assumed to occur instantaneously, allowing an estimate of the gas temperature to be derived from the virial temperature defined from the embedding dark matter halo velocity dispersion. As the mass grows the virial temperature of a halo grows. Mass accretion hence can be translated into a heating term. We derive this heating rate from the extended Press Schechter formalism and demonstrate its usefulness in semianalytical models of galaxy formation. Our method explicitly conserves energy, unlike the previous impulsive heating assumptions. Our formalism can trivially be applied in all current semianalytical models as the heating term can be computed directly from the underlying merger trees. Our analytic results for the first cooling halos and the transition from cold to hot accretion are in agreement with numerical simulations.

  3. Improvement of high temperature fatigue lifetime in AZ91 magnesium alloy by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarishirazabad, Mehdi [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadi, Mohammad, E-mail: m_azadi@ip-co.com [Fatigue and Wear Workgroup, Irankhodro Powertrain Company (IPCO), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hossein Farrahi, Gholam [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Winter, Gerhard; Eichlseder, Wilfred [Chair of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2013-12-20

    In the present paper, an improvement in high temperature fatigue properties of the AZ91 magnesium alloy with rare earth elements has been obtained by a typical heat treatment, denoted by T6. For this objective, out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue, room temperature and high temperature low cycle fatigue tests are performed to compare lifetimes. Several rare earth elements are initially added to the AZ91 alloy during a gravity casting process in permanent molds. Also, the type of the heat treatment is examined. Results of specimens with only the solution (the T4 heat treatment) and the solution with the ageing process (the T6 heat treatment) are compared under isothermal fatigue loadings. Microstructural investigations are carried out, before and after fatigue experiments to demonstrate the heat treatment effect. Results showed that both low cycle fatigue and thermo-mechanical fatigue of the alloy at high temperatures increases tremendously after the T6 heat treatment. This behavior attributes to the variation of the ductility, which was a result of microstructural changes during the heat treatment and the varying temperature in fatigue tests.

  4. Improvement of high temperature fatigue lifetime in AZ91 magnesium alloy by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtarishirazabad, Mehdi; Azadi, Mohammad; Hossein Farrahi, Gholam; Winter, Gerhard; Eichlseder, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, an improvement in high temperature fatigue properties of the AZ91 magnesium alloy with rare earth elements has been obtained by a typical heat treatment, denoted by T6. For this objective, out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue, room temperature and high temperature low cycle fatigue tests are performed to compare lifetimes. Several rare earth elements are initially added to the AZ91 alloy during a gravity casting process in permanent molds. Also, the type of the heat treatment is examined. Results of specimens with only the solution (the T4 heat treatment) and the solution with the ageing process (the T6 heat treatment) are compared under isothermal fatigue loadings. Microstructural investigations are carried out, before and after fatigue experiments to demonstrate the heat treatment effect. Results showed that both low cycle fatigue and thermo-mechanical fatigue of the alloy at high temperatures increases tremendously after the T6 heat treatment. This behavior attributes to the variation of the ductility, which was a result of microstructural changes during the heat treatment and the varying temperature in fatigue tests

  5. Use of ion exchange and early treatment of radioactive contamination in the digestive tract; Utilisation des echangeurs d'ions et traitement precoce de la contamination radioactive par voie digestive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, G; Guilloux, M J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The efficiency of cation exchange resins for the treatment of digestive contamination with strontium has been studied on rats. The results obtained show that the most efficient resins are those of sulfonic type when administered in the ammonium form. The treatment is still efficient when applied 45 minutes after the ingestion of strontium. In the most favourable cases, the radioactivity of the skeleton was lower by a factor 6 in the treated animals than in controls. This easily applicable, rather safe and non specific treatment deserves to be retained for use. (author) [French] Une etude de l'efficacite des resines echangeuses de cations dans le traitement d'une contamination digestive par le strontium a ete entreprise chez le rat. Les resultats montrent que parmi les resines, les plus efficaces sont celles de type sulfonique, administrees sous forme ammonium. Le traitement est encore efficace 45 minutes apres l'ingestion du strontium. Dans les meilleurs cas, le squelette des rats traites etait six fois moins radioactif que celui des temoins. Ce traitement d'emploi facile, peu dangereux, non specifique, merite d'etre retenu. (auteur)

  6. Non-polluting treatment of uranium effluents from the alkaline digestion of an uranium ore containing sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Bernard.

    1978-01-01

    New non-polluting process for treating uranium effluents from the alkaline digestion of an uranium ore containing sulphur, which makes it possible (a) to extract and obtain relatively pure uranium and (b) to process the digestion liquor freed from the uranium and containing in an aqueous solution a mixture of alkaline carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate, consisting in the selective extraction of the sodium sulphate present and the recycling of the liquor free of SO 4 = ions, containing in solution the sole carbonates and/or bicarbonates involved, towards the digestion of the ore [fr

  7. Evaluation of dry heat treatment of soft wheat flour for the production of high ratio cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, S; Bakalis, S; Leadley, C E; Sahi, S S; Fryer, P J

    2018-05-01

    An accurate method to heat treat flour samples has been used to quantify the effects of heat treatment on flour functionality. A variety of analytical methods has been used such as oscillatory rheology, rheomixer, solvent retention capacity tests, and Rapid Visco Analysis (RVA) in water and in aqueous solutions of sucrose, lactic acid, and sodium carbonate. This work supports the hypothesis that heat treatment facilitates the swelling of starch granules at elevated temperature. Results furthermore indicated improved swelling ability and increased interactions of flour polymers (in particular arabinoxylans) of heat treated flour at ambient conditions. The significant denaturation of the proteins was indicated by a lack of gluten network formation after severe heat treatments as shown by rheomixer traces. Results of these analyses were used to develop a possible cake flour specification. A method was developed using response surfaces of heat treated flour samples in the RVA using i) water and ii) 50% sucrose solution. This can uniquely characterise the heat treatment a flour sample has received and to establish a cake flour specification. This approach might be useful for the characterisation of processed samples, rather than by baking cakes. Hence, it may no longer be needed to bake a cake after flour heat treatment to assess the suitability of the flour for high ratio cake production, but 2 types of RVA tests suffice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of heat treatment upon the fatigue-crack growth behavior of Alloy 718 weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Mills, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    Gas-tungsten-arc weldments in Alloy 718 were studied in fatigue-crack growth test conducted at five temperatures over the range 24--649 degree C. In general, crack growth rates increased with increasing temperature, and weldments given the ''conventional'' post-weld heat-treatment generally exhibited crack growth rates that were higher than for weldments given the ''modified'' (INEL) heat-treatment. Limited testing in the as-welded condition revealed crack growth rates significantly lower than observed for the heat-treated cases, and this was attributed to residual stresses. Three different heats of filler wire were utilized, and no heat-to-heat variations were noted. 23 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Energy production from mechanical biological treatment and Composting plants exploiting solid anaerobic digestion batch: An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, F.; Sordi, A.; Micale, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work quantifies the Italian Composting and MBT facilities upgradable by SADB. ► The bioCH 4 from SADB of source and mechanical selected OFMSW is of 220–360 Nl/kg VS. ► The upgrading investment cost is 30% higher for Composting than for MBT. ► Electricity costs are 0.11–0.28 €/kW h, not influenced by differentiate collection. ► Electrical energy costs are constant for SADB treating more than 30 ktons/year. - Abstract: The energetic potential of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste processed in both existing Composting plants and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants, can be successfully exploited by retrofitting these plants with the solid anaerobic digestion batch process. On the basis of the analysis performed in this study, about 50 MBT plants and 35 Composting plants were found to be suitable for retrofitting with Solid Anaerobic Digestion Batch (SADB) facilities. Currently the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) arising from the MBT facilities is about 1,100,000 tons/year, whereas that arising from differentiated collection and treated in Composting plants is about 850,000 tons/year. The SADB performances were analyzed by the aid of an experimental apparatus and the main results, in agreement with literature data, show that the biogas yield ranged from 400 to 650 Nl/kg of Volatile Solids (VS), with a methane content ranging from 55% to 60% v/v. This can lead to the production of about 500 GW h of renewable energy per year, giving a CO 2 reduction of about 270,000 tons/year. From the economic point of view, the analysis shows that the mean cost of a kW h of electrical energy produced by upgrading MBT and Composting facilities with the SADB, ranges from 0.11 and 0.28 €/kW h, depending on the plant size and the amount of waste treated.

  10. Optimisation of the T6 heat treatment of rheocast alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available popular solution heat treatment employed for SSM processed A356 is 6 hours at 540oC (i.e. similar to that used for permanent mould cast A356)6,7,9. Only limited work has been performed on the optimisation of the solution heat treatment of SSM processed... was not adequately studied by either Dewhirst8 or Rosso and Actis Grande5. The optimum artificial aging heat treatment proposed in both papers5,8 is 180oC for 4 hours. This was also confirmed in this work, but importantly, this applies only when natural aging...

  11. Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Knulst, Andre; Wagner, Stefan; Scheiner, Otto; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2008-01-01

    Kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. Digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (Act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of

  12. Nutrient digestibility in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus fed diets containing animal meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gugołek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three digestibility experiments on Arctic foxes were carried out. Control groups were fed standard diets (C1 and C2 composed of fresh or frozen animal by-products and steamed ground grain. Dry experimental diets (E1 and E2 contained animal meals, extracted meals and fat, were mixed with water prior to administration. In a preliminary experiment, the digestibility of dry diet E1 moistened with water for 15min and 24h was compared to determine the optimum moistening time during the experimental period proper. The preliminary experiment showed that moistening time had no significant effect on digestibility. In the main experiment, two independent digestibility trials were performed to compare the digestibility of diets fed to foxes during growth (C1 vs. E1 and fur development (C2 vs. E2. Better nutrient digestibility was noted for control diets, compared to experimental. The greatest differences were reported for total protein digestibility. Protein contained in meals undergoes denaturation during heat treatment, which reduces digestibility. It was found that the retention of nitrogen in relation to nitrogen digestion was higher in foxes fed experimental diets (E1 and E2.

  13. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Syngas is produced by thermal gasification of both non-renewable and renewable sources including biomass and coal, and it consists mainly of CO, CO2 and H2. In this paper we aim to bio-convert CO in the syngas to CH4. A novel technology for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation....... However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown....

  14. Diversity of microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes in Danish anaerobic digesters fed with wastewater treatment sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Busk, Peter Kamp; Pilgaard, Bo

    2017-01-01

    treatment plants. Metagenomes from the ADs were mined for CAZymes with Homology to Peptide Patterns (HotPep). 19,335 CAZymes were identified of which 30% showed 50% or lower identity to known proteins demonstrating that ADs make up a promising pool for discovery of novel CAZymes. A function was assigned...... to 54% of all CAZymes identified by HotPep. Many different α-glucan-acting CAZymes were identified in the four metagenomes, and the most abundant family was glycoside hydrolase family 13, which contains α-glucan-acting CAZymes. Cellulytic and xylanolytic CAZymes were also abundant in the four...

  15. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE SURVIVAL OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    seconds at temperatures ranging from 69OC to 73OC. E. coli O157:H7 ... inoculum was added to 90ml of sterile raw milk (heated in water bath ..... the high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization technique .... I. The use of selective media.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and passivity of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    200 ◦C for 20 h in salt bath and air cooled), B (heating up to 800 ◦C for 20 h and water ... chloride ions on passivity was associated with the formation of copper oxides/hydroxide and ... passive layer inhibits copper redeposition and/or preferen-.

  17. Effect of anaerobic digestion and liming on plant availability of phosphorus in iron- and aluminium-precipitated sewage sludge from primary wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Emilio; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Vråle, Lasse

    2017-04-01

    More efficient plant utilisation of the phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge is required because rock phosphate is a limited resource. To meet environmental legislation thresholds for P removal from wastewater (WW), primary treatment with iron (Fe) or aluminium (Al) coagulants is effective. There is also a growing trend for WW treatment plants (WWTPs) to be coupled to a biogas process, in order to co-generate energy. The sludge produced, when stabilised, is used as a soil amendment in many countries. This study examined the effects of anaerobic digestion (AD), with or without liming as a post-treatment, on P release from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludges originating from primary WWTPs. Plant uptake of P from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludge after lime treatment but without AD was also compared. Chemical characterisation with sequential extraction of P and a greenhouse experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) were performed to assess the treatment effects on plant-available P. Liming increased the P-labile fraction in all cases. Plant P uptake increased from 18.5 mg pot -1 to 53 mg P pot -1 with liming of Fe-precipitated sludge and to 35 mg P pot -1 with liming of the digestate, while it increased from 18.7 mg pot -1 to 39 and 29 mg P pot -1 for the Al-precipitated substrate and digestate, respectively. Thus, liming of untreated Fe-precipitated sludge and its digestate resulted in higher P uptake than liming its Al-precipitated counterparts. AD had a negative impact on P mobility for both sludges.

  18. Digesting a Path Forward: The Utility of Collagenase Tumor Treatment for Improved Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Aaron; Szoka, Francis C

    2018-06-04

    Collagen and hyaluronan are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their overexpression in tumors is linked to increased tumor growth and metastasis. These ECM components contribute to a protective tumor microenvironment by supporting a high interstitial fluid pressure and creating a tortuous setting for the convection and diffusion of chemotherapeutic small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles in the tumor interstitial space. This review focuses on the research efforts to deplete extracellular collagen with collagenases to normalize the tumor microenvironment. Although collagen synthesis inhibitors are in clinical development, the use of collagenases is contentious and clinically untested in cancer patients. Pretreatment of murine tumors with collagenases increased drug uptake and diffusion 2-10-fold. This modest improvement resulted in decreased tumor growth, but the benefits of collagenase treatment are confounded by risks of toxicity from collagen breakdown in healthy tissues. In this review, we evaluate the published in vitro and in vivo benefits and limitations of collagenase treatment to improve drug delivery.

  19. Heat treatment regularity for viscose products in plate scrapers heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Rashkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work describesthe construction of scraperplate-typeheat exchangerscurrently usedin industryand thetraffic patternof the productin it. Ananalytical model is represented and it is also posed the problemofthe analyticaldetermination ofthe requiredarea of heat exchangewith the use ofdifferential equations ofheat transfer in amovingliquid media, written in cylindrical coordinates, for symmetrical temperature distribution,without taking into accountthe energy dissipation.

  20. Milk protein-gum tragacanth mixed gels: effect of heat-treatment sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Masoud; Nejatian, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Pourmand, Hanieh

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the heat-treatment sequence of biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter on the acid-induced gelation of tri-polymeric systems composed of sodium caseinate (Na-caseinate), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and gum tragacanth (GT). This was studied by applying four sequences of heat treatment: (A) co-heating all three biopolymers; (B) heating the milk-protein dispersion and the GT dispersion separately; (C) heating the dispersion containing Na-caseinate and GT together and heating whey protein alone; and (D) co-heating whey protein with GT and heating Na-caseinate alone. According to small-deformation rheological measurements, the strength of the mixed-gel network decreased in the order: C>B>D>A samples. SEM micrographs show that the network of sample C is much more homogenous, coarse and dense than sample A, while the networks of samples B and D are of intermediate density. The heat-treatment sequence of the biopolymer mixtures as a formulation parameter thus offers an opportunity to control the microstructure and rheological properties of mixed gels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Pressure and Heat Treatments on the Compressive Strength of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Masdar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the corresponding compressive strength of RPC with variable pressure combined with heating rate, heating duration, and starting time of heating. The treatments applied were 8 MPa static pressure on fresh RPC prims and heat curing at 240 °C in an oven. The compressive strength test was conducted at 7-d and 28-d. The images of RPC morphology were captured on the surface of a fractured specimen using Scanning Electron Microscopy in Secondary Electron detector mode to describe pore filing mechanism after treatments. The results show that a heating rate at 50 °C/hr resulted in the highest compressive strength about 40 % more than those at 10 or 100 °C/hr. A heating duration of 48 hours led to the maximum compressive strength. Heat curing applied 2 days after casting resulted in the maximum compressive. Heat curing had a signicant effect on the compresssive strength due to the acceleration of both reactions (hydration and pozzolanic and the degree of transformation from tobermorite to xonotlite. It is concluded that the optimum condition of treatments is both pressure and heat curing at 2-day after casting with a rate of 50 °C/hr for 48 hours.

  2. Life cycle assessment of integrated solid state anaerobic digestion and composting for on-farm organic residues treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Manandhar, Ashish; Li, Guoxue; Shah, Ajay

    2018-03-20

    Driven by the gradual changes in the structure of energy consumption and improvements of living standards in China, the volume of on-farm organic solid waste is increasing. If untreated, these unutilized on-farm organic solid wastes can cause environmental problems. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different on-farm organic waste (which includes dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residue) treatment strategies, including anaerobic digestion (AD), composting, and AD followed by composting. The input life cycle inventory data are specific to China. The potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies were assessed based on their acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ecotoxicity potential (ETP), and resource depletion (RD). The results show that the preferred treatment strategy for dairy manure is the one that integrated corn stover and tomato residue utilization and solid state AD technologies into the system. The GWP of integrated solid state AD and composting was the least, which is -2900 kg CO 2 eq/ t of dairy manure and approximately 14.8 times less than that of current status (i.e., liquid AD of dairy manure). Solid state AD of dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residues is the most favorable option in terms of AP, EP and ETP, which are more than 40% lower than that of the current status (i.e., AP: 3.11 kg SO 2 , EP: -0.94 kg N, and ETP: -881 CTUe (Comparative Toxic Units ecotoxicity)). The results also show that there is a significant potential for AP, EP, ETP, and GWP reduction, if AD is used prior to composting. The scenario analysis for transportation distance showed that locating the AD plant and composting facility on the farm was advantageous in terms of all the life cycle impact categories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC, is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1 what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2 how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  4. Stone heat treatment in the Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany: Interpretation and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Spinelli Sanchez, Océane; Kind, Claus-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The Early Mesolithic of southwestern Germany, the so-called Beuronian (9600-7100 BC), is a period of important transformations in the way people lived, in their subsistence and in the stone tools they produced. One of the perhaps most spectacular re-inventions of that time is heat treatment of stones prior to their manufacture into tools. Although heat treatment has been understood as one of the defining characteristics of the Beuronian of southwestern Germany, and although its existence has been known for almost 30 years now, relatively few systematic studies on it are available. In this paper, we present such a study, aiming to shed light on two questions: (1) what technique and heating parameters were used in the Beuronian and (2) how reliable are the macroscopic proxies traditionally used to identify heat treatment in this context? We investigate these questions using a non-destructive archaeometric technique for measuring past heating temperatures of heat-treated stones and a quantitative surface roughness analysis aiming to understand the relations between surface aspect and heat treatment. These methods are applied to 46 Jurassic chert artefacts from the site Helga-Abri located in the Swabian Alb region of southwestern Germany. Our results document that an opportunistic low-investment procedure was used to heat stone, probably relying on the use of the above-ground part of regular camp-fires. We also found that the traditionally used macroscopic criteria, such as colour and surface gloss, cannot be unambiguously used to identify heat treatment in assemblages made from Jurassic chert. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the Beuronian lithic chaîne opératoire in terms of the investment in time and resources necessary, and for the refinement of archaeological techniques used to identify heat treatment in the Mesolithic of the Swabian Alb.

  5. Reactions of lactose during heat treatment of milk : a quantitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of the chemical reactions of lactose during heat treatment of milk were studied. Skim milk and model solutions resembling milk were heated. Reaction products were determined and the influence of varying lactose, casein and fat concentration on the formation of these products

  6. Preparation, heat treatment, and mechanical properties of the uranium-5 weight percent chromium eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.B.

    1980-10-01

    The eutectic alloy of uranium-5 wt % chromium (U-5Cr) was prepared from high-purity materials and cast into 1-in.-thick ingots. This material was given several simple heat treatments, the mechanical properties of these heat-treated samples were determined; and the microstructure was examined. Some data on the melting point and transformation temperatures were obtained

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Heat Treatment on the Lycopene Content of Tomato Puree. MI Mohammed, DI Malami. Abstract. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant. Epidemiological studies have associated its consumption with numerous health benefits. In this study the effects of heating on lycopene were investigated by exposing tomato ...

  8. Improved corrosion resistance of aluminum brazing sheet by a post-brazing heat treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Glenn, A. M.; Taheri, P.; Sababi, M.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the microstructure on the corrosion mechanism and susceptibility of as-brazed aluminum sheet. Various microstructures are obtained using postbrazing heat treatments developed to enhance the corrosion resistance of an AA4xxx/AA3xxx brazing sheet. The heat

  9. Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants through sludge anaerobic digestion: effect of low-organic-content sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyao; Li, Huan

    2017-09-18

    During anaerobic digestion, low-organic-content sludge sometimes is used as feedstock, resulting in deteriorated digestion performance. The operational experience of conventional anaerobic digestion cannot be applied to this situation. To investigate the feature of low-organic-content sludge digestion and explain its intrinsic mechanism, batch experiments were conducted using designed feedstock having volatile solids (VS) contents that were 30-64% of total solids (TS). The results showed that the accumulative biogas yield declined proportionally from 173.7 to 64.8 ml/g VS added and organic removal rate decreased from 34.8 to 11.8% with decreasing VS/TS in the substrate. The oligotrophic environment resulting from low-organic-content substrates led to decreased microbial activity and a switch from butyric fermentation to propionic fermentation. A first-order model described the biogas production from the batch experiments very well, and the degradation coefficient decreased from 0.159 to 0.069 day -1 , exhibiting a positive relation with organic content in substrate. The results observed here corroborated with data from published literature on anaerobic digestion of low-organic-content sludge and showed that it may not be feasible to recover energy from sludge with an organic content lower than 50% through mono digestion.

  10. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting's overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions

  12. Heat Transfer treatment in computer codes for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerele, A.; Gregoric, M.

    1984-01-01

    Increased number of operating nuclear power plants has stressed importance of nuclear safety evaluation. For this reason, accordingly to regulatory commission request, safety analyses with computer codes are preformed. In this paper part of this thermohydraulic models dealing with wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlations in computer codes TRAC=PF1, RELAP4/MOD5, RELAP5/MOD1 and COBRA-IV is discussed. (author)

  13. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  14. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, Sławomir; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Kliks, Jarosław

    2017-05-14

    The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew) collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland). Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling), the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control). During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  15. Effect of Carbon Nanofiber Heat Treatment on Physical Properties of Polymeric Nanocomposites—Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Lafdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a nanocomposite material has broadened significantly to encompass a large variety of systems made of dissimilar components and mixed at the nanometer scale. The properties of nanocomposite materials also depend on the morphology, crystallinity, and interfacial characteristics of the individual constituents. In the current work, vapor-grown carbon nanofibers were subjected to varying heat-treatment temperatures. The strength of adhesion between the nanofiber and an epoxy (thermoset matrix was characterized by the flexural strength and modulus. Heat treatment to 1800C∘ demonstrated maximum improvement in mechanical properties over that of the neat resin, while heat-treatment to higher temperatures demonstrated a slight decrease in mechanical properties likely due to the elimination of potential bonding sites caused by the elimination of the truncated edges of the graphene layers. Both the electrical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites increased in conjunction with the increasing heat-treatment temperature.

  16. Experimental heat treatment of silcrete implies analogical reasoning in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Lyn; Prinsloo, Linda C

    2014-05-01

    Siliceous rocks that were not heated to high temperatures during their geological formation display improved knapping qualities when they are subjected to controlled heating. Experimental heat treatment of South African silcrete, using open fires of the kind used during the Middle Stone Age, shows that the process needed careful management, notwithstanding recent arguments to the contrary. Silcrete blocks fractured when heated on the surface of open fires or on coal beds, but were heated without mishap when buried in sand below a fire. Three silcrete samples, a control, a block heated underground with maximum temperature between 400 and 500 °C and a block heated in an open fire with maximum temperature between 700 and 800 °C, were analysed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), optical microscopy, and both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the volume expansion during the thermally induced α- to β-quartz phase transformation and the volume contraction during cooling play a major role in the heat treatment of silcrete. Rapid heating or cooling through the phase transformation at 573 °C will cause fracture of the silcrete. Successful heat treatment requires controlling surface fire temperatures in order to obtain the appropriate underground temperatures to stay below the quartz inversion temperature. Heat treatment of rocks is a transformative technology that requires skilled use of fire. This process involves analogical reasoning, which is an attribute of complex cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Purified Magnesium and AZ31 Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifeh, Sohrab; Burleigh, T. David

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are ideal for biodegradable implants due to their biocompatibility and their low-stress shielding. However, they can corrode too rapidly in the biological environment. The objective of this research was to develop heat treatments to slow the corrosion of high purified magnesium and AZ31 alloy in simulated body fluid at 37{\\deg}C. Heat treatments were performed at different temperatures and times. Hydrogen evolution, weight loss, PDP, and EIS methods were used to measu...

  18. Regularities of texture formation in alloys undergoing phase transformations during heat treatment and plastic working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, N.V.; Babarehko, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Peculiarities of texture formation in metals undergoing phase transformations in the temperature range of heat treatment and hot working are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A low-temperature phase after hot working is shown to inherite a high-temperature phase texture due to definite orientation conformity during phase transformation. Strengthened heat and thermomechanical treatments, as a rule, do not destroy material texture but change it

  19. Synergistic effects of heat and irradiation treatment (thermoradiation) in the sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauth, C.A. Jr.; Sivinski, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a generic class of sterilization processes is which properly chosen combinations of radiation and heat synergistically inactivate many bacteria and viruses. Treatments with optimal combinations are shown to offer the possibility of using lower total doses and lower temperatures than would be required separately for sterilization. This results from easier elimination of heat-labile, radioresistant organisms and radiolabile, heat-resistant organisms, and from synergistic inactivation of organisms which are both radioresistant and heat resistant. These processes depend upon temperature, dose-rate, and time in fairly complex ways; therefore, an analytical framework in which they can be defined is also presented. (author)

  20. Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Pamela J.; Jordan, Nikole; Lasin, Praphapan; Towler, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological Relevance Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves. Material and Methods In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids. Results Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process. Conclusions This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and

  1. Evaluation of the Characteristics of the Aluminum Alloy Casting Material by Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Syung Yul; Park, Dong Hyun; Won, Jong Pil; Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Myung Hoon; Moon, Kyung Man; Jeong, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum is on active metal, but it is well known that its oxide film plays a role as protective barrier which is comparatively stable in air and neutral aqueous solution. Thus, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in architectural trim, cold and hot-water storage vessels and piping etc., furthermore, the aluminum alloy of AC8A have been widely used in mold casting material of engine piston because of its properties of temperature and wear resistance. In recent years, the oil price is getting higher and higher, thus the using of low quality oil has been significantly increased in engines of ship and vehicle. Therefore it is considered that evaluation of corrosion resistance as well as wear resistance of AC8A material is also important to improve its property and prolong its lifetime. In this study, the effect of solution and tempering heat treatment to corrosion and wear resistance is investigated with electrochemical method and measurement of hardness. The hardness decreased with solution heat treatment compared to mold casting condition, but its value increased with tempering heat treatment and exhibited the highest value of hardness with tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 24hrs. Furthermore, corrosion resistance increased with decreasing of the hardness, and decreased with increasing of the hardness reversely. As a result, it is suggested that the optimum heat treatment to improve both corrosion and wear resistance is tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 16hrs

  2. Aging of iron (hydr)oxides by heat treatment and effects on heavy metal binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Starckpoole, M. M.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2000-01-01

    their transformations caused by heat treatment prior to disposal or aging at a proper disposal site. The transformations were investigated by XRD, SEM, XANES, EXAFS, surface area measurements, pH static leaching tests, and extractions with oxalate and weak hydrochloric acid. It was found that at 600 and 900 °C the iron...... oxides were transformed to hematite, which had a greater thermodynamic stability but less surface area than the initial products. Heat treatment also caused some volatilization of heavy metals (most notably, Hg). Leaching with water at pH 9 (L/S 10, 24 h) and weak acid extraction showed that heat...

  3. Heat Treatment of Cr- and Cr-V ledeburitic tool steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cr- and Cr-V ledeburitic cold work tool steels belong to the most important tool materials for large series manufacturing. To enable high production stability, the tools must be heat treated before use. This overview paper brings a comprehensive study on the heat treatment of these materials, starting from the soft annealing and finishing with the tempering. Also, it describes the impact of any step of the heat treatment on the most important structural and mechanical characteristics, like the hardness, the toughness and the wear resistance. The widely used AIS D2- steel (conventionally manufactured and Vanadis 6 (PM are used as examples in most cases.

  4. Study of tokamaks carbon deposits after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richou, M.; Martin, C.; Roubin, P.; Delhaes, P.; Couzi, M.; Brosset, C.; Pegourie, B.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problem of tokamak is the interaction plasma-wall. The wall component is the graphite. Meanwhile it is submitted to erosion phenomena, deposition and co-deposition with the hydrogen. This carbon deposits have been studied and show an oval shape. In order to obtain more information on the structure and the growth of these deposits, the authors heated them till 2500 C. Raman spectroscopy, transmission microscopy, magnetic and density measurements have been realized and compared for two types of samples: from Tore Supra and from Textor. (A.L.B.)

  5. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon next deposit after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salancon, E.; Durbeck, T.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Jacob, W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the main safety problems in the ITER tokamak project is the tritium adsorption in the reactor walls and in particular the deposits which appear after the plasma discharge. These deposits are amorphous hydrogenated carbon films, type polymer (soft a-C:H). The heating of these deposits with a pulse laser is a proposed solution for the tritium desorption. Meanwhile, Gibson and al show that in experimental conditions, products are deposed on the walls before entering the mass spectrometer. The authors present thermo-desorption spectra of different amorphous carbon films. (A.L.B.)

  6. Effect of alkali and heat treatments for bioactivity of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seo young, E-mail: mast6269@nate.com [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu kyoung, E-mail: yk0830@naver.com [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il song, E-mail: ilsong@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials Development and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang chun, E-mail: jingc88@126.com [Oral Medical College, Beihua University, Jilin City 132013 (China); Bae, Tae sung, E-mail: bts@jbnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min ho, E-mail: mh@jbnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Bio degradable material, Institute of Oral Bioscience and BK21 plus project, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes formed via anodization were treated by alkali and heat. • The surface roughness was increased after alkali treatment (p < 0.05). • After alkali and heat treatment, the wettability was better than before treatment. • Alkali treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were shown higher HAp formation in SBF. • Heat treatment affected on the attachment of cells for alkali treated nanotubes. - Abstract: In this study, for improving the bioactivity of titanium used as an implant material, alkali and heat treatments were carried out after formation of the nanotubes via anodization. Nanotubes with uniform length, diameter, and thickness were formed by anodization. The alkali and heat-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were covered with the complex network structure, and the Na compound was generated on the surface of the specimens. In addition, after 5 and 10 days of immersion in the SBF, the crystallized OCP and HAp phase was significantly increased on the surface of the alkali-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (PNA) and alkali and heat-treated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (PNAH) groups. Cell proliferation was decreased due to the formation of amorphous sodium titanate (Na{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) layer on the surface of the PNA group. However, anatase and crystalline sodium titanate were formed on the surface of the PNAH group after heat treatment at 550 °C, and cell proliferation was improved. Thus, PNA group had higher HAp forming ability in the simulated body fluid. Additional heat treatment affected on enhancement of the bioactivity and the attachment of osteoblasts for PNA group.

  7. Heat treatment of large-sized welded rotors of steam turbines for atomic power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutasov, R F; Mukhina, M P; Tustanovskii, A S

    1977-01-01

    The heat treatment of a welded rotor of grade 25Kh2NMFA steel for steam turbines of nuclear power plants was considered. A following heat treatment schedule was suggested: charging the rotor in to a furnace at 100-150 deg C, heating to 200-250 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating (10 deg C/h) to 400-450 deg C and holding for 12 hrs; slow heating to 630-640 deg C and holding for 50 hrs, cooling at a rate of 5 deg C/h down to 100 deg C, holding for 20 hrs and cooling with the furnace open. The proposed heat treatment schedule of a duration of 356 hrs ensures a temperature gradient throughout the cross section and the length of the rotor of not more than +-5 deg C, least deviations of geometric dimensions and makes possible machining finish to within 0-0.02 mm. Described are the particularities of the design of a roll-out hearth electric chamber furnace, measuring 13000x5500x5000 mm and built for the purpose of carrying out said heat treatment. The power rating of the furnace is 2850 kW.

  8. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  9. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  10. Corrosion performance of 7075 alloy under laser heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Su, Ruiming; Qu, Yingdong; Li, Rongde

    2018-05-01

    Microstructure, exfoliation corrosion (EXCO), intergranular corrosion (IGC) and potentidynamic polarization test of the 7075 aluminum alloy after retrogression and re-aging (RRA) treatment, and laser retrogression and re-aging (LRRA), respectively, were studied by using scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that after pre-aging, laser treatment (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) and re-aging a lot of matrix precipitates of alloy were precipitated again. The semi-continuous grain boundary precipitates and the wider precipitate-free zones (PFZ) improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The corrosion properties of the alloy after LRRA (650 W, 2 mm s‑1) treatment are better than that after RRA treatment.

  11. Effects of heat treatment temperature on morphology and properties of opal crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Tao; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Peng Tongjiang; Chen Jiming; Tang Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    The monodispersed SiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by reactant mixed equally. The colloid crystal templates were assemblied by vertical sedimentation method in ethanol at certain temperatures, and the effects of the heat treatment temperature on the morphology and the properties of opal colloid crystals were investigated. SEM, TCr-DSC results indicate SiO 2 colloid templates should be heat treated at 700-800 degree C, enhancing the conglutination and mechanistic intensity of opal templates. UV-Vis analysis result indicates that the heat treatment process can remove the photonic band gap location of the opal colloid crystals, and with the heat treatment temperature increasing gradually, blue shift occurs and the gap narrows. (authors)

  12. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd’s model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C.

  13. Effect of heat treatment operations on the Rm tensile strength of silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Owing to good technological properties, low weight and good corrosion resistance, aluminum-silicon alloys are widely used as a material for cast machinery components. State of macro- and microstructure of a castings manufactured from Al-Si alloys, which is determined by a shape and distribution of hardening phases, segregation of alloying constituents and impurities, as well as distribution of porosity, create conditions to obtainment of proper mechanical properties. These properties can be improved through modification of the alloy and performed heat treatment operations. The paper presents effect of modification and heat treatment process on the Rm tensile strength of a selected silumins (EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe, EN AB-AlSi12CuNiMg, EN AB-AlSi17Cu1Ni1Mg. Investigated alloys were put to treatments of refining and modification, and next to heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results illustrate registered curves of melting and solidification from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of performed initial tests one determined parameters of the heat treatment process (temperature and duration of solutionig and ageing treatments enabling obtainment of improved Rm tensile strength of the investigated alloys.

  14. Impact of Heat-Shock Treatment on Yellowing of Pak Choy Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-yang; SHEN Lian-qing; YUAN Hai-na

    2004-01-01

    The physiological mechanism of maintaining the green colour of pak choy leaves (Brassica rapa var chinensis) with heat-shock treatment was studied. Chlorophyll in the outer leaves of pak choy degraded rapidly during storage at ambient temperature (20 ± 2℃), a slight yellow appeared. Heat-shock treatment (46- 50℃) had a mild effect on maintaining the green colour of outer leaves. Normal chlorophyll degradation was associated with a binding of chlorophyll with chlorophyll-binding-protein preceding chlorophyll breakdown.Heat-shock treatment was found to reduce the binding-capacity between chlorophyllbinding-protein and chlorophyll. In the chlorophyll degradation pathway, pheide dioxygenase was synthesized during leaf senescence which was considered to be a key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation. Activity of this enzyme was reduced following heat-shock treatment, which might explain the observed reduction in chlorophyll breakdown. Two groups of heat-shock proteins were detected in treated leaves, the first group containing proteins from 54KDa to 74 Kda, and the second group contained proteins from 15 KDa to 29KDa. Heat-shock treatment was also found to retard the decline of glucose and fructose (the main energy substrates) of outer leaves.

  15. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on Spheroidization and Related Heat Treatments of Medium Carbon Alloy Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harisha S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of medium carbon steels as engineering materials is reflected by the fact that out of the vast majority of engineering grade ferrous alloys available and used in the market today, a large proportion of them are from the family of medium carbon steels. Typically medium carbon steels have a carbon range of 0.25 to 0.65% by weight, and a manganese content ranging from 0.060 to 1.65% by weight. Medium carbon steels are more resistive to cutting, welding and forming as compared to low carbon steels. From the last two decades a number of research scholars reported the use of verity of heat treatments to tailor the properties of medium carbon steels. Spheroidizing is the novel industrial heat treatment employed to improve formability and machinability of medium/high carbon low alloy steels. This exclusive study covers procedure, the effects and possible outcomes of various heat treatments on medium carbon steels. In the present work, other related heat treatments like annealing and special treatments for property alterations which serve as pretreatments for spheroidizing are also reviewed. Medium carbon steels with property alterations by various heat treatment processes are finding increased responsiveness in transportation, aerospace, space, underwater along with other variegated fields. Improved tribological and mechanical properties consisting of impact resistance, stiffness, abrasion and strength are the main reasons for the increased attention of these steels in various industries. In the present scenario for the consolidation of important aspects of various heat treatments and effects on mechanical properties of medium carbons steel, a review of different research papers has been attempted. This review may be used as a guide to provide practical data for heat treatment industry, especially as a tool to enhance workability and tool life.

  17. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bayer Digester Optimization Studies using Computer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jan J.; Schleider, Victor H.

    Theoretically required heat transfer performance by the multistaged flash heat reclaim system of a high pressure Bayer digester unit is determined for various conditions of discharge temperature, excess flash vapor and indirect steam addition. Solution of simultaneous heat balances around the digester vessels and the heat reclaim system yields the magnitude of available heat for representation of each case on a temperature-enthalpy diagram, where graphical fit of the number of flash stages fixes the heater requirements. Both the heat balances and the trial-and-error graphical solution are adapted to solution by digital computer techniques.

  19. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mahima,; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0....

  20. Co-digestion of food and garden waste with mixed sludge from wastewater treatment in continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Boe, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestions of urban organic waste were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio between sludge, food waste, grass clippings and green waste at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Compared to the digestion of 100% sludge, the methane yield increased by 48% and 35%, when co...... days. However, the methane yield dropped significantly to 356 (R1) and 315 (R2) NmL CH4/g VS when reducing the HRT to 10 days, indicating that the process was stressed. Since the methane production rate improved significantly with decreasing HRT, the trade-off between yield and productivity...

  1. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  2. Heat treatment of transparent Yb:YAG and YAG ceramics and its influence on laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kana; Mochida, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Tokita, Shigeki; Kawanaka, Junji; Maruyama, Momoko; Sugiyama, Akira; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2018-05-01

    Composite transparent ceramic materials are promising for improving the performance of high-average-power lasers. A combination of room-temperature bonding via surface treatment by a fast atom beam and diffusion bonding via heating, which effectively controls the ion diffusion distance near the interface, makes the laser materials suitable for a variety of oscillator/amplifier. During the heat treatment of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics, the Si ions in the solid solution of the sintering aid incorporated within the grains were seen to segregate at the grain boundary, resulting in an increase of scattering sites. The number density and size of the scattering sites strongly depended on the post-heating temperature rather than the heating time. Specifically, heating at 1300 °C did not affect the transmittance of the YAG ceramic, whereas both the size and number of scattering sites substantially increased with a heat treatment at 1400 °C. The laser oscillation experiment using cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG ceramics exhibited heating temperature dependence of the slope efficiency owing to the increasing scattering loss.

  3. Design and performance of a new induction furnace for heat treatment of superconducting radiofrequency niobium cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Rigby, Wayne; Wallace, John; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2012-06-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

  4. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  5. Effects of calcium oxide treatment of dry and modified wet corn distillers grains plus solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and apparent digestibility of feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A R; Duckworth, M J; Shike, D W; Schoonmaker, J P; Felix, T L

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding dried corn distillers grains (DDGS) or modified wet corn distillers grains (MDGS) with or without CaO treatment to feedlot steers on 1) growth performance and carcass characteristics and 2) diet digestibility, pattern of intake, and meal distribution. In Exp. 1, steers (n = 139; average initial BW = 336 ± 75 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and pens were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): 1) 50% DDGS untreated, 2) 48.8% DDGS treated with 1.2% CaO, 3) 50% MDGS untreated, or 4) 48.8% MDGS treated with 1.2% CaO. The remainder of the diet was corn husklage, dry rolled corn, and vitamin and mineral supplement. In Exp. 2, fistulated steers (n = 8; average initial BW = 540 ± 250 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with the same dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.14) between distillers grains plus solubles (DGS) and CaO inclusion for DMI, ADG, final BW, or USDA yield and quality grades. However, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had decreased (P < 0.01) DMI, regardless of DGS type. Because CaO treatment decreased DMI without affecting (P = 0.66) ADG, steers fed CaO-treated DGS had increased (P < 0.01) G:F compared to steers not fed CaO. The variation in DMI found in this experiment could be explained by differences in meal size and distribution. Steers fed CaO-treated DGS ate a similar (P = 0.36) number of meals but ate smaller (P < 0.01) meals. No effects (P ≥ 0.55) of CaO treatment or its interaction with DGS type were found for apparent total tract DM or NDF digestibility. However, steers fed MDGS had increased (P < 0.01) NDF digestibility compared to steers fed DDGS. In conclusion, CaO treatment of DGS improved feed efficiency when DGS-based diets were fed but did not improve digestibility.

  6. Fermentative Hydrogen Production from Combination of Tofu processing and anaerobic digester sludge wastes using a microbial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You-Kwan, O.; Mi-Sun, K.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of Tofu manufacturing waste and anaerobic digester sludge was studied for fermentative H 2 production in batch and continuous modes using a mixed culture originated from sewage. In order to increase the solubilization of organic substrates from Tofu waste, various pretreatments including heat-treatment, acid/alkali treatment, and sonication were examined alone or in combination with others. (Author)

  7. Preliminary observations of heat treatment to control Phytophthora ramorum in infected wood species: an extended abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Tubajika; R. Singh; Shelly J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of appropriate phytosanitary treatments that can be used for certifying solid wood packing material movement from areas infested or threatened by actionable plant pests and pathogens into uninfested areas is mportant. Heat treatment has been used on commodities to control fungal diseases and insect infestations for many years. The restricted use of...

  8. Do bark beetles and wood borers infest lumber following heat treatment? The role of bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Pascal Nzokou

    2007-01-01

    Wood packing material (WPM) is an important pathway for the movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects (Haack 2006). New international standards for treating WPM, often referred to as "ISPM 15," were adopted in 2002 (FAO 2002). The two approved WPM treatments are heat treatment (56? C core temperature for 30 min) and fumigation with methyl bromide. These...

  9. Effects of heat treatments on laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jun; Huang Jian; Li Min; Li Zhuguo; Dong Jie; Wu Yixiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Firstly find the tadpole-shape precipitates in the welding joint. → The precipitation strengthening can account for 79% of the total strength. → The results can provide some insights on the application of Mg-RE alloy. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of heat treatments on the quality of laser welded Mg-rare earth alloy NZ30K were systematically studied. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints, welded by a 15 kW high power CO 2 laser, under different heat treatments had been tested and analyzed. The results indicated that the heat treatment plays an important role in the mechanical strength of laser welded joint of NZ30K. The microstructure of samples after the solution treatment as well as aging treatment is different from that of the as-received welded joint. For solution treatment, although the microstructure is much different from that of as-received welded joint, the solution strengthening effect is not obvious. There are lots of precipitates in the fusion zone after the aging treatment, which will significantly enhance the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the yield tensile strength (YTS) of the welding joint. 79% of YTS is caused by precipitation strengthening. Therefore, the results implied that the UTS and YTS can be greatly improved by proper heat treatment.

  10. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  11. Heat treatment effect on the properties of the EhP767 maraging steel welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taver, E.I.; Piskarev, M.N.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Pustovit, A.I.; Anisimova, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Heat treatment effect on properties of welded joints of maraging 03Kh13N4K13M3T (EhP767) steel with yield strength over 150 kgs/mm 2 has been investigated. It is shown, that change in impact strength of aged joints at - 196 deg C depends on the amount of residual austenite and grain size. To stabilize 20-40 % residual austenite heat treatment regimes have been developed. Recommended are quenching at 1030-1050 deg C, sub-zero treatment and aging at 520 deg C for 16 hrs

  12. Influence of Heat Treatment on Abrasive Wear Resistance of Silumin Matrix Composite Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors attempted at examining the effect of heat treatment on abrasive wear resistance of metal composite castings. Metal matrix composites were made by infiltrating preforms created from unordered short fibers (graphite or silumin with liquid aluminium alloy AlSi12(b. Thus prepared composites were subject to solution heat treatment at a temperature of 520°C for four hours, then aging at a temperature of 220°C for four hours. Abrasion resistance of the material was tested before and after thermal treatment.

  13. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate: Effect of high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Li, Lin

    2008-10-15

    The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment at 200-600MPa, prior to freeze-drying, on some functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of vicilin-rich red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond (SS) contents were also evaluated. HP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure, as evidenced by gradual increases in fluorescence strength and SS formation from SH groups, and decrease in denaturation enthalpy change. The protein solubility of KPI was significantly improved at pressures of 400MPa or higher, possibly due to formation of soluble aggregate from insoluble precipitate. HP treatment at 200 and 400MPa significantly increased emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI); however, EAI was significantly decreased at 600MPa (relative to untreated KPI). The thermal stability of the vicilin component was not affected by HP treatment. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility of KPI was decreased only at a pressure above 200MPa and for long incubation time (e.g., 120min). The data suggest that some physiochemical and functional properties of vicilin-rich kidney proteins can be improved by means of high-pressure treatment. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. SiO2 sol-gel films after ammonia and heat two-step treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing

    2008-01-01

    SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)

  15. Effect of heat treatment at 600 degree C for 10 hours on human BMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, H.; Hachiya, Y.; Muramatsu, K.; Narita, Y.; Kawai, T.

    1999-01-01

    Viral infection are an extremely serious in allogeneic bone transplantations. While it is essential to kill viruses such as HIV in allogeneic bone graft, the osteoinductive activity must be preserved. Heat treatment of allogeneic bone graft at 60 degree C for 10 hours is effective in killing viruses such as HIV, but it is unclear to what extent the activity of human bone morphogenetic protein (hBMP) is preserved. In this experiment crude hBMP was extracted from both heated and non-heated human bones which were decalcified by the Urist method. Gelatin capsules containing 5mg of crude hBMP were transplanted into the thigh muscles of 5 week old mice. Human bone samples heated in a water bath at 60 degree C for 10 hours and non-heated samples were each transplanted into 5 mice. At 20 days after transplantation, the heterotopic bone formation was compared by evaluation of X-ray and histologicic analysis. X-rays showed heterotopic bone formation in both heated and non-heated samples. Further, histologic analysis showed that peripheral osteoid tissue had developed into laminar bone formation and interlaminar bone marrow was observed. Heterotopic bone formation was induced by crude hBMP from heated bones in a similar way to crude hBMP from non-heated bones observed in X-ray. There was no significant difference in histologic analysis. The crude hBMP, extracted from bones which were heat-treated at 60 degree C for 10 hours induced heterotopic bone formation similar to that in non-heated bone observed by X-ray and histologic analysis at 20 days after transplantation. This demostrates that the heat-treated bone preserved osteoinduction

  16. A Study on Infrared Local Heat Treatment for AA5083 to Improve Formability and Automotive Part Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Yang, Dong-Yol; Ko, SeJin

    2017-10-01

    Automotive industries are increasingly employing aluminum alloys for auto parts to reduce vehicle weight. However, the low formability of aluminum alloys has been an obstacle to their application. To resolve the formability problem, some studies involving heat treatments under laboratory conditions have been reported. However, for industrial applications, the heat treatment sequence, heating energy efficiency, and a commercial part test should be studied. This work shows an infrared (IR) local heat treatment, heating only small areas where the heat treatment is required, for an aluminum alloy to improve the formability with a reduction of heating energy. The experiment shows that the formability drastically increases when the aluminum alloy is heat treated between two forming stages, referred to as intermediate heat treatment. The microstructures of the test pieces are evaluated to identify the cause of the increase in the formability. For an industrial application, an aluminum tailgate, which cannot be manufactured without heat treatment, was successfully manufactured by the IR local heat treatment with a reduction of energy. A simulation was also conducted with a stress-based forming limit diagram, which is not affected by the strain path and heat treatment histories. The simulation gives a good prediction of the formability improvement.

  17. Manufacturing of tailored tubes with a process integrated heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordych, Illia; Boiarkin, Viacheslav; Rodman, Dmytro; Nürnberger, Florian

    2017-10-01

    The usage of work-pieces with tailored properties allows for reducing costs and materials. One example are tailored tubes that can be used as end parts e.g. in the automotive industry or in domestic applications as well as semi-finished products for subsequent controlled deformation processes. An innovative technology to manufacture tubes is roll forming with a subsequent inductive heating and adapted quenching to obtain tailored properties in the longitudinal direction. This processing offers a great potential for the production of tubes with a wide range of properties, although this novel approach still requires a suited process design. Based on experimental data, a process simulation is being developed. The simulation shall be suitable for a virtual design of the tubes and allows for gaining a deeper understanding of the required processing. The model proposed shall predict microstructural and mechanical tube properties by considering process parameters, different geometries, batch-related influences etc. A validation is carried out using experimental data of tubes manufactured from various steel grades.

  18. Improving the energy efficiency of a pilot-scale UASB-digester for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Shengnan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shengle; Zeeman, Grietje; Rijnaarts, Huub; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    A pilot-scale UASB-Settler-Digester (USD) system was utilized to treat raw municipal wastewater collected from a sewer system at 10 °C. During the reactor operation, UASB sludge was continuously transferred from the UASB to a settler; concentrated sludge in the settler was then transferred to a

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF PRE-HEAT TREATMENT ON WHITE CAST IRONS PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Myronova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of heat treatment modes of white cast irons for structure changes in their eutectic constituent, namely in disturbing the monolithic structure of ledeburite colonies cementite structure and eutectic net continuity. Also the mentioned heat treatment modes are targeted to the eutectic net shift for the most suitable position from the point of plastic deforming. Methodology. The hypoeutectic white cast irons with 2.92…3.35 % carbon content and additionally alloyed by 3.18 % vanadium have been used as the research materials. The mentioned alloys have been pre-heat treated and hot twist tested. Findings. The research results showed that the carbide net breaking by plastic deforming leads to cast irons mechanical properties increasing but has difficulties in implementation due to the white cast irons low plasticity. The influence of different pre-heat treatment modes on structure and plasticity of white hypoeutectic cast irons have been investigated. They include the isotherm soaking under the different temperatures as well as multiply soakings and thermo-cycling. The influence of eutectic level, as well as pre heat treatment modes on different composition white cast irons hot plasticity have been investigated. Originality. It was determined that the heat treatment, which leads to double α→γ recrystallization under 860 – 950 °С and reperlitization under 720-680 °С results in significant increase of plasticity, as well as in un-alloyed and alloyed by vanadium white cast irons. It takes place due to carbide matrix phase separation in ledeburite colonies by new phase boundaries forming especially due to carbide transformations under vanadium alloying. Practical value. The implementation of pre-heat treatment with phase recrystallization resulted in hypoeutectic white cast irons plasticity increasing. The obtained level of cast iron plasticity corresponds to the one of carbide class steels, which ensures the successful

  20. Improving the efficiency of plasma heat treatment of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T; Israphilov, I H; Galiakbarov, A T; Samigullin, A D; Gabdrakhmanov, Al T

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective way of the plasma hardening the surface layer at the expense combined influence of the plasma jet and a cold air flow. After that influence occurs a distinctive by plasma treatment microstructure with increased microhardness (an increase of 35%) and depth. There is proposed an improved design of the vortex tube for receiving the air flow with a temperature of 20 C to - 120C. (paper)

  1. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  2. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  3. The effect of heat treatment on phosphorus segregation in a submerged-arc weld metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beere, W.B.; Buswell, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Intergranular fracture (IGF) has been observed in carbon-manganese steels after irradiation or high temperature exposure for prolonged periods. The effect is associated with an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature and has been related to phosphorus diffusion to grain boundaries. Phosphorus also diffuses thermally at the temperatures used for post-weld heat treatments such that in principle, the slightly different heat treatments given to different parts of a large vessel could lead to differing grain boundary phosphorus coverage and hence susceptibility to IGF. The effect of typical heat treatments on phosphorus coverage has been investigated using a finite difference model based on a theory that has been fitted to a wide range of constant temperature data. Regardless of previous history, the grain boundary coverage of phosphorus was predicted to depend on the final anneal and cooling rate. These differed insufficiently in the typical heat treatments to produce significant differences in segregation. It was concluded that the ductile-brittle transition temperature in submerged-arc welds would be unaffected in vessels that had seen typical post-weld heat treatments

  4. Effect of Cold Drawing and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Invar36 Alloy Wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jea Youl; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cold drawing and heat treatment on the microstructure of Invar36 alloy wire was investigated. Invar36 alloy wire is used as a transmission line core material, and is required to have high strength. The diameter of the Invar36 alloy wire specimens were reduced from 16 mm to 4.3 mm after three cold drawing and two heat treatment processes, thereby increasing tensile strength. Specimens were taken after each of the cold drawing and heat treatment processes, and their microstructure and tensile properties were analyzed. The Invar36 alloy wire had a γ-(Fe, Ni) phase matrix before the cold drawing and heat treatment processes. After the cold drawing processes, {220} and {200} textures were mainly achieved. After the heat treatment processes, a {200} recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase was formed with fine carbides. The recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase grains had low dislocation density, so they probably accommodated a large amount of deformation during the cold drawing processes.

  5. Heat treatment of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pezda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Silumins are widely used in automotive, aviation and shipbuilding industries; as having specific gravity nearly three times lower than specific gravity of cast iron the silumins can be characterized by high mechanical properties. Additionally, they feature good casting properties, good machinability and good thermal conductivity. i.e. properties as required for machinery components operating in high temperatures and at considerable loads. Mechanical properties of the silumins can be upgraded, implementing suitably selected heat treatment. In the paper is presented an effect of modification and heat treatment processes on mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy. Investigated alloy has undergone typical processes of modification and refining, and next heat treatment. Temperature range of the heat treatment operations was determined on base of curves from the ATD method. Obtained results concern registered melting and solidification curves from the ATD method and strength tests. On base of the performed tests one has determined range of the heat treatment parameters which would assure obtainment of the best possible mechanical properties of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe alloy.

  6. Effect of heat treatments on machinability of gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, I; Baba, N; Watanabe, E; Atsuta, M; Okabe, T

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of heat treatment on the machinability of heat-treated cast gold alloy with age-hardenability at intraoral temperature using a handpiece engine with SiC wheels and an air-turbine handpiece with carbide burs and diamond points. Cast gold alloy specimens underwent various heat treatments [As-cast (AC); Solution treatment (ST); High-temperature aging (HA), Intraoral aging (IA)] before machinability testing. The machinability test was conducted at a constant machining force of 0.784N. The three circumferential speeds used for the handpiece engine were 500, 1,000 and 1,500 m/min. The machinability index (M-index) was determined as the amount of metal removed by machining (volume loss, mm(3)). The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffé's test. When an air-turbine handpiece was used, there was no difference in the M-index of the gold alloy among the heat treatments. The air-turbine carbide burs showed significantly (pmachinability of the gold alloy using the air-turbine handpiece. The heat treatments had a small effect on the M-index of the gold alloy machined with a SiC wheel for a handpiece engine.

  7. Effect of Cold Drawing and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Invar36 Alloy Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jea Youl [RandD Center, KOS Ltd., Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Yong [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the effect of cold drawing and heat treatment on the microstructure of Invar36 alloy wire was investigated. Invar36 alloy wire is used as a transmission line core material, and is required to have high strength. The diameter of the Invar36 alloy wire specimens were reduced from 16 mm to 4.3 mm after three cold drawing and two heat treatment processes, thereby increasing tensile strength. Specimens were taken after each of the cold drawing and heat treatment processes, and their microstructure and tensile properties were analyzed. The Invar36 alloy wire had a γ-(Fe, Ni) phase matrix before the cold drawing and heat treatment processes. After the cold drawing processes, {220} and {200} textures were mainly achieved. After the heat treatment processes, a {200} recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase was formed with fine carbides. The recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase grains had low dislocation density, so they probably accommodated a large amount of deformation during the cold drawing processes.

  8. Study of the Al-Si-X system by different cooling rates and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Suarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The solidification behavior of the Al-12.6% Si (A1, the hypereutectic Al-20%Si (A2 and the Al-20%Si-1.5% Fe-0.5%Mn (A3 (in wt. (% alloys, at different cooling rates is reported and discussed. The cooling rates ranged between 0.93 °C/s and 190 °C/s when cast in sand and copper wedge-shaped molds, respectively. A spheroidization heat treatment was carried out to the alloys in the as-cast condition at 540 °C for 11 hours and quench in water with a subsequent heat treatment at 170 °C for 5 hours with the purpose of improving the mechanical properties. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanically by tensile test, in order to evaluate the response of the heat treatment on the different starting microstructures and mechanical properties. It was found that alloys cooled at rates greater than 10.8 °C/s had a smaller particle size and better distribution, also showed a greater response to spheroidization heat treatment of all silicon (Si phases. The spheroidization heat treatment caused an increase in the ultimate tensile stress (UTS and elongation when compared with the alloys in the as-cast condition. The highest UTS value of 174 MPa was obtained for the (A1 alloy.

  9. Impact of Surface Potential on Apatite Formation in Ti Alloys Subjected to Acid and Heat Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2017-09-24

    Titanium metal (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in orthopedic and dental fields. We have previously shown that acid and heat treatment was effective to introduce bone bonding, osteoconduction and osteoinduction on pure Ti. In the present study, acid and heat treatment with or without initial NaOH treatment was performed on typical Ti-based alloys used in orthopedic and dental fields. Dynamic movements of alloying elements were developed, which depended on the kind of treatment and type of alloy. It was found that the simple acid and heat treatment enriched/remained the alloying elements on Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15Mo-5Zr-3Al and Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta, resulting in neutral surface charges. Thus, the treated alloys did not form apatite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) within 3 days. In contrast, when the alloys were subjected to a NaOH treatment prior to an acid and heat treatment, alloying elements were selectively removed from the alloy surfaces. As a result, the treated alloys became positively charged, and formed apatite in SBF within 3 days. Thus, the treated alloys would be useful in orthopedic and dental fields since they form apatite even in a living body and bond to bone.

  10. The long-term effects of a life-prolonging heat treatment on the Drosophila melanogaster transcriptome suggest that heat shock proteins extend lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarup, Pernille Merete; Sørensen, Peter; Loeschcke, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Heat-induced hormesis, i.e. the beneficial effect of mild heat-induced stress, increases the average lifespan of many organisms. This effect, which depends on the heat shock factor, decreases the log mortality rate weeks after the stress has ceased. To identify candidate genes that mediate......-treated flies. Several hsp70 probe sets were up-regulated 1.7–2-fold in the mildly stressed flies weeks after the last heat treatment (P shock protein, Hsp70, is reported to return to normal levels of expression shortly after heat stress. We...... conclude that the heat shock response, and Hsp70 in particular, may be central to the heat-induced increase in the average lifespan in flies that are exposed to mild heat stress early in life....

  11. Preliminary study on the forgeability and heat treatment response of niobium - containing tool steels materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cescon, T.; Papaleo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The forgeability and microstructure of tool steels materials based on the M-2 composition, where W and V were partially replaced by Nb, were examined. The optimum heat-treating conditions were established. The poor response to heat treatment of some of the alloys studied indicated the need of increasing the C content of the steels when Nb is used as a substitute for W and V. (Author) [pt

  12. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in batch reactor with digested biodiesel waste as starter and natural zeolite for microbial immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Paulina Adina Hari; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from sludge separation, sterilization, and clarification process of palm oil industries. Each ton of palm oil produces about half ton of high organic load wastewater. Up to now, POME treatment is done in lagoon, leaving major problems in land requirement and greenhouse gasses release. The increasing of palm oil production provokes the urgency of appropriate technology application in treating POME to prevent the greenhouse gasses emission while exploit POME as renewable energy source. The purposes of this study were firstly to test the effectiveness of using the digested biodiesel waste as the inoculum and secondly to evaluate the effectiveness of natural zeolite addition in minimizing the inhibitory effect in digesting POME. It was expected that the oil-degrading bacteria in the inoculum would shorten the adaptation period in digesting POME. Furthermore, the consortium formation of anaerobic bacteria accelerated by natural zeolite powder addition would increase the microbial resistance to the inhibitors contained in the POME. The batch digesters, containing 0 (control); 17; 38; and 63 g natural zeolite/g sCOD substrate were observed for 43 days. The result showed that zeolite addition did not give significant effect on sCOD reduction (97.3-98.6% of initial sCOD). Moreover, addition of immobilization media up to 17 g natural zeolite/g stimulated the acidification and biogas production up to 10% higher than control. The purity of methane produced with various amount of immobilization media did not differ for each variation, i.e. 50-54% v/v methane. The increasing amount of natural zeolite up to 63 g/g sCOD did not significantly enhance biogas product rate nor methane content.

  13. The effects of heat treatment and environment on corrosion fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.G.; Hwang, I.S.; Elliott, C.K.

    1993-05-01

    Alloy X-750 is a nickel-base alloy used extensively in Light Water Reactor (LWR) nuclear power systems due to its excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. In spite of alloy X-750's exceptional high temperature properties, it has been found to be susceptible to environmentally assisted fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in relatively low temperature aqueous environments such as those that exist in LWR systems. In order to develop a better understanding of the role that microstructure plays in the fatigue behavior of alloy X-750, three thermal treatments were studied. The treatments used were as hot worked + : (1) 24 h at 885 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (AH), (2) lh at 982 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (BH), and (3) 1 h at 1093 degree C + 20 h at 704 degree C (HTH). Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted at frequencies of 0.1 and 10 Hz in the following aqueous environments: (1) high purity, air saturated water (8 ppM O 2 ) at 93 degree C and 288 degree C, (2) high purity, deoxygenated water (5 ppb O 2 ) at 93 degree C, and (3) simulated BWR water chemistry with hydrogen additions at 288 degree C. Crack growth rate data was collected at constant values of stress intensity factor range (ΔK). The results show that crack growth rates and morphology are a function of ΔK, frequency, thermal treatment and environment. Frequency effects were most significant for the AH material. Crack growth rates generally decrease, for a given value of ΔK, in the BH and HTH materials with the HTH material showing the lowest growth rate

  14. Chemical heat treatment of low alloyed maraging steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinov, L S; Korotich, I K [Zhdanovskij Metallurgicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-09-01

    The investigation concerned the nitriding, cementation, chromizing, borating of economically alloyed maraging grade 04Kh2N5MFYu steel. The investigated methods of chemothermal treatment were found to considerably increase the hardness of the surface layer of the maraging steel. The high tempering of the grade 04Kh2N5MFYu cemented and hardened steel was found to produce secondary hardening. On chromizing, the diffusion layer is an alloyed ferrite which strengthens because of the dispersion hardening on ageing. The formation of the plastic low-carbon martensite at relatively small cooling rates greatly decreases the tendency of the boride layer to cracking.

  15. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  16. Influence of heat treatment on the machinability and corrosion behavior of AZ91 Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Chowdary V

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, AZ91 Mg alloy was heat treated at 410 °C for 6, 12 and 24 h to investigate the influence of heat treatment on machinability and corrosion behavior. The effect of soaking time on the amount and distribution of Mg17Al12 (β – phase was analyzed under the optical microscope. Microhardness measurements demonstrated the increased hardness with increased heat treatment soaking time, which can be attributed to the solid solution strengthening. The influence of super saturated α-grains on reducing the cutting force (Fz with respect to increased cutting speed was observed as prominent. The corrosion behavior of the heat treated specimens was studied by conducting electrochemical tests. Surprisingly, corrosion rate of heat treated samples was observed as increased compared with the base material. From the results, it is evident that the machinability of AZ91 Mg alloy can be improved by producing super saturated α-grains through heat treatment but at the cost of losing corrosion resistance. Keywords: AZ91 Mg alloy, Solid solution, Turning, Corrosion, Machinability

  17. Suppression of outgassing from spindt-type cold-cathode by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyo, Yasuhiko; Ogiwara, Norio; Saidoh, Masahiro; Hayashi, Naoki; Turuta, Kouichi.

    1995-01-01

    In Spindt type cold cathode electron source (hereafter, referred to as FEA), field emission is used for extracting electrons. It was made clear that the FEA is an excellent electron source that never causes gas release by heating peripheral parts. But the gas release form the FEA was confirmed though it was slight accompanying the extraction of current. This gas release becomes a problem when pressure measurement is carried out by using the FEA in ultrahigh or extremely high vacuum. If the gas release occurs by the effect of the heat generation at the tip of an emitter accompanying the extraction of electron current, it is possible to reduce the gas release by carrying out the heat treatment of the FEA was attempted, and as the result, it was elucidated that by the heat treatment at 400degC, the gas release form the FEA was able to be suppressed. However, a new problem that the insulation between gate and emitter deteriorated and broke during the extraction of current occurred. The experimental method and the results of the reduction of gas release by heat treatment and the observation of the broken FEA with a scanning electron microscope are reported. Also the problem that in the FEA which was heat-treated at 400degC, the current has decreased from 500 μA to 100 μA in about 100 hours occurred. As to these problems, it is necessary to continue the experiment further. (K.I.)

  18. Evaluation of the Sensitization of 316L Stainless Steels After the Post Weld Heat Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junho; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It was observed that the PWSCC growth rate of alloy 182 was markedly decreased after PWHT. However, the PWHT of components made of stainless steels (SSs) would be limited because of the concerns about sensitization when they are exposed to temperature range of 500 to 800 .deg. C. Also, the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels could increase the susceptibility to intergrannular stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, the effect of PWHT on the sensitization behaviors of 316L SSs having predominant austenitic structure with small amount of ferrite was investigated to assess the applicability of PWHT to dissimilar weld area with austenitic stainless steels. The sensitization behaviors of two heats of 316L SSs with small amount of ferrite were investigated after heat treatment at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C. Grain boundary sensitization was not observed in 316L SSs after the heat treatment at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C up to 30 h. The increase in degree of sensitization (DOS) was caused by reduction of corrosion resistance in ferrite phase due to formation of chromium carbide and intermatallic phases during heat treatment. The DOS value of 316L SSs depended on the ferrite morphology. The stringer type of ferrite (316L-heat A) showed relatively higher DOS in comparison with 316L containing blocky type of ferrite (316L-heat B). It could be due to sufficient supplement of chromium in larger size of ferrite phase.

  19. Evaluation of the Sensitization of 316L Stainless Steels After the Post Weld Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junho; Jang, Changheui; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2014-01-01

    It was observed that the PWSCC growth rate of alloy 182 was markedly decreased after PWHT. However, the PWHT of components made of stainless steels (SSs) would be limited because of the concerns about sensitization when they are exposed to temperature range of 500 to 800 .deg. C. Also, the sensitization of austenitic stainless steels could increase the susceptibility to intergrannular stress corrosion cracking. Therefore, the effect of PWHT on the sensitization behaviors of 316L SSs having predominant austenitic structure with small amount of ferrite was investigated to assess the applicability of PWHT to dissimilar weld area with austenitic stainless steels. The sensitization behaviors of two heats of 316L SSs with small amount of ferrite were investigated after heat treatment at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C. Grain boundary sensitization was not observed in 316L SSs after the heat treatment at 600, 650 and 700 .deg. C up to 30 h. The increase in degree of sensitization (DOS) was caused by reduction of corrosion resistance in ferrite phase due to formation of chromium carbide and intermatallic phases during heat treatment. The DOS value of 316L SSs depended on the ferrite morphology. The stringer type of ferrite (316L-heat A) showed relatively higher DOS in comparison with 316L containing blocky type of ferrite (316L-heat B). It could be due to sufficient supplement of chromium in larger size of ferrite phase

  20. Effect of the Heat Treatment on the Graphite Matrix of Fuel Element for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chungyong; Lee, Seungjae; Suh, Jungmin; Jo, Youngho; Lee, Youngwoo; Cho, Moonsung

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the cylinder-formed fuel element for the block type reactor is focused on, which consists of the large part of graphite matrix. One of the most important properties of the graphite matrix is the mechanical strength for the high reliability because the graphite matrix should be enabled to protect the TRISO particles from the irradiation environment and the impact from the outside. In this study, the three kinds of candidate graphites and Phenol as a binder were chosen and mixed with each other, formed and heated for the compressive strength test. The objective of this research is to optimize the kinds and composition of the mixed graphite and the forming process by evaluating the compressive strength before/after heat treatment (carbonization of binder). In this study, the effect of heat treatment on graphite matrix was studied in terms of the density and the compressive strength. The size (diameter and length) of pellet is increased by heat treatment. Due to additional weight reduction and swelling (length and diameter) of samples the density of graphite pellet is decreased from about 2.0 to about 1.7g/cm 3 . From the mechanical test results, the compressive strength of graphite pellets was related to the various conditions such as the contents of binder, the kinds of graphite and the heat treatment. Both the green pellet and the heat treated pellet, the compressive strength of G+S+P pellets is relatively higher than that of R+S+P pellets. To optimize fuel element matrix, the effect of Phenol and other binders, graphite composition and the heat treatment on the mechanical properties will be deeply investigated for further study

  1. Effect of foam on temperature prediction and heat recovery potential from biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbala-Robles, L; Volcke, E I P; Samijn, A; Ronsse, F; Pieters, J G

    2016-05-15

    Heat is an important resource in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which can be recovered. A prerequisite to determine the theoretical heat recovery potential is an accurate heat balance model for temperature prediction. The insulating effect of foam present on the basin surface and its influence on temperature prediction were assessed in this study. Experiments were carried out to characterize the foam layer and its insulating properties. A refined dynamic temperature prediction model, taking into account the effect of foam, was set up. Simulation studies for a WWTP treating highly concentrated (manure) wastewater revealed that the foam layer had a significant effect on temperature prediction (3.8 ± 0.7 K over the year) and thus on the theoretical heat recovery potential (30% reduction when foam is not considered). Seasonal effects on the individual heat losses and heat gains were assessed. Additionally, the effects of the critical basin temperature above which heat is recovered, foam thickness, surface evaporation rate reduction and the non-absorbed solar radiation on the theoretical heat recovery potential were evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  3. Effect of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on the solubilization of organic matter, pathogen inactivation and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinoza, Juan E; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Martínez-Delgadillo, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of poultry industry effluents produces wastewater sludge with high levels of organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, the thermal pre-treatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge (PSS) was evaluated for low temperatures in combination with different exposure times as a pre-hydrolysis strategy to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Organic compounds solubilization and inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were evaluated after treatment at 70, 80 or 90°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. The results showed that 90°C and 90 min were the most efficient conditions for solubilization of the organic compounds (10%). In addition, the bacteria populations and the more resistant structures, such as helminth eggs (HE), were completely inactivated. Finally, the thermal pre-treatment applied to the sludge increased methane yield by 52% and reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) by 52%.

  4. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Alkali Treatment on the Tannin Content and in Vitro and in Sacco Digestibility of Acacia Aneura (Mulga Wattle)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changwony, J.

    2002-01-01

    The need to utilise rainfall marginal areas for increased livestock production has necessitated the use of drought tolerant plants especially tannin content and are consequently of low nutritive value to ruminants. Treating these plants with alkali can reduce the level of tannin and their effects and hence improve their digestibility by ruminants.Tannins were quantified in mulga wattle (Acacia aneura) before and after treatment either with 4% calcium hydroxide, 4% urea or 6% polyethylene glycol (PEG). In vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD)and dry organic matter digestibility (DOMD) of the treated mulga leaves was estimated in four replicates each of treatments A (Mulga only), B (Mulga + 6g/100gDM PEG), C (Mulga + 4g/100gDM Ca(OH) 2 ), D (Mulga + 4g/100gDM Ca(OH) 2 ) + 6g/100gDM PEG), E (Mulga + 4g/100gDM urea), and F (Mulga + 4g/100g DM urea + 6g/100gDM PEG). In sacco matter dry digestibility (DMD) and organic matter digestibility (DOMD) as well as nitrogen loss was estimated in a 6 * 6 Latin square experimental design using six rumen- fistulated wethers, crosses of Merino and Border Leicester, between ages 24 and 42 months. The incubation times for each period were 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours. PEG reduced the tannin content from 15.5% to 12.3%, while Ca(OH) 2 and urea reduced it to 0.6% and 2.1% respectively. Ca(OH) 2 increased the in vitro DMD by 36.9% compared to 41.4% by PEG while urea increased it by 27.9%.Ca(OH) 2 increased vitro DOMD by 5.2% while PEG and urea increased it by 38.2 and 23.1% respectively. There was an average increase ( 2 and PEG respectively, were used to pre-treat mulga and a reduction (P 2 was not significant. Urea reduced DOMD by 23.8%. Nitrogen loss in the rumen did not significantly increase with the use of PEG while the use of Ca(OH) 2 reduced (P< or =0.05) the rumen loss of nitrogen by 31.8%. The 23% reduction of nitrogen loss due to use of urea in pre- treatment was not significant. Calcium hydroxide and urea in

  6. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonigra, Dhiren, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R., E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O−9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−38TiO{sub 2}−39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  7. Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of calcite and MgO: surface defects and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Brown, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the problems which preclude accurate thermoluminescence (TL) dating of geologically formed calcite stem from different sample pre-treatment procedures, such as grinding, drilling or pre-heating. It has long been known that grinding can introduce spurious TL in calcite, but there have been wide differences of opinion as to the magnitude of the influence and its importance. Therefore, various grinding and acid-washing procedures have been suggested to avoid spurious thermoluminescence. Various models have been developed to explain the mechanism. We have studied the changes in thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties as well as in the spectral composition of the glow from calcite and MgO due to surface defects and heat treatment. It is found that both laboratory heat treatment and surface indents give rise to changes in TL efficiency. (author)

  8. Regenerative heat treatments for the extension of the creep life of the superalloy IN-738

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.A.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Uniaxial creep tests have been performed on the cast nickel-base superalloy IN-738 at 1023K and 1123K. Microstructural damage occurring during creep has been characterised using transmission electron microscopy of surface and extraction replicas. Considerable coarsening of the γ' precipitates occurs during creep causing a progressive loss of creep strength. Intermediate heat treatment of interrupted specimens regenerates a microstructure similar to the original, and on re-testing significant creep life extensions are observed. These heat treatments do not completely recover the creep life due to the development of grain boundary cavitation. Additional heat treatments were performed under a superimposed hydrostatic pressure of 138 MPa to remove these cavities. (orig.) [de

  9. Variation of Mechanical Properties of High RRR And Reactor Grade Niobium With Heat Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapati Myneni; H. Umezawa

    2003-06-01

    Superconducting rf cavities used as accelerating structures in particle accelerators are made from high purity niobium with residual resistance ratios greater than 250. Reactor grade niobium is also used to make wave-guide and/or end group components for these accelerating structures. The major impurities in this type of niobium are interstitially dissolved gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen in addition to carbon. After fabricating the niobium accelerating structures, they are subjected to heat treatments for several hours in vacuum at temperatures of up to 900 C for degassing hydrogen or up to 1400 C for improving the thermal conductivity of niobium considerably. These heat treatments are affecting the mechanical properties of niobium drastically. In this paper the variation of the mechanical properties of high purity and reactor grade niobium with heat treatments in a vacuum of {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr and temperatures from 600 C to 1250 C for periods of 10 to 6 hours are presented.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on CO2 adsorption of KOH-activated graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin

    2010-12-15

    In this work, graphite nanofibers (GNFs) were successfully expanded intercalating KOH followed by heat treatment in the temperature range of 700-1000 °C. The aim was to improve the CO(2) adsorption capacity of the GNFs by increasing the porosity of GNFs. The effects of heat treatment on the pore structures of GNFs were investigated by N(2) full isotherms, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The CO(2) adsorption capacity was measured by CO(2) isothermal adsorption at 25 °C and 1 atm. From the results, it was found that the activation temperature had a major influence on CO(2) adsorption capacity and textural properties of GNFs. The specific surface area, total pore volume, and mesopore volume of the GNFs increased after heat treatment. The CO(2) adsorption isotherms showed that G-900 exhibited the best CO(2) adsorption capacity with 59.2 mg/g. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat treatment of processing sludge of ornamental rocks: application as pozzolan in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Uliana

    Full Text Available The sector of ornamental rocks produces significant volume of waste during the sawing of the blocks and demand to find ways to recycle, given its environmental impact. Considering the possibilities of use of industrial by-products as mineral admixtures, aiming at sustainable development in the construction industry, this paper aims to study the performance of the processing sludge of ornamental rocks and grinding after heat treatment, based on their potential application as partial substitute for cement. The residue was characterized, cast and milled to produce glassy material. Was analyzed the mechanical performance and pozzolanic activity with partial replacement of cement by waste in natural condition and after heat treatment in mortars for comparison. The results were promising, so it was possible to verify that after heat treatment, the treated waste is presented as a material with pozzolanic characteristics.

  12. Examination of the influence of heat treatment on the properties of Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuksanovic, D.; Rakocevic, S. [Faculty of Metallurgy, Podgorica (RS); Markovic, S. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (RS); Petrovic, T. [Institute ' Kirilo Savic' , Belgrade (RS); Kovacevic, K. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (RS); Tripkovic, S. [H.K. Petar Drapsin, Mladenovac (RS)

    2007-08-15

    In this paper the influence of heat treatment on the structural and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys was investigated. Silicon content in the examined alloys was in the range 11 to 14%, the contents of the other alloying elements were in the standard range but all alloys were modified with strontium. The regime of the applied heat treatment was quenching (520 C/6h - cooling in water) + aging (205oC/7h - air cooling). The examinations were carried out at room temperature as well as at 250 C and 300 C. The obtained results showed a positive influence of the applied heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the examined alloys. The improvement of the mechanical properties can be considered as a consequence of a redistribution and change of morphology of the phases present in the structure of the alloys. (orig.)

  13. Shelf-life extension of bread by heat and irradiation treatment [Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, F.; Siddique, A.K.; Choudhury, N.; Mollah, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Bread slices were given irradiation treatment 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 KGy and heat treatment at 60 deg. C for 20 min to control mould growth. Mould growth was reladed at ambient temperature by 3, 4, 6 and 8 days after 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy treatments, respectively, compared to 2 days in case of control sample and 3 days for heat treatment alone. Combination of heat with irradiation at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 KGy retarded mould growth up to 4, 6, 7 an 9 days, respectively. Organoleptically, the irradiated bread slices were acceptable up to 3 to 6 days depending on the treatment. The combination method treated slices were acceptable up to 8 days. The application of radiation dose exceeding 2.0 KGy caused off flavour. Mild heat treatment and radiation in combination resulted in a synergistic antifungal effect and enhanced shelf-life of bread

  14. Improvement of stress-rupture life of GTD-111 by second solution heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Caixiong; Xu, Yulai; Zhang, Zixing; Nie, Heng; Xiao, Xueshan; Jia, Guoqing; Shen, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The second solution heat treatment promoted the solution of γ–γ′ eutectic into γ matrix. ► The volume fraction of γ′ increases significantly after adding the second solution heat treatment. ► The improved stress-rupture life is primarily due to the increased volume fraction of γ′ phase. -- Abstract: An added second solution heat treatment was conducted to investigate its effects on the microstructures and stress-rupture properties of GTD-111. The microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscope after each step of heat treatments. The stress-rupture life of GTD-111 dramatically increases from about 180 to 288 h at 871 °C/310 MPa after adding a second solution heat treatment. The added second solution heat treatment promoted the solution of γ–γ′ eutectic into γ matrix, and facilitated the nucleation and precipitate of the secondary γ′ particles. The distribution of γ′ phase becomes much denser, the width of γ matrix channel is also reduced, and the volume fraction of γ′ phase significantly increases from about 29.3% to 44.2%. The improved stress-rupture life is primarily due to the increased volume fraction of γ′ phase. The carbides mainly consist of MC and a small amount of M 23 C 6 , which may prevent the dislocation moving and/or grain boundary sliding, and further improve the stress-rupture properties of GTD-111.

  15. Heat treatment of a direct composite resin: influence on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lumi Miyazaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of a direct composite, for indirect application, that received heat treatment, with or without investment. One indirect composite was used for comparison. For determination of the heat treatment temperature, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed, considering the initial weight loss temperature and glass transition temperature (Tg. Then, after photoactivation (600 mW/cm² - 40 s, the specimens (10 x 2 x 2 mm were heat-treated following these conditions: 170ºC for 5, 10 or 15 min, embedded or not embedded in investment. Flexural strength was assessed as a means to evaluate the influence of different heat treatment periods and investment embedding on mechanical properties. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. TGA showed an initial weight loss temperature of 180ºC and DSC showed a Tg value of 157°C. Heat treatment was conducted in an oven (Flli Manfredi, Italy, after 37°C storage for 48 h. Flexural strength was evaluated after 120 h at 37°C storage. The results showed that different periods and investment embedding presented similar statistical values. Nevertheless, the direct composite resin with treatments presented higher values (178.7 MPa compared to the indirect composite resin (146.0 MPa and the same direct composite submitted to photoactivation only (151.7 MPa. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the heat treatment increased the flexural strength of the direct composite studied, leading to higher mechanical strength compared to the indirect composite.

  16. Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Alloy 718 base metal and weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1979-06-01

    Effect of heat treatment on the metallurgical structure and tensile properties of three heats of Alloy 718 base metal and an Alloy 718 GTA weldment were characterized. Heat treatments employed were the conventional (ASTM A637) precipitation treatment and a modified precipitation treatment designed to improve the toughness of the weldments. The GTA weldments were characterized in the as-welded condition. Light microscopy, thin foil, and surface replica electron microscopy revealed that the microstructure of this superalloy was sensitive to heat treatment and heat-to-heat variations. The modified aging treatment resulted in a larger grain size and a more homogeneous microstructure than the conventional treatments. The morphology of the primary strengthening γ phase was found to be finer and more closely spaced in the conventionally treated condition. Room and elevated temperature tensile testing revealed that the strength of the conventionally treated alloy was generally superior to that of the modified material. The conventional aging treatment resulted in greater heat-to-heat variations in tensile properties. This behavior was correlated with variations in the microstructure resulting from the precipitation heat treatments. The precipitate morphology of the GTA weldments was sensitive to heat treatment. The Laves phase was present in the interdendritic regions of both heat-treated welds. The modified aging treatment reduced the amount of Laves phase present in the weld zone. Room and elevated temperature tensile properties of the precipitation hardened weldments were relatively insensitive to heat treatment, suggesting that reduction in Laves phase from the weld zone had essentially no effect on tensile properties. As-welded GTA weldments exhibited lower strength levels and higher ductility values than heat-treated welds

  17. Effects of processing method and solute interactions on pepsin digestibility of cooked proso millet flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Paridhi; Sabillón, Luis; Rose, Devin J

    2018-07-01

    Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h). To study the interaction of millet proteins with solutes, millet flour was heated with sucrose (3-7 M); NaCl (2-6 M); and CaCl 2 (0.5-3 M). All processing treatments failed to prevent the loss in pepsin digestibility except germination and treatment with transglutaminase, which resulted in 23 and 39% increases in digestibility upon cooking, respectively, when compared with unprocessed cooked flours. Heating in concentrated solutions of sucrose and NaCl were effective in preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility, an effect that was attributed to a reduction in water activity (a w ). CaCl 2 was also successful in preventing the loss in digestibility but its action was similar to chaotrops like urea. Thus, a combination of enzymatic modification and cooking of millet flour with either naturally low a w substances or edible sources of chaotropic ions may be useful in processing of proso millet for development of novel foods without loss in digestibility. However, more research is required to determine optimum processing conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the grooving corrosion resistance of ERW pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Lee, Jae Young; Lim, Soo Hyun; Park, Ji Hwan; Seo, Bo Min; Kim, Seon Hwa

    2002-01-01

    The v-sharp grooving corrosion of ERW(electrical resistance welding) steel pipes limited their wide application in the industry in spite of their high productivity and efficiency. The grooving corrosion is caused mainly by the different microstructures between the matrix and weld that is formed during the rapid heating and cooling cycle in welding. By this localized corrosion reaction of pipes, it evolves economic problems such as the early damage of industrial facilities and pipe lines of apartment, and water pollution. Even though the diminishing of sulfur content is most effective to decrease the susceptibility of grooving corrosion, it requires costly process. In this study, improvement of grooving corrosion resistance was pursuited by post weld heat treatment in the temperature range between 650 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C. Also, the effect of heat input in the welding was investigated. By employing chromnoamperometry and potentiodynamic experiment, the corrosion rate and grooving corrosion index(α) were obtained. It was found that heat treatment could improve the grooving corrosion resistance. Among them, the heat treated at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C had excellent grooving corrosion resistance. The index of heat treated specimen at 900 .deg. C and 950 .deg. C were 1.0, 1.2, respectively, which are almost immune to the grooving corrosion. Potential difference after the heat treatment, between base and weld metal was decreased considerably. While the as-received one measured 61∼71 mV, that of the 900 .deg. C heat treated steel pipe measured only 10mV. The results were explained and discussed

  19. Determination of the average residence time in an anaerobic digester of Barueri wastewater treatment by using radioactive tracer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Luiz Carlos; Vitoreti, Cristiane da Silva; Moraes, Fabio Alceu Akiyama de

    2002-01-01

    Gas production in the Barueri Wastewater Treatment Plant digesters shows lower values than projected. This fact conducted to the hypothesis that there could be dead zones caused by homogenization deficiencies. In order to verify this hypothesis a full scale essay was conducted with Iodine - 131 as tracer. A Mutual Cooperation Agreement was signed between the Sao Paulo Basic Sanitation Company (SABESP) and the Nuclear and Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) to conduct these essays. The results showed that the active volume was almost 88% of the nominal capacity. (author)

  20. Improving the conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes films by heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiaping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sun Jing, E-mail: jingsun@mail.sic.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao Lian, E-mail: liangaoc@online.sh.c [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu Yangqiao; Wang Yan; Zhang Jing [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Superfine Microstructures, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kajiura, Hisashi; Li Yongming; Noda, Kazuhiro [Advanced Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Atsugi Tec. No. 2, 4-16-1 Okata Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan)

    2009-10-19

    A simple heat treatment method was applied to remove surfactants remaining in the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) films at 300 deg. C for 5 h in air. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflected light interference microscope (RLIM) were employed to verify the elimination of surfactants. The comprehensive performance, especially the conductivity, could be improved by more than one order after heat treatment. For example, using SDBS as dispersant, the sheet resistance decreased from 782,600 OMEGA/square to 40,460 OMEGA/square with the transmittance of about 99.5% at 550 nm.

  1. 99Mo production using MoO3 pellets obtained by mechanical compression and heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Lopez, Alcides

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the results of the MoO 3 pellets fabrication by mechanical compression and the heat treatment method (MCHT) in order to optimize the production of 99 Mo in the RACSO Nuclear Center. The effects of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as binder are assessed by heat treatment of pellets in air atmosphere, evaluating the elimination process with increasing temperature and solubility in 5N NaOH. The results show that the pellets fabrication technique is suitable because fulfills the required technical specifications, allows to irradiate 50 % more of 98 Mo mass and facilitate a safer radiological handling of the irradiated MoO 3 . (authors).

  2. Artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles subjected to high-temperature heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevich, A. B.; Nemytova, O. V.; Perov, D. V.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Kuznetsov, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature heat treatment has valuable impact on the structure and physical properties of artificial crystals with 3d metal and palladium particles. Artificial crystals are obtained by means of introduction of particles into the interspherical voids of opal matrices. The magnetic properties are studied at the temperatures ranging from 2 to 300 K and in fields up to 350 kOe. Microwave properties are investigated in the millimeter frequency range. The complex dielectric permittivity of several nanocomposites is measured. The influence of heat treatment up to 960 °C on the structure of artificial crystals is clarified.

  3. Universal high-temperature heat treatment furnace for FBR mixed uranium and plutonium carbide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Muneo; Takahashi, Ichiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    1978-10-01

    A universal high-temperature heat treatment furnace for LMFBR advanced fuels was installed in Plutonium Fuel Laboratory, Oarai Research Establishment. Design, construction and performance of the apparatus are described. With the apparatus, heat treatment of the fuel under a controlled gas atmosphere and quenching of the fuel with blowing helium gas are possible. Equipment to measure impurity gas release of the fuel is also provided. Various plutonium enclosure techniques, e.g., a gas line filter with new exchange mechanics, have been developed. In performance test, results of the enclosure techniques are described. (author)

  4. A heat mathematical model of polymer composite cylinder during microwave treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Reznik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional technologies of producing epoxy based polymer composite materials (PCM require a long-term and energy consuming thermal processing. Microwave heating could be used as an alternative technology for heating work pieces made of PCM; this would allow to reduce treatment time and energy consumption significantly. A mathematical model of temperature distribution inside a cylindrical composite system during microwave treatment was investigated in this paper. The model includes a hollow PCM cylinder made of an epoxy binder and carbon fibers and a solid cylindrical mandrel. Theoretical and experimental results on the temperature state of the system were analyzed and discussed.

  5. Study on mechanical properties of the laminated composite materials with compatible heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkov, P.O.; Pektemirov, B.G.; Yaroshenko, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the behaviour during axial extension of trilament composite materials, the mechanical properties of which are formed mainly by heat treatment. Application in the composite of the materials with compatible heat treatment is most rational. It is shown that for (ATsMg+N18K8M5T+ATsMg), (KhN78+VKS+KhH78) composites, the constituents of which are relatively plastic and tightly bound with each other, the tensile strength and uniform strain are changed additively

  6. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  7. Physical aspects of thermotherapy: A study of heat transport with a view to treatment optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsrud, Johan Karl Otto

    1998-12-01

    Local treatment with the aim to destruct tissue by heating (thermotherapy) may in some cases be an alternative or complement to surgical methods, and has gained increased interest during the last decade. The major advantage of these, often minimally-invasive methods, is that the disease can be controlled with reduced treatment trauma and complications. The extent of thermal damage is a complex function of the physical properties of tissue, which influence the temperature distribution, and of the biological response to heat. In this thesis, methods of obtaining a well-controlled treatment have been studied from a physical point of view, with emphasis on interstitial laser-induced heating of tumours in the liver and intracavitary heating as a treatment for menorrhagia. Hepatic inflow occlusion, in combination with temperature-feedback control of the output power of the laser, resulted in well defined damaged volumes during interstitial laser thermotherapy in normal porcine liver. In addition, phantom experiments showed that the use of multiple diffusing laser fibres allows heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes in a single session. Methods for numerical simulation of heat transport were used to calculate the temperature distribution and the results agreed well with experiments. It was also found from numerical simulation that the influence of light transport on the damaged volume may be negligible in interstitial laser thermotherapy in human liver. Finite element analysis, disregarding light transport, was therefore proposed as a suitable method for 3D treatment planning. Finite element simulation was also used to model intracavitary heating of the uterus, with the purpose of providing an increased understanding of the influence of various treatment parameters on blood flow and on the depth of tissue damage. The thermal conductivity of human uterine tissue, which was used in these simulations, was measured. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was

  8. EFFECT OF PRE-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Ti-6Al-4V WELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnofam Jacques TCHEIN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is related to the optimization of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW process. The objective is to study the influence of some parameters used in the production of welded joints by FSW. The most important parameters are the welding speed and the rotational speed of the tool. The effect of pre-heat treatment on the plates to be welded is also studied by the design of experimental methods. These pre-heat treatments result not only in a change of mechanical properties of plates to be welded, but also of their microstructure. The experiments were performed following a 16 lines fractional Taguchi table.

  9. Biogas Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass : Impact of pre-treatment, co-digestion, harvest time and inoculation

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Biogas or methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining increasing attention worldwide due to concerns over global warming, energy security and the need for sustainable waste management. AD of lignocellulosic biomass is one facet that is highly appreciated since the conflict over biomass for food/feed or energy can be avoided. As a result the need for non-food based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock has emerged as (co-) feedstock of choice for the AD process. Despite these ad...

  10. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.; Hedemann, Mette S.

    2007-01-01

    The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite fo...... that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacteria] load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density....

  11. Comparative study on the effect of boiling, autoclaving and irradiation treatments of artichoke by-product on growth perfor mance and digestibility of broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekkawy, S.H.; Zakaria, S.M.; El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sixty broiler chicks (21 days old) were assigned into six equal groups. artichoke by-product (ABP) was subjected to different treatments (Boiling, autoclaving and gamma irradiation at 75 and 100 kGy). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using ABP with different treatments on growth performance and their nutrient digestibility. Results revealed that, chicks fed diets containing raw ABP or irradiated with 100 kGy showed the highest values of live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and dressing percentages compared with those fed a control diet. The lowest values of those parameters resulted by the chicks fed the diets of boiling or autoclaving ABP. Digestibility coefficients of crude protein, nitrogen free extract, crude fiber and organic matter increased by increased by increasing dose level of gamma irradiation. It could be recommended to use ABP in raw state up to 10% replacement of yellow corn without any adverse effects on chick performance. The use of irradiation treatment of ABP at 100 kGy improved remarkable feed utilization and growth performance

  12. Comparative assessment of single-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion for the treatment of thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Noha; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George; El Naggar, M Hesham

    2012-05-01

    A comparative evaluation of single-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion processes for biomethane and biohydrogen production using thin stillage was performed to assess the impact of separating the acidogenic and methanogenic stages on anaerobic digestion. Thin stillage, the main by-product from ethanol production, was characterized by high total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) of 122 g/L and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) of 12 g/L. A maximum methane yield of 0.33 L CH(4)/gCOD(added) (STP) was achieved in the two-stage process while a single-stage process achieved a maximum yield of only 0.26 L CH(4)/gCOD(added) (STP). The separation of acidification stage increased the TVFAs to TCOD ratio from 10% in the raw thin stillage to 54% due to the conversion of carbohydrates into hydrogen and VFAs. Comparison of the two processes based on energy outcome revealed that an increase of 18.5% in the total energy yield was achieved using two-stage anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of heat treatment duration on tribological behavior of electroless Ni-(high)P coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Das, S. K.; Sahoo, P.

    2016-09-01

    Electroless nickel coating occurs through an autocatalytic chemical reaction and without the aid of electricity. From tribological perspective, it is recommended due to its high hardness, wear resistance, lubricity and corrosion resistance properties. In this paper electroless Ni-P coatings with high phosphorous weight percentages are developed on mild steel (AISI 1040) substrates. The coatings are subjected to heat treatment at 300°C and 500°C for time durations up to 4 hours. The effect of heat treatment duration on the hardness as well as tribological properties is discussed in detail. Hardness is measured in a micro hardness tester while the tribological tests are carried out on a pin-on-disc tribotester. Wear is reported in the form of wear rates of the sample subjected to the test. As expected, heat treatment of electroless Ni-P coating results in enhancement in its hardness which in turn increases its wear resistance. The present study also finds that duration of heat treatment has quite an effect on the properties of the coating. Increase in heat treatment time in general results in increase in the hardness of the coating. Coefficient of friction is also found to be lesser for the samples heat treated for longer durations (4 hour). However, in case of wear, similar trend is not observed. Instead samples heat treated for 2 to 3 hour display better wear resistance compared to the same heat treated for 4 hour duration. The microstructure of the coating is also carried out to ensure about its proper development. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the coating is found to possess the conventional nodular structure while energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) shows that the phosphorous content in the coating to be greater than 9%. This means that the current coating belongs to the high phosphorous category. From X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), it is found that coating is amorphous in as-deposited condition but transforms into a crystalline structure with

  14. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Inconel-625 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Arjun; Gupta, R. K.; Anil Kumar, V.

    2017-07-01

    Inconel-625 is a solid solution-strengthened alloy used for long-duration applications at high temperatures and moderate stresses. Different heat treatment cycles (temperatures of 625-1025 °C and time of 2-6 h) have been studied to obtain optimum mechanical properties suitable for a specific application. It has been observed that room temperature strength and, hardness decreased and ductility increased with increase in heat treatment temperature. The rate of change of these properties is found to be moderate for the samples heat-treated up to 850 °C, and thereafter, it increases rapidly. It is attributed to the microstructural changes like dissolution of carbides, recrystallization and grain growth. Microstructures are found to be predominantly single-phase austenitic with the presence of fine alloy carbides. The presence of twins is observed in samples heat-treated at lower temperature, which act as nucleation sites for recrystallization at 775 °C. Beyond 850 °C, the role of carbides present in the matrix is subsided by the coarsening of recrystallized grains and finally at 1025 °C, significant dissolution of carbide results in substantial reduction in strength and increase in ductility. Elongation to an extent of >71% has been obtained in sample heat-treated at 1025 °C indicating excellent tendency for cold workability. Failure of heat-treated specimens is found to be mainly due to carbide particle-matrix decohesion which acts as locations for crack initiation.

  16. Predicting outgrowth and inactivation of Clostridium perfringens in meat products during low temperature long time heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Zhi; Holst Hansen, Terese; Hansen, Tina Beck

    OBJECTIVE Sous-vide cooking and molecular gastronomy has started a wave of experimenting with Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) heat treatments. Heat treatments, at temperatures as low as 50°C, have been suggested by celebrity chefs. LTLT treatments often take hours to reach to the final core...

  17. Effect of grinding and heat treatment on the mechanical behavior of zirconia ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Freitas RAMOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effect of grinding on roughness, flexural strength, and reliability of a zirconia ceramic before and after heat treatment. Seven groups were tested (n = 15: a control group (labeled CG, untreated, and six groups of samples ground with diamond discs, simulating diamond burs, with grits of 200 µm (G80; 160 µm (G120, and 25 µm (G600, either untreated or heat-treated at 1200°C for 2 h (labeled A. Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal discs were manufactured, ground, and submitted to roughness and crystalline phase analyses before the biaxial flexural strength test. There was no correlation between roughness (Ra and Rz and flexural strength. The reliability of the materials was not affected by grinding or heat treatment, but the characteristic strength was higher after abrasion with diamond discs, irrespective of grit size. The X-ray diffraction data showed that grinding leads to a higher monoclinic (m phase content, whereas heat treatment produces reverse transformation, leading to a fraction of m-phase in ground samples similar to that observed in the control group. However, after heat treatment, only the G80A samples presented strength similar to that of the control group, while the other groups showed higher strength values. When zirconia pieces must be adjusted for clinical use, a smoother surface can be obtained by employing finer-grit diamond burs. Moreover, when the amount of monoclinic phase is related to the degradation of zirconia, the laboratory heat treatment of ground pieces is indicated for the reverse transformation of zirconia crystals.

  18. Impact of Heat Treatment on the Freezing Points of Cow and Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of heat treatment variables on the freezing point of cow and goat milk. The freezing point (FP was established in 30 bulk tank samples of goat milk and in 30 bulk tank samples of cow milk which were subject to laboratory heat treatment at temperatures of 72 °C (A, 85 °C (B, 95 °C (C, with the same exposition times of 20 s. Freezing point measurements of raw and heat-treated milk were carried out in compliance with the Standard CTS 57 0538 by a thermistor cryoscope. The FP of raw cow milk increased with heat treatment from the initial values of -0.5252 ± 0.0114 °C (O by 0.0023 °C (A, 0.0034 °C (B and 0.0051°C (C. Changes in FP values of goat milk were detected, from its initial value of –0.5530 ± 0.0086 °C there was an increase in the FP depending on the mode of heat treatment due to pasteurization by an average of 0.0028 °C (A, 0.0036 °C (B and 0.0054 °C (C. The dynamics of the changes were similar both in goat and cow milk. Freezing point values in cow and goat milk differed (P ⪬ 0.01 when compared to the freezing point of untreated milk after the individual interventions as well as when compared between each other. An increase in the heat treatment temperature of cow and goat milk causes an increase in the freezing point (a shift towards zero. These results can be used in practice for checking the raw material in dairy industry.

  19. Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakou, Marinos; Trimikliniotis, Michael; Yiallouras, Christos; Damianou, Christakis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm(3)/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in

  20. Effect of enzymes on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge and septic tank performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    Enzyme additives are believed to improve septic tank performance by increasing the hydrolysis and digestion rates and maintaining a healthy microbial population. Previous studies reported mixed results on the effectiveness of enzymes on mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, and it is not clear whether enzymes would be effective under septic tank conditions where there is no heating or mixing, quantities of enzymes added are small, and they can be washed out quickly. In this study, batch reactors and continuous-flow reactors designed and operated as septic tanks were used to evaluate whether enzymatic treatment would increase the hydrolysis and digestion rates in primary sludge. Total solids, volatile solids, total suspended solids, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand, concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and volatile acids in sludge and effluent samples were measured to determine the differences in digestion rates in the presence and absence of enzymes. Overall, no significant improvement was observed in enzyme-treated reactors compared with the control reactors.