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Sample records for digestible amino acids

  1. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  2. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P MBM samples were included in the analysis. However, when the MBM samples with the 2 lowest and the 2 highest rooster digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin.

  3. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables.

  4. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, G Sarwar; Cockell, Kevin A; Sepehr, Estatira

    2005-01-01

    Digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala, and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54-78 versus 88-94%). The presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fiber, and high concentrations of antinutritional factors in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, are responsible for poor digestibility of protein. The effects of the presence of some of the important antinutritional factors on protein and amino digestibilities of food and feed products are reviewed in this chapter. Food and feed products may contain a number of antinutritional factors that may adversely affect protein digestibility and amino acid availability. Antinutritional factors may occur naturally, such as glucosinolates in mustard and rapeseed protein products, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, phytates in cereals and oilseeds, and gossypol in cottonseed protein products. Antinutritional factors may also be formed during heat/alkaline processing of protein products, yielding Maillard compounds, oxidized forms of sulfur amino acids, D-amino acids, and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural amino acid derivative). The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soybeans, kidney beans, or other grain legumes can cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 50%) in rats and pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in cereals, such as sorghum, and grain legumes, such as fababean (Vicia faba L.), can result in significantly reduced protein and amino acid digestibilities (up to 23%) in rats, poultry, and pigs. Studies involving phytase supplementation of production rations for swine or poultry have provided indirect evidence that normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes

  5. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    To determine chemical composition, physical characteristics and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and amino acids (AA) in eight current hulled barley genotypes, an experiment with growing pigs has been conducted. These genotypes included Yool, Campanile, Lomerit, Travira, Anisette...

  6. Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

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    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol for two hours in a microwave at 120°C in sealed vials. The GC-MS analysis is performed after the amino acids are derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA. The technique provides reliable results with less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for most amino acids. Only the determination of very low level amino acids is affected by larger errors. The method provides results for free amino acids that are in very good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and also results for protein levels in tobacco in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Results are given for several single grade tobaccos and for tobacco blends from four Kentucky reference cigarettes.

  7. The relation between starch digestion rate and amino acid level for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Enting, H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Digestion coefficients of nutrients give information about the amount of nutrients available to the animal but not about the rate or site of absorption. Gradual digestion of starch may have an amino acid sparing effect and therefore enhance growth efficiency of broiler chickens. A growth trial was

  8. Amino acid composition, score and in vitro protein digestibility of foods commonly consumed in Norhwest Mexico

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    Graciela Caire-Juvera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in different regions is essential to calculate their scores and, therefore, to predict their protein quality. This paper presents the amino acid composition, amino acid score and in vitro protein digestibility of fifteen foods that are commonly consumed in Northwest Mexico. The foods were prepared by the traditional methods and were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The chemical score for each food was determined using the recommendations for children of 1-2 years of age, and the digestibility was evaluated using a multienzyme technique. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in cereal-based products (scores 15 to 54, and methionine and cysteine were limiting in legume products (scores 41 to 47, boiled beef (score = 75 and hamburger (score = 82. The method of preparation had an effect on the content of certain amino acids, some of them increased and others decreased their content. Meat products and regional cheese provided a high amino acid score (scores 67 to 91 and digestibility (80.7 to 87.8%. Bologna, a processed meat product, had a lower digestibility (75.4%. Data on the amino acid composition of foods commonly consumed in Mexico can be used to provide valuable information on food analysis and protein quality, and to contribute to nutrition and health research and health programs.

  9. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after......BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance...... in the systemic circulation from orally ingested protein and from endogenous release. DESIGN: Nine obese glucose-tolerant subjects, with a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 39.2 (95% CI: 35.2, 43.3) and mean glycated hemoglobin of 5.3% (95% CI: 4.9%, 5.6%), were studied before and 3 mo after RYGB. Leucine...

  10. The Apparent Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Digestibilities of Copra Meal In Broiler Diets

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    Burhanudin Sundu

    2008-04-01

    Data indicated that bulk density and water holding capacity of copra meal were poor, being 0.49 g/cm3 and 4.69 g water / g feed respectively. Although the crude proteind and amino acids contents of copra meal were favourable to meet a broiler chicken’s requirements, their digestibilities were low and lysine digestibility being the lowest while arginine digestibility was high. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and apparent metabolizable energy were also low. The low digestibilities of nutrients were not due to the jejunal digesta viscosity as jejunal digesta viscosity was low.

  11. Performance of broilers fed digestible amino acids based diets obtained from cecectomized roosters and broilers

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    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of broilers fed ration formulated based on digestible amino acids obtained with cecectomized roosters and broilers at different ages. A total of 300 Ag Ross 508 broiler chicks aging one to 21 days was distributed into 30 experimental units of ten broilers each (five birds of each sex in six batteries of galvanized steel. All diets were based on corn, soybean meal and full-fat corn germ meal, considering the values of diges tible amino acids obtained from 45-week-old roosters and broilers of 21 and 42 days of age. Two rearing phases were adopted, a pre-starter phase (one to seven days and a starter phase (eight to 21 days. The following performance variables were evaluated: average weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain relation and mortality. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized design with three forms of determination of digestible amino acids content and ten repetitions of ten birds. The use of digestible amino acids based diets determined for broiler chicks at 21 days of age resulted in better performance of bro ilers in starter phase. The digestible amino acid values of each ingredient can vary according to the age of the birds during the determination procedure.

  12. Comparison of apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of feed ingredients measured with broilers, layers, and roosters.

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    Huang, K H; Li, X; Ravindran, V; Bryden, W L

    2006-04-01

    The apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in 7 feed ingredients was determined using broilers, layers, and roosters. The ingredients included 3 cereals (wheat, sorghum, and corn), 3 oilseed meals (canola, cottonseed, and soybean meals), and 1 animal protein meal (meat and bone meal). Dietary protein in the assay diets was supplied solely by the test ingredient. All diets contained 20 g/kg of acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker, and each diet was offered ad libitum in mash form to 5 replicate pens of broilers and layers, and 4 replicate pens of roosters. The digestibility coefficients of individual amino acids for wheat, corn, and sorghum were higher (P meal, cottonseed meal, and meat and bone meal was similar among the 3 classes of chickens. The digestibility of amino acids in soybean meal was higher (P < 0.05) for layers compared with those for broilers and roosters but similar between broilers and roosters. These results suggest that the class of chickens significantly influenced the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in some feed ingredients.

  13. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

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    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  14. Commercial laying hen diets formulated according to different recommendations of total and digestible amino acids

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    EM Casartelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate different commercial laying hen diets formulated based on recommendations for total and digestible amino acids. One hundred and twenty Lohmann LSL commercial laying hens aged 25 weeks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design involving five replications of six birds in four treatments. Diet formulation on a total amino acid basis followed the recommendations of NRC (1994 and Rostagno et al. (2000, whereas formulation on digestible amino acids basis was according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and Degussa (1997 recommendations. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period, and on the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality parameters (Haugh unit, egg specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness and percentage. Means were compared by orthogonal contrasts. Results on feed intake, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion and egg specific gravity showed that total amino acid recommendations promoted better bird responses than digestible amino acid recommendations.

  15. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations in amino acid metabolism caused by E. acervulina infection extended beyond reduced amino acid digestibility.

  16. Sunflower meal in commercial layer diets formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis

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    EM Casartelli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conduced to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal (SBM in commercial layer diets formulated on total or digestible amino acids basis. One hundred forty-four 41-week-old Lohmann LSL layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement with three replications of six birds each. Treatments consisted of a combination of four SBM inclusion levels SBM(0%, 4%, 8%, and 12% and feed formulation according two amino acid recommendations (total or digestible. The experimental period was divided into five periods of fourteen days. Performance parameters (egg production, feed intake, feed conversion, egg mass were evaluated for each period. In the last two days of each period, three eggs per replication were collected to evaluate egg quality (Haugh units, specific gravity, egg weight, eggshell thickness, and eggshell percentage. Hens fed on total amino acid recommendation presented the highest values for egg weight. Diets formulated on digestible amino acids basis showed an improvement in eggshell percentage and egg specific gravity. SBM addition in commercial layer diets did not influence performance; however, increasing SBM dietary levels SBM improved eggshell quality.

  17. Determination of true digestible amino acids of feedstuffs utilizing cecectomized roosters

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    Eliane Aparecida da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the true digestibility coefficients of amino acids and digestible amino acid values of some poultry feedstuffs. The feedstuffs were: babassu meal, sunflower meal, corn gluten meal, babassu starchy meal, meat and bone meal, common beans, pearl millet and residues of cookies, pasta and bread. The precise feeding method of Sibbald was used with adult cecectomized Leghorn roosters distributed in a completely randomized design, consisting of ten treatments and six replications with a rooster in each. The treatments were represented by the feedstuffs evaluated. The roosters were kept in a period of fasting for 36 hours and then fed 30 grams of feed. Samples were collected during 56 hours. Simultaneously, six roosters were kept fasting to make corrections to the metabolic and endogenous losses of amino acids. At the end of collections, the excreta obtained were weighed, freeze-dried and subsequently processed, so laboratory analyses were carried out and the coefficients of true digestibility of amino acids were determined. The mean values of the coefficients of true digestibility of essential and non-essential amino acids in percentage were respectively: 0.702 and 0.652 for the babassu meal; 0.852 and 0.786 for the sunflower meal; 0.928 and 0.887 for the corn gluten meal; 0.797 and 0.720 for the meat and bone meal; 0.364 and 0.339 for ground raw beans; 0.924 and 0.837 for ground pearl millet; 0.839 and 0.810 for cookie residue; 0.929 and 0.914 for pasta residue; and 0.904 and 0.899 for bread residue.

  18. Modeling anaerobic digestion of blue algae: stoichiometric coefficients of amino acids acidogenesis and thermodynamics analysis.

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    Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Yuan, Chun-Xin; Wang, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Guo, Rong-Bo; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2014-02-01

    In order to facilitate the application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), an approach for a detailed calculation of stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis during the anaerobic digestion of blue algae is presented. The simulation results obtained support the approach by good predictions of the dynamic behavior of cumulative methane production, pH values as well as the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and inorganic nitrogen. The sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation showed that the stoichiometric coefficients for amino acids acidogenesis had high sensitivities to the outputs of the model. The model further indicated that the Gibbs free energies from the uptake of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), valerate and butyrate were positive through the digestion, while the free energies for other components were negative. During the digestion, the cumulative heat productions from microbial activities and methane were 77.69 kJ and 185.76 kJ, respectively. This result suggested that proper heat preservation of anaerobic digesters could minimize the external heating needs due to the heat produced from microbial activities.

  19. Site and extent of amino acid digestion in dairy cattle fed with corn and its byproducts

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    Reginaldo Nassar Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluated the site and extent of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, methionine (Met, lysine (Lys, and threonine (Thr digestion of corn and byproducts obtained from corn germ mixed with different amounts of extruded or non-extruded ether extract (EE in dairy cattle. Treatments consisted in eight types of feed and two processing in a 4 × 2 factorial design. There were four feeds: corn grain cracked (Corn, corn germ meal with 1% EE (CG1, corn germ meal with 7% EE (CG7, and corn germ meal with 10% EE (CG10. The feeds were processed in one of two ways: extruded (Ex and not extruded. In situ techniques were used to determine DM, CP, Met, Lys, and Thr partial and total tract digestion. A basic diet was compounded of corn germ meal, soybean meal and coastcross hay in a 70:30 roughage to concentrate ratio. There was no interaction (P>0.05 between feeds and processing method. Extrusion improved (P0.05 for corn and corn germ meal mixed with 7 and 10% EE, regardless of EE processing method. The CP total tract digestibility of corn germ meal with 1% nonextruded EE was 16.62% higher (P<0.05 than that of the extruded form. The best total CP digestibility was obtained for corn germ meal with 7% EE, independently of the processing method. The effects of EE processing method on partial and total digestibility differed between amino acid. Corn and corn byproduct extrusion may improve dry matter digestibility, but do not necessarily influence crude protein digestion. Ruminal and intestinal digestibility of Met, Lys, and Thr depends on both feed type and processing method. Therefore, amino acid availability should be considered individually.

  20. Effect of raw material source, processing systems, and processing temperatures on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

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    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate amino acid digestibility of 32 commercial meat and bone meals (MBM) varying in raw material source and produced in seven different commercial cooking systems and at two processing temperatures (low vs high) that differed by 15 to 20 C. Raw material sources included all beef, all pork, mixed species, and high bone MBM. True digestibilities of amino acids were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of six MBM varying greatly in amino acid digestibility was determined with chicks fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the sole source of dietary protein. The 32 MBM samples averaged 53.2% CP, 2.73% Lys, 0.6% Cys, and 0.75% Met on a DM basis. True digestibility averaged 82% for Lys, 87% for Met, and 47% for Cys. True digestibilities of amino acids varied substantially among processing systems and temperatures, particularly for Lys and Cys. For example, Lys and Cys digestibility ranged from 68 to 92% and from 20 to 71%, respectively, among different MBM. The higher processing temperature generally yielded lower amino acid digestibility than did the low processing temperature. A smaller, less consistent, effect was observed for raw material source. The PER values of the six selected MBM varied from 0.97 to 2.68 and were highly correlated with amino acid digestibility. These results indicated that very high amino acid digestibility MBM can be produced in commercial rendering systems. However, differences in processing systems and temperatures can cause substantial variability in amino acid digestibilities.

  1. Effect of increased methionine level on performance and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids in ducks.

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    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Lemme, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Wertelecki, T

    2009-10-01

    The experiment was conducted with 960 one-day-old ducklings fed mixtures (I control - 0.28% methionine) additionally supplemented with DL-methionine (DL-Met) at amounts: 0.03% (group II), 0.07% (III), 0.12% (IV) and 0.18% (V). The performance, carcass quality and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids as the criterions of methionine (Met) effectivity were considered. The analysis of growth and development of ducks as an effect of diversified DL-Met supplements indicate that increased content of this amino acid in the diets has not affected clearly the performance parameters. The body weight of 21-day-old ducklings was significantly affected only by the level of 0.12% of added Met in comparison to control group. On day 42, the differences among groups were negligible; only the addition of 0.12% DL-Met has increased the body weight by 2.4% when compared with control (p > 0.05). Feed conversion estimated for a period of 1-42 days has not been influenced by Met supplementation. The indistinct, however, visible tendency of better ileal amino acids' apparent digestibility (for Asp.a.,Thr, Ser, Glu, Lys) was noted in the groups fed supplemented diets. Application of 0.07% and 0.18% of DL-met, has significantly (p < 0.05) improved the coefficient of cysteine (Cys) apparent ileal digestibility; however, the improvement of Met apparent ileal digestibility has been achieved by the addition of 0.18% Met. The mortality of ducklings in the experiment was very low and varied between 3.15% (II) and 0.0% (groups I and III). In general, application of 0.12% of DL-Met to mixture containing 0.28% Met had positive effect on the productive output of birds and also improved the apparent ileal digestibility of Cys and Met.

  2. Effect of heat stress on amino acid digestibility and transporters in meat-type chickens.

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    Habashy, W S; Milfort, M C; Adomako, K; Attia, Y A; Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2017-03-02

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on performance, digestibility, and molecular transporters of amino acids in broilers. Cobb 500 chicks were raised from hatch till 13 d in floor pens. At d 14, 48 birds were randomly and equally divided between a control group (25°C) and a HS treatment group (35°C). Birds in both treatment classes were individually caged and fed ad libitum on a diet containing 18.7% CP and 3,560 Kcal ME/Kg. Five birds per treatment at one and 12 d post treatment were euthanized and the Pectoralis major (P. major) and ileum were sampled for gene expression analysis. At d 33, ileal contents were collected and used for digestibility analysis. Broilers under HS had reduced growth and feed intake compared to controls. Although the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) was consistently higher for all amino acids in the HS group, it was not significant except for hydroxylysine. The amino acid consumption and retention were significantly lower in the HS group when compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the retention of amino acids per BWG was higher in the HS group when compared to the control group except for hydroxylysine and ornithine. The dynamics of amino acid transporters in the P. major and ileum was influenced by HS. In P. major and ileum tissues at d one, transporters SNAT1, SNAT2, SNAT7, TAT1, and b0,+AT, were down-regulated in the HS group. Meanwhile, LAT4 and B0AT were down-regulated only in the P. major in the treatment group. The amino acid transporters B0AT and SNAT7 at d 12 post HS were down-regulated in the P. major and ileum, but SNAT2 was down-regulated only in the ileum and TAT1 was down-regulated only in the P. major compared with the control group. These changes in amino acid transporters may explain the reduced growth in meat type chickens under heat stress.

  3. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (Pproteins.

  4. Protein digestibility using corrected amino acid score method (PDCAAS) of four types of mushrooms grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Takruri, Hamed R

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of four types of edible mushrooms common in Jordan in terms of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by true digestibility of the protein. True protein digestibility values were low (61.4, 73.4, 52.6 and 80.5 for Terfezia claveryi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma terrum and Agaricus macrosporus, respectively). Based on the essential amino acids pattern requirements for children, the limiting amino acids in P. ostreatus and A. macrosporus protein were sulphur-containing amino acids with chemical scores of 0.61 and 0.50, respectively. However, lysine was the limiting amino acid in the protein of T. claveryi and T. terreum with chemical scores of 0.71 and 0.67, respectively, and the PDCAAS was 0.43, 0.45, 0.35 and 0.40 for the mushrooms types, respectively. Considering the pattern of essential amino acid requirements of laboratory rats, the sulphur containing amino acids were the limiting amino acids in the protein of T. claveryi, P. ostreatus, T. terreum and A. macrosporus with chemical scores of 0.56, 0.30, 0.34 and 0.25, respectively. The PDCAAS were 0.34, 0.22. 0.17 and 0.20, respectively. It is concluded that the four mushroom types studied are of low protein quality.

  5. Ileal digestibility and endogenous flow of minerals and amino acids: responses to dietary phytic acid in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Cowieson, Aaron J; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2009-08-01

    Effects of phytic acid (PA) on ileal mineral and amino acid (AA) digestibilities and ileal endogenous AA flow in piglets were investigated. Seven ileal-cannulated weanling pigs were fed a casein-maize starch-based diet with PA (as sodium phytate) at 0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg in 4 x 4 Latin square design with three added columns to give seven observations per treatment. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council energy and AA requirements for piglets. The respective digestibility and endogenous lysine loss were determined by indicator and homoarginine methods. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of Na, K and P was linearly and quadratically reduced (P 0.05) endogenous AA losses. The results suggest that PA has limited effect on the digestibility and endogenous losses of AA in piglets, but can reduce AID of Mg and Na partly by increasing endogenous losses of these minerals as evidenced by their negative AID values.

  6. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  7. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Commonly Used Feed Ingredients in Growing Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Ullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD of commonly used feed ingredients in poultry diets in Pakistan. These feed ingredients included corn, rice broken (RB, rice polishings (RP, wheat bran (WB, sunflower meal (SFM, cottonseed meal (CSM, guar meal (GM, soybean meal (SBM from India and Argentine and fish meal (FM. The SIAAD of each ingredient was determined in triplicate using 21-days-old broilers. Day-old male broiler chicks (Hubbard× Hubbard were reared on corn-SBM based diet from 1 to 13 days and thereafter birds were fed experimental diets from day 14 to 21. Each diet was fed to 36 birds kept in six replicate cages, each cage had six birds. In cereals, the SIAAD of corn’s amino acid (AA (90.1% was similar (p>0.05 to RB (89.0%. Isoleucine (97.8% and lysine (96.9% were highly digestible AA in corn and RB, respectively. Among cereal-by products, WB’s SIAAD (76.9% was same (p>0.05 as RP (71.9%. Arginine from WB (82.5% and RP (83.2% was highly digestible. However, threonine in WB (72.7% and leucine in RP (69.6% were the lowest digestible AAs. In plant protein meals, AAs from Argentine-SBM (85.1% and Indian-SBM (83.4% had higher (p0.05. The SBM from plant protein meals had higher (p<0.05 SIAAD than other studied feed ingredients. However, the GM had the lowest (p<0.05 SIAAD among protein meals.

  8. Expression pattern of peptide and amino acid genes in digestive tract of transporter juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.), a carnivorous fish species with high dietary protein requirement, was chosen to examine the expression pattern of peptide and amino acid transporter genes along its digestive tract which was divided into six segments including stomach, pyloric caeca, rectum, and three equal parts of the remainder of the intestine. The results showed that the expression of two peptide and eleven amino acid transporters genes exhibited distinct patterns. Peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) was rich in proximal intestine while peptide transporter 2 (PepT2) was abundant in distal intestine. A number of neutral and cationic amino acid transporters expressed richly in whole intestine including B0-type amino acid transporter 1 (B0AT1), L-type amino acid transporter 2 (LAT2), T-type amino acid transporter 1 (TAT1), proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1), y+L-type amino acid transporter 1 (y+LAT1), and cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2) while ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), and y+L-type amino acid transporter 2 (y+LAT2) abundantly expressed in stomach. In addition, system b0,+ transporters (rBAT and b0,+AT) existed richly in distal intestine. These findings comprehensively characterized the distribution of solute carrier family proteins, which revealed the relative importance of peptide and amino acid absorption through luminal membrane. Our findings are helpful to understand the mechanism of the utilization of dietary protein in fish with a short digestive tract.

  9. Ingredient classification according to the digestible amino acid profile: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Faria Filho

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed: 1 to classify ingredients according to the digestible amino acid (AA profile; 2 to determine ingredients with AA profile closer to the ideal for broiler chickens; and 3 to compare digestible AA profiles from simulated diets with the ideal protein profile. The digestible AA levels of 30 ingredients were compiled from the literature and presented as percentages of lysine according to the ideal protein concept. Cluster and principal component analyses (exploratory analyses were used to compose and describe groups of ingredients according to AA profiles. Four ingredient groups were identified by cluster analysis, and the classification of the ingredients within each of these groups was obtained from a principal component analysis, showing 11 classes of ingredients with similar digestible AA profiles. The ingredients with AA profiles closer to the ideal protein were meat and bone meal 45, fish meal 60 and wheat germ meal, all of them constituting Class 1; the ingredients from the other classes gradually diverged from the ideal protein. Soybean meal, which is the main protein source for poultry, showed good AA balance since it was included in Class 3. On the contrary, corn, which is the main energy source in poultry diets, was classified in Class 8. Dietary AA profiles were improved when corn and/or soybean meal were partially or totally replaced in the simulations by ingredients with better AA balance.

  10. AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN COWS DURING THE TRANSITION PERIOD IN BALANCING DIET ON THE EXCHANGE PROTEIN AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACIDS

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    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of a factorial method for determining the needs in metabolic protein and essential amino acids, helps to deepen knowledge on physiology of protein and amino acid supply and allow to improve the standards for dairy cows during the transition period; in insufficient of metabolic protein and essential amino acids increased coefficients of their transformation into net protein and absorptive amino acids as a result of mobilization of body of cows; with an optimal protein nutrition their transformation in net milk protein, lysine and methionine accordingly amounted to 0.67, 0,83 and 0,82. The most significant changes in the concentration of methionine, proline, glutamate, glutamine, glycine were observed in cows before calving and immediately after birth, stabilization of their level starts with a 24 lactation day, that is connected with the peculiarities of the feeding behavior of the cows and the gradual intensification of the processes of metabolism and milk production. To control the status of protein metabolism we have offered benchmarks compositions of free amino acids in cows’ blood plasma phases: 21-0 days before calving, 0-21 and 22-120 days after calving

  11. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, energy, and amino acid of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Hisano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients, energy, and amino acids of nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes treated with solvent plus posterior extrusion, for Nile tilapia. The apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein and gross energy were higher for detoxified than for nontoxic physic nut cake. However, the apparent digestibility coefficient of ether extract of the nontoxic physic nut cake was higher than that of the detoxified one. The apparent digestibility coefficient of amino acids of both feed ingredients was superior to 80%, except for glycine, for the nontoxic psychic nut cake, and for threonine, for the detoxified one. Nontoxic and detoxified physic nut cakes show apparent digestibility coefficient values equivalent to those of the other evaluated oilseeds and potential for inclusion in Nile tilapia diets.

  12. Composition, ileal amino acid digestibility and nutritive value of organically grown legume seeds and conventional rapeseed cakes for pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight white-flowered pea (Pisum sativum and two white-flowered field bean (Vicia faba cultivars grown organically were analysed for proximate composition and amino acid content. In vivo ileal amino acid digestibilities and faecal energy digestibility were predicted from the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of nitrogen and organic matter, respectively. The crude protein (CP content of the pea and field bean cultivars ranged from 244 to 279 and from 320 to 347 g/kg dry matter (DM, respectively. The concentrations of several essential amino acids in protein decreased as the CP content increased. In peas, predicted in vivo digestibilities did not correlate with chemical composition, and in field beans were lower than in peas. A digestibility trial was carried out on six cannulated barrows according to a 6 ´ 5 cyclic change-over design to determine the faecal and ileal nutrient digestibilities of organically grown leafed peas (cv. Sohvi, 199 g CP/kg DM, semileafless peas (cv. Karita, 240 g CP/kg DM, field beans (cv. Kontu, 320 g CP/kg DM, narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius cv. Pershatsvet, 220 g CP/kg DM, and conventional warm- and cold-pressed rapeseed cakes (360 and 313 g CP/kg DM, respectively. The net energy contents of the leafed and semileafed peas, field beans, lupins, and cold- and warm-pressed rape seed cakes were 10.8, 11.2, 9.8, 9.7, 9.4 and 12.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. The apparent ileal digestibilities of lysine and threonine were similar, but the digestibility of methionine was poor in all legume seeds. Cystine digestibility was highest in lupins and lowest in field beans. With the exception of phenylalanine, there was no difference in apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities between rapeseed cakes.;

  13. Meta-analysis of the amino acid digestibility of oilseed meal in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messad, F; Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Charbonneau, E; Sauvant, D; Guay, F

    2016-10-01

    Oilseed meal is an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) for livestock production. It is the second most important ingredient in pig feed after grains. Optimal use of these ingredients requires precise knowledge of amino acid standardized ileal digestibility (SID), which may vary depending on several factors including botanical variety or processing treatments. A meta-analysis was performed in order to derive models for predicting the SID of soybean, cotton and rapeseed meal EAA, based on chemical composition data such as CP, total concentration of each EAA and fibre (crude fibre, ADF and NDF) content. A database of 47 references (224 experimental treatments) was built. A model incorporating processing method of the meals (e.g. cold pressed, expeller pressed, solvent extracted), experimental surgical procedure (T-cannula, re-entrant cannula, post valve T-cannula and ileo-rectal anastomosis) and pig growth stage (BW⩽ or ⩾25 kg) was tested. Results indicated that neither processing nor BW affected EAA SID. NDF was the best predictor of SID (R 2=0.944, 0.836, 0.779, 0.899 and 0.814, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). The total EAA content was the best predictor of digestible content (g/kg diet) for each EAA (R 2=0.990, 0.985, 0.977, 0.985 and 0.978, respectively, for Lys, Met, Thr, Trp and Val). This study shows that routine chemical analyses may be used to predict EAA digestibility with satisfactory accuracy.

  14. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  15. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  16. Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of three Mediterranean cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Feist, Christian; Sagredos, Angelos

    2006-10-01

    Proximate composition, fatty acid analysis and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) in three commercially important cephalopods of the Mediterranean sea (cuttlefish, octopus and squid) were determined. The results of the proximate analysis showed that these species had very high protein:fat ratios similar to lean beef. Docosahexaenoic, palmitic and eicosipentaenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids among analyzed species. The amount of n-3 fatty acids was higher than that of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 fatty acids. Despite the fact that cephalopods contain small amounts of fat they were found quite rich in n-3 fatty acids. Finally, PDCAAS indicated that these organisms had a very good protein quality.

  17. Studies on Models,Patterns and Require-ments of Digestible Amino Acids for Layers by Nitrogen Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) metabolic experiments were made to estimate separately amino acid requirements of 43~48 weeks old layers for maintenance, for protein accretion to estabolish models to estimate digestible amino acid requirements. The regression relationship of nitrogen retention vs amino acid intake was estimated for each amino acid by giving, at rate of N intake of 0.91, 0.52, 0.15 and 0.007g.kg-1 body-weight (W0.75) per d, the semi-synthetic diets was made specially deficient in one amino acid. From the regression coefficients, it was calculated that, for the accretion of 1 g protein, the dietary digestible amino acid requirements were (mg) Thr 63.1, Val 100.4, Met 39.9, Ile 88.6, Leu 114.3, Phe 63.2, Lys 87.0, His 20.5, Arg 87.9, Trp 21.4, Met+Cys 77.6, and Phe+Tyr 114.3. Daily amino acid requirements for N equilibrium were estimated to be (mg.kg-1W0.75 per day) Thr 50.6, Val 74.7, Met 30.3, ILe 66.7 Leu 81.4, Phe 44.8, Lys 60.5 His 14.7, Arg 73.9 ,Trp 17.3, Met+Cys 58.6, and Phe+Tyr 83.9 The dietary degestible amino acid patterns for protein accretion and N equilibrium were also proposed. The models of estimating digestible amino acid requirements for the different productions were developed.

  18. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  19. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  20. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Adeola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG, and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower (P < 0.05 than that in DDG, which was also lower (P < 0.05 than that in HP-DDG. There were no differences in AID of Met among DDG, DDGS and HP-DDGS, but was greater (P < 0.05 in HP-DDG than in DDG or DDGS. The AID of Thr in HP-DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that in DDGS but not different from that in DDG or HP-DDGS. The branched-chain AA Ile and Leu had greater (P < 0.05 AID in HP-DDG than in DDG, DDGS or HP-DDGS, and there was no difference among DDG, DDGS, and HP-DDGS. The AID of Trp in DDG and DDGS or HP-DDG and HP-DDGS were not different, but the AID of Trp in HP-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS. The greatest SID of the indispensable AA was in HP-DDG. Except for Arg and Lys in which DDG had greater (P < 0.05 digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS but there was no difference between that of DDG and HP-DDGS. Only His, Ile, and Met had lower (P < 0.05 SID in HP-DDGS than HP-DDG within the indispensable AA. The SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, Ser and Tyr were lower (P < 0.05 in DDGS than in HP-DDG. There SID of dispensable AA in DDG was not different from that of HP-DDGS. The current study provided

  1. THE EFFECT OF BODY WEIGHT OF PIGS ON TRUE AND APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS DIGESTIBILITY OF RYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrayová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the ability of pigs to digest protein increases with age. However, it has been shown that small pigs excreted more endogenous nitrogen (N than large pigs. Consequently, the apparent amino acids (AA digestibility may be lower in young pigs while true digestibility, which is corrected for endogenous losses, may be comparable with that found in older pigs. To test this hypothesis, six cannulated piglets (mean body weight 20.6 kg fitted with a simple T-cannula at terminal ileum were used to estimate apparent and true digestibilities of AA and of total N in a rye-based diet (96 % rye. The digestibility study was repeated on the same pigs fed the same diet when they reached mean body weight 61.7 kg. The apparent ileal digestibilities of total AA and total N were significantly higher in heavier pigs than in piglets. Except for methionine and phenylalanine, the apparent digestibilities of individual AA showed a similar pattern. In contrast, there was no significant difference between piglets and heavier pigs for the true ileal digestibility of total N. True digestibility of most AA was lower in heavier pigs than in piglets, the differences for total and some individual AA being significant. The present results suggest that the higher apparent digestibility values found in heavier pigs as compared to piglets are due to the confounding effect of endogenous N losses rather than the better ability of older pigs to digest protein.

  2. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  3. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  4. Formulação de rações para poedeiras com base em aminoácidos totais e digestíveis utilizando diferentes estimativas da composição de aminoácidos em alimentos Diet formulation based on the total and digestible amino acids and different estimates of amino acid ingredient composition, for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire da Silva Filardi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas poedeiras comerciais com 27 semanas de idade, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com três repetições de seis aves por tratamento. Os fatores consistiram de três métodos de estimativa da composição de aminoácidos em ingredientes (tabelas brasileiras, equações de predição e fator para correção de aminoácido em função do teor de proteína do ingrediente e três recomendações de aminoácidos, sendo duas de aminoácidos digestíveis e uma de aminoácidos totais. Os métodos de estimativa da composição de aminoácidos nos ingredientes afetaram apenas a conversão alimentar e a espessura de casca, que apresentaram os melhores resultados com a utilização das tabelas brasileiras. Embora as recomendações de aminoácidos tenham determinado diferenças em todos os parâmetros de desempenho, não afetaram a qualidade dos ovos. O desempenho das aves foi prejudicado pelos níveis de aminoácidos digestíveis, entretanto, ambas as recomendações promoveram desempenho semelhante e inferior ao de aminoácidos totais. O pior desempenho das aves alimentadas com as rações formuladas com aminoácidos digestíveis pode ser atribuído à deficiência em nitrogênio para a síntese de aminoácidos não-essenciais, visto que o nível protéico foi reduzido (12,5% PB, ou ainda à deficiência nos aminoácidos arginina, histidina, isoleucina, leucina e valina, cujos requerimentos mínimos não foram considerados na formulação das rações.Twenty-seven week-old commercial laying hens were allotted to a completely randomized design with a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three replicates of six birds per treatment. The factors consisted of hree methods for estimatingamino acid ingredient composition (Brazilian tables, prediction equations and factor for correcting amino acid in function of ingredient protein level and three amino acid recommendations, being two for digestible amino

  5. Pearl millet utilization in ccommercial laying hen diets formulated on a total or digestible amino acid basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Filardi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with pearl millet in commercial layer diets, formulated according to the minimal requirements for total and digestible amino acids. Two hundred and forty Lohmann LSL laying hens with 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design according to a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with 3 replicates of 8 birds. Feed was formulated on two amino acid basis (total or digestible according to Rostagno et al. (2000 and there were five pearl millet inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Performance and egg quality were evaluated during five periods of 21 days.At the end of each period, feed intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion were evaluated. In the last three days of each period, the following egg quality parameters were evaluated: Haugh Unit, yolk pigmentation index, egg specific weight, shell percentage and shell thickness. Digestible amino acid requirements resulted in decreased feed intake (p<0.01 and increased production costs per mass of eggs (kg or per dozen eggs (p<0.01 compared to total amino acid requirements. There was a linear reduction in feed intake, egg production, egg weight and yolk pigmentation index with increasing inclusion levels of pearl millet. Therefore, increasing levels of replacement of corn by pearl millet affected bird performance negatively. Besides, production costs were higher with increasing pearl millet levels.

  6. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in coproducts of corn processing into ethanol for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, O; Ragland, D

    2012-12-01

    Five barrows with an average initial BW of 45 kg and fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in corn (Zea mays) distillers' dried grains (DDG), DDG with solubles (DDGS), high-protein DDG (HPDDG) and high-protein DDGS (HPDDGS). On a DM basis, the test ingredients contained 33.7% CP, 19.2% ADF, and 53.1% NDF for DDG; 30.3% CP, 11.8% ADF, and 40.6% NDF for DDGS; 62.5% CP, 28.4% ADF, and 45.1% NDF for HPDDG; and 52.4% CP, 17.4% ADF, and 30.4% NDF for HPDDGS. The 5 diets consisted of a N-free diet (NFD) and 4 semipurified diets, in which the test ingredient was the sole protein source with chromic oxide added at 5 g/kg as an indigestible marker, and fed for each of 5 periods. The NFD was used to determine basal endogenous AA losses. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and 2 d of ileal digesta collection for 10 h on each of day 6 and day 7. Amino acids in the test ingredients were well digested by pigs and SID of Lys for DDG, DDGS, HPDDG, and HPDDGS were 88.6, 79.9, 94.6, and 85.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for were Met 93.9, 92.8, 97.1, and 94.6%. The SID of Lys was greater (P corn into ethanol was 2 to 8 percentage units more than in the regular coproduct and 2 to 9 percentage units less in the coproduct with added solubles.

  7. Determination of basal ileal endogenous losses and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Hanna Katharina; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder, Pia;

    2016-01-01

    to tabulated values. Moreover, these SID values were greater than those reported in literature, based on correction of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and AA for their IAAend values. Summarized, the results of the present regression analysis indicate greater IAAend in barley-based diets compared......BackgroundBasal ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses (IAAend) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values of cereal grains, such as barley, are apparently underestimated when determined according to the nitrogen (N)-free method. Regression analysis between the dietary apparent ileal...

  8. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Mussel meal(Mytilus edulis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nu-trients and the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced mus-sel (Mytilus edulis) meal in growing piglets. The use of mussel meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of mussel meal for pigs is in progress. The experiment was carried out with a total of 24 growing pigs, 13 gilts and ...

  9. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Black soldier fly larvae meal(Hermetia illucens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced black soldier fly larvae (Hermeti illucens) meal in growing piglets. The use of Hermetia meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of Hermetia meal for pigs is in progress. Two batches of Hermetia meal arrived from Switzerland (FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture). In batch 1, fa...

  10. Bioavailability of the digestible lysine and total sulfur amino acids in meat and bone meals varying in protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the digestible Lys, Met, and TSAA in a high and low quality meat and bone meal (MBM) were totally bioavailable for protein synthesis in chicks. True digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the two MBM was determined by the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Bioavailability of the digestible AA was then assessed in three slope-ratio chick growth assays using Lys-, Met-, or TSAA-deficient crystalline AA basal diets that were supplemented with varying levels of the test AA, high or low quality MBM, or AA mixtures simulating the mean digestible AA composition of the high and low quality MBM. Response parameters were weight gain, feed efficiency, body N gain, and body Lys gain in the Lys assay and weight gain and feed efficiency in the Met and TSAA assays. Bioavailability values for the digestible Lys, Met, and TSAA in the MBM and AA mixtures simulating MBM varied depending on response parameter, with values based on feed efficiency generally being highest. No consistent differences in bioavailability of the digestible AA were observed between the two MBM when all AA were considered; however, the bioavailability of the digestible Lys in the low quality MBM was lower than that in the high quality MBM for two of four performance criteria. When considering all response parameters and the AA mixture results, bioavailability of the digestible Lys and Met in the two MBM was generally 90% or greater, whereas bioavailability of the digestible TSAA was only 80% or less. The results of this study indicated that essentially all of the digestible Lys and Met in MBM were bioavailable for protein synthesis and metabolism but suggested that a significant amount of the TSAA, particularly Cys, was not bioavailable.

  11. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  12. Uso de rações à base de aminoácidos digestíveis para poedeiras Use of digestible amino acids based diets for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi comparar o desempenho de poedeiras alimentadas com rações formuladas com diferentes níveis de lisina e aminoácidos sulfurosos digestíveis. Um total de 144 poedeiras leves, com 24 semanas de idade, foi distribuído ao acaso em três tratamentos com oito repetições de seis aves. Uma ração de alta digestibilidade em aminoácidos (AD à base de milho e farelo de soja, como controle positivo, foi comparada a outras rações contendo alimentos alternativos em substituição parcial do milho e do farelo de soja. A segunda ração foi formulada com baixa digestibilidade (BD de lisina e aminoácidos sulfurosos em relação à ração AD. A terceira ração (BD+AA foi similar à ração BD, mas suplementada com L-Lisina·HCL e DL-Metionina, adicionadas para se obterem níveis de aminoácidos digestíveis iguais à ração AD. As avaliações foram realizadas em três períodos de 28 dias. Não houve efeito das rações sobre consumo de ração, produção, peso e massa de ovos e conversão alimentar por massa de ovo. A qualidade interna do ovo medida pela unidade Haugh e pelos índices de gema e de albúmen também não foi afetada. Os resultados do presente trabalho não confirmaram os benefícios de se formularem rações com base em aminoácidos digestíveis para poedeiras, a partir da informação de aminoácidos digestíveis obtida com galos cecectomizados.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the laying hens performance fed diets with different levels of lysine and sulfur amino acids digestible. A total of hundred and forty-four 24-week-old hens was allotted to a complete randomized design with three treatments, each with eight replicates of six hens. A corn-soybean positive control diet with high amino acids digestibility (HD was compared to another diet using various by-products to partially replace corn and soybean meal. The second diet was formulated with low digestibility (LD of lysine and

  13. Estimation of the optimum standardized ileal digestible total sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio in late finishing gilts fed low protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Liu, Xutong; Thacker, Philip; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    A total of 90 gilts were used to investigate the effects of various standard ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) to lysine (Lys) ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA). Graded levels of crystalline methionine (Met) (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 or 1.1 g/kg) were added to the basal diet to produce diets providing SID TSAA to Lys ratios of 0.48, 0.53, 0.58, 0.63 or 0.68. At the termination of the experiment, 30 gilts (one pig per pen) with an average body weight (BW) of 120 kg were killed to evaluate carcass traits. Increasing the SID TSAA to Lys ratio increased average daily gain (ADG) (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05), improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05) and decreased serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentration (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05) of finishing gilts. No effects were obtained for carcass traits. The optimum SID TSAA to Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize FCR and SUN levels were 0.57, 0.58 and 0.53 using a linear-break point model and 0.64, 0.62 and 0.61 using a quadratic model. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. In vitro versus in vivo protein digestibility techniques for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score) applied to chickpea fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Olga Luisa; Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva Júnior, Sinézio Inácio

    2016-11-01

    Seven different in vitro methods to determine the protein digestibility for chickpea proteins were considered and also the application of these methodologies for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), seeking their correlations with the in vivo methodology. In vitro digestibility of raw and heated samples were determined using pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, considering soluble nitrogen via Kjeldahl (ppKJ) and hydrolysed peptide linkages using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and o-phthaldialdehyde. In vitro digestibility was also determined using trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase (3-Enz) or trypsin, chymotrypsin, peptidase and pronase solution (4-Enz). None of the correlations between in vitro and in vivo digestibilities were significant (at pvitro and in vivo results. PDCAAS-ppKJ, PDCAAS-3-Enz and PDCAAS-4-Enz presented the highest correlations with in vivo method, r=0.9316, 0.9442 and 0.9649 (pvitro methods for calculating PDCAAS may be promising and deserves more discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  16. Digestion, absorption and utilization of single-cell protein by the preruminant calf. The true digestibility of milk and bacterial protein and the apparent digestibility and utilization of their constituent amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgman, C A; Roy, J H; Thomas, J; Stobo, I J; Ganderton, P

    1985-07-01

    Two experiments of Latin square design were made, each with four Friesian bull calves fitted with re-entrant duodenal and ileal cannulas at 4-10 d of age. The calves were used to study the effect of giving milk-substitutes containing 0, 300, 500 and 700 g bacterial protein (Pruteen)/kg total protein on apparent digestibility of nitrogen fractions and amino acids and true digestibility of 3H-labelled milk protein and 35S-labelled bacterial protein in the small intestine. A third experiment of Latin square design with four intact Friesian calves was used to measure apparent digestibility of nutrients throughout the alimentary tract and retention of N, calcium and phosphorus. At the duodenum, volume of outflow, its pH, and outflow of total-N(TN), protein-N (PN) and non-protein-N (NPN) decreased with time after feeding. At the ileum, volume of outflow and TN outflow were unaffected by time after feeding but PN outflow decreased; NPN outflow at the ileum increased to a maximum 6 h after feeding and then declined. Increased inclusion of Pruteen did not affect the volume of outflow at the duodenum or ileum, but duodenal PN outflow increased. At the ileum, pH values were lower and TN, PN and NPN outflows were higher with increasing concentration of Pruteen in the diet. Apparent digestibility in the small intestine tended to decrease with greater amounts of Pruteen, but was only significant for NPN. Apparent digestibility from mouth to ileum significantly decreased for TN and PN as Pruteen inclusion increased. Amino acid concentration in duodenal outflow, with the exception of that of arginine, reflected intake. The total amount of each amino acid in ileal outflow increased and the apparent digestibility of most amino acids decreased with greater amounts of Pruteen in the diet. Apparent digestibility of nucleic acid-N from Pruteen was very high. True digestibility in the small intestine and between mouth and ileum of 3H-labelled milk protein was high and did not differ

  17. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-09-01

    Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis do milho submetido a diferentes temperaturas de secagem e períodos de armazenamento True digestibility of amino acids and digestible amino acids values of corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures and storage periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristine de Oliveira Carvalho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de amostras de milho submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de secagem (temperatura ambiente e secagem artificial a 80, 100 e 120°C e períodos de armazenamento (0, 60, 120 e 180 dias. A digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos foi determinada pelo método de "alimentação forçada" utilizando-se galos Leghorn adultos cecectomizados, alojados individualmente em baterias metálicas. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (quatro temperaturas de secagem e quatro períodos de armazenamento com um galo por unidade experimental e oito repetições por temperatura de secagem e período de armazenamento. As perdas endógenas foram determinadas com galos em jejum. O aumento da temperatura de secagem ocasionou redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina + cistina e isoleucina e efeito quadrático sobre a digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina. Os maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina foram observados nas temperaturas 40, 25, 27, 32 e 40°C, respectivamente, obtidas por equação de regressão. Observou-se redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina e treonina com o tempo de armazenamento. A temperatura de secagem e o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de milho reduzem a digestibilidade da maioria dos aminoácidos.The objective of this experiment was to determine the true digestibility (TD of amino acids from corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures (room temperature and artificial drying at 80, 100 and 120°C, and different storage periods (0, 60, 120 and 180 days. The TD of amino acids was determined by the forced feeding method using cecectomized adult Leghorn roosters, placed in individual cages. A 4 × 4 factorial arrangement was used (four drying temperatures and four storage periods, in a completely randomized design

  19. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  20. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  1. Dietary formulation with meat and bone meal on a total versus a digestible or bioavailable amino acid basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-07-01

    The digestibility and bioavailability of amino acids (AA) in meat and bone meals (MBM) may vary greatly due to different processing conditions. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to evaluate formulation of diets containing high or low quality MBM on a total AA basis vs a digestible or bioavailable AA basis compared to a corn-soybean meal control diet. Lysine, methionine, and cystine digestibilities (precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay) were 92, 91, and 71%, respectively, for high quality MBM and were 71, 83, and 31%, respectively, for the low quality MBM. Bioavailability values (slope-ratio chick growth assay) for TSAA in the two MBM were approximately 15 percentage units lower than the digestibility values. Male crossbred chicks were fed a 20% CP corn-SBM diet or corn-SBM diets containing 10 or 20% high or low quality MBM that were formulated to be equal in total, digestible, or bioavailable AA to the corn-SBM diet. All diets contained 3,200 kcal of TMEn/kg, 1.4% Ca, and 0.7% nonphytate P and were fed to chicks from 8 to 22 d posthatching. Growth performance of chicks fed 10 or 20% high or low quality MBM on a total AA basis was lower (P < 0.05) than that of chicks fed the corn-SBM diet. Growth of chicks fed 10% low quality MBM or 10 or 20% high quality MBM on a digestible or bioavailable basis was equivalent to that of chicks fed the corn-SBM diet; however, dietary inclusion of 20% low quality MBM depressed growth (P < 0.05) even on a digestible or bioavailable AA basis. Further supplementation of the latter diet with additional AA yielded growth that was similar to the corn-SBM control diet. The results indicated that formulation of diets containing MBM on a digestible or bioavailable AA basis is superior to formulation on a total AA basis. However, feeding high levels of a low quality MBM may require additional AA supplementation to obtain maximum chick growth.

  2. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Aminoácidos Digestíveis Verdadeiros do Milheto, do Milho e Subprodutos do Milho, Determinados com Galos Adultos Cecectomizados True Digestible Amino Acids of the Millet, Corn and Corn Byproducts, Determined with Cecectomized Adult Cockerels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borges Rodrigues

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os coeficientes de digestibilidade e o conteúdo de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros do milho e seus subprodutos e do milheto foram determinados utilizando-se galos cecectomizados, em que 11 alimentos testados foram fornecidos a seis galos (15 g pela manhã e 15 g à tarde, após jejum de 24 horas e seis galos foram mantidos em jejum para determinação das perdas endógenas. Após obtidos os coeficientes de digestibilidade e calculados os aminoácidos digestíveis, ajustaram-se equações para predizer a composição do milho e seus subprodutos em lisina (LIS, metionina (MET, metionina + cistina (M+C, treonina (TRE e arginina (ARG, totais e digestíveis, em função da composição em proteína bruta (PB, fibra bruta (FB, extrato etéreo (EE e matéria mineral (MM. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos (essenciais e não-essenciais das amostras de milho 1, 2, Quality Protein Maize (QPM e pré-cozido, farelos de glúten 60 e 21, gérmen de milho, gérmens de milho fino e desengordurado e dos milhetos 1 e 2 foram 92,02 e 90,69; 88,62 e 87,33; 88,40 e 85,75; 90,20 e 88,99; 95,04 e 94,84; 82,11 e 79,10; 91,84 e 91,30; 92,56 e 91,59; 87,92 e 86,18; 91,04 e 88,70; 93,55 e 93,79%, respectivamente. O milheto apresentou aminoácidos de alta digestibilidade, semelhante ao milho. As equações LIS = 0,26488 + 0,01198PB; MET = -0,01315 + 0,02031PB; M+C = 0,07769 + 0,03448PB; TRE = 0,05576 + 0,03410PB e ARG = 0,30805 + 0,02370PB e LIS = 0,23518 + 0,01067PB; MET = -0,02198 + 0,0195PB; M+C = 0,04767 + 0,03143PB; TRE = -0,01738 + 0,03156PB e ARG = 0,28013 + 0,02318PB podem predizer o conteúdo em aminoácidos totais e digestíveis, respectivamente, do milho e seus subprodutos.The digestibility coefficients and thetrue digestible amino acids contents of corn and corn byproducts were determined by using cecectomized adult cockerels. Each one of the 11 feedstuffs evaluated was fed to six cockerels, consuming 15 g at 8a.m. and 15 g at 4p

  4. Age and adaptation to Ca and P deficiencies: 2. Impacts on amino acid digestibility and phytase efficacy in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Angel, R; Kim, S-W; Jiménez-Moreno, E; Proszkowiec-Weglarz, M; Plumstead, P W

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1,152 straight-run hatchling Heritage 56M×fast feathering Cobb 500F broiler birds were used to determine Ca, age, and adaptation effects on apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein (AID of CP), amino acids (AID of AA) and phytase efficacy. Twelve treatments with 8 replicates, each were fed from 7 to 9 d (6 birds per replicate), 7 to 21 d (6 birds per replicate) and 19 to 21 d (3 birds per replicate) d of age. Diets were prepared with 3 Ca (0.65, 0.80, and 0.95%) and 2 non-phytate P, (0.20 and 0.40%) concentrations. A 6-phytase was added at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg to the 0.20% nPP diet at each Ca concentration. The age and adaptation effects were determined by comparing the responses between birds fed from 7 to 9 and 19 to 21 d of age, 19 to 21, and 7 to 21 d of age, respectively. An age effect was observed regardless of Ca, nPP, or phytase concentration, with older birds (19 to 21 d) having greater apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) and CP than younger birds (7 to 9 d; Pphytase concentrations. Constant lower AID of CP and AA was seen in adapted birds (7 to 21 d) compared to unadapted bird (19 to 21 d) when 0.20% nPP diets were fed at 0.95% Ca concentrations (PPhytase efficacy was significantly lower in younger (7 to 9 d) compared to older birds (19 to 21 d; PPhytase inclusion increased AID of CP and AA regardless of Ca (P<0.05). In conclusion, the AID of CP and AA can be affected by diet, age, and adaptation.

  5. [Protein and energy value of spiruline blue algae supplemented by amino acids: digestive and metabolic utilization by the growing rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorel, M; Toullec, G; Dumond, D; Pion, R

    1975-01-01

    Protein and energy value of 6 samples of "Spirulina" was studied on growing rats in 1972 and 1973. Sample RL 1(Spirulina platensis, originating from Tchad) was grown in artifical conditions in a laboratory. Others samples (Spirulina maxima) were grown in the solar evaporator near Mexico, washed and dried either on heated rollers (MR8, MR13) or by spraying (MA 7, MA10). Sample MA10 D corresponds to sample MA10, bleached by ethanol plus acetone (Baron, 1975). Each Spirulina sample was the only protein source of balanced, starch diets. The diets were supplemented in essential amino acids (E.A.A.) according to the requirements of growing rats (table 1). The ratios [(digestible nitrogen/metabolisable energy (EM] of the Spirulina diets were similar to that of the control diets containing herring meal. The diets were fed to groups of 15 to 17 growing rats. Energy and nitrogen balances were established by the comparative slaughter technique. Blood and muscle samples were taken at slaughter for the determination of free amino acids levels.

  6. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P biomass was also greater (P biomass is an excellent source of AA and ME. Therefore, the Thr biomass is a viable ingredient that can be used as an alternative to fish meal and possibly other animal proteins in diets for pigs.

  7. The use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins for determining true ileal amino acid digestibilities is limited by their rapid recycling in the endogenous secretions of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leterme, P.; Théwis, A.; François, E.; Leeuwen, P. van; Wathelet, B.; Huisman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the use of 15N-labeled dietary proteins as a possible tool for the determination of the true ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility in pigs. The first experiment was designed to study the dietary N excretion pattern at the ileum subsequent to the ingestion of a single 15N-labeled meal. In a

  8. Effect of dietary neutral detergent fiber on ileal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen and amino acids and on the nitrogen utilization in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenis, N.P.; Bikker, P.; Meulen, van der J.; Diepen, van J.Th.M.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary NDF on apparent ileal and fecal digestibility and portal flux of nitrogen (N) and amino acids, and on N retention in growing pigs. In four equal portions (at 0600, 1200, 1800, and 2400) barrows on Treatment B received a basal diet, b

  9. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SP

  10. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  11. Ileal digestibility of amino acids of cassava, sweet potato, cocoyam and erythrina foliages fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, C; Jaguelin, Y; Noblet, J; Renaudeau, D

    2012-04-01

    Ileal digestibility in growing pigs fed starch-based diets with inclusion of four tropical leaves in a meal form was studied in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Five diets were formulated with only casein as protein source in the basal diet (CAS), and casein plus dry cassava (CA) leaves, casein plus dry sweet potato (SP) leaves, casein plus dry cocoyam (CO) leaves and casein plus erythrina (ER) leaves in the other four diets. All diets contained the same amount of CP (14%), either provided by only CAS or a combination of casein and 250 g of leaf meal per kg of diet in the other diets. Leaves were separated manually from stems, and only the leaf part was used. A protein-free diet was fed during a sixth period in order to estimate the endogenous protein losses and calculate the CP- and amino-acid (AA)-standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values. The values for the foliages were calculated according to the difference method, assuming no interaction between the foliage and the casein. The ileal tract apparent digestibility of CP, organic matter and energy was higher in diet CAS than in the other diets (P leaves. Accordingly, the SID of lysine was highest (0.538) for CO leaves and lowest (0.126) in ER leaves; intermediate values were measured for CA and SP leaves. These low SID values in foliage meals must be related to the high levels of dietary fibre and the presence of secondary metabolites (tannins). These results suggest that it is only possible to replace a fraction of the conventional protein sources such as soyabean meal by tropical foliages in growing pig diets with a preference for CO leaves.

  12. Dynamics of amino acid redistribution in the carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) after digestion of (13) C/(15) N-labelled prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, J; Gao, P; Eibelmeier, M; Alfarraj, S; Rennenberg, H

    2017-07-20

    Amino acids represent an important component in the diet of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), and supply plants with much needed nitrogen resources upon capture of insect prey. Little is known about the significance of prey-derived carbon backbones of amino acids for the success of Dionaea's carnivorous life-style. The present study aimed at characterizing the metabolic fate of (15) N and (13) C in amino acids acquired from double-labeled insect powder. We tracked changes in plant amino acid pools and their δ(13) C- and δ(15) N-signatures over a period of five weeks after feeding, as affected by contrasting feeding intensity and tissue type (i.e., fed and non-fed traps and attached petioles of Dionaea). Isotope signatures (i.e., δ(13) C and δ(15) N) of plant amino acid pools were strongly correlated, explaining 60% of observed variation. Residual variation was related to contrasting effects of tissue type, feeding intensity and elapsed time since feeding. Synthesis of nitrogen-rich transport compounds (i.e., amides) during peak time of prey digestion increased (15) N- relative to (13) C- abundances in amino acid pools. After completion of prey digestion, (13) C in amino acid pools was progressively exchanged for newly fixed (12) C. The latter process was most evident for non-fed traps and attached petioles of plants that had received ample insect powder. We argue that prey-derived amino acids contribute to respiratory energy gain and loss of (13) CO2 during conversion into transport compounds (i.e., 2 days after feeding), and that amino-nitrogen helps boost photosynthetic carbon gain later on (i.e., 5 weeks after feeding). © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Effect of the amino acid histidine on the uptake of cadmium from the digestive system of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecon, J.; Powell, E.N.

    1981-07-01

    The digestive tract functions in the storage, metabolism, and excretion of heavy metals in invertebrates. The importance of the digestive tract and the processes governing digestion and absorption of nutrients in heavy metal uptake is becoming increasingly clear. The results of this study suggest that in order to understand the processes controlling heavy metal uptake in invertebrates, it will be necessary to investigate the role that digestion and absorption play in determining the transport rate of metals across the gut wall into the blood. For example, some amino acids increase metal absorption rates, whereas other compounds, such as phytate, decrease metal absorption rates. The results also suggest that experimental designs to investigate metal absorption must include an appreciation of the significant role that the feeding state of the animal (e.g. fed or starved) and the role chelators, particularly those produced by the organisms themselves during digestion, may play in the observed uptake rates of metal ions.

  14. Valores energéticos e aminoácidos digestíveis da semente do capim-arroz (Echinochloa spp para aves Energy values and digestible amino acids of barnyardgrass seeds (Echinochloa spp for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borges Rodrigues

    2004-10-01

    energy value corrected by nitrogen retained (TMEn, using the forced fed method. In this assay six cockerels were forced fed 30 g of the feed and six cockerels were fastened to determinate metabolic and endogenous losses. In the second assay, twelve cecectomized cockerels were used to determine the true digestibility coefficients of the amino acids in the tested feed, using the same metodology. To determinate the apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retained (AMEn in the thirth assay, the total excreta collection method was used, with 80 growing chicks of commercial strain. The barnyardgrass seed was included in the proportion of 25 percent of the reference diet, which contained 20% CP and 3000 kcal of the ME/kg. The reference and test diets were fed to four replicates of ten birds each. The energy values determined were 1813 Kcal AMEn and 1976 kcal of the TMEn/kg as fed. The true digestibility coefficients of the essential and non essential amino acids were, in average, 78.2 % and 78.3 %, respectively. The threonine and the lysine shown lower digestibility (65.8 and 67.2%, respectively and the phenilalanine (86.4% follow by the methionine (86.0% presented higher values among essential amino acids. The tyrosine (90.5% and cystine (56.3% presented higher and lower digestibility coefficients, respectively, among the non essential amino acids.

  15. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  16. Determination of True Amino Acid Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy in Fermented Palm Kernel Meal with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 for Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwat MUANGKEOW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of energy and digestibility values of new added-value products is important for feed formulation. True amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy of feedstuffs were evaluated in adult meat type crossbred chickens. Sulfur amino acids (cysteine and methionine and lysine were limiting amino acids in palm kernel meal (solvent extract; PKM and fermented palm kernel meal (FPKM with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075. The FPKM with Aspergillus wentii TISTR 3075 lead to an increase in true amino acids digestibility except for arginine. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME; DM basis of corn, PKM and FPKM were 3,628.88, 2,201.83 and 2,080.26 kcal/kg, respectively. The true metabolizable energy (TME of PKM (DM basis: 2,958.21 kcal/kg was slightly higher than FPKM (DM basis: 2,843.01 kcal/kg while the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of PKM (DM basis: 2,411.84 and 2,603.33 kcal/kg, respectively were significantly higher than FPKM (DM basis: 2,153.11 and 2,333.07 kcal/kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02 respectively. Aspergillus wentii may use up nitrogen-free extract (NFE in PKM as an energy source during the fermenting process, resulting in a lower metabolizable energy of FPKM when compared to PKM (without fermentation.

  17. Apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acid in feedstuffs used in Nile Tilapia feed as determined by the technique of dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feedstuffs (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal and fish meal in 900 sex-reversed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the Thai strain during the growth phase, with an initial weight of 315±8.45 g. A total of 750 fish were distributed according to a randomized block design (repetitions in time into five treatments with six replicates of 25 fish each. The remaining 150 fish were fed a protein-free diet to measure endogenous protein and amino acid losses in order to determine the true digestibility of these components. Each tested diet contained a single protein source, which consisted of one of the evaluated feedstuffs. Digestibility was indirectly estimated using chromic oxide at 0.50% as marker. Digesta was collected from the last 5 cm of the distal intestine (between the ileal-rectal valve and the anus using the dissection technique. Apparent digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 74.69 and 73.62% for corn, 73.74 and 72.81% for wheat bran, 86.01 and 84.66% for soybean meal, 85.19 and 84.29% for corn gluten meal, 76.74 and 75.56% for fish meal, respectively. True digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids were, on average, 85.21 and 83.97% for corn, 84.41 and 83.74% for wheat bran, 87.22 and 87.51% for soybean meal, 87.97 and 87.34% for corn gluten meal, and finally 79.58 and 78.44% for fish meal, respectively.

  18. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in low quality soybean meal sources treated with β-mannanase for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, S D; Park, J W; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2016-07-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in low quality soybean meals with different CP concentration (SBM 44% CP and SBM 48% CP) with or without 400 U β-mannanase/kg supplementation were evaluated in 20 cannulated barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc) with an average BW of 25.08±3.42 kg. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of amino acids. The supplementation of β-mannanase improved (P0.05) AID of N and energy. The type of SBM (SBM 44% CP v. SBM 48% CP) had no effect on AID of DM, N and energy. β-mannanase improved (Pamino acids, arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine. The SID of lysine was higher (Pamino acids except for lysine. The low nutrient digestibility of the SBM sources used in the present experiment might have favoured the positive effect of β-mannanase supplementation.

  19. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (pacid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (pacids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L L; Kim, B G; Gramm, B R; Nimmo, R D; Stein, H H

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the influence of virginiamycin on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA by growing pigs. Fifteen barrows were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and used in the experiment (initial BW = 35.0 +/- 2.7 kg). Animals were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 5 pigs per treatment during a 6-wk experiment. Dietary treatments included 1) a basal corn-soybean meal diet, 2) the basal diet supplemented with 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, and 3) the basal diet supplemented with 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin. Pigs were fed their respective treatment diets during wk 2, 3, and 4, but during wk 1, 5, and 6, all pigs were fed the basal diet. Ileal samples were collected on d 6 and 7 of each week. Results showed that the AID of all indispensable AA, except Arg, His, and Ile, increased (P virginiamycin. Pigs fed 22 mg/kg of virginiamycin during wk 2, 3, and 4 had increased (P virginiamycin was withdrawn from the diet, regardless of the inclusion rate. In pooled data from wk 2, 3, and 4, the AID of CP, the mean of all indispensable AA, and Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Trp, and Val increased (linear, P virginiamycin was added to the diets, whereas a tendency (P virginiamycin to corn-soybean meal diets fed to growing pigs increases the AID of AA, but this effect is not maintained after the removal of virginiamycin from the diet.

  1. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  2. Valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros e equações de predição dos aminoácidos digestíveis do grão e de subprodutos do trigo para aves Values of true digestible amino acids and prediction equations of digestible amino acids of wheat grain and wheat by-products for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos e elaboradas equações de predição dos valores de aminoácidos digestíveis utilizando a composição química de 11 alimentos. Os alimento avaliados foram: farinha morena, farinha de trigo, trigo-grão, triguilho, gérmen de trigo, resíduo de biscoito, resíduo de macarrão e quatro farelos de trigo. Foi utilizado o método de "alimentação forçada" com galos cecectomizados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 alimentos e um tratamento-jejum, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos para farelo de trigo 1, farelo de trigo 2, farelo de trigo 3, farelo de trigo 4, farinha morena, farinha de trigo, resíduo de biscoito, resíduo de macarrão, trigo-grão, triguilho e gérmen de trigo foram 80,1; 76,7; 71,8; 74,5; 84,1; 94,1; 77,9; 90,1; 86,0; 90,3; e 93,1%, respectivamente. As equações de predição que melhor estimaram os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros foram aquelas que continham os conteúdos de proteína bruta (PB e, ou, extrato etéreo (EE, para o aminoácido lisina, e proteína bruta (PB e, ou, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, para os aminoácidos metionina, metionina + cistina e treonina e a média dos aminoácidos essenciais, sendo as equações: Lis = -0,8805 + 0,0755*PB + 0,0268*EE (R² = 98%, Met = -0,0377 + 0,0183*PB - 0,0020*FDN (R² = 99%, M+C = 0,0982 + 0,0273*PB - 0,0021*FDN (R² = 92%, Treo = -0,2107 + 0,0401PB - 0,0020*FDN (R² = 96%, Essen = -0,1530 + 0,0451*PB - 0,0024*FDN (R² = 98%.The true digestibility coefficients of amino acids (TDCaa were determined and digestible amino acids prediction equations obtained, using the chemical composition of 11 feedstuffs. The feedstuffs evaluated were: brown flour meal, wheat flour, wheat grain, wheat grain residue, wheat germ, cookies residue, macaroni residue

  3. Effects of diet type and ingredient composition on rate of passage and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Applegate, T J; Kim, E J; Dozier, W A

    2012-07-01

    This experiment evaluated rate of passage (ROP) and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD) of 4 diets varying in ingredient composition fed to broilers from 14 to 22 d of age. Two hundred and 88 Ross × Ross 708 chicks (12 birds per cage; 0.45 m(2) per bird) were randomly assigned to 24 cages (6 replicate cages per treatment) at 1 d of age. Experimental diets were 1) corn-soybean meal-based (CSM) diet containing porcine meat and bone meal (MBM; 5% inclusion), 2) CSM diet containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 5% inclusion), 3) semipurified (SP) diet containing MBM (38% inclusion), and 4) SP diet containing DDGS (76% inclusion). Diets were formulated to contain 20% CP and were adequate for vitamins and minerals. Experimental diets were provided from d 14 to 22. On d 18, a total excreta collection was conducted every hour for 12 h from 0800 to 1900 h to determine ROP, and AIAAD was determined on d 22. Time of 1% TiO(2) excretion (T1), 50% TiO(2) excretion (T50), and mean retention time (MRT) were used to express ROP. The SP-MBM diet reached T1 (P MBM, CSM-MBM, and CSM-DDGS diets, which resulted in values of 5.48, 5.62, and 5.58 h, respectively. In general, the AIAAD values were higher (P MBM. Based on T50 and MRT, SP diets containing DDGS had a faster ROP in broilers than CSM diets or SP diets containing MBM.

  4. The heat treatment and the gelation are strong determinants of the kinetics of milk proteins digestion and of the peripheral availability of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Florence; Ménard, Olivia; Le Gouar, Yann; Buffière, Caroline; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; Laroche, Béatrice; Le Feunteun, Steven; Dupont, Didier; Rémond, Didier

    2013-02-15

    This study aimed to determine the kinetics of milk protein digestion and amino acid absorption after ingestion of four dairy matrices by six minipigs: unheated or heated skim milk and corresponding rennet gels. Digestive contents and plasma samples were collected over a 7 h-period after meal ingestion. Gelation of milk slowed down the outflow of the meal from the stomach and the subsequent absorption of amino acids, and decreased their bioavailability in peripheral blood. The gelled rennet matrices also led to low levels of milk proteins at the duodenum. Caseins and β-lactoglobulin, respectively, were sensitive and resistant to hydrolysis in the stomach with the unheated matrices, but showed similar digestion with the heated matrices, with a heat-induced susceptibility to hydrolysis for β-lactoglobulin. These results suggest a significant influence of the meal microstructure (resulting from heat treatment) and macrostructure (resulting from gelation process) on the different steps of milk proteins digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP.

  6. Screening of protease producing fungi for microbial digestion of seed proteins and synthesis of amino acids-metalnutrient chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deore, G B; Limaye, A S; Dushing, Y A; Dhobale, S B; Kale, S; Laware, S L

    2013-01-15

    The problem of metalnutrient deficiency is becoming more serious with the introduction of modern agricultural practices. As a result, metalnutrient deficiency is recognized as one of the critical yield limiting factors. Metalnutrients are generally offered in their sulphate or oxide forms. However, it is reported that organically bound minerals generally have a higher bioavailability than inorganic minerals. Chelation makes otherwise unavailable metalnutrients plant available. Amino acids are well known among various chelating agents. In present investigation the fungus Paecilomyces variotii PR-4 was isolated from soil and was used for production of protease and determination of its activity. Proteins from germinating seeds of chick pea, mung bean, soybean and cowpea were hydrolyzed for the production of amino acids. Amino acids were recovered, estimated and utilized for chelation of metalnutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, B and Mo. The resultant chelates were employed to detect with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis. The peaks of most intensive bands in the IR spectra of ligands recorded were present in the intervals of the wave numbers 3500-3300 and 1720-1700 cm(-1). Chelation of metalnutrients led to the broadening of peak and changes of the peak position of hydroxyl groups, which indicated the binding of the carboxylic groups and primary amine groups of amino acids to the metalnutrients. The resultant amino acids-metalnutrient chelates can be utilized as organic fertilizer.

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  8. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal from different sources in broiler chicks and turkey poults with a nitrogen-free or casein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Parsons, C M; Lilburn, M S; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the standardization method and age on standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 4 meat and bone meal (MBM) samples in broiler chicks and turkey poults. The SIAAD were obtained by correcting apparent ileal digestibility (AID) values for basal ileal endogenous amino acid flow obtained from chicks and poults fed a N-free diet or a highly digestible protein diet (HDP; 100 g of casein/kg of diet). Four diets were formulated to contain 20% CP by using MBM as the only source of CP. Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages of 30 or 8 birds/cage at 5 and 21 d, respectively, for 5 d. With the exception of all-beef MBM, chick AID values on d 21 were higher (P MBM samples in either species. There was no effect of the method of standardization on SIAAD at either age for most amino acids. For chicks, however, standardization of the all-beef MBM sample with HDP resulted in higher (P MBM were higher (P < 0.05) with HDP correction. The CV in SIAAD in chicks between the 2 methods of standardization was higher on d 5 (8.1%) relative to d 21 (5.0%) for all treatments. In poults, greater variability was observed on d 21 (8.2%) relative to d 5 (6.7%). Results from this study showed that at d 21, SI-AAD with either the N-free or the HDP diet resulted in similar digestibility values.

  9. Determination of free amino acids and 18 elements in freeze-dried strawberry and blueberry fruit using an Amino Acid Analyzer and ICP-MS with micro-wave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Dong, Ai-Jun; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the level of 18 trace elements of two freeze-dried samples from the Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and the Strawberry (Fragaria × Ananassa). The total free amino acid composition in the blueberry and strawberry was determined by an Amino Acid Analyzer. Eleven free amino acids were found in both berries. The trace elements in each dried fruit sample were determined by ICP-MS with microwave digestion. The linearity range of the standard curves was 0-1250.0 μg L(-1) (Mg, P, K, Ca),while in all cases, except for B, Na, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Pb, Ge and As, which was 125.0 μg mL(-1), all related coefficients were above 0.9999; recovery was in the range of 79.0-106.8%. Minor concentrations of nutritional elements were found in each freeze-dried berry. In sum, the toxic trace element analysis found the content of toxic trace elements in each freeze-dried berry sample was safe for human consumption and that the overall quality of the blueberry surpassed that of the strawberry. The results certify that the two freeze-dried berries have potential for human consumption in value-added products and have a certain theoretical and practical significance.

  10. Profile of digested feed amino acids from untreated and expander treated feeds estimated using in situ methods in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Guar meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed cake, peas, maize, rye, wheat and barley were subjected to expander treatment at different temperatures (95-150 °C), and effect on amino acid availability was assessed using rumen nylon bag and mobile bagin situ methods. Expander treatment of rapeseed cake at 142...

  11. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile leaves. Methods: Dried leaves of C. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months, threonine for children (6 months to 3 years, while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions: These results indicated the leaves of C. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  12. Digestibility of amino acids in organically cultivated white-flowering faba bean and cake from cold-pressed rapeseed, linseed and hemp seed in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, Magdalena Høøk; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed at determining the ileal apparent (IAD) and standardised ileal (SID) digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in organically cultivated white-flowering faba beans (Vicia faba), and cakes from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). The experiment was designed as a four period cross-over trial with six castrated male Yorkshire pigs fitted with post valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas. The IAD and SID of CP for the feed ingredients ranged from 79.2-85.9% and were affected by dietary treatment, with significantly lower values in rapeseed cake. The IAD and SID of most AA in the feed ingredients were also significantly affected by dietary treatment, but without any consistent trend. However, the overall digestibilities were in general comparable with conventional protein feed ingredients. Thus, these alternative protein feed ingredients have the potential to be used to a greater extent when formulating organic pig diets.

  13. The effect of condensed tannins on the site of digestion of amino acids and other nutrients in sheep fed on Lotus corniculatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Ulyatt, M J; John, A; Fisher, M T

    1987-01-01

    Sheep were used to evaluate the nutritional consequences of a low condensed-tannin concentration (22 g/kg dry matter (DM)) in lotus (Lotus corniculatus L.) (control group) compared with lotus given to sheep receiving intraruminal polyethylene glycol (PEG) infusion (PEG group). PEG selectively binds to tannins and prevents tannins from binding proteins. DM intakes (1430 (SE 28) g/d) and digestibility of energy (663 (SE 4.5) kJ/MJ intake) were similar for both groups but the apparent digestion of nitrogen was lower in the control sheep (0.70) than in the PEG sheep (0.78; P less than 0.001). The proportion of N apparently digested before the abomasum (i.e. in the rumen) was lower (P less than 0.05) in control sheep (0.12) than in PEG sheep (0.21; P less than 0.05). Rumen ammonia concentrations were lower (P less than 0.001) in control sheep than in PEG sheep. The proportion of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) digested in the rumen was similar for both groups (0.48 (SE 0.012)) but less energy was digested in the rumen of the control (0.42) than of the PEG sheep (0.47; P less than 0.05). The flux of essential amino acids (EAA) through the abomasum of control sheep was 50% greater than that in PEG sheep; flux of non-essential amino acids (NEAA) was 14% higher in control than in PEG sheep. Apparent digestibility of EAA in the small intestine was similar for both treatments (0.67), but NEAA were less well digested in the control (0.55) than in the PEG sheep (0.69). The presence of tannins in the control group increased net apparent absorption of threonine (57%), valine (89%), isoleucine (94%), leucine (30%), tyrosine (41%), phenylalanine (93%), histidine (90%) and lysine (59%), and reduced NEAA absorption by 10%, compared with PEG sheep.

  14. Efeito do nível de ingestão sobre a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos em frangos de corte Effect of the food intake on the amino acids digestibility in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria de Oliveira Borges

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um trabalho com aves cecectomizadas para avaliar o efeito do nível de consumo sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos (coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDAaa e coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira - (CDVaa, utilizando-se a metodologia de alimentação forçada. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 8 (níveis de consumo x alimentos, com quatro repetições. Sete alimentos oriundos do trigo e uma ração-referência foram utilizados. Todas as aves foram submetidas a jejum de 30 horas e forçadas a ingerir 25 e 50 gramas dos alimentos puros de uma única vez. Quatro aves em cada nível de consumo foram deixadas em jejum total para a determinação das perdas metabólica e endógena. Nos alimentos e excretas foram analisadas matéria seca, proteína bruta e aminoácidos. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste de SNK. Os valores de CDAaa para todos tratamentos foram afetados pela quantidade de alimento ingerido, e no nível de consumo menor os valores de CDAaa foram significativamente menores (PThis paper were conducted with the objective of evaluation the effects of feed intake levels on the methodology of forced feeding of caecectomised broilers, on the coefficients of digestibility amino acids (apparent digestibility amino acids coefficients - ADCaa and true digestibility amino acids coefficients - TDCaa, using as feeds tests the wheat and some of its products. The feeds were randomly distributed in factorial outline of 2 x 8, (levels x feeds with four repetitions. Seven wheat grain by-products were used. All broilers were submitted to a fast of 30 hours and forced to ingest 25 and 50 grams of the pure feeds ate the same time. In the two levels a treatment was left in fast, for the determination of the metabolic and endogenous losses. In the feeds and excrete, dry matter, crude protein and amino acids were analyzed. The means were compared by the test of SNK

  15. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  16. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  17. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  18. ffects of different levels of digestible arginine and protein in starter diets containing ideal amino acids ratio on Eperformance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gholami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition and health during the first days of life has critical effect on broiler chickens performance. It is well known that diet formulation based on digestible nutrients is superior to formulation based on total nutrients. The suitable supply of essential amino acids in broilers’ diets requires proper knowledge on their metabolic effects in the body. The excessive or unbalanced intake of essential and non-essential amino acids can be harmful to broilers’ metabolism, due to amino acid antagonisms. Arginine is an essential amino acid for broilers since the urea cycle is not functional in birds. Arginine involves in the synthesis of ornithine, a precursor of polyamines that have a key role in cell division, DNA synthesis, nitric oxide (NO synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Also, arginine increases the release of insulin, growth hormone, and IGF-A and luteinizing hormone (LH in the blood stream. On the other hand, in corn- soybean meal based diets arginine is the fifth limiting amino acid after methionine, lysine, threonine, and valine. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of different digestible arginine (DA and digestible protein (DP levels of starter diets (1-10 d based on ideal amino acids ratio on performance, carcass traits and serum parameters in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: Four handed day-old male broiler chickes (Ross 308 were distributed in 10 treatments of 4 replicates (floor pens each. The experiment was designed as a 2×5 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were formulated with five levels of digestible arginine (1.05, 1.18, 1.31, 1.44 and 1.57% and 2 levels of digestible protein (18 and 20%. Chicken were fed with experimental diets during 1 to 10 days of age, and then received similar diets formulated according to Ross 308 (2009 recommendations. All birds had free access to feed and water during the whole rearing period. Temperature was

  19. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Karlsson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP and amino acids (AA in hempseed cake (HC that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001 and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003 with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006 and individual AA (p<0.05 and an increase in intestinal digestibility that could be explained both by a linear and a quadratic model for total AA and most individual AA (p<0.05. The 130°C treatment decreased ruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (p<0.001. It is concluded that moist heat treatment at 130°C did not overprotect the CP of HC and could be used to shift the site of CP and AA digestion from the rumen to the small intestine. This may increase the value of HC as a protein supplement for ruminants.

  20. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  1. Evaluation through literature data on standardized ileal digestibility and basal ileal endogenous loss of amino acids associated with barley in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Eklund, M

    2014-10-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and the basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses (IAAend) in barley for growing pigs. In total, 38 different barley treatments published in 26 peer-reviewed papers were used for the meta-analysis containing information on dietary composition including amino acid (AA) contents of the assay diets, and (or) barley samples, as well as apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA in barley. The SID of AA was determined by either correcting AID of AA for their IAAend or by regression analysis between the apparent ileal digestible and total dietary AA contents. The SID values obtained by correcting the AID values for their IAAend amounted to 70%, 77%, 74% and 63% for Lys, Met, Thr and Trp, whereas those based on regression analysis method were 82%, 82%, 69% and 55%, respectively. Estimates of basal ileal endogenous loss of CP in ileal digesta varied considerably and averaged 11.84 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), whereas IAAend for indispensable AA ranged from 0.05 g/kg DMI for Trp to 1.90 g/kg DMI for Leu. In most cases, these estimates were considerably higher than previously reported values for IAAend. The results of the present regression analysis indicate for most AA higher SID values compared with SID of most AA that were obtained by correcting AID values for IAAend. In view of the observed high variations in IAAend and the low CP content of the barley samples, estimating SID of AA based on literature data by means of the regression method may improve accuracy of SID coefficients for barley. In contrast, transformation of AID values into their corresponding SID values by using a constant correction factor for IAAend adds an additional source of error, thereby reducing the precision in estimating SID of AA.

  2. Effect of calcium level and phytase addition on ileal phytate degradation and amino acid digestibility of broilers fed corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerah, A M; Plumstead, P W; Barnard, L P; Kumar, A

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary Ca to available P (AvP) ratio and phytase supplementation on bone ash, ileal phytate degradation, and nutrient digestibility in broilers fed corn-based diets. The experimental design was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating 4 Ca:AvP ratios (1.43, 2.14, 2.86, and 3.57) and 2 levels of phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg of feed). The 4 Ca:AvP ratios were achieved by formulating all diets to a constant AvP level of 0.28% and varying Ca levels (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). Each treatment was fed to 6 cages of 8 male Ross 308 broilers from 5 to 21 d. At 21 d, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected and analyzed for energy, phytate, P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) to determine digestibility. Digesta pH was measured in each segment (crop, gizzard, duodenum, and ileum) of the digestive tract. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of covariance. There was a significant interaction between dietary Ca:AvP ratio and phytase supplementation for weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In diets with no phytase, Ca:AvP ratio had a greater effect on WG, FI, and FCR compared with those fed diets without phytase. The orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed that the increase in dietary Ca:AvP ratio significantly decreased WG and FI in a quadratic manner, whereas FCR increased (P Phytase addition increased (P 0.05) between the main factors. Digestibility of AA was positively correlated (P phytase (1,000 phytase units/kg of feed) improved phytate, and P and AA digestibility at all Ca:AvP ratios evaluated in this study.

  3. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  4. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  5. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  6. Corn germ with pericarp in relation to whole corn: nutrient contents, food and protein efficiency, and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Veloso Naves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The germ fraction with pericarp (bran is generated in the industrial processing of corn kernel, and it is used for oil extraction and animal feed. This study evaluated the nutritional and protein quality of this fraction in relation to whole corn. The proximate composition, mineral contents, and amino acid profile of the germ fraction with pericarp and of whole corn were determined. A 4-week experiment was conducted using 36 weanling male Wistar rats, and three 10%-protein diets (reference, germ with 15% lipids and casein with 15% lipids, two 6%-protein diets (whole corn and casein, and a protein-free diet were prepared. The germ showed higher contents of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber (27.8 g.100 g-1, ash, minerals (Fe and Zn- approximately 5 mg.100 g-1, and lysine (57.2 mg.g-1 protein than those of corn. The germ presented good quality protein (Relative Protein Efficiency Ratio-RPER = 80%; Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score-PDCAAS = 86%, higher than that of corn (RPER = 49%; PDCAAS = 60%. The corn germ fraction with pericarp is rich in dietary fiber, and it is a source of good quality protein as well as of iron and zinc, and its use as nutritive raw material is indicated in food products for human consumption.

  7. True and apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids of feed in Nile tilapia Digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira de proteína e aminoácidos de alimentos em tilápia-do-nilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was determined in this work the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feeds (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal in Nile tilapia. It was used 252 reverted Thai strain Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in growth phase, with weight of 310 ± 9.68 g, distributed in experimental randomized blocks design, with five treatments, six replicates per treatment and seven fish per experimental unit. Each experimental diet contained a single source of protein, composed by the studied ingredients. An additional group of fish was fed protein-free diet for quantification of the endogenous fraction and determination of true digestibility coefficients. Digestibility was estimated by the indirect method by using chromium oxide at the concentration of 0.50% of the diet as a marker, performing fecal collection at every four hour interval by using decantation technique. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of the protein and amino acids are: corn, 83.57 and 82.45%; wheat bran 82.87 and 81.47%; soybean meal 91.12 and 89.41%; corn gluten meal 90.07 and 87.78%; fish meal 83.53 and 81.65% respectively. Coefficients of true digestibility of protein and the mean of the amino acids are: corn, 90.02 and 89.60%; wheat bran 89.62 and 89.14%; soybean meal 93.58 and 91.88%; corn gluten meal 92.50 and 90.34%; fish meal 86.01 and 84.27%, respectively.Foram determinados nesta pesquisa os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos de cinco alimentos (milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, glúten de milho e farinha de peixe em tilápias-do-nilo. Utilizaram-se 252 tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus em fase de crescimento, da linhagem tailandesa, com peso de 310 ± 9,68 g, distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, composto de cinco tratamentos, seis repetições por tratamento e sete peixes por unidade experimental. Cada dieta experimental

  8. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  9. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  10. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K

    2015-01-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan......, and Mulan (69%). Adler had greater SID of Met (88%; P = 0.01) when compared to Tabasco (86%); Tobak, Skalmeje, and Mulan (85%); and Tommi (84%). Among the 8 wheat genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 9.1 to 11.3% (as-fed basis). Standardized...... ileal digestible content of both CP and AA were greater (P Tabasco had the lowest (P

  11. Technical note: Methodological and feed factors affecting prediction of ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of essential amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin R; Kononoff, Paul J; Firkins, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that ruminal degradability of essential AA (EAA) and the intestinal digestibility of the ruminally undegraded EAA residue in feeds could be evaluated in a meta-analysis. The objective was to characterize methodological factors for ruminal incubation (time of incubation of feed in situ) and method of simulating digestion of the ruminally undegraded AA (incubation of residue in digestive enzymes in vitro or in mobile bags inserted into the duodenum). To increase numbers of observations, feeds were categorized before ANOVA. An approach is described to predict differential ruminal degradability (or undegradability) of individual EAA by normalizing them as a proportion of total AA (TAA) degradability (undegradability) and similarly to normalize the intestinal digestibility of EAA using TAA. Interaction of feed category with individual EAA justifies future studies with a broader range of feeds and more replication within feed to bolster this approach. With broader data, the approach to normalize EAA as a proportion of TAA should allow a better defined EAA library to be integrated with more robust CP databases (that can be updated with specific feed information from more routine laboratory analyses) in dairy supply-requirement models.

  12. Use of markers to determine the ileal digestibility of amino acids for swine Uso de indicadores para determinar a digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos para suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many markers can be used in digestibility assays for swine, but needs to be evaluated before its use. An assay was carried out with the objective of measuring the coefficients of ileal apparent (CIAD and standardized digestibility (CISD of amino acids in meat and bone meal for swine using different markers. Eight crossbred barrows were equipped with T-cannulas in the distal ileum. Four animals received a free protein diet and another four received a diet containing meat and bone meal as the only protein source in the diet. The treatments consisted in evaluating the chromic oxide, acid-insoluble ash naturally occurring in the diet, cellulose and lignin as markers to determine the apparent and standardized digestibility of the amino acids contained in the meat and bone meal. All data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared using the Tukey test, with a significance of 5%. The CIAD, obtained using chromic oxide as external marker, were lower (PMuitos indicadores podem ser utilizados em ensaios de digestibilidade para suínos, mas precisam ser avaliados antes de serem utilizados. O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes (CDIA e estandardizados (CDIE dos aminoácidos da farinha de carne e ossos, para suínos, utilizando diferentes indicadores. Oito suínos, machos castrados, foram submetidos à cirurgia para aimplantação de cânulas T simples, no íleo distal. Quatro animais receberam uma dieta isenta de proteína e outros quatro uma dieta contendo farinha de carne e ossos como única fonte protéica na dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram em avaliar o óxido crómico, cinza insolúvel em ácido naturalmente contido na dieta, celulose e lignina como indicadores para determinar os CDIA e CDIE dos aminoácidos da farinha de carne e ossos. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de signific

  13. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  14. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  15. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alguns alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecotomizados e por equações de predição True digestible amino acids of some protein feedstuffs determined with cecectomized cockerels and by prediction equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ost

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros da soja integral tostada, soja integral micronizada e de cinco amostras de farelos de soja. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos adultos cecotomizados. Foram utilizados 24 galos Leghorn adultos, com peso médio de 2348 ± 165 g. Cada alimento foi fornecido a seis galos, sendo o galo a unidade experimental, em duas repetições no tempo. Os animais foram forçados a ingerir 30 g do alimento-teste, seguidos de um período de 48 horas de coleta, após a alimentação forçada. Seis galos foram mantidos em jejum para determinação das perdas endógenas e metabólicas. Os valores de aminoácidos totais foram aproximadamente 10% inferiores àqueles apresentados pela literatura e os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, de 91,3 e 90,6%, respectivamente. Entre os aminoácidos essenciais dos farelos de soja, a isoleucina apresentou a menor digestibilidade média (86,4% e a fenilalanina, a maior digestibilidade (95,5%. Quando estimados pelas equações de predição, observou-se que, de maneira geral, as equações propostas na literatura estrangeira não fizeram boas estimativas do conteúdo em aminoácidos de alimentos do grupo da soja. Com exceção da lisina e metionina, as equações propostas na literatura nacional fizeram boas estimativas, comparadas aos valores analisados.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true digestible amino acids of whole toasted soybean, micronized soybean and five soybean meals samples were determined. The forced feeding method was used with cecectomized adult cockerels. A total of 24 adult Leghorn cockerels averaging 2348 ± 165 g were used. Each feedstuff was fed to six cockerels, with the cockerel the experimental unit, in two replicates in the time. A total of 30 g of the tested feedstuff was forced fed to cockerel, in a

  16. Effect of a microbial phytase on growth performance, plasma parameters and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in Youxian Sheldrake fed a low-phosphorus corn-soybean diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acid (AA and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-phosphorus (P corn-soybean diets. Methods A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0.38%, starter and grower, negative control (NC group were deficient in available P (0.32% and 0.28%, starter and grower and NC diet was supplemented with 3 levels of microbial phytase (500, 750, and 1,000 U/kg. Results Dietary supplementation of phytase in NC diet improved the average daily gain, increased the levels of serum calcium (Ca, tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of energy and Ca in starter stage (p<0.05. There was an increased (p<0.001 in the utilization of P from 17.3% to 23.9%. Phytase supplementation (1,000 U/kg has shown that the AID of His, Thr, Val, indispensable AA, Glu, Pro, and dispensable AA was higher (p<0.05 than that of NC. Moreover, phytase supplementation improved (p<0.05 serum and tibia Ca and P, AID of AA and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy, P and Ca, and reduced (p<0.05 feed to gain ratio (F/G and the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase in grower stage. Likewise, an increase (p<0.001 in the utilization of P was noticed from 12.6% to 17.2%. Supplement phytase at 750 U/kg improved the AID of His, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser (p<0.05. Conclusion The microbial phytase supplement could improve growth performance, AID of some AA and apparent utilization of other nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes, and reduce excreta P load to environment.

  17. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) - A concept for describing protein quality in foods and food ingredients: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the es

  18. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Nitrogen and Amino acids by Cows Grazing Temperate Pasture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AIBIBULA; Yimamu; HALIDAI; Rehemujiang; MASAAKI; Hanada; MEIJI; Okamoto

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate nutrient digestion in the rumen and flow to the duodenum of steers grazed on orchardgrass( Dactylis glomerata L.,OG) or meadowfescue( Festuca pratensis Huds.,MF.) pastures located on northern part of Japan without supplement. Fifty-two digestion trials were carried out grazing Holstein steers fitted with cannulas in the rumen,duodenum and distal ileum in the three years. The pastures were divided into several paddocks,and the steers grazed each paddock for a day and allowed double of dry requirements the grazing cattle. The pre-grazing herbage mass did not significantly differ between pastures but the crude protein( N × 6. 25) content of herbage ranged from 19. 3% to 27. 5% on OG pasture and from 20. 0% to 32. 8% on MF pasture. Total N and AA-N intake did not differ but the degradability of dietary nitrogen in the rumen( RDN) was higher in MF than in OG pasture. The ratio of RDN to OM truly digested in the rumen was negatively related to the apparent N absorption in the rumen,and it was suggested that the amount of apparent N absorption in the rumen would be positive when the ratio was above 25 g / kg. Non-ammonia nitrogen( NAN) and AA-N flows to the duodenum of steers were lower in MF than in OG pasture. Duodenal AA flows were more linked to duodenal NAN flows and accounted for approximately 60% of duodenal NAN flows. The proportion of methionine and lysine slightly increased in the duodenal flows compared with the consumed AA,but a comparison between the essential AA composition of milk and the lean tissue indicated that duodenal digesta was most limiting in methionine,lysine,arginine,and histidine,and that deficiencies of arginine and histidine for milk production were relatively small.

  19. Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota ( = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ( = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska ( = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater ( zone 3 and a greater ( zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater ( zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater ( zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater ( zone 2. There was also a tendency ( zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency ( = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and

  20. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E; Sauer, N; Htoo, J K; Eklund, M

    2015-03-01

    A study with growing pigs was conducted to determine the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 wheat genotypes that have recently been added to the German Descriptive Variety List. These genotypes included Tabasco, KWS Erasmus, Tobak, Skalmeje, Mulan, Event, Tommi, and Adler. The 8 genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site, and they were harvested and processed under the same conditions. Nine barrows with an initial BW of 32 ± 2 kg were surgically fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a row-column design with 9 pigs and 8 periods of 6 d each. Wheat was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. Among the 8 wheat genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 10.9 to 13.3% (as-fed basis), whereas contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides ranged from 8.0 to 9.4% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 genotypes ranged from 83 to 87%, with greatest ( = 0.01) values for Event and lowest ( = 0.01) for all other wheat genotypes. Intermediate SID of CP values were obtained for Adler and KWS Erasmus. For Lys, greater ( KWS Erasmus (74%) in comparison to Tommi, Tobak, and Mulan (69%). Adler had greater SID of Met (88%; = 0.01) when compared to Tabasco (86%); Tobak, Skalmeje, and Mulan (85%); and Tommi (84%). Among the 8 wheat genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 9.1 to 11.3% (as-fed basis). Standardized ileal digestible content of both CP and AA were greater ( < 0.001) in Adler compared to all other genotypes. For most AA, Tabasco had the lowest ( < 0.001; except for His, Trp, Asp, and Cys) cSID values of all wheat genotypes. The cSID of CP decreased ( < 0.001) as the starch content in the 8 wheat genotypes increased, but cSID of CP increased ( < 0.001) as the CP content in the 8 genotypes increased. Because SID and cSID of CP and most AA increased ( < 0.05) with lower test weight and falling number, these variables may aid to

  1. Estimation of the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement for primiparous lactating sows fed diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Zang, Jianjun; Li, Zhongchao; Shi, Chuanxin; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Li, Defa

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimal standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID Lys) level in diets fed to primiparous sows during lactation. A total of 150 (Landrace × Large White) crossbred gilts (weighing 211.1 ± 3.5 kg with a litter size of 11.1 ± 0.2) were fed lactation diets (3325 kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) containing SID Lys levels of 0.76, 0.84, 0.94, 1.04 or 1.14%, through 28 days lactation. Gilts were allocated to treatments based on their body weight and backfat thickness 48 h after farrowing. Gilt body weight loss was significantly (P Protein content in milk was increased by dietary SID Lys (P < 0.05). Dietary SID Lys tended to increase concentrations of serum insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.066). These results of this experiment indicate that the optimal dietary SID Lys for lactating gilts was at least 0.85%, which approaches the recommendation of 0.84% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012).

  2. Amino Acid Compositions and Digestion Characteristics in Imitative Gastrointestinal Environments of Alga Paper Foods%纸型海藻食品的氨基酸构成和模拟胃肠消化特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立春; 陈丽娟; 倪玲; 张启; 葛亮; 叶子; 包斌

    2012-01-01

    研究纸型紫菜食品和纸型海带食品的氨基酸构成特点及2种海藻食品模拟胃肠消化的特性。分别以紫菜和海带为原料,制作纸型紫菜和纸型海带,通过氨基酸分析、模拟胃消化、模拟肠消化分析纸型海藻食品的营养成分和消化特性。纸型紫菜和纸型海带均含有人体必需的8种氨基酸,2种半必需氨基酸及8种其他氨基酸。纸型紫菜的氨基酸含量为19.62g/100g,纸型紫菜和纸型海带的鲜味氨基酸占氨基酸的总量超过20%。纸型紫菜经5h模拟胃消化的消化率为57%,高于非纸型紫菜消化率(36%),纸型海带经5h模拟胃消化的消化率为18%,高于非纸型海带消化率(13%)。纸型紫菜和纸型海带经5h模拟肠消化的消化率分别为78%和28%,均显著高于非纸型海藻模拟肠消化的消化率。纸型紫菜和纸型海带具有合乎FAO/WHO的氨基酸参考模式,具有优良的胃消化特性和肠消化特性。%The purpose of this study was to explore the amino acid composition and digestion characteristics in a simulated gastric solution and a simulated intestinal solution of laver and kelp paper foods. The results indicated that both laver paper and kelp paper contained 8 essential amino acids, 2 semi-essential amino acids and 8 other amino acids. The content of amino acids in laver paper was 19.62 g/100 g. Flavor amino acids accounted for more than 20% of total amino acids in both paper foods. The digestibility of laver paper was 57% after 5 h of simulated gastric digestion compared with 36% for regular laver. The digestibility after 5 h of simulated gastric digestion was 18% for kelp paper and 13% for regular kelp. Laver paper and kelp paper showed a digestibility of respectively 78% and 28% after 5 h of simulate intestinal digestion, which were both much higher that that of their respective raw materials. In conclusion, laver paper and kelp paper can meet the FAt

  3. Composição química, valores de energia metabolizável e aminoácidos digestíveis de subprodutos do arroz para frangos de corte Chemical composition, metabolizable energy and digestible amino acids values of rice by-products for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Mack Junqueira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar a composição química, os valores de energia e os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos, do farelo de arroz integral (FAI e da quirera de arroz (QA. No primeiro estudo, foram utilizadas 144 aves, com 21 dias de idade, machos, linhagem Cobb, que tiveram suas excretas totalmente coletadas para determinação da energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e seis repetições, com oito aves cada. No segundo experimento, foi utilizado o método de alimentação forçada para a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos aminoácidos. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com dois alimentos e um jejum e seis repetições com um galo cada. Os valores de MS, PB, EE, FB, EMA e EMAn foram, respectivamente, para FAI: 88,6%; 11,8%; 15,3%; 10,2%; 2968kcal kg-1 e 2804kcal kg-1 e para QA: 93,5%; 9,1%; 0,73%; 0,45%; 3338kcal kg-1 e 3239kcal kg-1. Os valores médios encontrados dos coeficientes de digestibilidade de aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais foram, respectivamente, de 75,9% e 73,9%, para FAI, e 77,9% e 76,5%, para QA. Embora tenham apresentado níveis inferiores de energia, FAI e a QA podem ser utilizados nas rações de aves em substituição ao milho, uma vez que tiveram níveis maiores de proteína bruta e aminoácidos digestíveis.Two experiments were conducted to determine the chemical composition, energy and the digestibility coefficients of the amino acids of the whole rice meal (WRM and broken rice (BR. In the first trial, one hundred forty four broilers, 21 days of age, male, of Cobb strain had their excreta totally collected in order to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates with

  4. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of individual amino acids in mixed diets with different crude protein levels measured by the modified in vitro three-step and mobile nylon bag technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Lv, Bo; Liu, Chenli; Chen, Daofu

    2016-04-01

    The ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in three total mixed rations with different CP levels were estimated using the modified in vitro three-step procedure (TSP) and mobile nylon bag (MNB) technique on growing lambs. The ruminal effective degradability of DM and CP did not respond with increasing dietary CP level. However, the intestinal digestibility of DM was significantly increased with increasing dietary CP level estimated by TSP (P < 0.05) or MNB method (P < 0.01). Intestinal digestibility coefficients of CP determined by TSP were lower than those of the MNB method. Histidine was extensively degraded by rumen micro-organisms, while tyrosine was the most anti-degradable AA among the samples. The ruminal AA degradability exhibited no significant differences except for threonine, tryptophan, alanine, aspartic acid and proline for the three diets. Similarly, only a few AAs (i.e. histidine, methionine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and cysteine in TSP; histidine, tryptophan, aspartic acid and serine in MNB) had significant differences in their intestinal digestibility; in addition, values of MNB were lower than that of the TSP method, indicating that intestinal digestibility of DM seems to be overestimated in TSP, while that of CP might be overestimated in the MNB method.

  5. Amino Acid Catabolism in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Nunes Nesi, Adriano; Araújo, Wagner L; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-02

    Amino acids have various prominent functions in plants. Besides their usage during protein biosynthesis, they also represent building blocks for several other biosynthesis pathways and play pivotal roles during signaling processes as well as in plant stress response. In general, pool sizes of the 20 amino acids differ strongly and change dynamically depending on the developmental and physiological state of the plant cell. Besides amino acid biosynthesis, which has already been investigated in great detail, the catabolism of amino acids is of central importance for adjusting their pool sizes but so far has drawn much less attention. The degradation of amino acids can also contribute substantially to the energy state of plant cells under certain physiological conditions, e.g. carbon starvation. In this review, we discuss the biological role of amino acid catabolism and summarize current knowledge on amino acid degradation pathways and their regulation in the context of plant cell physiology.

  6. Validação das relações dos aminoácidos metionina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina digestível na proteína ideal em rações para porcas em lactação Validation of the relationships of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and valine amino acids with the digestible lysine in the ideal protein in feedings for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Haese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de validar as relações de aminoácidos digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base no conceito da proteína ideal, foi realizado um experimento com 120 matrizes suínas em lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em blocos, composto de seis dietas, 20 blocos e uma matriz por unidade experimental. As dietas foram formuladas a partir de uma dieta-referência - contendo 19,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 0,95% de lisina digestível - suplementada com metionina, treonina, triptofano e/ou valina digestíveis para atingir as relações com a lisina digestível determinadas com base na proteína ideal. As dietas não influenciaram a perda e a variação de peso, a espessura e a variação da espessura de toucinho, a proteína e a variação de proteína corporal, a gordura e a variação de gordura corporal nem alteraram o intervalo desmame-estro ou a produção de leite das porcas. As relações dos aminoácidos metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base na proteína ideal atendem às exigências de porcas em lactação para melhores desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo.This experiment aimed at validating the relationship between digestible amino acids with the digestible lysine proposed on the basis of the ideal protein concept. This experiment used 120 lactating sows distributed in a complete randomized block design with six treatments and 20 repetitions and one sow per experimental unity. The diets were formulated based on a reference diet - which contained 19.5% of crude protein (CP and 0.95% of digestible lysine supplemented with digestible methionine, threonine, tryptophan and/or valine to meet the ideal protein based determined relationships with digestible lysine. The diets did not change weight loss and variation, thickness and thickness variation of backfat, protein and body protein variation, fat and body fat variation, neither they changed the

  7. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids, and energy content of 9 corn co-products fed to growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the best fitting dietary fiber (DF) assay to predict digestibility of energy, DF, and amnio acids, and energy value of 9 corn co-products: conventional corn bran (CB-NS; 37.0% total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)), corn bran with solubles (CBS; 17.1% NSP), ...

  8. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves ofClerodendrum volubile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure; Folashade Oluwayemisi Owolabi; Temiloluwa Adebola Adesioye; Deborah Olabisi Akinyele; Grace Ijeoma Okonrokwo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices ofClerodendrumvolubile (C. volubile) leaves. Methods:Dried leaves ofC. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months), threonine for children (6 months to 3 years), while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions:These results indicated the leaves ofC. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  9. Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caine, W.

    1997-01-01

    Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids is important for determining balanced homeostasis of protein metabolism in pigs and the true digestibility of dietary protein. In this context, the ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were determined in growing pigs fed guanidinated Nutrisoy protein

  10. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

  11. Amino acids in Arctic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scalabrin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m−3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m−3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45–60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m−3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 μm and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

  12. Composição aminoacídica e digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos de alimentos energéticos determinados com suínos submetidos à anastomose ileo-retal Amino acids composition and ileal digestibility of amino acids in energetics feedstuffs measured in pigs with ileo-rectal anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Fontes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente (CDA dos aminoácidos de alimentos energéticos foi realizado um ensaio de metabolismo com suínos machos castrados submetidos à anastomose íleo-retal com isolamento do intestino grosso, utilizando-se o método da coleta total de excretas e três repetições por alimento avaliado. Os animais cujo peso médio inicial foi de 35,1kg foram alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo sendo um animal por unidade experimental. Os alimentos avaliados (milho comum, milho de alta proteína, milheto, sorgo e farelo de trigo constituíram a única fonte protéica das dietas, isoprotéicas em 8% de PB. As dietas foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia e a sua quantidade calculada com base no peso metabólico dos animais. A glicina, treonina e prolina apresentaram os menores CDA (respectivamente 49,37; 59,36 e 59,62%, enquanto arginina e ácido glutâmico, os maiores valores, (respectivamente 89,67 e 85,09% para o CDA. Os dados obtidos podem ser utilizados como referência para a formulação de dietas para suínos em crescimento com base em aminoácidos digestíveis.A metabolism assay that utilized pigs ileo-rectal anastomosis with complete isolation of large intestine was conducted to determine aparent (ADC ileal amino acids digestibility coefficients of energetic feedstuffs for swine. The method employed was the total feces collection with three repetitions for evaluated feedstuff. The pigs, averaging 35,5kg initial live weight, were allotted in metabolism cages. The metabolism cage was considerate one experimental unit. The valued feedstuffs (corn, QPM corn, millet, sorghum and wheat bran was single protein source of diets, every one with 8% of crude protein. The diets was provide in twice time and the quantity calculated of accord with the metabolic weight. In the feedstuffs evaluated glycine, threonine and proline exhibited the smaller values of ADC (respectively, 49,37; 59,36 and 59

  13. Protein and amino acid nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cow protein and amino acid nutrition have a significant role in sustainable dairying. Protein, amino acids, and nitrogen are inextricably linked through effects in the rumen, metabolism of the cow, and environmental nutrient management. Feeding systems have been making progress toward emphasiz...

  14. utilisation of synthetic amino acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    intake, bodyweight gain, egg weight or efficiency of lysine utilisation, but ... When modelling the amino acid requirements of broiler breeder ... Two hundred and forty Cobb broiler breeder hens aged 27 weeks were housed in individual cages. ..... feeds with synthetic amino acids is of importance not only on nutritional and.

  15. Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Chyba, Christopher F.

    2000-05-01

    Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D/L) molecules. We calculate D/L ratios for seven biological, α-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization by the time they are recovered on Earth. If the mechanism of amino acid formation imposes some enantiomeric preference on the amino acids, a chiral signature can be retained through the entire history of the meteorite. Original enantiomeric excesses in meteorites such as Murchison, which have undergone apparently short and cool alteration scenarios, should have persisted to the present time. Of the seven amino acids for which relevant data are available, we expect glutamic acid, isoleucine, and valine, respectively, to be the most likely to retain an initial enantiomeric excess, and phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and alanine the least. Were the D/L ratio initially identical in each amino acid, final D/L ratios could be used to constrain the initial ratio and the thermal history experienced by the whole suite.

  16. Amino acids and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yin, Yu-Long; Li, Defa; Kim, Sung Woo; Wu, Guoyao

    2007-08-01

    A deficiency of dietary protein or amino acids has long been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals and humans to infectious disease. However, only in the past 15 years have the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms begun to unfold. Protein malnutrition reduces concentrations of most amino acids in plasma. Findings from recent studies indicate an important role for amino acids in immune responses by regulating: (1) the activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages; (2) cellular redox state, gene expression and lymphocyte proliferation; and (3) the production of antibodies, cytokines and other cytotoxic substances. Increasing evidence shows that dietary supplementation of specific amino acids to animals and humans with malnutrition and infectious disease enhances the immune status, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. Arginine, glutamine and cysteine precursors are the best prototypes. Because of a negative impact of imbalance and antagonism among amino acids on nutrient intake and utilisation, care should be exercised in developing effective strategies of enteral or parenteral provision for maximum health benefits. Such measures should be based on knowledge about the biochemistry and physiology of amino acids, their roles in immune responses, nutritional and pathological states of individuals and expected treatment outcomes. New knowledge about the metabolism of amino acids in leucocytes is critical for the development of effective means to prevent and treat immunodeficient diseases. These nutrients hold great promise in improving health and preventing infectious diseases in animals and humans.

  17. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  18. Recovery and characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins. Effect of defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment on solubility, digestibility, amino acid composition and sapogenin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A M; Wolf, W; Spiess, W E

    2000-02-01

    In order to find alternative protein sources in African regions where protein deficiency in nutrition is prevailing, solubility, in-vitro digestibility, amino acid composition and chemical score of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. kernel proteins were investigated as a function of different processing steps including defatting, air classification, wet sieving and aqueous ethanol treatment. Air classification delivered a fine fraction of 58.1% of the total protein. Applying a wet sieving process, a protein concentrate of 72.9% protein content was achieved but the recovery was very low (35.6%). However, in case of isoelectric precipitation followed by aqueous ethanol treatment both protein content (78.2%) and recovery (53.7%) were high. Data concerning the chemical score revealed, that lysine content of the defatted kernel flour amounted to 74.2% of the recommended FAO/WHO standard level. In-vitro protein digestibility was found to be higher than of legume proteins. The digestible protein of the full fat flour, defatted flour, air classified and wet sieved fine fractions and protein concentrate were 91.9, 93.7, 82.0, 86.4 and 94.2%, respectively. The sapogenin content per 100 g protein of the investigated protein preparations was significantly lower (46% to 62%) than of the initial material (oilcake).

  19. Amino acid sequences of proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Selmo F

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a partial amino acid sequences from three putative outer envelope proteins from Leptospira serovar pomona. In order to obtain internal fragments for protein sequencing, enzymatic and chemical digestion was performed. The enzyme clostripain was used to digest the proteins 32 and 45 kDa. In situ digestion of 40 kDa molecular weight protein was accomplished using cyanogen bromide. The 32 kDa protein generated two fragments, one of 21 kDa and another of 10 kDa that yielded five residues. A fragment of 24 kDa that yielded nineteen residues of amino acids was obtained from 45 kDa protein. A fragment with a molecular weight of 20 kDa, yielding a twenty amino acids sequence from the 40 kDa protein.

  20. Digestibilidade ileal e perdas endógenas de aminoácidos de dietas com óleo de soja para suínos em crescimento Ileal digestibility and endogenous losses of amino acids in soybean oil diets to growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Caperuto de Almeida

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de óleo de soja sobre as perdas endógenas e a digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos em dietas para suínos em crescimento. Foram testadas quatro dietas isoprotéicas, à base de milho e farelo de soja, formuladas segundo as exigências para essa fase e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0,0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5% e 0,25% de óxido crômico como indicador de indigestibilidade. Dezesseis suínos canulados (cânula T simples, com 48,0 ± 6,0 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com base no peso dos animais. Não houve efeito dos níveis óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente de glutamato, glicina, arginina, alanina, prolina, tirosina, histidina e lisina. Observaram-se efeito linear da suplementação com níveis de óleo de soja nos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de serina e treonina e efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira de valina, fenilalanina, total de aminoácidos não-essenciais e total de aminoácidos essenciais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de arginina e tirosina também apresentaram efeito quadrático da suplementação de óleo de soja. Melhores valores de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira dos aminoácidos não-essenciais e essenciais são obtidos com adição de 2,8 a 3,0% de óleo de soja à dieta de suínos em crescimento.The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the different levels of soybean oil on endogenous losses, apparent and true ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs diets. Four isoprotein corn and soybean meal based diets meeting the nutritional requirements for this phase, supplemented with crescent levels of soybean oil, (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 were evaluated. Chromic oxide (0

  1. Determinação das perdas endógenas e da digestibilidade ileal da proteína e dos aminoácidos em suínos utilizando-se duas técnicas Use of different techniques to determine endogenous losses and ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids for swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidimara Feregueti Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos digestíveis de um extrato protéico de levedura utilizando-se duas técnicas - dieta isenta de proteína (DIP e dieta com caseína hidrolisada enzimaticamente (CHE - para determinação das perdas endógenas de proteína, aminoácidos e nitrogênio. Foram utilizados 12 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, com peso médio de 35 kg, submetidos previamente a cirurgia para implantação da cânula T simples. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (dieta com CHE; dieta isenta de proteína (DIP; e dieta com 23% do extrato protéico de levedura - ingrediente teste, quatro repetições e um animal por unidade experimental. As perdas endógenas de ácido glutâmico, ácido aspártico, lisina, arginina e serina diferiram entre as dietas; os maiores valores foram obtidos nos animais que receberam a dieta com CHE. O maior valor de perda endógena do aminoácido glicina foi determinado nos animais alimentados com a dieta DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de metionina, treonina, triptofano e serina determinados pelas perdas endógenas utilizando-se a dieta CHE foram superiores àqueles determinados utilizando a dieta DIP. As quantidades das secreções protéicas e de aminoácidos obtidas pela técnica da CHE foram maiores que as determinadas pela técnica da DIP. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira da proteína foram menores e os dos aminoácidos, maiores, quando determinados pela técnica CHE.The objective of this study was to determine the true ileal digestibility coefficients of the protein and digestible amino acid of a yeast protein extract using two techniques - diet without protein (DIP and diet with enzime-hydrolysed casein (CHE - for the determination of protein amino acid and nitrogen losses. Twelve half-breed barrows were used, with average weight of 35

  2. Effect of dietary protein content on ileal amino acid digestibility, growth performance, and formation of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htoo, J K; Araiza, B A; Sauer, W C; Rademacher, M; Zhang, Y; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2007-12-01

    Diarrhea incidence in weaned pigs may be associated with the concentration of intestinal microbial metabolites (ammonia, amines, and VFA) that are influenced by dietary CP content. Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of a low-protein, AA-supplemented diet on ileal AA digestibility, growth performance, diarrhea incidence, and concentration of microbial metabolites in ileal and cecal digesta of pigs weaned at 14 d of age. In Exp. 1, 8 pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were assigned in a crossover design to 2 diets containing 24 or 20% CP using wheat, corn, full-fat soybeans, whey powder, fish meal, and blood plasma as the main ingredients. Supplemental AA were added to the diets to meet the AA standards according to the 1998 NRC recommendations. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were fed at 2.5 times the ME requirement for maintenance. The reduction of dietary CP decreased (P acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, total VFA, and putrescine concentrations by 28 to 39%. In Exp. 3, 32 pigs were assigned to 2 diets, similar to Exp. 1, according to a randomized complete block design. Pigs had free access to feed and water. Dietary CP content did not affect growth performance or fecal consistency scores during the 3-wk study, and diarrhea was not observed. The results of these experiments indicate that lowering the dietary CP content combined with supplementation of AA markedly reduced the production of potentially harmful microbial metabolites in cecal digesta of early-weaned pigs without affecting growth performance.

  3. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    to the coastal sedimentary humic acids implying higher association of amino acids with the carbonaceous and fine grained sedimentary humic acids. Both the humic and fulvic acids are composed of neutral, acidic, basic, aromatic and sulphur containing amino acids....

  4. Combinatorics of aliphatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmann, Konrad; Böcker, Sebastian; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This study combines biology and mathematics, showing that a relatively simple question from molecular biology can lead to complicated mathematics. The question is how to calculate the number of theoretically possible aliphatic amino acids as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the side chain. The presented calculation is based on earlier results from theoretical chemistry concerning alkyl compounds. Mathematical properties of this number series are highlighted. We discuss which of the theoretically possible structures really occur in living organisms, such as leucine and isoleucine with a chain length of four. This is done both for a strict definition of aliphatic amino acids only involving carbon and hydrogen atoms in their side chain and for a less strict definition allowing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. While the main focus is on proteinogenic amino acids, we also give several examples of non-proteinogenic aliphatic amino acids, playing a role, for instance, in signalling. The results are in agreement with a general phenomenon found in biology: Usually, only a small number of molecules are chosen as building blocks to assemble an inconceivable number of different macromolecules as proteins. Thus, natural biological complexity arises from the multifarious combination of building blocks.

  5. Efeito da adição de aminoácidos essenciais à dieta sobre a secreção de enzimas digestivas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae = Effect of dietary essential amino acids addition on digestive enzime secretion in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bernardini Ungar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos realizados com variação no teor de proteína na ração para peixes, foi demonstrado o aumento das atividades de protease alcalina, protease ácida, tripsina e quimiotripsina do trato digestório de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Esses fatos sugerem que produtos liberados pela digestão na luz desse trato podem influenciar a síntese e a secreção de enzimas digestivas. A secreção destas enzimas pelo pâncreas, em vertebrados, responde à influência neurale humoral. No presente trabalho, foram testadas quatro concentrações (0, 3, 6 e 12% de uma mistura de aminoácidos (treonina, fenilalanina, leucina, valina, arginina e triptofano em iguaisproporções em dietas isocalóricas contendo 3.500 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de ração, e dietas isoproteicas contendo 20% de proteína, em juvenis de jundiá. Foram utilizados dez animais portratamento, sendo os peixes estocados num sistema fechado com recirculação de água e temperatura controlada. Os peixes submetidos a estes tratamentos apresentaram atividade da protease alcalina na região anterior do intestino, responsiva aos diferentes níveis aminoácidos da alimentação. Todavia, as atividades protease alcalina do fígado e amilase do fígado e intestino anterior não foram detectadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a atividade protease alcalina do intestino anterior seja induzida por aminoácidos liberados na luz do trato digestório. Studies carried out with variation of protein concentration in the fish feed have shown an increase in the activity of alkaline proteases, acid proteases, trypsin and chimotrypsin from the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. These facts suggest that products released by digestion in the lumen of this tract can influenced the synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes. The secretion of these enzymes by the pancreas in vertebrate responses to neural and humoral influences. In the present study, four concentration (0, 3, 6 and 12% of

  6. ruminants by amino acid analysis of the products of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predicted from digestibility values, suggests that amino acids might be limiting for milk production in the case of certain feedstuff s. S. Afr. J. Anim. ... nutritional parameter of recognized value (Scott, Nesheim. & Young, 1976). ... It would be a function simply of (i) the ...... value of human and cow's milk colostrum. World Rev.

  7. Effect of source on net portal flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids and amino acids in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Smits, B.; Visser, de H.

    1997-01-01

    The ileal digestibilities of maize starch and native pea starch do not differ. However maize starch is digested faster than pea starch and the ileal amino acid digestibility of a diet containing pea starch is lower. In the present study, the net portal fluxes of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty

  8. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  9. Digestibility by growing pigs of amino acids in canola meal from North America and 00-rapeseed meal and 00-rapeseed expellers from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs in coproducts from canola and 00-rapeseed may be influenced by the variety of seeds that was grown and the processing method used to extract the oil from the seeds. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in canola meal, 00-rapeseed meal, and 00-rapeseed expellers fed to growing pigs. Canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal are the coproducts produced after the residual oil has been solvent extracted from canola seeds and 00-rapeseeds, respectively, whereas 00-rapeseed expellers is the coproduct from 00-rapeseeds that have been only expeller pressed. Twenty-three barrows (initial BW: 28.8 ± 2.64 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 9 × 23 Youden square design with 9 periods and 23 dietary treatments. The 23 diets included 7 diets based on the 7 samples of canola meal, 10 diets based on the 10 samples of 00-rapeseed meal, 5 diets based on the 5 samples of 00-rapeseed expellers, and a N-free diet. Each source of canola or rapeseed coproducts was used as the only source of CP and AA in 1 diet. The SID of CP and all AA except Val, Cys, and Glu were not different between canola meal and 00-rapeseed meal, but 00-rapeseed expellers had greater (P rapeseed meal, which possibly is due to heat damage in 00-rapeseed meal. For Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, SID values of 70.6%, 84.5%, 73.0%, and 82.6%, and 71.9%, 84.6%, 72.6%, and 82.6% were obtained in canola meal and rapeseed meal, respectively, whereas values in 00-rapeseed expellers were 74.7%, 87.1%, 74.0%, and 83.4%. The SID for most AA was different (P rapeseed meal, and among the 5 sources of 00-rapeseed expellers. The concentration of standardized ileal digestible indispensable AA in canola and 00-rapeseed coproducts can be predicted from the concentration of the corresponding AA with only a low to moderate correlation (r(2) = 0

  10. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal, and 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler chicken assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were ad libitum fed a semi-purified diet containing the feed samples as the sole source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broiler chickens were precision-fed 10 g of feed and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. For corn, the PFC yielded significantly higher digestibilities than the SIAAD and PFR for several AA. For corn gluten meal, the PFR yielded significantly higher values than the PFC for the majority of the AA, with the SIAAD yielding intermediate values. When 3 DDGS samples were evaluated, the PFR produced higher digestibilities than the PFC for all 3 DDGS samples for most of the AA. When comparing the PFR and the SIAAD, the PFR yielded higher values than the SIAAD for one DDGS, whereas there was generally no significant difference between these 2 methods for the other 2 DDGS samples. The results of this study indicate there were differences among standardized AA digestibility values for the PFR, SIAAD, and PFC in some instances. The differences among methods were not consistent; however, the PFR yielded higher digestibility values than the PFC for 4 of the 5 ingredient samples.

  11. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, Ashton T; Chin, Jason W; Anderson, Christopher J; Schultz, Peter G

    2013-05-21

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  12. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-08-26

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Amino acids as antioxidants for frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids, proteins and hydrolysates of proteins have been known to protect edible oils from oxidation. While amino acids and related materials have high potential as antioxidants for frying oil, effectiveness of each amino acid and mechanisms of their activities are not well understood yet. Propo...

  14. Relationships among dietary fiber components and the digestibility of energy, dietary fiber, and amino acids and energy content of nine corn coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Kerr, B J; Zijlstra, R T; Patience, J F

    2014-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine a best fitting dietary fiber (DF) component to estimate the effect of DF concentration on the digestibility of energy, DF, and AA and energy value of 9 corn coproducts: corn bran (37.0% total nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP]); corn bran with solubles (17.1% NSP); cooked corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20.4% NSP); reduced oil DDGS (25.0% NSP); uncooked DDGS (22.0% NSP); high protein distillers dried grains (21.9% NSP); dehulled, degermed corn (1.1% NSP); corn germ meal (44.4% NSP); and corn gluten meal (4.9% NSP). A total of 20 growing pigs (initial BW: 25.9 ± 2.5 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to 10 dietary treatment groups in a 4-period incomplete block design with 8 observations per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and 9 diets obtained by mixing 70% of the basal diet with 30% of the test ingredient. In tested ingredients, 11 DF components were determined: 1) ADF, 2) NDF, 3) total dietary fiber, 4) hemicellulose, 5) total NSP, 6) NSP arabinose, 7) NSP xylose, 8) NSP mannose, 9) NSP glucose, 10) NSP galactose, and 11) arabinoxylan. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and NDF and the AID of AA of ingredients were measured. A single best fitting DF component was assessed and ranked for each trait, showing that arabinoxylan concentration best explained variance in AID of GE (R(2) = 0.65; cubic, P 0.05) from the DF concentration. In conclusion, the arabinoxylan and NSP xylose residue were the DF components that best explained variation due to DF concentration and, with the exception of AID of Lys, can be used to predict the digestibility of energy and DF and the DE and ME values in corn coproducts.

  15. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.

  16. Digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados Digestibility of amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados. Foram utilizados 16 galos Lohmann-LSL com 45 semanas de idade, 40 frangos de corte machos AgRoss 508, sendo 20 com 21 dias de idade e outros 20 com 42 dias de idade, todos cecectomizados. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três categorias animais (galos; frangos aos 21 dias; e frangos aos 42 dias de idade para cada alimento avaliado e cada ave considerada uma unidade experimental. O ensaio durou 84 horas: nas 36 horas iniciais, as aves foram submetidas a jejum e nas 48 horas subsequentes, à ingestão forçada dos alimentos, feita com sonda esofágica introduzida diretamente no inglúvio das aves. As excretas produzidas foram colhidas duas vezes ao dia nas 48 horas subseqüentes. Os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros determinados para o milho e gérmen integral de milho determinados com frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 21 dias de idade foram inferiores aos do grupo controle (galos. Contudo, os mesmos resultados não foram observados para o farelo de soja. O aproveitamento de aminoácidos foi maior nos frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 42 dias de idade em comparação aos do grupo controle (galos adultos, independentemente do alimento avaliado. O teor de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros totais obtidos foi de 7,24; 6,25 e 7,33% para o milho, 9,66; 9,14 e 9,91% para o gérmen integral de milho e 41,82; 41,78 e 42,02% para o farelo de soja, valores determinados com galos, frangos aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Observou-se que, com o amadurecimento do trato digestório, aumenta o aproveitamento proteico em aves que consomem milho e gérmen integral de milho.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of the amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in

  17. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  19. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  20. Amino acids as regulators of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball SR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of amino acids as substrates for protein synthesis is well documented. However, a function for amino acids in modulating the signal transduction pathways that regulate mRNA translation has only recently been described. Interesting, some of the signaling pathways regulated by amino acids overlap with those classically associated with the cellular response to hormones such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. The focus of this review is on the signaling pathways regulated by amino acids, with a particular emphasis on the branched-chain amino acid leucine, and the steps in mRNA translation controlled by the signaling pathways.

  1. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  2. Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composition of amino acids, fatty acids and dietary fibre monomers in kernels of ... Nuts are rich in protein and essential amino acids, and have a high energy value ... of protein, especially when combined with foods with high lysine content.

  3. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  4. Investigation on the effects of dietary protein reduction with constant ratio of digestible sulfur amino acids and threonine to lysine on performance, egg quality and protein retention in two strains of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Foroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of using various levels of crude protein (CP by providing laying hens with constant levels of digestible sulfur amino acid, threonine and lysine to improve performance and egg quality. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 with 8 replicates of 10 hens in each. Factors included 4 levels of CP (18.5%, 17.5%, 16.5% and 15.5% and 2 strains (LSL and Hy-Line W-36 of laying hens. Hens were fed experimental diets from 25 to 33 weeks of age. Production performance was measured for eight weeks and egg quality characteristics were determined at 29 and 33 weeks of age. Protein reduction decreased egg weight, egg mass and hen body weight linearly (P≤0.01. Egg production was not affected by protein reduction but feed efficiency, and average daily feed intake increased significantly (P≤0.01. Lohmann Selected Leghorn laying hens showed significantly higher egg production, egg weight, egg mass, weight gain, feed efficiency and feed intake compared to the W-36 laying hens (P≤0.01. Shell thickness increased linearly as protein levels decreased (P≤0.05. There were significant differences between two strains on the egg quality characteristics (P≤0.01. Significant (P≤0.05 CP × strain interactions were observed for hen weight, albumen height, Haugh units, yolk and shell percentage. Based on the results of this experiment, a reduction in dietary protein level (from 18.5% to 15.5%, without any alteration in digestible TSAA and Thr: Lys ratio, led to inferior egg mass and feed conversion ratio during the peak production period.

  5. Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Zeng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding an Escherichia coli (E. coli derived phytase to pigs fed P deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, one hundred and twenty crossbred piglets (9.53±0.84 kg were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61% Ca, 0.46% total P and 0.24% non-phytate P supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg E. coli phytase as well as a positive control formulated to be adequate in all nutrients (0.77% Ca, 0.62% total P and 0.42% non-phytate P. The treatments were applied to six pens with four pigs per pen for 28 days. In Exp. 2, ten crossbred pigs (19.66±1.16 kg fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in a nutrient balance study. The pigs were assigned to treatments similar to those used in Exp. 1 in a doubly replicated 5×4 incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods. Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Supplementation with phytase linearly increased (p<0.05 weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, bone breaking strength and fat-free dry and ash bone weight. There were linear increases (p<0.01 in the apparent ileal digestibility (AID of DM, GE, CP, Ca, total P, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 and some AA with increasing dose of E. coli phytase. Pigs fed 20,000 FTU/kg had a greater (p<0.05 AID of IP6 (80% vs 59% or 64%, respectively than pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. There were linear increases (p<0.05 in the total tract digestibility of Ca, total P, Na, K, Mg, and Zn as well as in the retention of Mg and Zn with increased phytase dose. The retention and utilization of Cu, and the total tract digestibility of CP and Cu quadratic increased (p<0.05 with increased phytase dose. In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in low-P corn-soybean diets for pigs. In

  6. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  7. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  8. Determination of additivity of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in diets containing multiple protein sources fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, P C; Ragland, D; Adeola, O

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to investigate the additivity of apparent ileal digestibility (AID) or standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in mixed diets containing multiple protein sources. Using the determined AID or SID for CP and AA in corn, soybean meal (SBM), corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or canola meal (CM), the AID or SID for 4 mixed diets based on corn-SBM, corn-SBM-DDGS, corn-SBM-CM, or corn-SBM-DDGS-CM were predicted and compared with determined AID or SID, respectively. Eighteen growing pigs (initial BW = 61.3 ± 5.5 kg) were surgically fitted with T-cannulas and assigned to a duplicated 9 × 4 incomplete Latin square design with 9 diets and 4 periods. The 9 experimental diets consisted of a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) to estimate basal ileal endogenous loss (BEL) of AA, 4 semipurified diets to determine the AID and SID of CP and AA in the 4 ingredients, and 4 mixed diets to test the additivity of AID and SID. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed 1 of the 9 diets during each 7-d period, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7, from 0800 to 1800 h. The analyzed AA levels for the mixed diets were close to the calculated values based on the AA composition of each ingredient. The results revealed that the predicted SID were consistent with determined values, except for Leu, Thr, Asp, Cys, Pro, and Ser in the corn-SBM diet and Met and Cys in the corn-SBM-DDGS diet. The determined AID for total AA and Arg, His, Trp, Gly, and Pro in the corn-SBM diet were greater (P diet, the determined AID were greater (P diet, the determined AID were greater (P diet were lower (P diets containing multiple protein sources. In addition, the lack of additivity of AID in mixed diets could be attributed to the intrinsic characteristics of the feed ingredient, especially its AA content.

  9. Exigências de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura dos 15 aos 30 kg Sulphurous amino acid requirements for barrows on high temperature environment from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Marçal Vieira Vaz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar a exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados de suínos machos castrados, dos 15 aos 30 kg, mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura, foram utilizados 60 leitões mestiços (Landrace x Large White, com peso inicial de 14,97 ± 0,33 kg e idade de 50,36 ± 3,29 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0,465; 0,511; 0,558; 0,605 e 0,652% de metionina + cistina digestível, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As rações experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do experimento, quando os animais atingiram o peso de 29,87 ± 0,52 kg. A temperatura no interior da sala foi mantida em 30,9 ± 0,7ºC e a umidade relativa em 67,5 ± 7,2%. O índice de temperatura de globo e umidade calculado no período foi de 81,2 ± 1,2. Os níveis de metionina + cistina digestível da ração influenciaram o ganho de peso diário, que aumentou, e a conversão alimentar, que reduziu de forma linear. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração diário. Com relação às deposições de proteína (DP e de gordura (DG na carcaça, verificou-se efeito quadrático dos tratamentos sobre a DG, que reduziu até o nível de 0,508%, e efeito linear crescente sobre a DP. Concluiu-se que a exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura, dos 15 aos 30 kg, é de 0,558% de metionina + cistina digestível na ração, que corresponde à relação metionina + cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 60%.Sixty swine (Landrace x Large White with initial weight of 14.97 ± 0.33 kg and 50.36 ± 3.29 days old were allotted to a blocks randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0.465, 0.511, 0.558, 0.605, and 0.652% digestible methionine + and cystineand six replicates of two animals, to determine the sulphurous amino acids requirements for barrows on a high

  10. Variations in the chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, E J P; Eklund, M; Rosenfelder, P; Htoo, J K; Mosenthin, R

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine the chemical composition, physical characteristics, and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA of 8 currently available genotypes of triticale fed to growing pigs. The genotypes included Grenado, Cando, Agostino, Massimo, Tarzan, HYT Prime, SW Talentro, and Cultivo. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 31 ± 2 kg were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and allotted to an 8 × 8 Latin square design with 8 periods of 7 d each and 8 assay diets. The N-free method was used to determine basal ileal endogenous CP and AA losses. The 8 assay diets contained 1 of 8 triticale genotypes as the sole source of CP and AA. The triticale genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site. Among the 8 genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 104.7 to 118.1 g/kg (as-fed basis). The content of total nonstarch polysaccharides and NDF ranged, on an as-fed basis, from 84.6 to 99.5 g/kg and from 88.4 to 149.0 g/kg, respectively. Among the 8 genotypes, SID of CP ranged from 81% in Grenado to 85% in Massimo and Tarzan. The SID of CP and AA did not differ among triticale genotypes except for SID of Arg, Glu, and Gly ( < 0.05). The mean SID of CP, Lys, Met, and Trp was 4, 4, 4, and 1 percantage units less and SID of Trp was 5 percantage units greater compared with values in current feed tables. Among the 8 triticale genotypes, standardized ileal digestible content (cSID) of CP followed total CP content and ranged from 84.8 to 98.7 g/kg (as-fed basis), with the lowest ( < 0.001) values for Grenado and the greatest ( < 0.001) values for SW Talentro and Cultivo. For CP and most AA, cSID linearly decreased as the content of total, soluble, and insoluble β-glucans increased ( < 0.05) in the 8 genotypes of triticale. There was a positive correlation between thousand seed weight and cSID of CP and most AA ( < 0.01). These variables may help to predict cSID in triticale batches, whereas other nutrients are not

  11. Amino Acid Contents of Meteorite Mineral Separates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S; Locke, D.

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous amino acids have been found indigenous all 8 carbonaceous chondrite groups. However, the abundances, structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of amino acids differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that parent-body conditions (thermal or aqueous alteration), mineralogy, and the preservation of amino acids are linked. Previously, elucidating specific relationships between amino acids and mineralogy was not possible because the samples analyzed for amino acids were much larger than the scale at which petrologic heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences corresponding to sub-mg samples). Recent advances in amino acid measurements and application of techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for mineralogical characterizations allow us to perform coordinated analyses on the scale at which mineral heterogeneity is observed.

  12. Indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Z; Orzechowska, G E; Fogel, M L; Ehrenfreund, P

    2008-01-01

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. In this paper, we report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 were analyzed for their amino acid content using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations ranging from 180 parts-per-million (ppm) to 249 ppm. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids. The most abundant amino acids present in the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites are the alpha-amino acids glycine, isovaline, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and alanine, with delta13C values ranging from +31.6per mil to +50.5per mil. The carbon isotope results together with racemic enantiomeric ratios determined for most amino acids strongly i...

  13. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  14. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio required for 25- to 120-kilogram pigs fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X T; Ma, W F; Zeng, X F; Xie, C Y; Thacker, P A; Htoo, J K; Qiao, S Y

    2015-10-01

    Four 28-d experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine (Val) to lysine (Lys) ratio required for 26- to 46- (Exp. 1), 49- to 70- (Exp. 2), 71- to 92- (Exp. 3), and 94- to 119-kg (Exp. 4) pigs fed low CP diets supplemented with crystalline AA. The first 3 experiments utilized 150 pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White), while Exp. 4 utilized 90 finishing pigs. Pigs in all 4 experiments were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 diets with 6 pens per treatment (3 pens of barrows and 3 pens of gilts) and 5 pigs per pen for the first 3 experiments and 3 pigs per pen for Exp. 4. Diets for all experiments were formulated to contain SID Val to Lys ratios of 0.55, 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, or 0.75. In Exp. 1 (26 to 46 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.039; quadratic, = 0.042) with an increasing dietary Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize ADG was 0.62 using a linear broken-line model and 0.71 using a quadratic model. In Exp. 2 (49 to 70 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.042) as the SID Val:Lys ratio increased. G:F improved (linear, = 0.039) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) decreased (linear, = 0.021; quadratic, = 0.024) with an increased SID Val:Lys ratio. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.65, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.71, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 3 (71 to 92 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.007; quadratic, = 0.022) and SUN decreased (linear, = 0.011; quadratic, = 0.034) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize SUN levels were 0.67 and 0.67, respectively, using a linear broken-line model and 0.72 and 0.74, respectively, using a quadratic model. In Exp. 4 (94 to 119 kg), ADG increased (linear, = 0.041) and G:F was improved (linear, = 0.004; quadratic, = 0.005) as the dietary SID Val:Lys ratio increased. The SID Val:Lys ratio to maximize G:F was 0

  15. Relationship between amino acid usage and amino acid evolution in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoxuan; Xie, Zhengqing; Tan, Shengjun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yang, Sihai

    2015-02-25

    Amino acid usage varies from species to species. A previous study has found a universal trend in amino acid gain and loss in many taxa and a one-way model of amino acid evolution in which the number of new amino acids increases as the number of old amino acids decreases was proposed. Later studies showed that this pattern of amino acid gain and loss is likely to be compatible with the neutral theory. The present work aimed to further study this problem by investigating the evolutionary patterns of amino acids in 8 primates (the nucleotide and protein alignments are available online http://gattaca.nju.edu.cn/pub_data.html). First, the number of amino acids gained and lost was calculated and the evolution trend of each amino acid was inferred. These values were found to be closely related to the usage of each amino acid. Then we analyzed the mutational trend of amino acid substitution in human using SNPs, this trend is highly correlated with fixation trend only with greater variance. Finally, the trends in the evolution of 20 amino acids were evaluated in human on different time scales, and the increasing rate of 5 significantly increasing amino acids was found to decrease as a function of time elapsed since divergence, and the dS/dN ratio also found to increase as a function of time elapsed since divergence. These results suggested that the observed amino acid substitution pattern is influenced by mutation and purifying selection. In conclusion, the present study shows that usage of amino acids is an important factor capable of influencing the observed pattern of amino acid evolution, and also presented evidences suggesting that the observed universal trend of amino acid gain and loss is compatible with neutral evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  17. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  18. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Yi, J Q; Piao, X S; Li, P F; Zeng, Z K; Wang, D; Liu, L; Wang, G Q; Han, X

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  19. Synthesis of Chiral Amino Cyclic Phosphoric Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chirai amino cyclic phosphoric acids, 5-amino-2-hydroxy-4- (4-nitrophenyl)-l, 3,2-dioxaphospho- rinane 2-oxide and 2-hydroxy-4- (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-5-phthalimido-1,3,2-dioxaphos phorinane 2-oxide are synthesized in good over yields (64. 2% and 72. 8% respectively) from 2-amino-l-aryl-l,3-propanediols. The different reaction conditions are necessary in hydrolysis reactions of amino cyclic phosphonyl chlorides.

  20. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Carvalho

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml. A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 µM each also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml, and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 µM each inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml or any other amino acid (50 µM tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine. Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 µM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2 concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  1. Protein and amino acid quality of meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C M; Castanon, F; Han, Y

    1997-02-01

    The in vivo protein quality of 14 meat and bone meals (MBM) was evaluated in three chick growth assays and a 48-h excreta collection assay using conventional and cecectomized roosters. In addition, in vitro evaluation of protein quality was assessed using pepsin N digestibility (0.2, 0.002, or 0.0002% pepsin), KOH protein solubility, and multi-enzyme pH change. Crude protein, lysine, and SAA in the MBM varied from 48 to 56, 2.32 to 3.01, and 1.0 to 2.13%, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (weight gain:protein intake) estimated from feeding chicks diets containing 9% protein from a MBM ranged from 0.61 to 2.89 and averaged 1.78. Lysine bioavailability determined by slope-ratio chick assay ranged from 43 to 89%. True amino acid digestibility and TMEn values determined in cecectomized roosters were generally lower (P < 0.05) than those determined in conventional roosters. True digestibility of amino acids (percentage) also varied among MBM, with the mean (and range) for lysine, methionine, and cystine in cecectomized birds being 81 (73 to 88), 85 (77 to 91), and 58% (37 to 72%), respectively. Pepsin N digestibility values determined using 0.002 or 0.0002% pepsin were positively correlated (P < 0.05) with lysine digestibility. Pepsin N digestibility determined using 0.2% pepsin, KOH protein solubility, and multi-enzyme pH change were not significantly correlated with in vivo protein quality. Ash content was negatively correlated (-0.80, P < 0.05) with protein efficiency ratio. These results indicated that there is substantial variation in protein quality among commercial MBM and that pepsin N digestibility and ash content are correlated with some in vivo protein quality measurements.

  2. Plasma amino acid relationships during parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, F E; Smits, B J

    1980-01-01

    The plasma amino acidfs of 17 patients were studied before and during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amino acid (AA) pattern changed similarly for all patients. The AA concentration changes relative to preinfusion (PAER) were the most informative index of change. Two groups of AA were defined, the "branched chain" group (five amino acids) and the "hepatic" group (four amino acids) based on the correlation of PAER values. Comparison of PAER values with the ratio of AA intake to requirement indicated that the requirements of the sick patients were more similar to those of children than those of healthy adults.

  3. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L -phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino acid for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets.

  4. 氨基酸螯合锌在奶山羊肠道消化吸收规律的研究%Digestion and Absorption of Zinc Amino Acid Chelate in the Intestinal Tract of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨改青; 朱河水; 王林枫; 贺翠婷; 张振; 高建伟; 邵其斌; 冯亚强; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究氨基酸螯合锌(Zn-AA)在奶山羊体内的消化吸收规律及其在饲粮中的适宜添加水平.试验选取2.5~3.0岁,体重40~45 kg的关中奶山羊母羊6只,安装永久性瘤胃、十二指肠及回肠瘘管,首先从瘤胃灌注40 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,分别在灌注后的24、48、72、96、120、144和168 h采集十二指肠食糜、回肠食糜、粪样和血样,测定样品中锌含量,计算锌在小肠和全肠道消化率,检测血清锌水平,确定最佳采样时间.在此基础上,分别灌注0、20、60、80、100和200 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,测定不同水平的Zn-AA在小肠和全肠道的消化率及血清锌水平.结果表明,Zn-AA全肠道消化率在48和96 h分别出现吸收高峰,120 h后Zn-AA在小肠、全肠道的消化率和血清锌水平基本平衡并保持稳定;不同时间和水平的Zn-AA在全肠道的消化率均高于小肠,小肠是Zn-AA吸收的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也有不同程度地吸收;60 mg/kg时Zn-AA在全肠道消化率和血清中水平均达到最大值.研究得出,成年奶山羊饲粮中Zn-AA的最适宜添加水平为60 mg/kg,小肠是Zn-AA消化的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也表现出较强的消化吸收能力.%This trial was conducted to study the digestion and absorption of zinc amino acid chelate (Zn-AA) in intestinal tract of dairy goats and to determine the optimal supplemental level of Zn-AA in the diet. Six Guanzhong daffy goats aged 2. 5 to 3.0 years old with the body weight of 40 to 45 kg were selected and fixed with permanent fistulas in rumen, duodenum and ileum. At the beginning of the trial, 40 mg/kg Zn-AA solution was infused into the rumen, and samples were collected at 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h after infusion. Digesta samples from the duodenum and ileum, and feces samples were collected to detect the zinc levels and calculate the digestibility in the small intestine, entire intestine and large intestine. At the same time, blood samples were

  5. Microbial production of natural poly amino acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three kinds of poly amino acids, poly-γ-glutamic acid, poly(ε-L-lysine) and multi-L-arginyl-poly (L-aspartic acid) can be synthesized by enzymatic process independently from ribosomal protein biosynthesis pathways in microorganism. These biosynthesized polymers have attracted more and more attentions because of their unique properties and various applications. In this review, the current knowledge on the biosynthesis, biodegradations and applications of these three poly amino acids are summarized.

  6. Amino acids transport in lactic streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold Jacob Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    Lactic streptococci are extremely fastidious bacteria. For growth an exogenous source of amino acids and other nutrients is essential. The amino acid requirement in milk is fulfilled by the milk-protein casein, which is degraded by sequential hydrolysis, involving proteases and peptidases. ... Zie:

  7. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig

  8. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig d

  9. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  10. Synthesis of β-Amino Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yonghua; Ma Zhihua; Jiang Nan; Wang Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, β-amino acids and their derivatives have attracted considerable attention due to their occurrence in biologically active natural products, such as dolastatins,cyclohexylnorstatine and Taxol. β-Amino acids also find application in the synthesis of β-lactams,piperidines, indolizidines. Moreover, the peptides consisting of β-amino acids, the so-called β-peptides, have been extensively studied recently. Consequently, considerable efforts have been directed to the synthesis of β-amino acids and their derivatives1. In particular, stereoselective synthesis of β-amino acids has been a challenging project, and there are only limited methods available. In this presentation, we report our efforts in this area.

  11. Differential distribution of amino acids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sharma, Anket; Kaur, Ravdeep; Thukral, Ashwani Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-03-15

    Plants are a rich source of amino acids and their individual abundance in plants is of great significance especially in terms of food. Therefore, it is of utmost necessity to create a database of the relative amino acid contents in plants as reported in literature. Since in most of the cases complete analysis of profiles of amino acids in plants was not reported, the units used and the methods applied and the plant parts used were different, amino acid contents were converted into relative units with respect to lysine for statistical analysis. The most abundant amino acids in plants are glutamic acid and aspartic acid. Pearson's correlation analysis among different amino acids showed that there were no negative correlations between the amino acids. Cluster analysis (CA) applied to relative amino acid contents of different families. Alismataceae, Cyperaceae, Capparaceae and Cactaceae families had close proximity with each other on the basis of their relative amino acid contents. First three components of principal component analysis (PCA) explained 79.5% of the total variance. Factor analysis (FA) explained four main underlying factors for amino acid analysis. Factor-1 accounted for 29.4% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on glycine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine and valine. Factor-2 explained 25.8% of the total variance and had maximum loadings on alanine, aspartic acid, serine and tyrosine. 14.2% of the total variance was explained by factor-3 and had maximum loadings on arginine and histidine. Factor-4 accounted 8.3% of the total variance and had maximum loading on the proline amino acid. The relative content of different amino acids presented in this paper is alanine (1.4), arginine (1.8), asparagine (0.7), aspartic acid (2.4), cysteine (0.5), glutamic acid (2.8), glutamine (0.6), glycine (1.0), histidine (0.5), isoleucine (0.9), leucine (1.7), lysine (1.0), methionine (0.4), phenylalanine (0.9), proline (1.1), serine (1.0), threonine (1

  12. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  13. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  14. Escherichia coli, an Intestinal Microorganism, as a Biosensor for Quantification of Amino Acid Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela I. Chalova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In animal diets optimal amino acid quantities and balance among amino acids is of great nutritional importance. Essential amino acid deficiencies have negative impacts on animal physiology, most often expressed in sub-optimal body weight gains. Over supplementation of diets with amino acids is costly and can increase the nitrogen emissions from animals. Although in vivo animal assays for quantification of amino acid bioavailability are well established, Escherichia coli-based bioassays are viable potential alternatives in terms of accuracy, cost, and time input. E. coli inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and although more abundant in colon, a relatively high titer of E. coli can also be isolated from the small intestine, where primary absorption of amino acids and peptides occur. After feed proteins are digested, liberated amino acids and small peptides are assimilated by both the small intestine and E. coli. The similar pattern of uptake is a necessary prerequisite to establish E. coli cells as accurate amino acid biosensors. In fact, amino acid transporters in both intestinal and E. coli cells are stereospecific, delivering only the respective biological L-forms. The presence of free amino- and carboxyl groups is critical for amino acid and dipeptide transport in both biological subjects. Di-, tri- and tetrapeptides can enter enterocytes; likewise only di-, tri- and tetrapeptides support E. coli growth. These similarities in addition to the well known bacterial genetics make E. coli an optimal bioassay microorganism for the assessment of nutritionally available amino acids in feeds.

  15. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  16. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-09-15

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  17. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Mark M. (Atlanta, GA); Shoup, Timothy (Decatur, GA)

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is ›.sup.18 F!-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an .alpha.-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of .alpha.-aminoisobutyric acid.

  18. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-10-06

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [{sup 18}F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an {alpha}-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of {alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid.

  19. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  20. Composição química, valores energéticos e digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de carne e ossos e de peixe para aves Chemical composition, energy values and true digestibility of amino acids of meat and bone meal and fish meal for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Eyng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados a composição química, os valores energéticos, os coeficientes de digestibilidade e aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de subprodutos de abatedouros, pelo método da "alimentação forçada" com galos cecectomizados. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas farinhas de peixe (FP1 e FP2, duas farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO1 e FCO2 e uma dieta jejum, tendo seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, EMA corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn, energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e EMV corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMVn, valores expressos em kcal/kg de matéria natural, foram de 3.060, 3.188, 2.347 e 2.191 para a FP1, 3.238, 3.181, 2.603 e 2.377 para a FP2, 3.932, 4.057, 3.182 e 3.026 para a FCO1 e de 3.399, 3.710, 2.587 e 2.501 para a FCO2. Os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade da EMA, EMAn, EMV e EMVn, em porcentagem da energia bruta (EB, foram de 61,42; 64,99; 78,94 e 68,23 para a FP1, 63,58; 63,45; 80,94 e 74,00 para a FP2, 52,67; 58,40; 71,40 e 58,05 para a FCO1 e 49,04; 53,20; 67,73 e 55,97 para a FCO2. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, para a FP1, FP2, FCO1 e FCO2 foram, respectivamente, 94,32 e 92,87; 92,95 e 90,47; 83,24 e 76,94 e 83,83 e 76,96.Chemical composition, energy values, digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid of by-products from slaughterhouses were determined by using the method of "forced feeding" with cecectomized roosters. It was used a complete random design, with two types of fish meal (FM1 and FM2, two types of meat and bone meal (MBM1 and MBM2 and one fasting diet, using six replications with one rooster per experimental unit. The values for apparent metabolizable energy (AME, nitrogen corrected AME (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME and nitrogen corrected TME (TMEn

  1. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal (SBM) mixture, and conventional SBM fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows (initial BW: 14.6 ± 2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Six corn-based diets were formulated. The basal diet contained 98.1% corn (as-fed basis) and 5 diets contained corn and 11 to 16% chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, spent hen-SBM mixture, or SBM. All test ingredients were included in their respective diets at levels that were expected to result in similar concentrations of CP among diets. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. The ME was 3,957, 3,816, 4,586, 4,298, 4,255, and 4,091 kcal/kg DM for corn, chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, the spent hen-SBM mixture, and SBM, respectively. The ME in poultry byproduct meal was greater (P poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, or the spent hen-SBM mixture. The SID of CP and all AA, except Trp and Pro, was greater (P poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  2. Amino acids analysis during lactic acid fermentation by single strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... of the three LAB strains to utilize amino acids for growth and lactic acid production were employed to ... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are used for the ..... and characterization of potential probiotic lactobacilli from pig feces.

  3. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  4. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-01-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: 1. During long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; 2. These behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; 3. These behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids, and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences. PMID:24072505

  5. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  6. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  7. Formulação com aminoácidos totais ou digestíveis em rações com níveis decrescentes de proteína bruta para frangos de corte de 21 a 42 dias de idade Total and digestible amino acids formulation in diets with decreasing levels of crude protein for broilers from 21 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Herr Viola

    2008-02-01

    reducing crude protein (CP level, supplemented with synthetic amino acids, formulated based on total amino acids (TAA (Exp 1 or digestible AA (DAA (Exp 2. The experiments conducted in the period from 3 to 6 weeks of age of the birds. In both experiments, the four levels of CP were: 20.8, 19.7, 18.6 and 17.5% CP. In the Experiment 2, two other treatments were added: diets containing 20.8 and 17.5% CP and high digestibility (HD, based on corn, soybean meal, corn starch and soy protein isolate. In both experiments, the feed intake was not affected by CP decreasing. In Exp1, weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC, breast and drumstick yield were negatively affected by CP reduction, meanwhile in Exp 2 those variables were not affected. However, in both experiments, in the week from 21 to 28 days of age, WG and FC were negatively influenced by CP decrease. As the CP levels decrease, the dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility increased in the Exp 2, due to the smaller inclusion of soybean meal. In both experiments, the relative protein retention was greater for rations with low CP levels. In Exp 2, although of the different CP levels did not affect the performance, the Hdig diets promoted higher OM digestibility and tended to have higher DM digestibility. The rations with 17.5%CP level and HDig promoted a more positive protein balance and higher relative protein retention as compared to the standard digestibility. Considering all the results, formulation with DAA showed advantages related to TAA.

  8. Amino Acid Degradation after Meteoritic Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; vanderGaast, S.; Vilas, F.; Hoerz, F.; Barnes, G.; Chabin, A.; Brack, A.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most important prebiotic molecules as it is from these precursors that the building blocks of life were formed [1]. Although organic molecules were among the components of the planetesimals making up the terrestrial planets, large amounts of primitive organic precursor molecules are believed to be exogenous in origin and to have been imported to the Earth via micrometeorites, carbonaceous meteorites and comets, especially during the early stages of the formation of the Solar System [1,2]. Our study concerns the hypothesis that prebiotic organic matter, present on Earth, was synthesized in the interstellar environment, and then imported to Earth by meteorites or micrometeorites. We are particularly concerned with the formation and fate of amino acids. We have already shown that amino acid synthesis is possible inside cometary grains under interstellar environment conditions [3]. We are now interested in the effects of space conditions and meteoritic impact on these amino acids [4-6]. Most of the extraterrestrial organic molecules known today have been identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites [7]. One of the components of these meteorites is a clay with a composition close to that of saponite, used in our experiments. Two American teams have studied the effects of impact on various amino acids [8,9]. [8] investigated amino acids in saturated solution in water with pressure ranges between 5.1 and 21 GPa and temperature ranges between 412 and 870 K. [9] studied amino acids in solid form associated with and without minerals (Murchison and Allende meteorite extracts) and pressure ranges between 3 and 30 GPa. In these two experiments, the amino acids survived up to 15 GPa. At higher pressure, the quantity of preserved amino acids decreases quickly. Some secondary products such as dipeptides and diketopiperazins were identified in the [8] experiment.

  9. Effects of glucagon on plasma amino acids.

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, G.; Rezvani, I.; Owen, O E

    1984-01-01

    The effects of glucagon deficiency and excess on plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids were studied in six normal human subjects for 8 h. During glucagon deficiency, produced by intravenous infusion of somatostatin (0.5 mg/h) and insulin (5 mU/kg per h), amino acid concentration (sum of 21 amino acids) rose from 2,607 +/- 76 to 2,922 +/- 133 microM after 4 h (P less than 0.025). The largest increases occurred in lysine (+26%), glycine (+24%), alanine (+23%), and arginine (+23%) concentratio...

  10. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  11. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Brinton, K L; McDonald, G D

    1999-08-03

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  12. Effect of bile acids on digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stremoukhov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effects of different bile acids in the body in recent years significantly increased the understanding of their physiological functions. The role of bile acids is to transfer to Striated border of enterocytes lipids in high micellar concentration and subsequent return them to the water layer in the molecular form. The rate of diffusion of molecules or particles is inversely proportional to the square root of the magnitude of their molecular weight. Main components of the glycoprotein complex (GPC allows to preserve the natural structure of mucosa. Previous physicochemical experiments on GPC established presence of bile acids (3,5 to 10 mg/ml, enzymes (amylase and lipase, amino acids (from 10150 to 29500 ug/ml in the complex. Objective. The aim was to study the influence of bile on fat filtration on the model of GPC. Method and Materials. Soaked filters were put on the tubes: with bile - the first, water - the second group, GPC bile at a dose of 25 mg/kg - the third group. Then on each filter was poured 2 ml of liquid fat. 30 minutes after the start of the experiment the amount of liquid fat that passes through the filter was measured. Results and Discussion. As established in the first group (bile medical, the amount of liquid fat, which passed through the filter amounted to 1,85±0,02 ml. In the second group (water - 0,30 ± 0,03 ml. In the third group (GPC 25 mg/kg - 1,75±0,02 ml. After that the impact of GPC bile in emulsification of fats was studied. 1 ml of vegetable oil and 1,5 ml of purified water were contributed in three series of tubes. The first series of test tubes left unchanged. In the other two 2 ml in 2 series - medical bile in 3 series - GPC bile were added. Tubes were shaken in all series. In the first (control series observed the formation of turbid fluid - emulsion. However, in a few seconds instability of the emulsion was detected. In the second and third series of tubes formation of stable emulsions which are

  13. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  14. EXAMINATION OF VITAMIN AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    content of RGWF. The total essential amino acid (TEAA), percentage total non essential amino acid (%TEAA) ... Key words: Amino acid, vitamin, gmelina, fruit, pulp, livestock, feed. ..... “Lippincott's Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry.” 4th. Edition ...

  15. An astrophysically-relevant mechanism for amino acid enantiomer enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Fletcher, S.; B. C. Jagt, R.; Feringa, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    The sublimation of low ee amino acids was examined while exploring simple mechanisms by which high ee amino acids can be generated under conditions that exist in space; significant enantioenrichment of a variety of amino acids by sublimation was achieved.

  16. Amino acids profile of four Nile fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    juba

    This study was intended to identify contents of amino acids (AAs) of four commercial Nile fishes in. Sudan and to ... and Lysine-rich ingredients (fish meal, blood meal) are often expensive ... However, determination process of tryptophan from ...

  17. AMINO ACIDS APPLICATION TO CREATE OF NANOSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chekman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the amino acids that could be used for nanostructures creation. The investigation of corresponding properties of amino acids is essential for their role definition in creation of nanomedicines. However, amino acid studying as components of nanostructures is insufficient. Study of nanoparticles for medicines creation was initiated by the development of nanotechnology. Amino acids in complexes with the nanoparticles of organic and inorganic nature play an important role for medicines targeting in pathological process. They could reduce toxicity of the nanomaterials used in nanomedicine and are used for creation of biosensors, lab-on-chip and therefore they are a promising material for synthesis of new nanodrugs and diagnostic tools.

  18. Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz A. Bromke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are not only building blocks for proteins but serve as precursors for the synthesis of many metabolites with multiple functions in growth and other biological processes of a living organism. The biosynthesis of amino acids is tightly connected with central carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism. Recent publication of genome sequences for two diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum created an opportunity for extensive studies on the structure of these metabolic pathways. Based on sequence homology found in the analyzed diatomal genes, the biosynthesis of amino acids in diatoms seems to be similar to higher plants. However, one of the most striking differences between the pathways in plants and in diatomas is that the latter possess and utilize the urea cycle. It serves as an important anaplerotic pathway for carbon fixation into amino acids and other N-containing compounds, which are essential for diatom growth and contribute to their high productivity.

  19. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  20. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  1. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiangyun [San Diego, CA; Xie, Jianming [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA

    2012-06-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  2. The effect of immune stress on ideal amino acid pattern for piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianwen; CHEN Daiwen; ZHANG Keying; LONG Dingbiao

    2007-01-01

    Two nitrogen-balance experiments were conducted to determine the optimum balance pattern among four amino acids (lysine,methionine,tryptophan and threonine)on a digestible basis in the diet of piglets (10 kg) treated with lipopolysaccharide or saline as control.The method of amino acid deletion was adopted.All pigs were of a single genetic background and geographical origin.In each group,fifteen Landrance×Rongchang castrated piglets were allotted randomly to one of five groups of dietary amino acid regimens.The positive control group was supplemented with four amino acids.One of the four amino acids was reduced by about 25% in the respective treatment groups.After finishing the nitrogen-balance experiments,the slaughter technique was used to determine the ideal amino acid digestibility of the positive control by using chromium oxide (3 g/kg) as the indicator.The results showed that the ideal amino acid pattern of lysine/methionine/threonine/tryptopham on the digestible basis was 100:27:29:59 for 10 kg pigs under immune stress,and 100:30:21:61 for piglets under normal conditions.

  3. Evaluation of amino acids as turfgrass nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Luc, John E; Crow, William T

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments revealed that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog at rates of 224 and 448 kg amino acid/ha reduced the number of Belonolaimus longicaudatus mixed life-stages and Meloidogyne incognita J2 in soil, whereas L-threonine and lysine were not effective in reducing the number of either nematode. Futhermore, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that DL-methionine, sodium methionate, potassium methionate, and methionine hydroxyl analog were equally effective against B. longicaudatus at rates of 112, 224, and 448 kg amino acid/ha, and the highest rate (448 kg amino acid/ha) of all amino acids was more effective in reducing the number of B. longicaudatus than the lower rate. However, phytotoxicity was observed on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris) treated with 448 kg amino acid/ha of methionine hydroxyl analog and DL methionine. In addition, in one of two field experiments on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) turf percentage green cover was increased and the number of B. longicaudatus was reduced by 224 kg amino acid/ha of DL-methionine and potassium methionate compared to untreated controls in one of two trials.

  4. Effects of Exogenous Amino Acids on the Contents of Amino Acids in Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-ping; LIU Guo-shun; ZHU Kai; PENG Sa; GUO Qiao-yan

    2005-01-01

    The effect of three amino acids on the growth of flue-cured tobacco was studied with water culture. The results showed that the three amino acids improved the growth of flue-cured tobacco and increased the contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and carotenoid in tobacco. At the same time, the activities of NR (nitrate reductase), INV(invertase) and root growth activity were also significantly enhanced. The exogenous glutamic, aspartate and phenylalanine all increased the amino acid contents of tobacco leaves. Of these three amino acids, glutamic had the greatest effect, the next was aspartate,and phenylalanine had the least effect. These three amino acids all had significantly increased the accumulation of amino acids in the leaves of individual plants of tobacco; and the magnitude of accumulation indicated aspartate > glutamic >phenylalanine.

  5. Efeito da adição de aminoácidos essenciais à dieta sobre a secreção de enzimas digestivas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.822 Effect of dietary essential amino acids addition on digestive enzime secretion in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Eneas Altran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos realizados com variação no teor de proteína na ração para peixes, foi demonstrado o aumento das atividades de protease alcalina, protease ácida, tripsina e quimiotripsina do trato digestório de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Esses fatos sugerem que produtos liberados pela digestão na luz desse trato podem influenciar a síntese e a secreção de enzimas digestivas. A secreção destas enzimas pelo pâncreas, em vertebrados, responde à influência neural e humoral. No presente trabalho, foram testadas quatro concentrações (0, 3, 6 e 12% de uma mistura de aminoácidos (treonina, fenilalanina, leucina, valina, arginina e triptofano em iguais proporções em dietas isocalóricas contendo 3.500 kcal de energia digestível kg-1 de ração, e dietas isoproteicas contendo 20% de proteína, em juvenis de jundiá. Foram utilizados dez animais por tratamento, sendo os peixes estocados num sistema fechado com recirculação de água e temperatura controlada. Os peixes submetidos a estes tratamentos apresentaram atividade da protease alcalina na região anterior do intestino, responsiva aos diferentes níveis aminoácidos da alimentação. Todavia, as atividades protease alcalina do fígado e amilase do fígado e intestino anterior não foram detectadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a atividade protease alcalina do intestino anterior seja induzida por aminoácidos liberados na luz do trato digestório.Studies carried out with variation of protein concentration in the fish feed have shown an increase in the activity of alkaline proteases, acid proteases, trypsin and chimotrypsin from the digestive tract of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. These facts suggest that products released by digestion in the lumen of this tract can influenced the synthesis and secretion of digestive enzymes. The secretion of these enzymes by the pancreas in vertebrate responses to neural and humoral influences. In the present study, four concentration (0, 3, 6 and 12

  6. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......: Oral amino acid mixture ingestion elicits a stronger insulin secretory response than iv amino acid at matching amino acid levels and this is associated with increased GIP level, suggesting that an incretin effect exists also after oral amino acids, possibly mediated by GIP....

  7. Synthesis of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid: an amino acid component of apicidins

    OpenAIRE

    Linares de la Morena, María Lourdes; Agejas Chicharro, Francisco Javier; Alajarín Ferrández, Ramón; Vaquero López, Juan José; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis Of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (Aoda) is described. This is a rare amino acid component of apicidins, a family of new cyclic tetrapeptides, inhibitors of histone deacetylase. Aoda was synthesised in seven steps from L-glutamic acid along with some derivatives. Universidad de Alcalá Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá FEDER

  8. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  9. Plasma amino acids in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, D; Vilaseca, M A; Artuch, R; Lambruschini, N

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the amino acid profile in a group of adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and to apply alternative ways of presenting and assessing results, so as to increase the information available for understanding the metabolic abnormalities developed in these patients. Plasma amino acid concentrations of a random group of patients with anorexia nervosa compared with values obtained from a 'healthy' adolescent population. The study was performed at the tertiary children's Hospital Sant Joan de Deu. Female adolescents (n = 92, age: 15+/-1.8 y) at diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Reference values for amino acids were obtained from apparently healthy adolescents (by history and analytical data) who underwent presurgical analysis for minor operations. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured by ion exchange chromatography. Basic laboratory analysis, carnitine and IGF-I were also determined. In anorexic patients plasma concentrations of taurine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, methionine, phenylalanine, ornithine, and histidine were significantly higher than reference values (Mann-Whitney, P anorexia nervosa. Although absolute amino acid values cannot play a significant role in the assessment of nutritional status in this condition, the calculation of some ratios (Phe/Tyr, Met/Cys and Gly/Val) and the graphical representation of relative values may be useful. The plasma amino acid profile in anorexia nervosa is different from those of other severe malnutrition states, showing a marasmic pattern of balanced protein-energy undernutrition. Cystine and arginine may be considered limiting amino acids in this disease, and the consequences of their deficient concentrations for oxidative damage should be further evaluated.

  10. Amino acid survival in large cometary impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Chyba, C. F.

    1999-11-01

    A significant fraction of the Earth's prebiotic volatile inventory may have been delivered by asteroidal and cometary impacts during the period of heavy bombardment. The realization that comets are particularly rich in organic material seemed to strengthen this suggestion. Previous modeling studies, however, indicated that most organics would be entirely destroyed in large comet and asteroid impacts. The availability of new kinetic parameters for the thermal degradation of amino acids in the solid phase made it possible to readdress this question. We present the results of new high-resolution hydrocode simulations of asteroid and comet impact coupled with recent experimental data for amino acid pyrolysis in the solid phase. Differences due to impact velocity as well as projectile material have been investigated. Effects of angle of impacts were also addressed. The results suggest that some amino acids would survive the shock heating of large (kilometer-radius) cometary impacts. At the time of the origins of life on Earth, the steady-state oceanic concentration of certain amino acids (like aspartic and glutamic acid) delivered by comets could have equaled or substantially exceeded that due to Miller-Urey synthesis in a carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. Furthermore, in the unlikely case of a grazing impact (impact angle around 5 degrees from the horizontal) an amount of some amino acids comparable to that due to the background steady-state production or delivery would be delivered to the early Earth.

  11. Effect of citric acid deamidation on in vitro digestibility and antioxidant properties of wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Sun, Weizheng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-12-01

    The effects of citric acid deamidation on the physiochemical properties of wheat gluten were investigated. In vitro digestion was carried out to determine changes of molecular weight distribution, amino acids composition and antioxidant efficacy of wheat gluten hydrolysates. Results indicated that citric acid deamidation significantly increased gluten solubility and surface hydrophobicity, at a neutral pH. Deamidation induced molecular weight distribution change of gluten with little proteolysis. Results from FTIR indicated that the α-helix and β-turn of deamidated gluten increased accompanied by a decrease of the β-sheet structure. After deamidation, in vitro pepsin digestibility of wheat gluten decreased, while in vitro pancreatin digestibility increased. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activity of the in vitro digests decreased with increase of deamidation time. The high Lys and total essential AAs amounts in the final digests suggested that the nutritional values of wheat gluten after deamidation might be enhanced.

  12. THE D-AMINO ACID CONTENT OF FOODSTUFFS SUBJECTED TO VARIOUS TECHNOLOGICAL PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Csapó

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available D-amino acids occurring in dietary proteins originate as a consequence of technological intervention while basic materials are being prepared for consumption. Foodstuffs are the most significant sources of D-amino acids, as in the process of cooking or during the various processing procedures used in the food industry dietary proteins undergo racemisation to a greater or lesser degree. Food stores are now selling increasing quantities of foods (such as breakfast cereals, baked potatoes, liquid and powdered infant foods, meat substitutes and other supplements which in some cases contain substantial quantities of D-amino acids, which in turn possess characteristics harmful with respect to digestion and health. Alkali treatment catalyses the racemisation of optically active amino acids. The degree of racemisation undergone varies from protein to protein, but the relative order of the degree of racemisation of the individual amino acids within proteins shows a high level of similarity. The principal factors influencing racemisation are the pH of the medium, heat treatment, the duration of the application of alkaline treatment and the structure of the respective amino acids. D-amino acids formed in the course of treatment with alkalis or heat give rise to a deterioration in quality and reduce the extent to which food thus treated can be used safely. The presence of D-amino acids in proteins leads to a decrease in digestibility and the availability of the other amino acids. This results in a reduction in the quantities of the L-enantiomers of the essential amino acids, as the peptide bonds cannot split in the normal way. Some D-amino acids can exert an isomer-toxic effect and have the capacity to give rise to changes in the biological effect of lysinoalanine.

  13. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways.

  14. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  15. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  16. Estimation of the true ileal digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid requirement and comparison of the bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid and DL-methionine in eleven- to twenty-six-kilogram nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, G F; Gaines, A M; Ratliff, B W; Srichana, P; Allee, G L; Perryman, K R; Knight, C D

    2006-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true ileal digestible (TID) Lys and sulfur AA (SAA) requirement and to compare the bioefficacy of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) and dl-MET as Met sources in nursery pigs. Experiment 1 included 2 studies: 1 was 662 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.2 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID Lys concentrations ranging from 1.10 to 1.50%; and the second study was 665 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 12.3 +/- 0.18 kg) allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with TID SAA concentration ranging from 0.63 to 0.90%. In Exp. 2, 638 nursery pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 13.0 +/- 0.16 kg) were allotted to the same 5 SAA dietary treatments as in Exp. 1. In Exp. 3, 1,232 pigs (Triumph 4 x PIC C22; initial BW 11.0 +/- 0.30 kg) were allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments. The basal diet (diet 1) was supplemented with high concentrations of synthetic AA but no Met; this resulted in a dietary concentration of TID Lys of 1.30% and TID SAA of 0.50%. Diets 2 to 7 were the basal diet supplemented with 3 equimolar levels of HMTBA or dl-MET to provide TID SAA concentrations of 0.56, 0.62, and 0.68%, respectively. In Exp. 1, increasing TID Lys from 1.10 to 1.50% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.05) and improved G:F (linear; P < 0.002). The pooled data of Exp. 1 (SAA study) and Exp. 2 indicated that increasing TID SAA from 0.63 to 0.90% increased ADG (quadratic; P < 0.01) and improved G:F (quadratic; P < 0.01). Various methods of analyzing the growth response surface indicated that the optimal TID Lys concentration ranged from 1.28 to 1.32% for ADG (Exp. 1), and the optimal TID SAA concentration ranged from 0.73 to 0.77% for ADG and 0.80 to 0.83% for G:F (pooled Exp. 1 and 2), respectively. In Exp. 3, increasing TID SAA concentrations from 0.50 to 0.68% resulted in a linear improvement of ADG (P < 0.001), ADFI (P < 0.05), and G:F (P < 0.001). The best fit comparison of HMTBA

  17. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B;

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2...

  18. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...... protein synthesis and breakdown, that is, reduced turnover with a minor increase in net muscle degradation. Very similar observations have been made in models of acute inflammation, induced by high-dose endotoxin injection. However, these changes were suggested not to be attributed to a direct effect...

  19. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... protein synthesis and breakdown, that is, reduced turnover with a minor increase in net muscle degradation. Very similar observations have been made in models of acute inflammation, induced by high-dose endotoxin injection. However, these changes were suggested not to be attributed to a direct effect...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  20. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  1. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  2. Metal induced amino acid adsorption on nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia M., E-mail: abinitio@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Research Center for the Remediation of Soil and Ground Water Pollution, Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Jalbout, Abraham F. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora C.P., 83000 Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    In this work we detail the mechanism by which alkali metal encapsulation inside an armchair (9,9) single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) can affect external amino acid interactions. Based on our analysis, several configurations revealed that the physical properties of the SWNT systems are modified by using an internally situated Li atom. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that the most favorable interactions of the SWNT system is with tryptophan, threonine and proline that can be directly correlated to the backbone geometry of the amino acid species.

  3. Microbial degradation of poly(amino acid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Martin; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Natural poly(amino acid)s are a group of poly(ionic) molecules (ionomers) with various biological functions and putative technical applications and play, therefore, an important role both in nature and in human life. Because of their biocompatibility and their synthesis from renewable resources, poly(amino acid)s may be employed for many different purposes covering a broad spectrum of medical, pharmaceutical, and personal care applications as well as the domains of agriculture and of environmental applications. Biodegradability is one important advantage of naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s over many synthetic polymers. The intention of this review is to give an overview about the enzyme systems catalyzing the initial steps in poly(amino acid) degradation. The focus is on the naturally occurring poly(amino acid)s cyanophycin, poly(epsilon-L-lysine) and poly(gamma-glutamic acid); but biodegradation of structurally related synthetic polyamides such as poly(aspartic acid) and nylons, which are known from various technical applications, is also included.

  4. Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to make a concise review of the published dietary requirements of fishes for amino acids, (2) to describe recent findings at the Tunison Laboratory concerning amino acid nutrition of trout, (3) to review specific signs of deficiency of amino acids, and (4) to discuss use of the fish egg amino acid pattern as a guideline to formulating new feeds or studying amino acid requirements of fishes for which there is limited information on their quantitative requirements.

  5. Influence of dietary protein type and iron source on the absorption of amino acids and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llamas, F; Garaulet, M; Martínez, J A; Marín, J F; Larqué, E; Zamora, S

    2001-12-01

    The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of amino acids and the balance of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron) has been determined in rats fed four diets differing in the protein type (casein or soy protein) and iron source (ferrous sulphate or lactate) in order to study the possible interactions of these nutrients. The availability of amino acids, especially essential amino acids, was greater in the diet made with animal protein (casein). The iron source also affected the absorption of most amino acids in all the diets assayed with ferrous sulphate being greater. The balance of iron, magnesium and phosphorus was higher in the diets containing animal protein. The retention of calcium and magnesium was significantly greater when ferrous sulphate was used as iron source. These results demonstrate the important interaction between amino acids and minerals and between the minerals themselves, which must be carefully studied when selecting different types of protein or mineral sources in human or animal nutrition.

  6. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino ...

  7. Evaluación de la calidad de las proteínas en los alimentos calculando el escore de aminoácidos corregido por digestibilidad Assessment of protein quality in foods by calculating the amino acids score corrected by digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Suárez López

    2006-02-01

    , los valores obtenidos de escore y PDCAAS fueron respectivamente: hortalizas del 88,5% / 73,4%, tubércupalos 89,44% / 74,24%, frutas frescas: 75,6% / 64,3%, frutas secas: 65,6% / 48,1, legumbres en general: 89,2% / 69,58%, garbanzos y soja: 100% / 78%, cereales y derivados: 68,8% / 58,5%. La confección de una tabla que contenga los valores de escore, digestibilidad y PDCAAS de alimentos constituye un aporte de utilidad cuando se desea seleccionar alimentos en un plan de alimentación en función de su calidad proteica.The protein score reflects its amino acids (AA content in comparison with the ideal protein. However, when there is a need to know the use of AA by the organism it is necessary to do a correction of the score value by protein digestibility (PDCAAS. Since this information is not available for usually con-sumed foods, the present work aimed at calculating the PDCAAS values of these foods. The score was calculated the limiting AA of 70 foods, taking as reference protein the AA pattern for children > 1 year old and adults proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for the year 2002. The PDCAAS value was obtained in each case by multiplying the score value by the digestibility index. For vegetable foods the obtained score values and PDCAAS were, respectively: vegetables 88.5% / 73.4%, tubercles 89.44% / 74.24%, fresh fruits 75.6% / 64.3%, dried fruits 65.6% / 48.1%, legumes in general 89.2% / 69.58%, chickpea and soybean 100% / 78%, cereals and derivatives 68.8% / 58.5%. Creation of table that contents the score values, digestibility values, and PDCAAS of foods is a useful tool when food selection for a dietary plan based on its protein quality is desirable.

  8. Amino acid homeostasis and signalling in mammalian cells and organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Cells have a constant turnover of proteins that recycle most amino acids over time. Net loss is mainly due to amino acid oxidation. Homeostasis is achieved through exchange of essential amino acids with non-essential amino acids and the transfer of amino groups from oxidised amino acids to amino acid biosynthesis. This homeostatic condition is maintained through an active mTORC1 complex. Under amino acid depletion, mTORC1 is inactivated. This increases the breakdown of cellular proteins through autophagy and reduces protein biosynthesis. The general control non-derepressable 2/ATF4 pathway may be activated in addition, resulting in transcription of genes involved in amino acid transport and biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids. Metabolism is autoregulated to minimise oxidation of amino acids. Systemic amino acid levels are also tightly regulated. Food intake briefly increases plasma amino acid levels, which stimulates insulin release and mTOR-dependent protein synthesis in muscle. Excess amino acids are oxidised, resulting in increased urea production. Short-term fasting does not result in depletion of plasma amino acids due to reduced protein synthesis and the onset of autophagy. Owing to the fact that half of all amino acids are essential, reduction in protein synthesis and amino acid oxidation are the only two measures to reduce amino acid demand. Long-term malnutrition causes depletion of plasma amino acids. The CNS appears to generate a protein-specific response upon amino acid depletion, resulting in avoidance of an inadequate diet. High protein levels, in contrast, contribute together with other nutrients to a reduction in food intake. PMID:28546457

  9. Composição química e aminoacídica e coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de farinhas de penas e sangue determinados em galos cecectomizados Chemical and amino acid composition and true digestibility coefficients of amino acids of feather and blood meals, determined in cecectomized cocks

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthia Eyng; Ricardo Vianna Nunes; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Christiane Garcia Vilela Nunes; Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2012-01-01

    Foram determinados a composição química e aminoacídica e os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos (CDVaa) de farinhas de penas e sangue para aves obtidas de diferentes fornecedores. Utilizaram-se 30 galos cecectomizados distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro farinhas de penas e sangue (farinhas 1, 2, 3 e 4) e um tratamento no qual as aves permaneceram em jejum, seis repetições sendo a unidade experimental composta por um galo. As va...

  10. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  11. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations. The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  12. [Sublicons containing amino acids and nucleotides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭmakov, E A

    1979-01-01

    Sublicons have been obtained. Sublicons are threadlike structures appearing during sublimation of frozen solutions of small concentrations, containing racemate mixture of amino acids and nucleotides. It is suggested that close location of chains and their zonal distribution by the section of helix spire forming sublicon wall, should provide the formation of stereohomogenous and complementary successions of biomonomers of different clases.

  13. Amino Acid Formation on Interstellar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Munoz Caro, G. M.; Barbier, B.; Brack, A.; Thiemann, W.; Goesmann, F.; Rosenbauer, H.

    2003-04-01

    In the dense interstellar medium dust particles accrete ice layers of known molecular composition. In the diffuse interstellar medium these ice layers are subjected to energetic UV-irradiation. Here, photoreactions form complex organic molecules. The interstellar processes were recently successfully simulated in two laboratories. At NASA Ames Research Center three amino acids were detected in interstellar ice analogues [1], contemporaneously, our European team reported on the identification of 16 amino acids therein [2]. Amino acids are the molecular building blocks of proteins in living organisms. The identification of amino acids on the simulated icy surface of interstellar dust particles strongly supports the assumption that the precursor molecules of life were delivered from interstellar and interplanetary space via (micro-) meteorites and/or comets to the earyl Earth. The results shall be verified by the COSAC experiment onboard the ESA cometary mission Rosetta [3]. [1] M.P. Bernstein, J.P. Dworkin, S.A. Sandford, G.W. Cooper, L.J. Allamandola: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 401-403. [2] G.M. Muñoz Caro, U.J. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, B. Barbier, A. Arcones Sergovia, H. Rosenbauer, W.H.-P. Thiemann, A. Brack, J.M. Greenberg: itshape Nature \\upshape 416 (2002), 403-406. [3] U. Meierhenrich, W.H.-P. Thiemann, H. Rosenbauer: itshape Chirality \\upshape 11 (1999), 575-582.

  14. Amino acid modifications on tRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yuan; Kelly Sheppard; Dieter S(o)ll

    2008-01-01

    The accurate formation of cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNAs (aa-tRNAs) is essential for the fidelity of translation.Most amino acids are esterified onto their cognate tRNA isoacceptors directly by aa.tRNA synthetases.However,in the case of four amino acids (Gin,Asn,Cys and Sec),aminoacyl-tRNAs are made through indirect pathways in many organisms across all three domains of life.The process begins with the charging ofnoncognate amino acids to tRNAs by a specialized synthetase in the case of Cys-tRNAcys formation or by synthetases with relaxed specificity,such as the non-discriminating glutamyl-tRNA,non-discriminating aspartyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases.The resulting misacylated tRNAs are then converted to cognate pairs through transformation of the amino acids on the tRNA,which is catalyzed by a group of tRNA-dependent modifying enzymes,such as tRNA-dependent amidotransferases,Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase,O-phosphoseryi-tRNA kinase and Sep-tRNA:Sec-tRNA synthase.The majority of these indirect pathways are widely spread in all domains of life and thought to be part of the evolutionary process.

  15. Estimate of Amino Acid Balance in Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunWenzhi

    1995-01-01

    A new chemical index-imbalance degree(IBD),was proposed on the basis of cluster analysis in multivariate statistical analysis to estimate the extent of amino acid balance in protein.The range of IBD is between 0 and 1,successively corresponding to complete baance and entire imbalance for the amino acid profile of a sample.The amino acid increment model of IBD belongs to an asymmetrical maximum-type,and there is a high correlation between IBD and coefficient of variation(CV),The nutritional Value of individual feed can be ranked and clustered according to its IBD;and by calculating the IBD of amixed sample with two or more feedstuffs,it is possible theoretically to predict whether a synergetic phenomenon exists and when an optimal mutual complement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of plement can happen.If the conceptive frame of IBD extended,it can be used to study the balance of nutrients besides amino acids,and is helpful to realize the automatic distinction and selection in diet formulating.

  16. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Amino acids. 172.320 Section 172.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives §...

  17. Biosynthesis of natural products containing β-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Fumitaka; Miyanaga, Akimasa; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Covering: up to January, 2014. We focus here on β-amino acids as components of complex natural products because the presence of β-amino acids produces structural diversity in natural products and provides characteristic architectures beyond those of ordinary α-L-amino acids, thus generating significant and unique biological functions in nature. In this review, we first survey the known bioactive β-amino acid-containing natural products including nonribosomal peptides, macrolactam polyketides, and nucleoside-β-amino acid hybrids. Next, the biosynthetic enzymes that form β-amino acids from α-amino acids and the de novo synthesis of β-amino acids are summarized. Then, the mechanisms of β-amino acid incorporation into natural products are reviewed. Because it is anticipated that the rational swapping of the β-amino acid moieties with various side chains and stereochemistries by biosynthetic engineering should lead to the creation of novel architectures and bioactive compounds, the accumulation of knowledge regarding β-amino acid-containing natural product biosynthetic machinery could have a significant impact in this field. In addition, genome mining of characteristic β-amino acid biosynthetic genes and unique β-amino acid incorporation machinery could lead to the discovery of new β-amino acid-containing natural products.

  18. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-07-14

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology.

  19. Permeability of membranes to amino acids and modified amino acids: mechanisms involved in translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W. (Principal Investigator); Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The amino acid permeability of membranes is of interest because they are one of the key solutes involved in cell function. Membrane permeability coefficients (P) for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, have been measured and compared using a variety of techniques. Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly (5-fold), while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested in liposomes. Increasing the membrane surface charge increased the permeability of amino acids of the opposite charge, while increasing the cholesterol content decreased membrane permeability. The permeability coefficients for most amino acids tested were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium (approximately 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1). This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. Hydrophobic amino acids were 10(2) more permeable than the hydrophilic forms, reflecting their increased partition coefficient values. External pH had dramatic effects on the permeation rates for the modified amino acid lysine methyl ester in response to transmembrane pH gradients. It was established that lysine methyl ester and other modified short peptides permeate rapidly (P = 10(-2) cm s-1) as neutral (deprotonated) molecules. It was also shown that charge distributions dramatically alter permeation rates for modified di-peptides. These results may relate to the movement of peptides through membranes during protein translocation and to the origin of cellular membrane transport on the early Earth.

  20. Microbial Production of Amino Acid-Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-11-22

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is the workhorse of the production of proteinogenic amino acids used in food and feed biotechnology. After more than 50 years of safe amino acid production, C. glutamicum has recently also been engineered for the production of amino acid-derived compounds, which find various applications, e.g., as synthons for the chemical industry in several markets including the polymer market. The amino acid-derived compounds such as non-proteinogenic ω-amino acids, α,ω-diamines, and cyclic or hydroxylated amino acids have similar carbon backbones and functional groups as their amino acid precursors. Decarboxylation of amino acids may yield ω-amino acids such as β-alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and δ-aminovalerate as well as α,ω-diamines such as putrescine and cadaverine. Since transamination is the final step in several amino acid biosynthesis pathways, 2-keto acids as immediate amino acid precursors are also amenable to production using recombinant C. glutamicum strains. Approaches for metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for production of amino acid-derived compounds will be described, and where applicable, production from alternative carbon sources or use of genome streamline will be referred to. The excellent large-scale fermentation experience with C. glutamicum offers the possibility that these amino acid-derived speciality products may enter large-volume markets.

  1. Amino acids regulate the intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease of Saccharomycescerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Esther J; Kaiser, Chris A

    2002-11-12

    The delivery to the plasma membrane of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the quality of the nitrogen source in the growth medium. In an effort to define how different nitrogen sources control Gap1p sorting, we find that mutations in GDH1 and GLN1 that decrease the flux through the glutamate and glutamine synthesis pathways result in increased Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Conversely, deletion of MKS1, which increases glutamate and glutamine synthesis, decreases Gap1p sorting to the plasma membrane. Glutamate and glutamine are not unusual in their ability to regulate Gap1p sorting, because the addition of all natural amino acids and many amino acid analogs to the growth medium results in increased Gap1p sorting to the vacuole. Importantly, amino acids have the capacity to signal Gap1p sorting to the vacuole regardless of whether they can be used as a source of nitrogen. Finally, we show that rapamycin does not affect Gap1p sorting, indicating that Gap1p sorting is not directly influenced by the TOR pathway. Together, these data show that amino acids are a signal for sorting Gap1p to the vacuole and imply that the nitrogen-regulated Gap1p sorting machinery responds to amino acid-like compounds rather than to the overall nutritional status associated with growth on a particular nitrogen source.

  2. The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelingh, J.P.; Monfoort, Cornelis H.; Rozijn, Thomas H.; Gevers Leuven, Jan A.; Schiphof, R.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.; Braunitzer, Gerhard; Schrank, Barbara; Ruhfus, Annette

    1972-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the basic nuclear protein of bull spermatozoa has been established. The sequence was partially deduced by characterization of peptides isolated from thermolysine and chymotryptic digests of the reduced and S-aminoethylated protein. The complete sequence of the fir

  3. Digestibilidade Ileal de aminoácidos de alguns alimentos, determinada pela técnica da cânula T simples com suínos Ileal digestibilities of amino acids in of some feedstuffs determined by simple canula T technique with swines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Romão Apolônio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente e verdadeira e de aminoácidos, utilizando-se a técnica da cânula T simples, com suínos. Foram utilizados oito suínos canulados, machos, castrados (Landrace x Large White. Os alimentos analisados foram: quirera de arroz, sorgo baixo tanino, farelo de trigo, milheto, leveduras de cana e de cerveja. As dietas contendo a quirera de arroz, sorgo, farelo de trigo e milheto como fonte de proteína foram formuladas para fornecer 7% de proteína bruta e as demais dietas contendo as leveduras de cana e de cerveja foram formuladas para fornecer 13% de proteína bruta. Foi adicionado 0,5% de óxido crômico nas dietas experimentais, como marcador de digestibilidade. A coleta da digesta foi feita após período de adaptação de cinco dias para determinação do consumo de ração, três dias para regularização do fluxo intestinal, num período de 24 horas, feitas a intervalos de 3 horas, começando logo após a alimentação. As amostras foram obtidas de digestas coletadas de grupos de dois animais. Entre os alimentos avaliados, a quirera de arroz, sorgo e milheto apresentaram os maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira, enquanto os menores valores foram obtidos para o farelo de trigo. A treonina foi o aminoácido essencial de menor digestibilidade verdadeira na quirera de arroz, farelo de trigo e nas leveduras de cerveja e cana. A lisina foi o aminoácido menos digestível no sorgo e no milheto.The objective of this work was evaluate the apparent and true ileal digestibility of aminoacids feedstuffs, using the technique of simple canula T, with swines. Were used eight barrows canulated (Landrace x Large White. The feedstuffs evaluated were rice broked, low tanine sorghum, wheat bran, millet, brewer yeast and sugar cane yeast. The diets with rice broked, sorghum, wheat bran, millet as protein source were formulated to provide 7% of crude protein and

  4. Recent advances in amino acid production by microbial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Amino acids have been utilized for the production of foods, animal feeds and pharmaceuticals. After the discovery of the glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum by Japanese researchers, the production of amino acids, which are primary metabolites, has been achieved using various microbial cells as hosts. Recently, metabolic engineering studies on the rational design of amino acid-producing microbial cells have been successfully conducted. Moreover, the technology of systems biology has been applied to metabolic engineering for the creation of amino acid-producing microbial cells. Currently, new technologies including synthetic biology, single-cell analysis, and evolutionary engineering have been utilized to create amino acid-producing microbial cells. In addition, useful compounds from amino acids have been produced by microbial cells. Here, current researches into the metabolic engineering of microbial cells toward production of amino acids and amino acid-related compounds are reviewed.

  5. Biosynthesis of 'essential' amino acids by scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, L M; Szmant, A M

    1997-02-15

    Animals rely on their diet for amino acids that they are incapable either of synthesizing or of synthesizing in sufficient quantities to meet metabolic needs. These are the so-called 'essential amino acids'. This set of amino acids is similar among the vertebrates and many of the invertebrates. Previously, no information was available for amino acid synthesis by the most primitive invertebrates, the Cnidaria. The purpose of this study was to examine amino acid synthesis by representative cnidarians within the Order Scleractinia. Three species of zooxanthellate reef coral, Montastraea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis and Porites divaricata, and two species of non-zooxanthellate coral, Tubastrea coccinea and Astrangia poculata, were incubated with 14C-labelled glucose or with the 14C-labelled amino acids glutamic acid, lysine or valine. Radiolabel tracer was followed into protein amino acids. A total of 17 amino acids, including hydroxyproline, were distinguishable by the techniques used. Of these, only threonine was not found radiolabelled in any of the samples. We could not detect tryptophan or cysteine, nor distinguish between the amino acid pairs glutamic acid and glutamine, or aspartic acid and asparagine. Eight amino acids normally considered essential for animals were made by the five corals tested, although some of them were made only in small quantities. These eight amino acids are valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine histidine, methionine and lysine. The ability of cnidarians to synthesize these amino acids could be yet another indicator of a separate evolutionary history of the cnidarians from the rest of the Metazoa.

  6. Direct amino acid analyses of mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, M N

    1985-12-01

    The amino acid content of mozzarella (low moisture, part skim milk) and asadero cheeses was determined by the column chromatographic method. Data from the direct analyses of the mozzarella cheeses were compared with the calculated amino acid composition reported in tables in Agriculture Handbook No. 8-1. Phenylalanine and tyrosine contents were found to be higher in the direct analyses than in the calculated data in Handbook No. 8-1 (1.390 gm and 1.127 gm for phenylalanine, and 1.493 gm and 1.249 gm for tyrosine per 100 gm edible portion, respectively). That is of particular concern in the dietary management of phenylketonuria, in which accuracy in computing levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine is essential.

  7. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  8. Rotational Study of Natural Amino Acid Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marcelino; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Recent improvements in laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) have allowed the investigation of glutamine (COOH-CH(NH2)-CH2-CH2-CONH2), a natural amino acid with a long polar side chain. One dominant structure has been detected in the rotational spectrum. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of two 14N nuclei has been totally resolved allowing the conclusive identification of the observed species.

  9. Alimentary proteins, amino acids and cholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachier, François; Lancha, Antonio H; Boutry, Claire; Tomé, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Numerous data from both epidemiological and experimental origins indicate that some alimentary proteins and amino acids in supplements can modify the blood LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol. After an initial approval of the health claim for soy protein consumption for the prevention of coronary heart disease, more recently it has been concluded from an overall analysis of literature that isolated soy protein with isoflavones only slightly decrease LDL and total cholesterol. Other plant extracts and also some proteins from animal origin have been reported to exert a lowering effect on blood cholesterol when compared with a reference protein (often casein). The underlying mechanisms are still little understood. Individual amino acids and mixture of amino acids have also been tested (mostly in animal studies) for their effects on cholesterol parameters and on cholesterol metabolism. Methionine, lysine, cystine, leucine, aspartate and glutamate have been tested individually and in combination in different models of either normo or hypercholesterolemic animals and found to be able to modify blood cholesterol and/or LDL cholesterol and/or HDL cholesterol. It is however not known if these results are relevant to human nutrition.

  10. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook, om die balans van die aminosure te kan bepaal, is elkeen aangetoon as'n persentasie .... lent to the free amino acid less the one molecule of .... AMINO ACID PERCENT (a) PERCENT FACTORS (c) PERCENT (d) PERCENT OF PROTEIN.

  11. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with protein substitution with all amino acids except the amino acids prior to the metabolic block and enriched with the amino acid that has become essential by the enzymatic defect. For some aminoacidopathies, supplementation of one or two amino acids, that have not become essential by the enzymatic defect, has been suggested. This so-called single amino acid supplementation can serve different treatment objectives, but evidence is limited. The aim of the present article is to provide a systematic review on the reasons for applications of single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies treated with natural protein restriction and synthetic amino acid mixtures. PMID:24422943

  12. A Green Synthesis of Diisopropyl Phosphoryl Amino Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report that diisopropyl phosphoryl amino acid could be prepared with reasonable yields under solvent-free condition by adding amino acid to the mixture of diisopropyl phosphite and N-chlorodiisopropylamine.

  13. Origin, Microbiology, Nutrition, and Pharmacology of D-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of food proteins to certain processing conditions induces two major chemical changes: racemization of all L-amino acids (LAA) to D-amino acids (DAA) and concurrent formation of crosslinked amino acids such as lysinoalanine (LAL). The diet contains both processing-induced and naturally-form...

  14. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Blom (W.); J.G.M. Huijmans (Jan)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various eti

  15. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  16. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed c

  17. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  18. Myoglobin of the shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni: isolation and amino acid sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1979-06-01

    Myoglobin isolated from red muscle of the shark H. portusjacksoni was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on sulfopropyl-Sephadex and gel-filtration. Amino acid analysis and sequence determination showed 148 amino acid residues. The amino terminal residue is acetylated as shown by mass spectrographic analysis of N-terminal peptides. There is a deletion of four residues at the amino terminal end as well as one residue in the CD interhelical area relative to other myoglobins. The complete amino acid sequence has been determined following digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and staphylococcal protease. Sequences of the purified peptides were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The amino acid sequence showed approximately 85 differences from mammalian, monotreme and bird myoglobins. The date of divergence of the shark H. portusjacksoni from these other orders was estimated at 450 +/- 16 million years, based on the number of amino acid differences between species and allowing for multiple mutations during the evolutionary period. This estimate agrees well with similar estimates made using alpha- and beta-globin sequences, in contrast to widely differing estimates of dates of divergence for monotremes using the same three globin chains. Compared with myoglobins from species previously studied, there are many more differences in amino acid sequences, and in many positions residues are found that are more characteristic of alpha- and beta-globins, suggesting a conservation of residues over a long period of evolutionary time. There are fewer stabilizing hydrogen bonds and salt-linkages than in other myoglobins.

  19. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations.

  20. 晶体氨基酸替代鱼粉蛋白对半滑舌鳎稚鱼消化酶和代谢酶活力的影响%EFFECTS OF FISH MEAL REPLACEMENT WITH CRYSTALLINE AMINO ACID ON DIGESTIVE AND METABOLIC ENZYMES OF TONGUE SOLE (CYNOGLOSSUS SEMILAEVIS GÜNTHER, 1873) LARVAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊; 艾庆辉; 麦康森; 徐玮; 韩冰

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacement of fish meal protein by crystalline amino acids on digestive enzymes and metabolism enzymes in tongue sole larvae. Five isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated to replace 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% fish meal (0% CAA, 25% CAA, 50% CAA, 75% CAA and 100%CAA) respectively. At the replacement level of 25%, another diet was formulated with amino acids coated with tri-palmitin (C-25%CAA). Each micro diet was randomly fed to triplicate groups of fish, and each group had 150 fish. The results showed that the activities of trypsin significantly decreased with increasing dietary crystalline amino acids, but there were no significant differences between C-25%CAA and 0%CAA (P>0.05). The ratio of Trypsin(I) to Trypsin(P) significantly decreased with increasing dietary crystalline amino acids, and 0%CAA was significantly higher than 75%CAA and 100%CAA. The activities of amylase significantly increased with increasing dietary crystalline amino acids. The activities of leucine-amino peptidase and alkaline-phosphatase in intestine and purified brush border membrane of intestine significantly decreased with increasing dietary crystalline amino acids, but no significant differences were ob-served between C-25% CAA and 0% CAA (P>0.05). Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and Glutamic-oxalacetic transa-minease significantly increased with increasing dietary crystalline amino acids. In conclusion, crystalline amino acids in the micro diet significantly influenced the digestive and metabolic enzymes of tongue sole larvae. In the replacement level of 25%, Comparing with 25% CAA group crystalline amino acids coated with tripalmitin (C-25% CAA) could promote the development of digestion system in tongue sole larvae.%为研究人工微颗粒饲料中晶体氨基酸替代鱼粉蛋白对半滑舌鳎(Cynoglossus semilaevis Günther)稚鱼消化酶和代谢酶活力的影响,以晶体氨基酸混合物分别替代0%、25%、50%、75

  1. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  2. Intestinal absorption of amino acids and peptides in Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J V; Marrs, T C; Addison, J M; Burston, D; Clegg, K M; Lloyd, J K; Matthews, D M; Seakins, J W

    1976-04-01

    Absorption of free and peptide-bound amino acids was investigated in a girl with Hartnup disorder aged 26 months. Plasma levels of amino acids were followed after oral administration of (1) an amino acid mixture simulating casein and (2) an equivalent dose of a partial enzymic hydrolysate of casein containing oligopeptides in addition to free amino acids. The results suggested that many neutral amino acids were poorly absorbed when given in the free form, but much more readily absorbed when given as peptides. Unexpectedly, the results also suggested that glutamic acid was poorly absorbed when given in the free form. The results obtained with threonine could not be interpreted. There was an increased renal clearance of many neutral amino acids, including glycine, but clearance of proline was not increased. Most amino acids with an increased renal clearance also appeared to be poorly absorbed when given by mouth in the free form.

  3. Neighbor Preferences of Amino Acids and Context-Dependent Effects of Amino Acid Substitutions in Human, Mouse, and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  4. Neighbor preferences of amino acids and context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions in human, mouse, and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingchuan; Huang, Zhuoran; Mao, Yuanhui; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-09-10

    Amino acids show apparent propensities toward their neighbors. In addition to preferences of amino acids for their neighborhood context, amino acid substitutions are also considered to be context-dependent. However, context-dependence patterns of amino acid substitutions still remain poorly understood. Using relative entropy, we investigated the neighbor preferences of 20 amino acids and the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions with protein sequences in human, mouse, and dog. For 20 amino acids, the highest relative entropy was mostly observed at the nearest adjacent site of either N- or C-terminus except C and G. C showed the highest relative entropy at the third flanking site and periodic pattern was detected at G flanking sites. Furthermore, neighbor preference patterns of amino acids varied greatly in different secondary structures. We then comprehensively investigated the context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions. Our results showed that nearly half of 380 substitution types were evidently context dependent, and the context-dependent patterns relied on protein secondary structures. Among 20 amino acids, P elicited the greatest effect on amino acid substitutions. The underlying mechanisms of context-dependent effects of amino acid substitutions were possibly mutation bias at a DNA level and natural selection. Our findings may improve secondary structure prediction algorithms and protein design; moreover, this study provided useful information to develop empirical models of protein evolution that consider dependence between residues.

  5. [Bound amino acids in local strains of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, A; Osinovski, E; Vasilevska, M

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid composition of water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins of 8 strains of Tr. vaginalis is studied. 17 amino acids are found in both protein hydrolyzates. Despite the complete coincidence of their qualitative compositions there are reliable differences in the quantitative contents of some amino acids. Differences in the contents of main amino acids of water-soluble proteins of different strains reflect the belonging of the latter to different sero-groups. No reliable differences in the quantitative contents of amino acids of both water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins in strains belonging to one sero-group are recognised.

  6. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...... described time sampling. Fish were killed by a blow in the head and blood was collected from the caudal vein with heparinized syringes. Plasma and red blood cells content were stored separately at -80 for amino acid content analysis. The ammonium excretion profiles (Figure 1) will be correlated...... with the amino acid profile in the blood and oxygen consumption during digestion to investigate the effect on protein utilization for each treatment...

  7. Characterization of amino acids using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Amanda L.; Larsen, Richard A.; Williams, Timothy B.

    2005-05-01

    A key process in the development of new drugs is elucidation of the interaction between the drug molecule and the target protein. Such knowledge then makes it possible to make systematic structural modifications of the drug molecule to optimize the interaction. Many analytical techniques can be applied to proteins in solution such as circular dichroism, ultraviolet, and fluorescence spectroscopy but these all have limitations. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using relatively simple, visible light Raman spectroscopic methods to investigate amino acids and related biopolymers.

  8. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  9. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  10. Ribosomal Synthesis of Peptides with Multiple β-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Tomoshige; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2016-02-17

    The compatibility of β-amino acids with ribosomal translation was studied for decades, but it has been still unclear whether the ribosome can accept various β-amino acids, and whether the ribosome can introduce multiple β-amino acids in a peptide. In the present study, by using the Escherichia coli reconstituted cell-free translation system with a reprogramed genetic code, we screened β-amino acids that give high single incorporation efficiency and used them to synthesize peptides containing multiple β-amino acids. The experiments of single β-amino acid incorporation into a peptide revealed that 13 β-amino acids are compatible with ribosomal translation. Six of the tested β-amino acids (βhGly, l-βhAla, l-βhGln, l-βhPhg, l-βhMet, and d-βhPhg) showed high incorporation efficiencies, and seven (l-βhLeu, l-βhIle, l-βhAsn, l-βhPhe, l-βhLys, d-βhAla, and d-βhLeu) showed moderate incorporation efficiencies; whereas no full-length peptide was produced using other β-amino acids (l-βhPro, l-βhTrp, and l-βhGlu). Subsequent double-incorporation experiments using β-amino acids with high single incorporation efficiency revealed that elongation of peptides with successive β-amino acids is prohibited. Efficiency of the double-incorporation of the β-amino acids was restored by the insertion of Tyr or Ile between the two β-amino acids. On the basis of these experiments, we also designed mRNA sequences of peptides, and demonstrated the ribosomal synthesis of peptides containing different types of β-amino acids at multiple positions.

  11. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  12. EFFECT OF MICROORGANISMS ON FREE AMINO ACID AND FREE D-AMINO ACID CONTENTS OF VARIOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Csilla Albert; Gabriella Pohn; Katalin Lóki; Szidónia Salamon; Beáta Albert; P. Sára; Z. Mándoki; Jánosné Csapó; Csapó, J.

    2007-01-01

    Free amino acid and free D-amino acid contents of milk samples with different microorganism numbers and composition of dairy products produced from them were examined. Total microorganism number of milk samples examined varied from 1.25x106 to 2.95x106. It was established that concentration of both free D-amino acids and free L-amino acids increased with an increase in microorganism number. However, increase in D-amino acid contents was higher considering its proportion. There was a particula...

  13. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  14. Amino acids in healthy aging skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Emily S; Stipanuk, Martha H; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-01-01

    Life expectancy in the U.S. and globally continues to increase. Despite increased life expectancy quality of life is not enhanced, and older adults often experience chronic age-related disease and functional disability, including frailty. Additionally, changes in body composition such as the involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) and subsequent increases in adipose tissue can augment disease and disability in this population. Furthermore, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant concentrations may also lead to metabolic dysfunction in older adults. Specific amino acids, including leucine, cysteine and its derivative taurine, and arginine can play various roles in healthy aging, especially in regards to skeletal muscle health. Leucine and arginine play important roles in muscle protein synthesis and cell growth while cysteine and arginine play important roles in quenching oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that supplemental doses of each of these amino acids may improve the aging phenotype. However, additional research is required to establish the doses required to achieve positive outcomes in humans.

  15. Conformational properties of oxazoline-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staś, Monika; Broda, Małgorzata A.; Siodłak, Dawid

    2016-04-01

    Oxazoline-amino acids (Xaa-Ozn) occur in natural peptides of potentially important bioactivity. The conformations of the model compounds: Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4R-Me), Ac-(S)-Ala-Ozn(4S-Me), and (gauche+, gauche-, anti) Ac-(S)-Val-Ozn(4R-Me) were studied at meta-hybrid M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) method including solvent effect. Boc-L-Ala-L-Ozn-4-COOMe and Boc-L-Val-L-Ozn-4-COOMe were synthesized and studied by FT-IR and NMR-NOE methods. The conformations in crystal state were gathered from the Cambridge Structural Data Base. The main conformational feature of the oxazoline amino acids is the conformation β2 (ϕ,ψ ∼ -161°, -6°), which predominates in weakly polar environment and still is accessible in polar surrounding. The changes of the conformational preferences towards the conformations αR (ϕ,ψ ∼ -70°, -15°) and then β (ϕ,ψ ∼ -57°, -155°) are observed with increase of the environment polarity.

  16. Formation and transformation of amino acids and amino acid precursors by high-velocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamori, A.

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been found in extraterrestrial bodies such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites. It is plausible that these extraterrestrial bodies carried organic compounds such as amino acids or their precursors to the early Earth. It is claimed, however, that these extraterrestrial organics were destroyed during impacts to the Earth. We therefore examined possible transformation of amino acids and their precursors during high-velocity impacts by using a rail gun "HYPAC" in ISAS. Starting materials used in the impact experiments were (i) aqueous solution of glycine (10 mM or 1.0 M), and (ii) a mixture of ammonia, methanol and water. The target materials were sealed in stainless steel capsules, and shocked by impact with a polycarbonate projectile accelerated with "HYPAC" to the velocities of 2.5 - 7.0 km/s. A part of the products was acid-hydrolyzed. Both hydrolyzed an unhydrolyzed products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis and chromatography. When an aqueous solution containing ammonia, methanol and water was shocked by impact at the velocity of 6.4 km/s, a number of amino acids (e.g., serine and glycine) were detected after hydrolysis. The present results suggest that amino acid precursors could be formed during cometary impacts. When glycine solution was used as a starting material, about 40 % of glycine was recovered even after 6 km/s impact. Methylamine and ammonia, which are known as pyrolytic products of glycine, were detected, besides them, diketopiperazine and an unidentified product whose molecular weight was 134, were detected, while no glycine peptides were identified in them. It was shown that the impact processes resulted in the formation of amino acid condensates. Thermal stability of glycine precursor is comparable with glycine. The present results suggest that organic material could survive and/or formed during an impact process. Most of organic

  17. Inadequacy of prebiotic synthesis as origin of proteinous amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J T; Bronskill, P M

    1979-07-18

    The production of some nonproteinous, and lack of production of other proteinous, amino acids in model prebiotic synthesis, along with the instability of glutamine and asparagine, suggest that not all of the 20 present day proteinous amino acids gained entry into proteins directly from the primordial soup. Instead, a process of active co-evolution of the genetic code and its constituent amino acids would have to precede the final selection of these proteinous amono acids.

  18. Determining important regulatory relations of amino acids from dynamic network analysis of plasma amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Nahoko; Maki, Yukihiro; Nakatsui, Masahiko; Mori, Masato; Noguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Takahashi, Michio; Kondo, Nobuo; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of plasma amino acids do not always follow the flow-based metabolic pathway network. We have previously shown that there is a control-based network structure among plasma amino acids besides the metabolic pathway map. Based on this network structure, in this study, we performed dynamic analysis using time-course data of the plasma samples of rats fed single essential amino acid deficient diet. Using S-system model (conceptual mathematical model represented by power-law formalism), we inferred the dynamic network structure which reproduces the actual time-courses within the error allowance of 13.17%. By performing sensitivity analysis, three of the most dominant relations in this network were selected; the control paths from leucine to valine, from methionine to threonine, and from leucine to isoleucine. This result is in good agreement with the biological knowledge regarding branched-chain amino acids, and suggests the biological importance of the effect from methionine to threonine.

  19. Unprecedented concentrations of indigenous amino acids in primitive CR meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Martins, Zita; Alexander, Conel; Orzechowska, Grazyna; Fogel, Marylin

    CR meteorites are among the most primitive meteorites. We have performed pioneering work determining the compositional characteristics of amino acids in this type of carbonaceous chondrites. We report the first measurements of amino acids in Antarctic CR meteorites, two of which show the highest amino acid concentrations ever found in a chondrite. We have analyzed the amino acid content of the Antarctic CRs EET92042, GRA95229 and GRO95577 using high performance liquid chromatography with UV fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, compound-specific carbon isotopic measurements for most of the individual amino acids from the EET92042 and GRA95229 meteorites were achieved by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Our data show that EET92042 and GRA95229 are the most amino acid-rich chondrites ever analyzed, with total amino acid concentrations of 180 and 249 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively. GRO95577, however, is depleted in amino acids (determined for most amino acids indicate that primitive organic matter was preserved in these meteorites. In addition, the relative abundances of α-AIB and β-alanine amongst Antarctic CR meteorites appear to correspond to the degree of aqueous alteration on their respective parent body. Investigating the abundances and isotopic composition of amino acids in primitive chondrites helps to understand the role of meteorites as a source of extraterrestrial prebiotic organic compounds to the early Earth.

  20. The prebiotic synthesis of amino acids - interstellar vs. atmospheric mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U. J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Schutte, W. A.; Barbier, B.; Arcones Segovia, A.; Rosenbauer, H.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    Until very recently, prebiotic amino acids were believed to have been generated in the atmosphere of the early Earth, as successfully simulated by the Urey-Miller experiments. Two independent studies now identified ice photochemistry in the interstellar medium as a possible source of prebiotic amino acids. Ultraviolet irradiation of ice mixtures containing identified interstellar molecules (such as H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, and NH3) in the conditions of vacuum and low temperature found in the interstellar medium generated amino acid structures including glycine, alanine, serine, valine, proline, and aspartic acid. After warmup, hydrolysis and derivatization, our team was able to identify 16 amino acids as well as furans and pyrroles. Enantioselective analyses of the amino acids showed racemic mixtures. A prebiotic interstellar origin of amino acid structures is now discussed to be a plausible alternative to the Urey-Miller mechanism.

  1. Transfer of Asymmetry between Proteinogenic Amino Acids under Harsh Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevych, Arkadii V; Vives, Thomas; Snytnikov, Valeriy N; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-31

    The heating above 400 °C of serine, cysteine, selenocysteine and threonine leads to a complete decomposition of the amino acids and to the formation in low yields of alanine for the three formers and of 2-aminobutyric acid for the latter. At higher temperature, this amino acid is observed only when sublimable α-alkyl-α-amino acids are present, and with an enantiomeric excess dependent on several parameters. Enantiopure or enantioenriched Ser, Cys, Sel or Thr is not able to transmit its enantiomeric excess to the amino acid formed during its decomposition. The presence during the sublimation-decomposition of enantioenriched valine or isoleucine leads to the enantioenrichment of all sublimable amino acids independently of the presence of many decomposition products coming from the unstable derivative. All these studies give information on a potentially prebiotic key-reaction of abiotic transformations between α-amino acids and their evolution to homochirality.

  2. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  3. The marginal efficiency of utilization of all ileal digestible indispensable amino acids for protein gain is lower than 30% in preruminant calves between 80 and 240 kg live weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Schrama, J.W.; Tamminga, S.

    1998-01-01

    A previous study showed that the marginal efficiency of utilization of digestible nitrogen for deposition in the body in preruminant calves is only ~30%. The study consisted of two similar experiments that were performed in two live weight ranges: 80-160 and 160-240 kg. In each experiment, 36 calves

  4. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys amino acid mixtures.

  5. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3) called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase high-perfo rmance liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection a nd time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sam ple analysis consortium. HPLC analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to six-carbon aliph atic amino acids and one- to three carbon amines with abundances rang ing from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, Beta-amino-n-butyric acid (Beta-ABA), 2-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (no rvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicat ing that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not te rrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha -aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methybutanoic acid, 4-a mino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. Th e total abundances of isovaline and AlB in Almahata Sitta are approximately 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous meteorite Murchison. The extremely love abund ances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous meteorites and may be due to extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent aster oid by partial melting during formation or impact shock heating.

  6. Modulatory Effects of Dietary Amino Acids on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Sangam, Supraj Raja; Singh, Shubham; Joginapally, Venkateswara Rao

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are playing a vital role in maintaining the cellular integrity and function, as well as for brain cells. Protein intake and supplementation of individual amino acids can affect the brain functioning and mental health, and many of the neurotransmitters in the brain are made from amino acids. The amino acid supplementation has been found to reduce symptoms, as they are converted into neurotransmitters which in turn extenuate the mental disorders. The biosynthesis of amino acids in the brain is regulated by the concentration of amino acids in plasma. The brain diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD) are the most common mental disorders that are currently widespread in numerous countries. The intricate biochemical and molecular machinery contributing to the neurological disorders is still unknown, and in this chapter, we revealed the involvement of dietary amino acids on neurological diseases.

  7. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Lodwig, S.N. [Centralia College, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  8. Twenty natural amino acids identification by a photochromic sensor chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Meng; Li, Fengyu; Huang, Yu; Ran, Wei; Han, Dong; Song, Yanlin

    2015-01-20

    All 20 natural amino acids identification shows crucial importance in biochemistry and clinical application while it is still a challenge due to highly similarity in molecular configuration of the amino acids. Low efficiency, complicated sensing molecules and environment hindered the successful identification. Here, we developed a facile sensor chip composed of one photochromic molecule with metal ions spotted to form spirooxazine-metallic complexes, and successfully recognized all the 20 natural amino acids as well as their mixtures. The sensor chip gives distinct fluorescent fingerprint pattern of each amino acid, based on multistate of spirooxazine under different light stimulations and discriminated interaction between various metal ions and amino acids. The sensor chip demonstrates powerful capability of amino acids identification, which promotes sensing of biomolecules.

  9. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  10. Surface Propensity of Atmospherically Relevant Amino Acids Studied by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Alexandra; Gomes, Anderson Herbert de Abreu; Araújo, Oscar Cardoso; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Bjorneholm, Olle

    2017-03-30

    Amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) compounds in aerosols and are involved in many processes in the atmosphere. In this work, we applied XPS to study aqueous solutions of four amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine and methionine, in their zwitterionic forms. We found that amino acids with hydrophilic side chains and smaller size, GLY and ALA, tend to stay in the bulk of the liquid, while the hydrophobic and bigger amino acids, VAL and MET, are found to concentrate more on the surface. We found experimental evidences that the amino acids have preferential orientation relative to the surface, with the hydrophobic side chain being closer to the surface than the hydrophilic carboxylate group. The observed amino acid surface propensity has implications in atmospheric science as the surface interaction play a central role in cloud droplet formation, and they should be considered in climate models.

  11. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  12. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  13. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kudow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis − and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila. We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  14. Preference for and learning of amino acids in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudow, Nana; Miura, Daisuke; Schleyer, Michael; Toshima, Naoko; Gerber, Bertram; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2017-03-15

    Relative to other nutrients, less is known about how animals sense amino acids and how behaviour is organized accordingly. This is a significant gap in our knowledge because amino acids are required for protein synthesis - and hence for life as we know it. Choosing Drosophila larvae as a case study, we provide the first systematic analysis of both the preference behaviour for, and the learning of, all 20 canonical amino acids in Drosophila We report that preference for individual amino acids differs according to the kind of amino acid, both in first-instar and in third-instar larvae. Our data suggest that this preference profile changes across larval instars, and that starvation during the third instar also alters this profile. Only aspartic acid turns out to be robustly attractive across all our experiments. The essentiality of amino acids does not appear to be a determinant of preference. Interestingly, although amino acids thus differ in their innate attractiveness, we find that all amino acids are equally rewarding. Similar discrepancies between innate attractiveness and reinforcing effect have previously been reported for other tastants, including sugars, bitter substances and salt. The present analyses will facilitate the ongoing search for the receptors, sensory neurons, and internal, homeostatic amino acid sensors in Drosophila.

  15. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  16. Interactions between homopolymeric amino acids (HPAAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Yoko; Kino, Yoshihiro; Toriumi, Kazuya; Sasagawa, Noboru; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2007-10-01

    Many human proteins contain consecutive amino acid repeats, known as homopolymeric amino acid (HPAA) tracts. Some inherited diseases are caused by proteins in which HPAAs are expanded to an excessive length. To this day, nine polyglutamine-related diseases and nine polyalanine-related diseases have been reported, including Huntington's disease and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. In this study, potential HPAA-HPAA interactions were examined by yeast two-hybrid assays using HPAAs of approximately 30 residues in length. The results indicate that hydrophobic HPAAs interact with themselves and with other hydrophobic HPAAs. Previously, we reported that hydrophobic HPAAs formed large aggregates in COS-7 cells. Here, those HPAAs were shown to have significant interactions with each other, suggesting that hydrophobicity plays an important role in aggregation. Among the observed HPAA-HPAA interactions, the Ala28-Ala29 interaction was notable because polyalanine tracts of these lengths have been established to be pathogenic in several polyalanine-related diseases. By testing several constructs of different lengths, we clarified that polyalanine self-interacts at longer lengths (>23 residues) but not at shorter lengths (six to approximately 23 residues) in a yeast two-hybrid assay and a GST pulldown assay. This self-interaction was found to be SDS sensitive in SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE assays. Moreover, the intracellular localization of these long polyalanine tracts was also observed to be disturbed. Our results suggest that long tracts of polyalanine acquire SDS-sensitive self-association properties, which may be a prerequisite event for their abnormal folding. The misfolding of these tracts is thought to be a common molecular aspect underlying the pathogenesis of polyalanine-related diseases.

  17. A new synthetic protocol for coumarin amino acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrochloride of the racemic amino acid (2-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-ylethylglycine, which can serve as a fluorescent probe in proteins, and two halogen derivatives of it, were synthesized by using a new synthetic protocol in five steps. It is less costly and relatively easy to prepare this kind of fluorescent amino acid with the new synthetic method. Furthermore, it can be applied to synthesize other derivatives of the coumarin amino acid with some specific properties.

  18. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SNAKE VENOM L- AMINO ACID OXIDASES

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Baby; Rajan Sheeja S; M.V Jeevitha; S.U Ajisha

    2011-01-01

    L-Amino acid oxidases are flavoenzymes which catalyze the stereospecific oxidative deamination of an L-amino acid substrate to a corresponding a-ketoacid with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia production. These enzymes, which are widely distributed in many different organisms, exhibit a marked affinity for hydrophobic amino acids, including phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and leucine. Snake venom LAAO induces platelet aggregation and cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. The enzyme has ...

  19. SIFT: predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pauline C.; Henikoff, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize substitutions for further study. We have shown that SIFT can distinguish between functionally neutral and deleterious amino acid changes in...

  20. A Novel Synthesis of β-Hydroxy-α-amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-Hui; LI Shuo; XU Pen-gFei

    2003-01-01

    @@ β-hydroxy-α-amino acids constitute an important class of compounds as naturally occurring amino acids and as components of many complex natural products possessing a wide range of biological activities. [1] As a consequence of the essential role played by these amino acids in the biological systems and their utility as synthetic building blocks, a number of useful strategies have been devised for their preparation. [2

  1. Effect of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn-ethanol distillation origin on energy, fiber, and amino acid digestibility, hindgut degradability of fiber, and growth performance of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, N A; Kerr, B J; Patience, J F

    2013-11-01

    Extensive use of corn coproducts in swine diets increases the concentration of dietary fiber, raising concerns on energy and nutrient digestibility and, ultimately, pig performance. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the effect of increasing levels of insoluble-low fermentable fiber from corn in the diet, using corn bran with solubles (CBS) from the corn-ethanol distillation industry, on digestibility of energy, fiber, and AA, and hindgut fermentation of fiber in diets fed to growing pigs. Fifteen growing pigs (BW=28.7 kg) arranged in a 3-period incomplete block design and fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum were provided 5 diets (n=9) containing either a corn-casein basal or the basal diet with 10, 20, 30, or 40% CBS. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected. Two subsequent 28-d growth trials determined the effects of increasing dietary fiber from CBS in 2 sets of 7 diets formulated either with declining (growing phase: 2,387 to 2,133 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase: 2,499 to 2,209 kcal NE/kg) or constant dietary NE (growing phase≈2,390 kcal NE/kg; finishing phase≈2,500 kcal NE/kg) on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in 70 growing (BW=48.9 kg; n=10 per diet) and 70 finishing (BW=102.0 kg; n=10) pigs. Results indicated that increasing fiber from corn lowered (Pcorn also reduced ATTD of GE, DM, CP, NDF, and TDF (Pcorn, regardless of the NE content of diets. In conclusion, the dietary level of insoluble-low fermentable dietary fiber from corn origin decreased the digestibility of dietary AA, and the ability of the growing pig to ferment corn dietary fiber. In spite of the reduction in digestibility of energy and nutrients with insoluble-low fermentable fiber level from corn, growth performance was not impaired when the energy supply is adequately balanced in the diet using the NE system.

  2. Gas-Phase Acidities of Phosphorylated Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Michele L; Plummer, Chelsea E; Miller, Sean R; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2015-11-19

    Gas-phase acidities and heats of formation have been predicted at the G3(MP2)/SCRF-COSMO level of theory for 10 phosphorylated amino acids and their corresponding amides, including phospho-serine (pSer), -threonine (pThr), and -tyrosine (pTyr), providing the first reliable set of these values. The gas-phase acidities (GAs) of the three named phosphorylated amino acids and their amides have been determined using proton transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental and predicted GAs. The phosphate group is the deprotonation site for pSer and pThr and deprotonation from the carboxylic acid generated the lowest energy anion for pTyr. The infrared spectra were calculated for six low energy anions of pSer, pThr, and pTyr. For deprotonated pSer and pThr, good agreement is found between the experimental IRMPD spectra and the calculated spectra for our lowest energy anion structure. For pTyr, the IR spectra for a higher energy phosphate deprotonated structure is in good agreement with experiment. Additional experiments tested electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions for pTyr and determined that variations in solvent, temperature, and voltage can result in a different experimental GA value, indicating that ESI conditions affect the conformation of the pTyr anion.

  3. Haemoglobins of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni II. Amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A R; Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1976-03-01

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain of the principal haemoglobin from the shark, H. portusjacksoni has been determined. The chain has 148 residues and is acetylated at the amino terminal. The soluble peptides obtained by tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the protein or its cyanogen bromide fragments were isolated by gel filtration, paper ionophoresis and paper chromatography. The amino acid sequences were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The insoluble "core" peptide from the tryptic digestion contained 34 residues and required cleavage by several prosteases before the sequence was established. Compared with human alpha-chain there are 88 amino acid differences including the additional seven residues which appear on the amino terminal of the shark chain. There is also one deletion and one insertion. The chain contains no tryptophan but has four cysteinyl residues which is the highest number of such residues recorded for a vertebrate globin. In the alpha1beta1 contact sites there are four changes in the oxyhaemoglobin form and six deoxy form. Nine of the 16, alpha1beta1 contact sites show variation while three of the haem contact sites have changed in comparison to the residues known to be involved in these interactions in horse haemoglobin alpha-chain. Use of the sequence data to estimate a time of divergence of the shark from the main vertebrate line yielded the value of 410 +/- 46 million years. The data, in general, support the palaeontological view that bony fishes arose before the elasmobranchs.

  4. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  5. Amino acids in the cultivation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Andrew; Keusgen, Michael; von Hagen, Jörg

    2016-05-01

    Amino acids are crucial for the cultivation of mammalian cells. This importance of amino acids was realized soon after the development of the first cell lines, and a solution of a mixture of amino acids has been supplied to cultured cells ever since. The importance of amino acids is further pronounced in chemically defined mammalian cell culture media, making the consideration of their biological and chemical properties necessary. Amino acids concentrations have been traditionally adjusted to their cellular consumption rates. However, since changes in the metabolic equilibrium of amino acids can be caused by changes in extracellular concentrations, metabolomics in conjunction with flux balance analysis is being used in the development of culture media. The study of amino acid transporters is also gaining importance since they control the intracellular concentrations of these molecules and are influenced by conditions in cell culture media. A better understanding of the solubility, stability, dissolution kinetics, and interactions of these molecules is needed for an exploitation of these properties in the development of dry powdered chemically defined media for mammalian cells. Due to the complexity of these mixtures however, this has proven to be challenging. Studying amino acids in mammalian cell culture media will help provide a better understanding of how mammalian cells in culture interact with their environment. It would also provide insight into the chemical behavior of these molecules in solutions of complex mixtures, which is important in the understanding of the contribution of individual amino acids to protein structure.

  6. Amino Acid transport in protoplasts isolated from soybean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, C D; Lin, W

    1986-05-01

    We isolated large quantities of mesophyll protoplasts from source and sink leaves of soybean plants and examined them for amino acid uptake. Accumulation of amino acids in isolated protoplasts was linear for at least 40 minutes. Uptake kinetics revealed the presence of both saturable and linear components. Increasing external pH decreases the uptake. The uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone at 15 micromolar inhibited and fusicoccin at 10 micromolar stimulated amino acid uptake. Our data are consistent with a proton-cotransport mechanism for the uptake of l-glutamine and alpha-amino isobutyric acid into soybean mesophyll cells.

  7. Abiotic racemization kinetics of amino acids in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andrew; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic racemize abiotically. Based on a heating experiment, we report Arrhenius parameters...... between different amino acids or depths. These results can be used in conjunction with measurements of sediment age to predict the ratio of D:L amino acids due solely to abiotic racemization of the source material, deviations from which can indicate the abundance and turnover of active microbial...

  8. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  9. Synthesis of novel fullerene α-amino acid conjugates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Yan Xia Wang; Feng Kang; Ying Ya Shao; Zong Jie Li; Xin Lin Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aspartie acid and glutamic acid with protected α-amino and α-carboxyl groups had been used to react with the activated hydroxyl group of N-substituted 3,4-fuUero pyrrolidine.The products were deprotected,affording two monofullerene α-amino acids,monofullerene aspartic acid(mFas)and monofullerene glutamic acid(mFgu).Then a bifullerene glutamic acid conjugate (bFguC)was synthesized by reaction of mFgu containing protected amino group with N-subsfimted 3,4-fullero pyrrolidine.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Structure of Chiral Amino Acids and Their Corresponding Amino Alcohols with Camphoric Backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Hui-Fen; HUANG Wei; LI Hui-Hui; YAO Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Chiral amino acids and their corresponding amino alcohols bearing camphoric backbone were prepared from D-(+)-camphoric imide and characterized by infrared, elemental analysis, ESI-MS, and NMR measurements. Among them, one intermediate (lS,3R)-3-amino-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane-1-carboxylic acid hydrochloride 3 was structurally elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. Versatile intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions observed in its packing structure result in a two-dimensional framework.

  11. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pernil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion.

  12. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  13. Amino acid sequence of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, John; Beckstead, Robert B; Payne, Jason; Singh, Rakesh K; Mohan, Anand

    2015-08-15

    Myoglobin has an important physiological role in vertebrates, and as the primary sarcoplasmic pigment in meat, influences quality perception and consumer acceptability. In this study, the amino acid sequences of Japanese quail and northern bobwhite myoglobin were deduced by cDNA cloning of the coding sequence from mRNA. Japanese quail myoglobin was isolated from quail cardiac muscles, purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel-filtration, and subjected to multiple enzymatic digestions. Mass spectrometry corroborated the deduced protein amino acid sequence at the protein level. Sequence analysis revealed both species' myoglobin structures consist of 153 amino acids, differing at only three positions. When compared with chicken myoglobin, Japanese quail showed 98% sequence identity, and northern bobwhite 97% sequence identity. The myoglobin in both quail species contained eight histidine residues instead of the nine present in chicken and turkey.

  14. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  15. Distribution of neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the non-neuronal tissued of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Sadamoto, Yoshihiro; Konno, Akihiro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of ASCT1, a neurtral amino acid transporter, in non-neuronal peripheral tissues of adult and developong mice was examines by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity for ASCT1 in the digestive system was localized in basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia from oral parietes to nonglandular region of the stomach, chief cells of the glandular stomach, acinar cells of the salivary gland and exocrine pancreas, and Paneth's cells of the small intestin...

  16. Amino acid availability in ruminants of cereals and cereal co-produtcs

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Cano, Javier; J.M. Arroyo; Guevara González, Jesús Alberto; Mohubi, Rabiaa; Piquer, Olga; Moya, Vicente Javier

    2014-01-01

    [EN] BACKGROUND: Microbial correctedin situ estimates of the ruminal undegraded fraction (RU) and intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of amino acids (AA), except tryptophan, of rye, wheat and corn grains, wheat bran, wheat and barley distilled dried grains and corn gluten feed were measured on three rumen- and duodenum-cannulated wethers using 15N-labelling techniques and considering ruminal rates of particle comminution and outflow. RESULTS: The lack of microbial correction ...

  17. Apparent digestibility of proteins, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream%团头鲂对7种饲料的蛋白质、氨基酸及磷的表观消化率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪姣; 梁丹妮; 刘文斌; 蒋广震; 王晶晶

    2011-01-01

    The apparent digestibility(AD) of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients for bluntnose black bream( Megalobrama amblycephala Yih ) were determined by using 0.5%Cr2O3 as an indicator. The test diets consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredients, including fish meal, meat and bone meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles(DDGS) and rapeseed meal. The fish averaging (296.54±1.71) g were reared in indoor aquarium tanks(3.0 m ×0.8 m ×0.8 m), and the fecal samples were collected by abdominal pressure method after five weeks. The results showed that apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, amino acids and phosphorus of seven feed ingredients were 53.65%-77.48%,78.66%-93.63%, 80.12%-94.83% and 3.21%-48.02%, respectively. Among the seven feed ingredients, the highest apparent digestibility of protein and total amino acids was in rapeseed meal; then the apparent digestibility of fish meal was close to that of peanut meal and soybean meal; and the lowest was in meat and bone meal. Apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in DDGS, and the lowest in rapeseed meal and meat and bone meal,and others were 11.81%-29.10%. In conclusion, rapeseed meal, soybean meal, peanut meal can be used as high quality plant protein source to serve as alternative fishmeal for bluntnose black bream in production. The apparent digestibility of protein of DDGS was higher than that of meat and bone meal, and the apparent digestibility of phosphorus was the highest in seven feed ingredients. Therefore, DDGS can be used as a high quality fish feed ingredient.[Journal of Fishery Sciences of China, 2011, 18(1): 119-126]%本实验以0.5%的三氧化二铬(Cr2O3)为指示剂,研究分别以鱼粉、肉骨粉、豆粕、花生粕、棉粕、酒精糟及其残液干燥物(DDGS)和菜粕作为蛋白饲料,将这7种饲料原料与基础日粮按照3:7的比例组成实

  18. Abc Amino Acids: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of New Photoelastic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standaert, Robert F [ORNL; Park, Dr Seung Bum [Seoul National University

    2006-01-01

    Photoisomerizable amino acids provide a direct avenue to the experimental manipulation of bioactive polypeptides, potentially allowing real-time, remote control of biological systems and enabling useful applications in nanobiotechnology. Herein, we report a new class of photoisomerizable amino acids intended to cause pronounced expansion and contraction in the polypeptide backbone, i.e., to be photoelastic. These compounds, termed Abc amino acids, employ a photoisomerizable azobiphenyl chromophore to control the relative disposition of aminomethyl and carboxyl substituents. Molecular modeling of nine Abc isomers led to the identification of one with particularly attractive properties, including the ability to induce contractions up to 13A in the backbone upon transa?cis photoisomerization. This isomer, designated mpAbc, has substituents at meta and para positions on the inner (azo-linked) and outer rings, respectively. An efficient synthesis of Fmoc-protected mpAbc was executed in which the biaryl components were formed via Suzuki couplings and the azo linkage was formed via amine/nitroso condensation; protected forms of three other Abc isomers were prepared similarly. A decapeptide incorporating mpAbc was synthesized by conventional solid-phase methods and displayed characteristic azobenzene photochemical behavior with optimal conversion to the cis isomer at 360 nm and a thermal cisa?trans half life of 100 min. at 80 AoC.

  19. Gas-phase Acidities of Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid, and their Amino Acid Amides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H; Velazquez, Hector A; Dixon, David A; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2007-02-14

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or ΔGacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage’s importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3–4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  20. EFFECT OF MICROORGANISMS ON FREE AMINO ACID AND FREE D-AMINO ACID CONTENTS OF VARIOUS DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Albert

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Free amino acid and free D-amino acid contents of milk samples with different microorganism numbers and composition of dairy products produced from them were examined. Total microorganism number of milk samples examined varied from 1.25x106 to 2.95x106. It was established that concentration of both free D-amino acids and free L-amino acids increased with an increase in microorganism number. However, increase in D-amino acid contents was higher considering its proportion. There was a particularly significant growth in the microorganism number range from 1.5x106 to 2.9x106. Based on analysis of curds and cheese samples produced using different technologies we have come to the conclusion that for fresh dairy products and for those matured over a short time there was a close relation between total microorganism number and free D-amino acid and free L-amino acid contents. At the same time it was found that the ratio of the enantiomers was not affected by the total microorganism number. For dairy products, however, where amino acid production capability of the microbial cultures considerably exceeds, production of microorganisms originally present in the milk raw material, free amino acid contents of the milk product (both D- and L-enantiomers seem to be independent of the composition of milk raw material.

  1. Specificity of amino acid regulated gene expression: analysis of genes subjected to either complete or single amino acid deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palii, S. S.; Kays, C. E.; Deval, C.; Bruhat, A.; Fafournoux, P.

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid deprivation activates the amino acid response (AAR) pathway that enhances transcription of genes containing an amino acid response element (AARE). The present data reveal a quantitative difference in the response to deprivation of individual amino acids. The AAR leads to increased eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation and ATF4 translation. When HepG2 cells were deprived of an individual essential amino acid, p-eIF2α and activating transcription factor 4 were increased, but the correlation was relatively weak. Complete amino acid starvation in either Earle’s balanced salt solution or Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate buffer (KRB) resulted in activation of transcription driven by a SNAT2 genomic fragment that contained an AARE. However, for the KRB, a proportion of the transcription was AARE-independent suggesting that amino acid-independent mechanisms were responsible. Therefore, activation of AARE-driven transcription is triggered by a deficiency in any one of the essential amino acids, but the response is not uniform. Furthermore, caution must be exercised when using a medium completely devoid of amino acids. PMID:19009228

  2. Vibrational and photoionization spectroscopy of biomolecules: aliphatic amino acid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjun; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2008-04-28

    The aliphatic amino acids glycine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are thermally placed into the gas phase and expanded into a vacuum system for access by time of flight mass spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy in the energy range of 2500-4000 cm(-1) (CH, NH, OH, and stretching vibrations). The isolated neutral amino acids are ionized by a single photon of 10.5 eV energy (118 nm), which exceeds by less than 2 eV their reported ionization thresholds. As has been reported for many hydrogen bonded acid-base systems (e.g., water, ammonia, alcohol, acid clusters, and acid molecules), the amino acids undergo a structural rearrangement in the ion state (e.g., in simplest form, a proton transfer) that imparts sufficient excess vibrational energy to the ion to completely fragment it. No parent ions are observed. If the neutral ground state amino acids are exposed to IR radiation prior to ionization, an IR spectrum of the individual isomers for each amino acid can be determined by observation of the ion intensity of the different fragment mass channels. Both the IR spectrum and fragmentation patterns for individual isomers can be qualitatively identified and related to a particular isomer in each instance. Thus, each fragment ion detected presents an IR spectrum of its particular parent amino acid isomer. In some instances, the absorption of IR radiation by the neutral amino acid parent isomer increases a particular fragmentation mass channel intensity, while other fragmentation mass channel intensities decrease. This phenomenon can be rationalized by considering that with added energy in the molecule, the fragmentation channel populations can be modulated by the added vibrational energy in the rearranged ions. This observation also suggests that the IR absorption does not induce isomerization in the ground electronic state of these amino acids. These data are consistent with theoretical predictions for isolated amino acid secondary structures and can be related to

  3. Utilization of acidic α-amino acids as acyl donors: an effective stereo-controllable synthesis of aryl-keto α-amino acids and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Murai, Yuta; Yoshida, Takuma; Okamoto, Masashi; Tachrim, Zetryana Puteri; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2014-05-16

    Aryl-keto-containing α-amino acids are of great importance in organic chemistry and biochemistry. They are valuable intermediates for the construction of hydroxyl α-amino acids, nonproteinogenic α-amino acids, as well as other biofunctional components. Friedel-Crafts acylation is an effective method to prepare aryl-keto derivatives. In this review, we summarize the preparation of aryl-keto containing α-amino acids by Friedel-Crafts acylation using acidic α-amino acids as acyl-donors and Lewis acids or Brönsted acids as catalysts.

  4. Amino acid adsorption on mesoporous materials: influence of types of amino acids, modification of mesoporous materials, and solution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Wujun; Xu, Yao; Wu, Dong; Sun, Yuhan; Deng, Feng; Shen, Wanling

    2008-02-21

    In order to disclose the dominant interfacial interaction between amino acids and ordered mesoporous materials, the adsorption behaviors of five amino acids on four mesoporous materials were investigated in aqueous solutions with adjustable amino acid concentration, ion strength, and pH. The selected amino acids were acidic amino acid glutamic acid (Glu), basic amino acid arginine (Arg), and neutral amino acids phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu), and alanine (Ala), and the selected mesoporous materials were SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, CH3(10%)-SBA-15, and CH3(20%)-SBA-15. The adsorption capacities of Glu and Arg were strongly dependent on pH and surface charge of the mesoporous adsorbent. The adsorption of Phe showed pH insensitivity but depended on the surface organic functionalization of mesoporous adsorbent. On the basis of the theoretical analysis about the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent, such a remarkable difference was attributed to the different nature of the interaction between amino acid and adsorbent. Arg could be readily adsorbed on the surface of SBA-15, especially Al-SBA-15, under appropriate pH in which the electrostatic interaction was predominant. The driving force of Phe adsorption on mesoporous adsorbent mainly came from the hydrophobic interaction. Therefore, the adsorption capability of Arg decreased with increasing ion strength of solution, while the adsorption capability of Phe increased with the increasing degree of CH3 functionalization on SBA-15. For neutral amino acid Phe, Ala, and Leu, the adsorption capability increased with the increase of the length of their side chains, which was another evidence of hydrophobic effect. Thus, all the adsorption of amino acids on mesoporous silica materials can be decided by the combined influence of two fundamental interactions: electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic effect.

  5. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Yuhei; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (4-7nm) were synthesized from tetraauric acid using various amino acids as reducing and capping agents. The gold nanoparticles were produced from the incubation of a AuCl4(-) solution with an amino acid at 80°C for 20min. Among the twenty amino acids tested, several amino acids produced gold nanoparticles. The color of the nanoparticle solutions varied with the amino acids used for the reduction. We adopted l-histidine as a reducing agent and investigated the effects of the synthesis conditions on the gold nanoparticles. The His and AuCl4(-) concentrations affected the size of the gold nanoparticles and their aggregates. The pH of the reaction solution also affected the reaction yields and the shape of the gold nanoparticles.

  6. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  7. Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratù, B; Boniglia, C; Giammarioli, S; Mosca, M; Sanzini, E

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies were carried out about aminoacidic composition of vegetable proteins, but information about the free amino acid pool and the role of these substances is very incomplete. The aim of this paper was to contribute to the scarce knowledge concerning the composition of free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations widely used as food, in dietary supplements, and in pharmaceutical products. This work studied the composition of free amino acids, identified the major components of 19 species of plants, and evaluated the influence of different types of extraction on the amino acid profile. Amino acids were determined using an automatic precolumn derivatization with fluorenylmethyl-chloroformate and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The amounts of total free amino acids varied widely between plants, from approximately 12 g in 100 g of Echinacea pallida extract to less than 60 mg in the same amount of Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia, and Glycine max. In 13 plants arginine, asparagine, glutamine, proline, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the free amino acids found in preponderant quantities. The levels of free amino acids above the quantification limit in 36 assayed samples of botanicals, extracts, and supplements are shown.

  8. 中华鳖幼鳖对4种饲料原料中粗蛋白质和氨基酸的表观消化率%Apparent Digestibility of Crude Protein and Amino Acids of Four Feed Ingredients for Juvenile Soft-Shelled Turtle (Trionyx sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文静; 王爱民; 高强; 窦超; 刘波; 黄金田; 吕富; 刘文斌; 徐维娜

    2014-01-01

    The apparent digestibility of crude protein and amino acids of 4 feed ingredients—silkworm chrysa-lis, fermented soybean meal, meat-bone meal and corn gluten meal for juvenile soft-shelled turtle ( Trionyx sinensis) were determined in this experiment, in order to explore the new type protein feed ingredients for soft-shelled turtle. Four experimental diets were formulated. The experimental diets were consisted of 70% basal diet and 30% test feed ingredient, and contained 0.5% chromic oxide as an exogenous indicator. One hundred and fifty juvenile soft-shelled turtle with the average body weight of (120.0±1.5) g were randomly divided into 5 groups with 3 replicates per group and 10 soft-shelled turtle per replicate. The soft-shelled turtle in basal diet group were fed the basal diet, and those in the other 4 groups were fed one of experimental diets, respectively. After 1 weeks feeding, the fecal samples were collected by siphon method, and then the apparent digestibility of crude protein and amino acids was determined. The results showed as follows:1) the apparent digestibility of crude protein in corn gluten meal, fermented soybean meal and silkworm chrysalis for soft-shelled turtle was 90.57%, 86.34% and 85.75%, respectively, higher than that in meat-bone meal (75.98%) (P<0.05). 2) For animal protein sources, the apparent digestibility of total amino acids in silkworm chrysalis was higher, which was 92. 44%, while that in meat-bone meal was lower, which only was 75. 39%. For plant protein sources, the apparent digestibility of total amino acids in corn gluten meal was higher, which was 96.56%, and that in fermented soybean meal was 87.90%. The results indicate that silkworm chrysalis can be used as a source of high quality animal protein source, and fermented soybean meal can be used as a better plant protein source for soft-shelled turtle.%本试验旨在研究中华鳖( Trionyx sinensis)幼鳖对蚕蛹、发酵豆粕、肉骨粉和玉米蛋白粉4种饲料

  9. Enzymatic tRNA acylation by acid and alpha-hydroxy acid analogues of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Alina; Safro, Mark; Wolfson, Alexey D

    2008-01-08

    Incorporation of unnatural amino acids with unique chemical functionalities has proven to be a valuable tool for expansion of the functional repertoire and properties of proteins as well as for structure-function analysis. Incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acids (primary amino group is substituted with hydroxyl) leads to the synthesis of proteins with peptide bonds being substituted by ester bonds. Practical application of this modification is limited by the necessity to prepare corresponding acylated tRNA by chemical synthesis. We investigated the possibility of enzymatic incorporation of alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues (lacking amino group) of amino acids into tRNA using aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). We studied direct acylation of tRNAs by alpha-hydroxy acid and acid analogues of amino acids and corresponding chemically synthesized analogues of aminoacyl-adenylates. Using adenylate analogues we were able to enzymatically acylate tRNA with amino acid analogues which were otherwise completely inactive in direct aminoacylation reaction, thus bypassing the natural mechanisms ensuring the selectivity of tRNA aminoacylation. Our results are the first demonstration that the use of synthetic aminoacyl-adenylates as substrates in tRNA aminoacylation reaction may provide a way for incorporation of unnatural amino acids into tRNA, and consequently into proteins.

  10. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  11. Effect of sunlight shielding on leaf structure and amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... acids concentration of light sensitive albino tea plant ... Key words: Camellia sinensis, leaf albinism, light intensity, photosynthetic pigments, amino acids, chloroplast. .... tructive reaction or photodamage which occurs in the.

  12. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis II. Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepka, W.; Benson, A. A.; Calvin, M.

    1948-05-25

    The radioactive amino acid's synthesized from C{sup 14}O{sub 2} by green algae both in the light and in the dark after CO{sub 2}-free preillumination have been separated and identified using paper chromatography and radioautography. The radioactive amino acids identified were aspartic acid, alanine and smaller amounts of 3- and 4-carbon amino acids. This finding as well as the total absence of radioactive glutamic acid substantiates the mechanism for reduction of CO{sub 2} previously postulated by members of this laboratory.

  13. Terrestrial evolution of polymerization of amino acids - Heat to ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.; Nakashima, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sets of amino acids containing sufficient trifunctional monomer are thermally polymerized at temperatures such as 65 deg; the amino acids order themselves. Various polymers have diverse catalytic activities. The polymers aggregate, in aqueous solution, to cell-like structures having those activities plus emergent properties, e.g. proliferatability. Polyamino acids containing sufficient lysine catalyze conversion of free amino acids, by ATP, to small peptides and a high molecular weight fraction. The lysine-rich proteinoid is active in solution, within suspensions of cell-like particles, or in other particles composed of lysine-rich proteinoid and homopolyribonucleotide. Selectivities are observed. An archaic polyamino acid prelude to coded protein synthesis is indicated.

  14. Amino acids fortification of low-protein diet for broilers under tropical climate: ideal essential amino acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmutaz Atta Awad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-week trial was conducted to determine the effect of lowering dietary protein level (DPL with optimal amino acid (AA profile on growth performance, blood metabolites, and relative weights of abdominal fat and internal organs in broiler chickens raised under tropical hot and humid environment. Five isocaloric (3023 metabolisable energy/kg starter (1-21 days experimental diets were formulated in a gradual crude protein (CP decline from 22.2 (control to 16.2% by 1.5% interval. All diets were meeting or exceeding National Research Council recommendations except CP and metabolisable energy. The formulations were also adjusted to contain 1.1 digestible Lys to meet the ideal AA ratios concept. Body weights (BW, weight gains (WG, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of groups with 19.2, 20.7 and 22.2% DPL were not significantly different. However, BW and WG suppressed (P<0.05 with 16.2 and 17.7% DPL. Feeding the 16.2% CP diet significantly reduced serum total protein and uric acid, but increased serum triglyceride (P<0.05. Moreover, relative heart weights increased (P<0.05 but no changes occurred in liver and abdominal fat weights in chicks with 16.2% DPL. In summary, CP of broilers starter (1-21 days diet can be reduced till 19.2% with essential AA fortification and without any adverse effect on growth performance under the hot, humid tropics.

  15. Amino acid determination in some edible Mexican insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrón de Guevara, O; Padilla, P; García, L; Pino, J M; Ramos-Elorduy, J

    1995-06-01

    The amino acid contents of edible insects from different provinces of Mexico and reference proteins were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The insect amino acid contents were higher than the adult requirements indicated by the WHO/FAO pattern.

  16. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  17. A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in sili

  18. Physiological and biochemical studies of bacterial amino acid amide metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Hubertus Franciscus Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids represent a class of versatile chiral building blocks for a whole range of fine chemicals, used in the pharmaceutical and agro-chemical industry. Considerable experience currently is available with a wide variety of chemo-enzymatic processes for the synthesis of amino acids, which is app

  19. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  20. Origin of Homochirality of Amino Acids in the Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosuke Kojo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions are made concerning realistic mechanisms for the origin of L-amino acids in the biosphere. As the most plausible mechanism, it is proposed that a mixture of racemic amino acids in the prebiotic sea caused spontaneous and effective optical resolution through self crystallization, even if asymmetric synthesis of a single amino acid has never occurred without the aid of an optically active molecule. This hypothesis is based on recrystallization of a mixture of D,L-amino acids in the presence of excess of D,L-asparagine (Asn. The enantiomeric excess (ee of each amino acid in the resulting crystals indicates that crystallization of co-existing amino acids with the configuration same as that of Asn took place, although it was incidental whether the enrichment occurred in L- or D-amino acids. In addition, the resulting ee was sufficiently high (up to 100% to account for the predominance of L-amino acids on the earth.

  1. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.

    1981-01-01

    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly

  2. Natural toxins that affect plant amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diverse range of natural compounds interfere with the synthesis and other aspects of amino acid metabolism. Some are amino acid analogues, but most are not. This review covers a number of specific natural phytotoxic compounds by molecular target site. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase is of part...

  3. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  4. Representation of protein-sequence information by amino acid subalphabets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.A.F.; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    -sequence information, using machine learning strategies, where the primary goal is the discovery of novel powerful representations for use in AI techniques. In the case of proteins and the 20 different amino acids they typically contain, it is also a secondary goal to discover how the current selection of amino acids...

  5. A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in

  6. Determining Amino Acid Chirality in the Supernova Neutrino Processing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Famiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A model is described that can be used to estimate the bulk polarization of largerotating meteoroids in the magnetic field of a neutron star. The results of this model areapplicable to the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which describes onepossible way in which the amino acids, known in nearly all cases to exhibit supramolecularchirality, could have become enantiomeric.

  7. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  8. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA)

    2011-03-22

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  9. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-06

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  10. Amino acids: metabolism, functions, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the discovery that amino acids (AA) are not only cell signaling molecules but are also regulators of gene expression and the protein phosphorylation cascade. Additionally, AA are key precursors for syntheses of hormones and low-molecular weight nitrogenous substances with each having enormous biological importance. Physiological concentrations of AA and their metabolites (e.g., nitric oxide, polyamines, glutathione, taurine, thyroid hormones, and serotonin) are required for the functions. However, elevated levels of AA and their products (e.g., ammonia, homocysteine, and asymmetric dimethylarginine) are pathogenic factors for neurological disorders, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, an optimal balance among AA in the diet and circulation is crucial for whole body homeostasis. There is growing recognition that besides their role as building blocks of proteins and polypeptides, some AA regulate key metabolic pathways that are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity. They are called functional AA, which include arginine, cysteine, glutamine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. Dietary supplementation with one or a mixture of these AA may be beneficial for (1) ameliorating health problems at various stages of the life cycle (e.g., fetal growth restriction, neonatal morbidity and mortality, weaning-associated intestinal dysfunction and wasting syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility); (2) optimizing efficiency of metabolic transformations to enhance muscle growth, milk production, egg and meat quality and athletic performance, while preventing excess fat deposition and reducing adiposity. Thus, AA have important functions in both nutrition and health.

  11. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov; Crowley, Michael F., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  12. Functional amino acids in nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    The recent years have witnessed growing interest in biochemistry, physiology and nutrition of amino acids (AA) in growth, health and disease of humans and other animals. This results from the discoveries of AA in cell signaling involving protein kinases, G protein-coupled receptors, and gaseous molecules (i.e., NO, CO and H2S). In addition, nutritional studies have shown that dietary supplementation with several AA (e.g., arginine, glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and proline) modulates gene expression, enhances growth of the small intestine and skeletal muscle, or reduces excessive body fat. These seminal findings led to the new concept of functional AA, which are defined as those AA that participate in and regulate key metabolic pathways to improve health, survival, growth, development, lactation, and reproduction of the organisms. Functional AA hold great promise in prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), intrauterine growth restriction, infertility, intestinal and neurological dysfunction, and infectious disease (including viral infections).

  13. Amino Acid Analyses of Acid Hydrolysates in Desert Varnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Staley, James T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Engel, Mike

    2001-01-01

    There has long been a debate as to whether rock varnish deposits are microbially mediated or are deposited by inorganic processes. Varnished rocks are found throughout the world primarily in arid and semi-arid regions. The varnish coats are typically up to 200 microns thick and are composed of clays and alternating layers enriched in manganese and iron oxides. The individual layers range in thickness from 1 micron to greater than 10 microns and may continue laterally for more than a 100 microns. Overlapping botryoidal structures are visible in thin section and scanning electron micrographs. The coatings also include small amounts of organic mater and detrital grains. Amino-acid hydrolysates offer a means of assessing the organic composition of rock varnish collected from the Sonoran Desert, near Phoenix, AZ. Chromatographic analyses of hydrolysates from powdered samples of rock varnish suggest that the interior of rock varnish is relatively enriched in amino acids and specifically in d-alanine and glutamic acid. Peptidoglycan (murein) is the main structural component of gram-positive bacterial cell walls. The d-enantiomer of alanine and glutamic acid are specific to peptidoglycan and are consequently an indicator for the presence of bacteria. D-alanine is also found in teichoic acid which is only found in gram-positive bacteria. Several researchers have cultured bacteria from the surface of rock varnish and most have been gram-positive, suggesting that gram-positive bacteria are intimately associated with varnish coatings and may play a role in the formation of varnish coatings.

  14. Interaction of metal ions and amino acids - Possible mechanisms for the adsorption of amino acids on homoionic smectite clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Loew, G. H.; Lawless, J.

    1983-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular orbital method is used to characterize the binding of amino acids to hexahydrated Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), a process presumed to occur when they are adsorbed in the interlamellar space of homoionic smectite clays. Five alpha-amino acids, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were used to investigate the metal ion and amino acid specificity in binding. It was assumed that the alpha, beta, and gamma-amino acids would bind as bidentate anionic ligands, forming either 1:1 or 1:2 six-coordinated five, six, and seven-membered-ring chelate complexes, respectively. Energies of complex formation, optimized geometries, and electron and spin distribution were determined; and steric constraints of binding of the amino acids to the ion-exchanged cations in the interlamellar spacing of a clay were examined. Results indicate that hexahydrated Cu(2+) forms more stable complexes than hexahydrated Ni(2+) with all the amino acids studied. However, among these amino acids, complex formation does not favor the adsorption of the biological subset. Calculated energetics of complex formation and steric constraints are shown to predict that 1:1 rather than 1:2 metal-amino acid complexes are generally favored in the clay.

  15. Interaction of metal ions and amino acids - Possible mechanisms for the adsorption of amino acids on homoionic smectite clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A.; Loew, G. H.; Lawless, J.

    1983-01-01

    A semiempirical molecular orbital method is used to characterize the binding of amino acids to hexahydrated Cu(2+) and Ni(2+), a process presumed to occur when they are adsorbed in the interlamellar space of homoionic smectite clays. Five alpha-amino acids, beta-alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were used to investigate the metal ion and amino acid specificity in binding. It was assumed that the alpha, beta, and gamma-amino acids would bind as bidentate anionic ligands, forming either 1:1 or 1:2 six-coordinated five, six, and seven-membered-ring chelate complexes, respectively. Energies of complex formation, optimized geometries, and electron and spin distribution were determined; and steric constraints of binding of the amino acids to the ion-exchanged cations in the interlamellar spacing of a clay were examined. Results indicate that hexahydrated Cu(2+) forms more stable complexes than hexahydrated Ni(2+) with all the amino acids studied. However, among these amino acids, complex formation does not favor the adsorption of the biological subset. Calculated energetics of complex formation and steric constraints are shown to predict that 1:1 rather than 1:2 metal-amino acid complexes are generally favored in the clay.

  16. Independence divergence-generated binary trees of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusnády, G E; Tusnády, G; Simon, I

    1995-05-01

    The discovery of the relationship between amino acids is important in terms of the replacement ability, as used in protein engineering homology studies, and gaining a better understanding of the roles which various properties of the residues play in the creation of a unique, stable, 3-D protein structure. Amino acid sequences of proteins edited by evolution are anything but random. The measure of nonrandomness, i.e. the level of editing, can be characterized by an independence divergence value. This parameter is used to generate binary tree relationships between amino acids. The relationships of residues presented in this paper are based on protein building features and not on the physico-chemical characteristics of amino acids. This approach is not biased by the tautology present in all sequence similarity-based relationship studies. The roles which various physico-chemical characteristics play in the determination of the relationships between amino acids are also discussed.

  17. Supernovae, Neutrinos and the Chirality of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kajino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is defined. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth’s proteinaceous amino acids.

  18. Amino Acids Are an Ineffective Fertilizer for Dunaliella spp. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Murphree

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autotrophic microalgae are a promising bioproducts platform. However, the fundamental requirements these organisms have for nitrogen fertilizer severely limit the impact and scale of their cultivation. As an alternative to inorganic fertilizers, we investigated the possibility of using amino acids from deconstructed biomass as a nitrogen source in the genus Dunaliella. We found that only four amino acids (glutamine, histidine, cysteine, and tryptophan rescue Dunaliella spp. growth in nitrogen depleted media, and that supplementation of these amino acids altered the metabolic profile of Dunaliella cells. Our investigations revealed that histidine is transported across the cell membrane, and that glutamine and cysteine are not transported. Rather, glutamine, cysteine, and tryptophan are degraded in solution by a set of oxidative chemical reactions, releasing ammonium that in turn supports growth. Utilization of biomass-derived amino acids is therefore not a suitable option unless additional amino acid nitrogen uptake is enabled through genetic modifications of these algae.

  19. Adaptive amino acid composition in collagens of parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2015-04-01

    Amino acid composition was analyzed in the glycine-rich repeat region of 306 collagens belonging to three major families of collagens from both parasitic and free-living nematodes. The collagens of parasitic species showed a tendency toward decreased usage of the hydrophilic residues A, D, and Q and increased usage of the hydrophobic resides I, L, and M; and this trend was seen in parasitic species of both the order Rhabdita and the order Spirurida. The amino acid composition of collagens of parasitic Rhabdita thus tended to resemble those of Spirurida more than that of free-living Rhabdita, suggesting an association between amino acid composition and a parasitic lifestyle. Computer predictions suggested that the more hydrophobic amino acid composition was associated with a reduction of the propensity towards B-cell epitope formation, suggesting that evasion of host immune responses may be a major selective factor responsible for the parasite-specific trend in collagen amino acid composition.

  20. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Schubert, Carsten J.;

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions,: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepcion. The contribution of amino acids to total organic...... carbon (%TAAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%TAAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid...... aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated...

  1. ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACIDS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat E Noor Baig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are considered as the key precursors for the formation of hormones and low molecular weight nitrogenous substances with biological importance. Since the analysis of amino acids has been carried out for both qualitative and quantitative purposes with an aim to study their levels in the plasma concentration, the quantitative determination, in particular, also helps in the diagnosis of different diseases associated with their deficiency. This review article deals with the determination of amino acids by chromatographic methods which include ion-exchange chromatography (IEC, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The review will also give an idea for the preparation of samples, derivatization methods for the analysis of amino acids (direct and indirect methods and separation of amino acids by high performance liquid chromatographic technique.

  2. Stardust, Supernovae and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Kajino, T; Onaka, T

    2011-03-09

    A mechanism for creating enantiomerism in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one chirality by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's amino acids.

  3. Supernovae, Neutrinos, and the Chirality of the Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, R N; Onaka, T

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism for creating an enantioenrichment in the amino acids, the building blocks of the proteins, that involves global selection of one handedness by interactions between the amino acids and neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae is described. The chiral selection involves the dependence of the interaction cross sections on the orientations of the spins of the neutrinos and the 14N nuclei in the amino acids, or in precursor molecules, which in turn couple to the molecular chirality. It also requires an asymmetric distribution of neutrinos emitted from the supernova. The subsequent chemical evolution and galactic mixing would ultimately populate the Galaxy with the selected species. The resulting amino acids could either be the source thereof on Earth, or could have triggered the chirality that was ultimately achieved for Earth's proteinaceous amino acids.

  4. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  5. Subcritical Water Hydrolysis of Peptides: Amino Acid Side-Chain Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas; Bowra, Steve; Cooper, Helen J.

    2017-09-01

    Previously we have shown that subcritical water may be used as an alternative to enzymatic digestion in the proteolysis of proteins for bottom-up proteomics. Subcritical water hydrolysis of proteins was shown to result in protein sequence coverages greater than or equal to that obtained following digestion with trypsin; however, the percentage of peptide spectral matches for the samples treated with trypsin were consistently greater than for those treated with subcritical water. This observation suggests that in addition to cleavage of the peptide bond, subcritical water treatment results in other hydrolysis products, possibly due to modifications of amino acid side chains. Here, a model peptide comprising all common amino acid residues (VQSIKCADFLHYMENPTWGR) and two further model peptides (VCFQYMDRGDR and VQSIKADFLHYENPTWGR) were treated with subcritical water with the aim of probing any induced amino acid side-chain modifications. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, either collision-induced dissociation or electron transfer dissociation, and liquid chromatography collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results show preferential oxidation of cysteine to sulfinic and sulfonic acid, and oxidation of methionine. In the absence of cysteine and methionine, oxidation of tryptophan was observed. In addition, water loss from aspartic acid and C-terminal amidation were observed in harsher subcritical water conditions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Amino Acid Profile of Some New Vartieties of Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Ingale and S.K. Shrivastava

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are large varieties of oil seeds and legumes in India, which are part of traditional food system but whose nutritional and economic values have not been completely determine and are far less exploited for both human and livestock utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-11, Sunflower (Helianths annuus LSF-8, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-12, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius PBNS-40, and Ground nut (Arachis hypogaea JL-24 seeds with the aim of qualifying and quantifying chemical information that might serve as a guide to exploit its potentials and benefits for human and animal nutrition. The amino acid profile of these oil seed were carried out using standard methods. Amino acid analysis using technical sequential multisampling amino acid analyzer detected all essential and non essential amino acids. The seeds are rich in four amino acids (EAA and NEAA (g/16g N Glutamic acid (5.083, Aspartic acid (3.459, Proline (6.412 and Methionine (3.001%, respectively. The other amino acids compared well with the FAO reference protein, Serine appeared to be the most limiting amino acid percent. Based on results of this study, the lesser known and under-utilized oil seeds, they can be a potential source and energy supplements in livestock feed.

  7. Elevated amniotic fluid amino acid levels in fetuses with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kale

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to measure maternal plasma and amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations in pregnant women diagnosed as having fetuses with gastroschisis in the second trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-one pregnant women who had fetuses with gastroschisis detected by ultrasonography (gastroschisis group in the second trimester and 32 women who had abnormal triple screenings indicating an increased risk for Down syndrome but had healthy fetuses (control group were enrolled in the study. Amniotic fluid was obtained by amniocentesis, and maternal plasma samples were taken simultaneously. The chromosomal analysis of the study and control groups was normal. Levels of free amino acids and non-essential amino acids were measured in plasma and amniotic fluid samples using EZ:fast kits (EZ:fast GC/FID free (physiological amino acid kit by gas chromatography (Focus GC AI 3000 Thermo Finnigan analyzer. The mean levels of essential amino acids (histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine and non-essential amino acids (alanine, glycine, proline, and tyrosine in amniotic fluid were found to be significantly higher in fetuses with gastroschisis than in the control group (P < 0.05. A significant positive correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid concentrations of essential and nonessential amino acids was found only in the gastroschisis group (P < 0.05. The detection of significantly higher amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with a gastroschisis defect than in healthy fetuses suggests the occurrence of amino acid malabsorption or of amino acid leakage from the fetus into amniotic fluid.

  8. Hydration of amino acids: FTIR spectra and molecular dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuszko, Aneta; Adamczak, Beata; Czub, Jacek; Gojło, Emilia; Stangret, Janusz

    2015-11-01

    The hydration of selected amino acids, alanine, glycine, proline, valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine, has been studied in aqueous solutions by means of FTIR spectra of HDO isotopically diluted in H2O. The difference spectra procedure and the chemometric method have been applied to remove the contribution of bulk water and thus to separate the spectra of solute-affected HDO. To support interpretation of obtained spectral results, molecular dynamics simulations of amino acids were performed. The structural-energetic characteristic of these solute-affected water molecules shows that, on average, water affected by amino acids forms stronger and shorter H-bonds than those in pure water. Differences in the influence of amino acids on water structure have been noticed. The effect of the hydrophobic side chain of an amino acid on the solvent interactions seems to be enhanced because of the specific cooperative coupling of water strong H-bond chain, connecting the carboxyl and amino groups, with the clathrate-like H-bond network surrounding the hydrocarbon side chain. The parameter derived from the spectral data, which corresponds to the contributions of the population of weak hydrogen bonds of water molecules which have been substituted by the stronger ones in the hydration sphere of amino acids, correlated well with the amino acid hydrophobicity indexes.

  9. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in lepidopteran caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Alborn, Hans T; Nakanishi, Tomoaki; Suckling, David M; Nishida, Ritsuo; Tumlinson, James H; Mori, Naoki

    2010-03-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in noctuid as well as sphingid caterpillar oral secretions; in particular, volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants. These induced volatiles, in turn, attract natural enemies of the caterpillars. In a previous study, we showed that N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine in larval Spodoptera litura plays an important role in nitrogen assimilation which might be an explanation for caterpillars synthesizing FACs despite an increased risk of attracting natural enemies. However, the presence of FACs in lepidopteran species outside these families of agricultural interest is not well known. We conducted FAC screening of 29 lepidopteran species, and found them in 19 of these species. Thus, FACs are commonly synthesized through a broad range of lepidopteran caterpillars. Since all FAC-containing species had N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine and/or N-linoleoyl-L-glutamine in common, and the evolutionarily earliest species among them had only these two FACs, these glutamine conjugates might be the evolutionarily older FACs. Furthermore, some species had glutamic acid conjugates, and some had hydroxylated FACs. Comparing the diversity of FACs with lepidopteran phylogeny indicates that glutamic acid conjugates can be synthesized by relatively primitive species, while hydroxylation of fatty acids is limited mostly to larger and more developed macrolepidopteran species.

  10. 蛋白酶对8~21日龄肉仔鸡生长性能、氨基酸表观消化率及肠道组织形态的影响%Effects of Protease on Growth Performance, Amino Acid Apparent Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers Aged from 8 to 21 Days

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周梁; 张海军; 王晶; 郑旭阳; 齐广海; 武书庚

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究蛋白酶对8~21日龄肉仔鸡生长性能、氨基酸表观消化率及肠道组织形态的影响。选择7日龄体重相近、健康的爱拔益加( AA)肉仔鸡560只(公母各占1/2),随机分为5个组,每组8个重复,每个重复14只鸡。对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕-肉骨粉型基础饲粮,试验组分别饲喂在基础饲粮中添加0.01%、0.02%、0.04%和0.08%蛋白酶的试验饲粮,试验期14 d。结果表明:1)各蛋白酶组肉仔鸡平均日采食量显著高于对照组(P<0.05),0.02%蛋白酶组肉仔鸡平均日增重显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。2)蛋白酶可二次性提高肉仔鸡粗蛋白质和氨基酸(亮氨酸和异亮氨酸除外)的表观消化率( P<0.05),0.02%蛋白酶组肉仔鸡粗蛋白质表观消化率显著高于对照组( P<0.05),0.01%和0.02%蛋白酶组天冬氨酸、苏氨酸、丝氨酸和丙氨酸的表观消化率均显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。3)随蛋白酶添加水平增加,十二指肠隐窝深度呈显著线性升高(P<0.05),绒毛高度/隐窝深度呈显著线性降低(P<0.05);空肠绒毛高度呈显著二次曲线升高(P<0.05),隐窝深度呈显著线性升高(P<0.05)。由此可见,玉米-豆粕-肉骨粉型饲粮添加0.01%和0.02%蛋白酶能够促进肉仔鸡生长前期的小肠发育,提高粗蛋白质及大部分氨基酸表观消化率,从而改善生长性能。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of protease on growth performance, amino acid apparent digestibility and intestinal morphology of broilers aged from 8 to 21 days.A total of 560 seven-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers with a similar body weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 8 replicates per group and 14 chickens per replicate.Broilers in the control group were fed a basal diet, and broilers in the experimental groups

  11. N-氨甲酰谷氨酸对环江香猪生长性能、营养物质消化率及血浆游离氨基酸含量的影响%N-Carbamylglutamate Affects Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Plasma Concentrations of Free Amino Acids in Huanjiang Mini-Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周笑犁; 印遇龙; 孔祥峰; 汤文杰; 何庆华

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine effects of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma free amino acid concentrations in growing pigs. Ten Huanjiang mini-pigs with an average body weight (BW) of (12. 6 ± 1. 7) kg were used and randomly assigned into two groups (five replicates with one pig per replicate) , representing supplementation with 0 or 0. 1% NCG in a basal diet for 10 days. Daily feed intake, initial and final BW were recorded, respectively; fecal samples were collected from day 8 to 10 for determining the digestibility of routine nutrients by TiO2 indicator; blood samples were collected on day 10 for analyzing biochemical parameters and concentrations of free amino acids (AA) , respectively. Results showed that compared with the basal diet group, 0.1% NCG supplementation significantly increased the average daily gain (P 0. 05). Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly increased (P <0. 05), while the plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, ammonia and low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (P <0. 05). The plasma concentrations of total amino acid, essential amino acid, aromatic amino acid, phenylalanine and methionine of pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG were higher than those of pigs fed the basal diet (P < 0. 05). These findings suggest that 0.1% NCG supplementation can promote the digestibility of nutrients, improve AA balance, and then increase the growth performance, which may provide some scientific information for the application of NCG in diets of Huanjiang mini-pigs.%为了探讨N-氨甲酰谷氨酸(N-carbamylglutamate,NCG)对环江香猪生长性能、营养物质消化率及血浆游离氨基酸含量的影响,试验选用平均体重为(12.6±1.7) kg的环江香猪10头,随机分为2组,每组5个重复,每个重复l头猪,单笼饲养,分别饲喂基础饲粮和添加0.1% NCG的试验饲粮,试验期为10 d.每日记录采食量,分别在试验开始和结

  12. Excretion of amino acids by humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    We measured the urine amino acid distribution patterns before, during and after space flight on the Space Shuttle. The urine samples were collected on two separate flights of the space shuttle. The first flight lasted 9.5 days and the second flight 15 days. Urine was collected continuously on 8 subjects for the period beginning 10 d before launch to 6 d after landing. Results: In contrast to the earlier Skylab missions where a pronounced amino aciduria was found, on shuttle the urinary amino acids showed little change with spaceflight except for a marked decrease in all of the amino acids on FD (flight day) 1 (pvaline on FD3 and FD4 (p<0.05). Conclusions: (i) Amino aciduria is not an inevitable consequence of space flight. (ii) The occurrence of amino aciduria, like muscle protein breakdown is a mission specific effect rather than part of the general human response to microgravity.

  13. Non-protein amino acids in peptide design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Aravinda; N Shamala; Rituparna S Roy; P Balaram

    2003-10-01

    An overview of the use of non-protein amino acids in the design of conformationally well-defined peptides, based on work from the author’s laboratory, is discussed. The crystal structures of several designed oligopeptides illustrate the use -aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) in the construction of helices, D-amino acids in the design of helix termination segments and DPro-Xxx segments for nucleating of -hairpin structures. - and -amino acid residues have been used to expand the range of designed polypeptide structures.

  14. Enantioseparation of Amino Acids by Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration : Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Copper(II) Amino Acid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as chiral selecto

  15. D-Amino acids in the brain and mutant rodents lacking D-amino-acid oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Yurika; Ohide, Hiroko; Hamase, Kenji; Konno, Ryuichi

    2012-11-01

    D-Amino acids are stereoisomers of L-amino acids. They are often called unnatural amino acids, but several D-amino acids have been found in mammalian brains. Among them, D-serine is abundant in the forebrain and functions as a co-agonist of NMDA receptors to enhance neurotransmission. D-Amino-acid oxidase (DAO), which degrades neutral and basic D-amino acids, is mainly present in the hindbrain. DAO catabolizes D-serine and, therefore, modulates neurotransmission. In the brains of mutant mice and rats lacking DAO activity, the amounts of D-serine and other D-amino acids are markedly increased. Mutant mice manifested behavioral changes characteristic of altered NMDA receptor activity, likely due to increased levels of D-serine. D-Serine and DAO have been demonstrated to play important roles in cerebellar development and synaptic plasticity. They have also implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pain response. There have also been several lines of evidence correlating DAO with schizophrenia. Taken together, the experiments indicate that D-amino acids and DAO have pivotal functions in the central nervous system.

  16. Quantitative analysis of 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves using an amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yihang; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-06-01

    A method was developed for quantifying 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves by using an A300 amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution. In the method, amino acids were eluted by the buffer solution on an ion-exchange column. After reacting with ninhydrin, the derivatives of amino acids were detected by ultraviolet detection. Most amino acids are separated by the elution program. However, five peaks of the derivatives are still overlapping. A non-negative immune algorithm was employed to extract the profiles of the derivatives from the overlapping signals, and then peak areas were adopted for quantitative analysis of the amino acids. The method was validated by the determination of amino acids in tobacco leaves. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) are all less than 2.54% and the recoveries of the spiked samples are in a range of 94.62-108.21%. The feasibility of the method was proved by analyzing the 17 amino acids in 30 tobacco leaf samples.

  17. Comparison of amino acid content in frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bernaś

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present work compares the content of basic chemical constituents as well as amino acids in frozen Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kumm. and Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. mushrooms. Material and methods. The material investigated comprised of frozen P. ostreatus and A. bisporus mushrooms after 8 months’ storage, having been soaked and blanched in a solution 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% lactic acid and 0.1% L-ascorbic acid prior to freezing. Results. Compared with frozen A. bisporus, frozen P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of total carbohydrates (32% higher, raw fat (38% and most endogenous (6-163% and exogenous (10-200% amino acids, but lower levels of ash (45% lower, total nitrogen (50% and protein nitrogen (40%. In both species, asparagine and glutamine were the most abundant endogenous amino acids (respectively 10-12% and 12-19% of total amino acids, and leucine and lysine the most abundant exogenous amino acids (7-9% and 6-7%. The least abundant were glycine and proline (both 5%, and cysteine and methionine (1% and 2%. Conclusions. Frozen mushrooms of both species are potentially good sources of protein in the diet as no limiting amino acids were found when compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein pattern. However, it is important to determine the digestibility of protein in the mushrooms model studies using animals and people. The conversion coefficient from total nitrogen to protein was 5.23 in P. ostreatus and 2.46 in A. bisporus.

  18. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  19. Organometallic and Bioorganometallic Chemistry – Ferrocene Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barišić, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second part of a series dealing with organometallic and bioorganometallic chemistry. In the first part of this series a short review on the history and development of these disciplines was given, emphasizing the importance and scope of bioorganometallic chemistry as a new field dealing with conjugates of organometallics and biomolecules (DNA, PNA, amino acids, peptides.... From the variety of biorganometallics, syntheses and properties of simple conjugates of ferrocene with natural amino acids/peptides were elaborated inter alia. This material is the basis for the second part in which ferrocene amino acids are described. The introduction presents nonproteinogenic alicyclic and aromatic amino acids as the models for the title compounds. Naturally occurring amino acids labelled with ferrocene moiety mostly retain properties of the biomolecules included. Contrary to these ω-ferrocenylamino acids, one could imagine specific amino acids with inserted ferrocene core belonging to either homo- or heterodisubstituted type. The central part of this article is devoted to our investigations of the second type - H2N-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOH. The general rational procedure for synthesis of these compounds and of their N- and/or C-protected derivatives via the azide intermediates N3-CO-(CH2m- Fn-(CH2n-COOMe has been described. In the solid state derivatives of ferrocene amino acids contain intermolecular hydrogen bonds giving dimeric structures, three-dimensional networks or endless helical chains. The solutions of homologues Ac-NH-(CH2m-Fn-(CH2n-COOMe in nonpolar solvents are dominated by open form conformers. Compounds containing 2–3 ferrocene cores connected by amide, imide and oxalamide spacers were prepared by oligomerization of 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Fca or by its condensation with the appropriate reagents. Similar to natural amino acids, ferrocene amino acids are water-soluble substances with high melting points

  20. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  1. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  2. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Hoshino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1 system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source and keto acids (oxylic acid sources. In this research, several amino acids were detected with an amino acid analyzer. Moreover, alanine polymers were detected with LC-MS. Our research lights up a new pathway in the study of life’s origin.

  3. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Solubility of xenon in amino-acid solutions. II. Nine less-soluble amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, Richard P.; Himm, Jeffrey F.; Pollack, Gerald L.

    1988-05-01

    Ostwald solubility (L) of xenon gas, as the radioisotope 133Xe, has been measured as a function of solute concentration, at 25.0 °C, in aqueous solutions of nine amino acids. The amino-acid concentrations investigated covered much of their solubility ranges in water, viz., asparagine monohydrate (0-0.19 M), cysteine (0-1.16 M), glutamine (0-0.22 M), histidine (0-0.26 M), isoleucine (0-0.19 M), methionine (0-0.22 M), serine (0-0.38 M), threonine (0-1.4 M), and valine (0-0.34 M). We have previously reported solubility results for aqueous solutions of six other, generally more soluble, amino acids (alanine, arginine, glycine, hydroxyproline, lysine, and proline), of sucrose and sodium chloride. In general, L decreases approximately linearly with increasing solute concentration in these solutions. If we postulate that the observed decreases in gas solubility are due to hydration, the results under some assumptions can be used to calculate hydration numbers (H), i.e., the number of H2O molecules associated with each amino-acid solute molecule. The average values of hydration number (H¯) obtained at 25.0 °C are 15.3±1.5 for asparagine, 6.8±0.3 for cysteine, 11.5±1.1 for glutamine, 7.3±0.7 for histidine, 5.9±0.4 for isoleucine, 10.6±0.8 for methionine, 11.2±1.3 for serine, 7.7± 1.0 for threonine, and 6.6±0.6 for valine. We have also measured the temperature dependence of solubility L(T) from 5-40 °C for arginine, glycine, and proline, and obtained hydration numbers H¯(T) in this range. Between 25-40 °C, arginine has an H¯ near zero. This may be evidence for an attractive interaction between xenon and arginine molecules in aqueous solution.

  5. Prolonged maternal amino acid infusion in late-gestation pregnant sheep increases fetal amino acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Crispo, Michelle M; Barry, James S; O'Meara, Meghan C; Frost, Mackenzie S; Hansen, Kent C; Hay, William W; Brown, Laura D

    2009-09-01

    Protein supplementation during human pregnancy does not improve fetal growth and may increase small-for-gestational-age birth rates and mortality. To define possible mechanisms, sheep with twin pregnancies were infused with amino acids (AA group, n = 7) or saline (C group, n = 4) for 4 days during late gestation. In the AA group, fetal plasma leucine, isoleucine, valine, and lysine concentrations were increased (P < 0.05), and threonine was decreased (P < 0.05). In the AA group, fetal arterial pH (7.365 +/- 0.007 day 0 vs. 7.336 +/- 0.012 day 4, P < 0.005), hemoglobin-oxygen saturation (46.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 37.8 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.005), and total oxygen content (3.17 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.49 +/- 0.20 mmol/l, P < 0.0001) were decreased on day 4 compared with day 0. Fetal leucine disposal did not change (9.22 +/- 0.73 vs. 8.09 +/- 0.63 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), AA vs. C), but the rate of leucine oxidation increased 43% in the AA group (2.63 +/- 0.16 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.24 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), P < 0.05). Fetal oxygen utilization tended to be increased in the AA group (327 +/- 23 vs. 250 +/- 29 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), P = 0.06). Rates of leucine incorporation into fetal protein (5.19 +/- 0.97 vs. 5.47 +/- 0.89 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1), AA vs. C), release from protein breakdown (4.20 +/- 0.95 vs. 4.62 +/- 0.74 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1)), and protein accretion (1.00 +/- 0.30 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.25 micromol x min(-1) x kg(-1)) did not change. Consistent with these data, there was no change in the fetal skeletal muscle ubiquitin ligases MaFBx1 or MuRF1 or in the protein synthesis regulators 4E-BP1, eEF2, eIF2alpha, and p70(S6K). Decreased concentrations of certain essential amino acids, increased amino acid oxidation, fetal acidosis, and fetal hypoxia are possible mechanisms to explain fetal toxicity during maternal amino acid supplementation.

  6. Optimum ratio to lysine of threonine, tryptophan, and sulfur amino acids for finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J D; Baker, D H

    1995-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred (PIC line 26 x Camborough 15) pigs were used in two finishing trials to compare the ideal ratios of threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), and sulfur amino acids (SAA) to lysine (Lys) determined for young pigs to a proposed ratio of these amino acids for finishing pigs. Trial 1 involved 20 barrows and 20 gilts that were self-fed in sex groups of two. Trial 2 was a Latin square design that used four barrows and four gilts that were individually fed in metabolism cages. Separate diets were used for the early (EF = 56 to 90 kg) and late (LF = 90 to 112 kg) finishing periods. Diets were formulated from a corn-soybean meal mixture and contained 11% CP and .55% digestible lysine for EF pigs and 10% CP and .50% digestible lysine for LF pigs. Negative-control diets in both the EF and LF periods were designed to be slightly deficient in lysine and to contain digestible Thr (65%), Trp (18%), and SAA (60%) at the ideal ratio to digestible Lys determined for 10- to 20-kg pigs. The experimental diet in both the EF and LF periods was formulated to contain digestible Thr (70%), Trp (20%), and SAA (65%) at the proposed ideal ratio to digestible Lys for finishing pigs. In Trial 1, increased ratios of Thr, Trp, and SAA improved gain:feed ratio, whole-body and carcass protein concentration, and whole-body and carcass protein accretion. In Trial 2, LF pigs responded to the increased ratios of Thr, Trp, and SAA with decreased urinary nitrogen excretion and increased N retention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Differential diagnosis of (inherited) amino acid metabolism or transport disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, W; Huijmans, J G

    1992-02-01

    Disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport are most clearly expressed in urine. Nevertheless the interpretation of abnormalities in urinary amino acid excretion remains difficult. An increase or decrease of almost every amino acid in urine can be due to various etiology. To differentiate between primary and secondary aminoacido-pathies systematic laboratory investigation is necessary. Early diagnosis of disorders of amino acid metabolism or transport is very important, because most of them can be treated, leading to the prevention of (further) clinical abnormalities. In those disorders, which cannot be treated, early diagnosis in an index-patient may prevent the birth of other siblings by means of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.Primary aminoacidopathies can be due to genetically determined transport disorders and enzyme deficiencies in amino acid metabolism or degradation. Secondary aminoacidopathies are the result of abnormal or deficient nutrition, intestinal dysfunction, organ pathology or other metabolic diseases like organic acidurias.A survey of amino acid metabolism and transport abnormalities will be given, illustrated with metabolic pathways and characteristic abnormal amino acid chromatograms.

  8. Metabolism of amino acids, dipeptides and tetrapeptides by Lactobacillus sakei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinz, Quirin; Schwab, Wilfried

    2012-04-01

    The microbial degradation of proteins, peptides and amino acids generates volatiles involved in the typical flavor of dry fermented sausage. The ability of three Lactobacillus sakei strains to form aroma compounds was investigated. Whole resting cells were fermented in phosphate buffer with equimolar amounts of substrates consisting of dipeptides, tetrapeptides and free amino acids, respectively. Dipeptides disappeared quickly from the solutions whereas tetrapeptides were only partially degraded. In both approaches the concentration of free amino acids increased in the reaction mixture but did not reach the equimolar amount of the initial substrates. When free amino acids were fed to the bacteria their levels decreased only slightly. Although peptides were more rapidly degraded and/or transported into the cells, free amino acids produced higher amounts of volatiles. It is suggested, that after transport into the cell peptides are only partially hydrolyzed to their amino acids, while the rest is metabolized via alternative metabolic pathways. The three L. sakei strains differed to some extend in their ability to metabolize the substrates to volatile compounds. In a few cases this was due to the position of the amino acids within the peptides. Compared to other starter cultures used for the production of dry fermented sausages, the metabolic impact of the L. sakei strains on the formation of volatiles was very low.

  9. Aromatic amino acids in high selectivity bismuth(III) recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Sumanta Kumar; Dey, Debarati; Sen, Souvik; Sen, Kamalika

    2013-04-21

    The three aromatic amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, play different physiological roles in life processes. Metal ions capable of binding these amino acids may aid in the reduction of effective concentration of these amino acids in any physiological system. Here we have studied the efficacy of some heavy metals for their complexation with these three amino acids. Bismuth has been found to bind selectively with these aromatic amino acids and this was confirmed using spectrofluorimetric, spectrophotometric and cyclic voltammetric studies. The series of heavy metals has been chosen because each of these metals remains associated with the others at very low concentration levels and Bi(III) is the least toxic amongst the other elements. So, selective recognition for Bi(III) would also mean no response for the other heavy elements if contaminants are present even at low concentration levels. The affinity towards these amino acids has been found to be in the order tryptophan phenylalanine amino acids have been calculated using Benesi-Hildebrand equations and the corresponding free energy change has also been calculated. The values of the association constants obtained from BH equations using absorbance values corroborate with the Stern-Volmer constants obtained from fluorimetric studies. The evidence for complexation is also supported by the results of cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Distribution of soluble amino acids in maize endosperm mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Alejandro Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For human nutrition the main source of vegetable proteins are cereal and legume seeds. The content of total soluble amino acids in mature endosperm of wild-type, opaque and floury maize (Zea mays L. mutants were determined by HPLC. The total absolute concentration of soluble amino acids among the mutants varied depending on the mutant. The o11 and o13 mutants exhibited the highest average content, whereas o10, fl3 and fl1 exhibited the lowest average content. In general, the mutants exhibited similar concentrations of total soluble amino acids when compared to the wild-type lines, with the clear exception of mutants o11 and fl1, with the o11 mutant exhibiting a higher concentration of total soluble amino acids when compared to its wild-type counterpart W22 and the fl1 mutant a lower concentration when compared to its wild-type counterpart Oh43. For methionine, the mutants o2 and o11 and wild-type Oh43 exhibited the highest concentrations of this amino acid. Significant differences were not observed between mutants for other amino acids such as lysine and threonine. The high lysine concentrations obtained originally for these mutants may be due to the amino acids incorporated into storage proteins, but not those present in the soluble form.

  11. Amino Acid Catabolism in Alzheimer's Disease Brain: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    There is a dire need to discover new targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. Decreased neuronal glucose metabolism that occurs in AD brain could play a central role in disease progression. Little is known about the compensatory neuronal changes that occur to attempt to maintain energy homeostasis. In this review using the PubMed literature database, we summarize evidence that amino acid oxidation can temporarily compensate for the decreased glucose metabolism, but eventually altered amino acid and amino acid catabolite levels likely lead to toxicities contributing to AD progression. Because amino acids are involved in so many cellular metabolic and signaling pathways, the effects of altered amino acid metabolism in AD brain are far-reaching. Possible pathological results from changes in the levels of several important amino acids are discussed. Urea cycle function may be induced in endothelial cells of AD patient brains, possibly to remove excess ammonia produced from increased amino acid catabolism. Studying AD from a metabolic perspective provides new insights into AD pathogenesis and may lead to the discovery of dietary metabolite supplements that can partially compensate for alterations of enzymatic function to delay AD or alleviate some of the suffering caused by the disease. PMID:28261376

  12. A common periodic table of codons and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, J C; Benyó, B; Sansom, C; Szlávecz, A; Fördös, G; Micsik, T; Benyó, Z

    2003-06-27

    A periodic table of codons has been designed where the codons are in regular locations. The table has four fields (16 places in each) one with each of the four nucleotides (A, U, G, C) in the central codon position. Thus, AAA (lysine), UUU (phenylalanine), GGG (glycine), and CCC (proline) were placed into the corners of the fields as the main codons (and amino acids) of the fields. They were connected to each other by six axes. The resulting nucleic acid periodic table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons. The corresponding amino acid table also displaced periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydropathy) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table emphasizes the importance of the central nucleotide in the codons and predicts that purines control the charge while pyrimidines determine the polarity of the amino acids. This prediction was experimentally tested.

  13. Exhaustive Database Searching for Amino Acid Mutations in Proteomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, Philip Douglas [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid mutations in proteins can be found by searching tandem mass spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments against protein sequences predicted from genomes. Traditionally, unconstrained searches for amino acid mutations have been accomplished by using a sequence tagging approach that combines de novo sequencing with database searching. However, this approach is limited by the performance of de novo sequencing. The Sipros algorithm v2.0 was developed to perform unconstrained database searching using high-resolution tandem mass spectra by exhaustively enumerating all single non-isobaric mutations for every residue in a protein database. The performance of Sipros for amino acid mutation identification exceeded that of an established sequence tagging algorithm, Inspect, based on benchmarking results from a Rhodopseudomonas palustris proteomics dataset. To demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for meta-proteomics, Sipros was used to identify amino acid mutations in a natural microbial community in acid mine drainage.

  14. The origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5-651.1 ppb in 6 M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D- and L-β-amino-n-butyric acid (β-ABA), DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid, γ-amino-n-butyric acid, β-alanine, and ε-amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic β-ABA were present in some samples. We also examined seven samples from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 that had been previously allocated to a non-curation laboratory, as well as two samples of terrestrial dunite from studies of lunar module engine exhaust that had been stored in the same laboratory. The amino acid content of these samples suggested that contamination had occurred during non-curatorial storage. We measured the compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios of glycine, β-alanine, and L-alanine in Apollo regolith sample 70011 and found values of -21‰ to -33‰. These values are consistent with those seen in terrestrial biology and, together with the enantiomeric compositions of the proteinogenic amino acids, suggest that terrestrial biological contamination is a primary source of the

  15. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  16. SIFT: Predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pauline C; Henikoff, Steven

    2003-07-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize substitutions for further study. We have shown that SIFT can distinguish between functionally neutral and deleterious amino acid changes in mutagenesis studies and on human polymorphisms. SIFT is available at http://blocks.fhcrc.org/sift/SIFT.html.

  17. PROTEINS, PEPTIDES AND AMINO ACIDS AS MARKERS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Fyodorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of current literature on a content of proteins, peptides and amino acids in human exhaled breath. The results of proteomics and metabolomics applying for selective detection of individual proteins, peptides and amino acids are described. The study of exhaled breath condensate and exhaled endogenous particles contained lung proteins are considered. The peculiarities of protein, peptide and amino acid content in exhaled breath at various respiratory diseases are described. It is shown that the detectable substances may be specific markers of individual diseases.

  18. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  19. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  20. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen (NPN) in the rumen, the effect of digestible energy on the rate and .... Fahey, 1982) and inhibitors of amino acid deamination. (Chalupa & Scott, 1976). ... the omasum, although both urea and ammonia may be absorbed (0,9 gld.

  1. Amino acid sequence of the cold-active alkaline phosphatase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Nielsen, Berit Noesgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Atlantic cod is a marine fish that lives at low temperatures of 0-10 degrees C and contains a cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase (AP). Preparations of AP from either the lower part of the intestines or the pyloric caeca area were subjected to proteolytic digestion, mass spectrometry and amino acid...... has the same variable residues as mammalian APs (His153 and His328 by E. coli AP numbering). General comparison of the amino acid composition with mammalian APs showed that cod AP contains fewer Cys, Leu, Met and Ser, but proportionally more Asn, Asp, Ile, Lys, Trp and Tyr residues. Three N......-linked glycosylation sites were found. The glycan structure was determined as complex biantennary in type with fucose and sialic acid attached, although a trace of complex tri-antennary structure was also observed. A three-dimensional model was obtained by homology modelling using the human placental AP scaffold. Cod...

  2. Isolation and amino-acid sequence determination of monkey insulin and proinsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, V K; Steffens, G J; Tager, H S; Buse, G; Rubenstein, A H; Steiner, D F

    1984-05-01

    Insulin has been isolated and purified from rhesus monkey pancreas by means of acid-ethanol extraction, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The complete amino-acid sequence of the hormone has been determined by amino-acid analysis of the oxidized A- and B-chains, by end group determination, by the identification of the C-terminal residues (AsnA21 and ThrB30) by carboxypeptidase A digestion and by Edman degradation of the S-carboxymethylated A- and B-chains. The 51-residue monkey insulin was shown to be identical to human insulin. From the known insulin and C-peptide sequence the primary sequence of monkey proinsulin has been proposed.

  3. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  4. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  5. Polymers with complexing properties. Simple poly(amino acids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free amino (0.3 equiv/residue) and carboxyl (0.5 equiv/residue) groups of thermal polylysine increased dramatically on treatment with distilled water. The total hydrolysis of such a polymer was abnormal in that only about 50% of the expected amino acids were recovered. Poly (lysine-co-alanine-co-glycine) under usual conditions hydrolyzed completely in 8 hours; whereas, when it was pretreated with diazomethane, a normal period of 24 hours was required to give (nearly) the same amounts of each free amino acid as compared with those obtained from the untreated polymer. The amino groups of the basic thermal poly(amino acids) were sterically hindered. The existence of nitrogen atoms linking two or three chains and reactive groups (anhydride, imine) were proposed.

  6. Searching for Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in a Contaminated Meteorite: Amino Acid Analyses of the Canakkale L6 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Ornek, C. Y.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Unsalan, O.; Ozturk, B.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids can serve as important markers of cosmochemistry, as their abundances and isomeric and isotopic compositions have been found to vary predictably with changes in parent body chemistry and alteration processes. Amino acids are also of astrobiological interest because they are essential for life on Earth. Analyses of a range of meteorites, including all groups of carbonaceous chondrites, along with H, R, and LL chondrites, ureilites, and a martian shergottite, have revealed that amino acids of plausible extraterrestrial origin can be formed in and persist after a wide range of parent body conditions. However, amino acid analyses of L6 chondrites to date have not provided evidence for indigenous amino acids. In the present study, we performed amino acid analysis on larger samples of a different L6 chondite, Canakkale, to determine whether or not trace levels of indigenous amino acids could be found. The Canakkale meteor was an observed fall in late July, 1964, near Canakkale, Turkey. The meteorite samples (1.36 and 1.09 g) analyzed in this study were allocated by C. Y. Ornek, along with a soil sample (1.5 g) collected near the Canakkale recovery site.

  7. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-04

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder.

  8. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.

  9. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing

  10. The Amino Acid Composition of the Sutter's Mill Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cooper, G.; Jenniskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the Murchison meteorite which had a complex distribution of amino acids with a total C2 to Cs amino acid abundance of approx.14,000 parts-per-billion (ppb) [2], the Sutters Mill meteorite was found to be highly depleted in amino acids. Much lower abundances (approx.30 to 180 ppb) of glycine, beta-alanine, L-alanine and L-serine were detected in SM2 above procedural blank levels indicating that this meteorite sample experienced only minimal terrestrial amino acid contamination after its fall to Earth. Carbon isotope measurements will be necessary to establish the origin of glycine and beta-alanine in SM2. Other non-protein amino acids that are rare on Earth, yet commonly found in other CM meteorites such as aaminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB) and isovaline, were not identified in SM2. However, traces of beta-AIB (approx.1 ppb) were detected in SM2 and could be" extraterrestrial in origin. The low abundances of amino acids in the Sutter's Mill meteorite is consistent with mineralogical evidence that at least some parts of the Sutter's Mill meteorite parent body experienced extensive aqueous and/or thermal alteration.

  11. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  12. Covalently functionalized graphene sheets with biocompatible natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borandeh, Sedigheh [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Graphene sheets were covalently functionalized with aromatic–aliphatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) and aliphatic amino acids (alanine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine) by simple and green procedure. For this aim, at first natural graphite was converted into graphene oxide (GO) through strong oxidation procedure; then, based on the surface-exposed epoxy and carboxylic acid groups in GO solid, its surface modification with naturally occurring amino acids, occurred easily throughout the corresponding nucleophilic substitution and condensation reactions. Amino acid functionalized graphene demonstrates stable dispersion in water and common organic solvents. Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the nanostructures and properties of prepared materials. Each amino acid has different considerable effects on the structure and morphology of the pure graphite, from increasing the layer spacing to layer scrolling, based on their structures, functional groups and chain length. In addition, therogravimetric analysis was used for demonstrating a successful grafting of amino acid molecules to the surface of graphene.

  13. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  14. Profile of Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Carotenoid Total, and α-Tocopherol from Flying Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Azka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish are found in waters of eastern Indonesia, which until now is still limited information about nutritional content. The purpose of this research was determine the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol flying fish eggs (Hyrundicthys sp.. The composition of fatty acid was measured by gas chromatography (GC, while amino acids, total carotenoids, α-tocopherol was measured by High performanced Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Egg contained 22 fatty acids such as saturated fatty acid 29.71%, monounsaturated fatty acid 7.86%, and polysaturated fatty acid 13.64%. The result showed that eggs flying fish contained 17 amino acids, such as essential amino acid 14.96% and non-essential amino acids 20.27%. Eggs contained a total carotenoid of 245.37 ppm. α-tocopherol content of flying fish eggs by 1.06 ppm.

  15. Content of amino acids in dense extracts from raw material of Echium vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mashtaler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Echium vulgare L. of Boraginaceae family is a biennial rigidly pubescent plant with a spindle-shaped root, which is rather widespread in Ukraine. Above-ground and underground part of the plant is used in folk medicine as a blood purifying agent and anticonvulsant, herb decoctions – as expectorant and calming agent for cough of various etiology. Owing to shikonin and its ethers presence, extracts from Echium vulgare L. have high antibacterial activity and stable fungistatic effect against yeast fungi. In addition, these substances also exibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and regenerative activity. Echium vulgare L., as most representatives of Boraginaceae, is not sufficiently studied. Continuing to study this species, we have determined amino acid composition of its aqueous extracts. This group of biologically active substances is present in easy-to-digest complexes and in biologically available concentrations; it demonstrates a number of biological actions, such as hepatoprotective, lipotropic, cardiotropic, regenerative, wound-healing, calming, etc. The objective of our work was to study qualitative composition and quantitative content of amino acids in dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Objects of our study were dense extracts obtained from roots and herb of Echium vulgare L. Roots were harvested in autumn, at the end of vegetation period (October – November 2009; herb was collected during the phase of mass flowering (June 2009 in Kharkov region. Well-known methods were used to obtain dense extracts (extraction agent: purified water. Output of root dense extract was 22,7%, and herb dense extract was 23,5%. Amino acid composition of dense extracts was studied with amino acid analyzer AAA-339 (Czech Republic after hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. There have been identified 16 amino acids, 7 of which are essential, 3 semiessential ones and the rest – nonessential amino acids. Qualitative composition and

  16. Sugar amino acids and related molecules: Some recent developments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tushar Kanti Chakraborty; Pothukanuri Srinivasu; Subhasish Tapadar; Bajjuri Krishna Mohan

    2004-06-01

    To meet the growing demands for the development of new molecular entities for discovering new drugs and materials, organic chemists have started working on many new concepts that can help to assimilate knowledge-based structural diversities more efficiently than ever before. Emulating the basic principles followed by Nature to build its vast repertoire of biomolecules, organic chemists are developing many novel multifunctional building blocks and using them to create `nature-like’ and yet unnatural organic molecules. Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature’s molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of peptidomimetic studies. Advances made in the area of combinatorial chemistry can provide the necessary technological support for rapid compilations of sugar amino acidbased libraries exploiting the diversities of their carbohydrate frameworks and well-developed solidphase peptide synthesis methods. This perspective article chronicles some of the recent applications of various sugar amino acids, furan amino acids, pyrrole amino acids etc. and many other related building blocks in wide-ranging peptidomimetic studies.

  17. Swarming modulatory effects of some amino acids on Proteus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TonukariJ

    Key words: Proteus strains, swarming motility, amino acids, Lagos. INTRODUCTION ... motility on nutrient and blood agar media were recruited for study. They were ... determine the concentration of total protein secreted by the Proteus strains ...

  18. Amino acid requirements of South African Mutton Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-11-15

    Nov 15, 1998 ... Duodenal and whole empty body essential amino acid profile ... determining growth requirements of the South African Mutton ... to only a limited extent in the liver and thus their concentration in the extra hepatic blood circula-.

  19. Serum amino acid abnormalities in pediatric patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamad A. El Sawy

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... L-Arginine has been used to improve endothelial function by increasing nitric ... between HD patients with and without history of thromboembolic manifestations. ... Plasma protein and amino acid concentrations have been.

  20. Enzymatic stereoselective synthesis of B-amino acids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chhiba, V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available , antimicrobials, and as nonstandard amino acids in therapeutic peptides or peptidomimetics. Access to these compounds can be achieved through diverse synthetic routes with enantioselective steps catalyzed in different ways, including by means of nitrile hydrolysis...

  1. Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives...... an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium...... glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although...

  2. Amyloid Aggregates Arise from Amino Acid Condensations under Prebiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Jason; Friedmann, Michael P; Riek, Roland

    2016-09-12

    Current theories on the origin of life reveal significant gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms that allowed simple chemical precursors to coalesce into the complex polymers that are needed to sustain life. The volcanic gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) is known to catalyze the condensation of amino acids under aqueous conditions, but the reported di-, tri-, and tetra-peptides are too short to support a regular tertiary structure. Here, we demonstrate that alanine and valine, two of the proteinogenic amino acids believed to have been among the most abundant on a prebiotic earth, can polymerize into peptides and subsequently assemble into ordered amyloid fibers comprising a cross-β-sheet quaternary structure following COS-activated continuous polymerization of as little as 1 mm amino acid. Furthermore, this spontaneous assembly is not limited to pure amino acids, since mixtures of glycine, alanine, aspartate, and valine yield similar structures.

  3. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  4. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  5. Excitatory amino acid transporters as potential drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunch, Lennart; Erichsen, Mette Navy; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of (S)-glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft, thereby terminating the glutamatergic neurotransmitter signal. Today five subtypes have been identified. Except for EAAT2, their individual...

  6. Detection of COL III in Parchment by Amino Acid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Larsen, René

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage parchments made from the reticular dermis of animals have been subject to studies of deterioration and conservation by amino acid analysis. The reticular dermis contains a varying mixture of collagen I and III (COL I and III). When dealing with the results of the amino acid...... analyses, till now the COL III content has not been taken into account. Based on the available amino acid sequences we present a method for determining the amount of COL III in the reticular dermis of new and historical parchments calculated from the ratio of Ile/Val. We find COL III contents between 7...... and 32 % in new parchments and between 0.2 and 40 % in the historical parchments. This is consistent with results in the literature. The varying content of COL III has a significant influence on the uncertainty of the amino acid analysis. Although we have not found a simple correlation between the COL...

  7. Determination of Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    essential amino acids needed for enhanced nutrition. ... Edible seeds are important sources of nutrients and energy especially among the ... Likewise, edible seeds can sustain livestock production by ensuring the availability of various sources ...

  8. NMR analysis of unnatural amino acids in natural antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, Franca

    2012-01-01

    A large number of modified amino acids other than the canonical amino acid residues can be found in natural products, especially antibiotics. The structure of these peptide-based compounds is investigated using modern two-dimensional NMR techniques. The automatic assignment of the 2D NMR proton spectra and consequent determination of the primary and 3D structure of peptides or small size proteins containing natural amino acids is nowadays routine. However, a deficiency in the ability to readily sequence peptides containing unnatural amino acids still remains and a great human effort and time is required. The experimental methods and the protocols of manual analysis of the data are described in the following sections.

  9. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Pedersen, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of the copper-catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition the use of azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids has found widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. Despite a growing interest in these building blocks researchers are struggling to identify the best way...... for their synthesis. In this review we have compiled available methods for synthesising optically active azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids that can be prepared from readily available α-amino acids. We highlight a number of commonly overlooked problems associated with existing methods and direct attention...... to unexplored possibilities. Azide- and alkyne-derivatised α-amino acids are finding widespread use within most chemistry disciplines. However, it is far from clear what the best way for the synthesis of these useful building blocks is. Herein we show the available methods for synthesis of optically active...

  10. Chemical Approaches to Studying Labile Amino Acid Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmelstein, Alan M; Moreno, Javier; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues is the archetypal posttranslational modification of proteins. While phosphorylation of these residues has become standard textbook knowledge, phosphorylation of other amino acid side chains is underappreciated and minimally characterized by comparison. This disparity is rooted in the relative instability of these chemically distinct amino acid side chain moieties, namely phosphoramidates, acyl phosphates, thiophosphates, and phosphoanhydrides. In the case of the O-phosphorylated amino acids, synthetic constructs were critical to assessing their stability and developing tools for their study. As the chemical biology community has become more aware of these alternative phosphorylation sites, methodology has been developed for the synthesis of well-characterized standards and close mimics of these phosphorylated amino acids as well. In this article, we review the synthetic chemistry that is a prerequisite to progress in this field.

  11. Disturbed amino acid metabolism in HIV: association with neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Gostner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, as well as of the tryptophan breakdown product kynurenine, are found to be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected patients. Both essential amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine are important precursor molecules for neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Thus, dysregulated amino acid metabolism may be related to disease-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as development of depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment.Increased phenylalanine/tyrosine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios are associated with immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection and decrease upon effective antiretroviral therapy. Recent large-scale metabolic studies have confirmed the crucial involvement of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV-associated disease. Herein, we summarize the current status of the role of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV disease and discuss how inflammatory stress-associated dysregulation of amino acid metabolism may be part of the pathophysiology of common HIV-associated neuropsychiatric conditions.

  12. Synthesis and catalytic application of amino acid based dendritic macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Gossage, R.A.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Ameijde, J. van; Mulders, S.J.E.; Brouwer, Arwin J.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of amino acid based dendrimers as molecular scaffolds for the attachment of catalytically active organometallic Ni ''pincer'' complexes, via a urea functionality, is described; the dendrimer catalysts have comparable activity to their mononuclear (NCN)NiX analogues.

  13. Astrobionibbler: In Situ Microfluidic Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, A. C.; Fisher, A. M.; Takano, N.; Fors-Francis, K.; Sherrit, S.; Grunthaner, F.

    2016-10-01

    A fluidic-chip based instrument for subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of amino acids and other organics from powder samples has been developed. A variety of soil analog extractions have been performed to better understand SCWE capabilities.

  14. Comparison of amino acids interaction with gold nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Fatemeh; Amanlou, Massoud; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-04-01

    The study of nanomaterial/biomolecule interface is an important emerging field in bionanoscience, and additionally in many biological processes such as hard-tissue growth and cell-surface adhesion. To have a deeper understanding of the amino acids/gold nanoparticle assemblies, the adsorption of these amino acids on the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated via molecular dynamics simulation. In these simulations, all the constituent atoms of the nanoparticles were considered to be dynamic. The geometries of amino acids, when adsorbed on the nanoparticle, were studied and their flexibilities were compared with one another. The interaction of each of 20 amino acids was considered with 3 and 8 nm gold GNPs.

  15. Inhibitors of amino acids biosynthesis as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębowska, Kamila; Gabriel, Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Fungal microorganisms, including the human pathogenic yeast and filamentous fungi, are able to synthesize all proteinogenic amino acids, including nine that are essential for humans. A number of enzymes catalyzing particular steps of human-essential amino acid biosynthesis are fungi specific. Numerous studies have shown that auxotrophic mutants of human pathogenic fungi impaired in biosynthesis of particular amino acids exhibit growth defect or at least reduced virulence under in vivo conditions. Several chemical compounds inhibiting activity of one of these enzymes exhibit good antifungal in vitro activity in minimal growth media, which is not always confirmed under in vivo conditions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the present knowledge on pathways of amino acids biosynthesis in fungi, with a special emphasis put on enzymes catalyzing particular steps of these pathways as potential targets for antifungal chemotherapy.

  16. Expression of heteromeric amino acid transporters along the murine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Mital H; Schulz, Nicole; Zecevic, Marija; Wagner, Carsten A; Verrey, Francois

    2004-07-15

    Members of the new heterodimeric amino acid transporter family are composed of two subunits, a catalytic multitransmembrane spanning protein (light chain) and a type II glycoprotein (heavy chain). These transporters function as exchangers and thereby extend the transmembrane amino acid transport selectivity to specific amino acids. The heavy chain rBAT associates with the light chain b degrees (,+)AT to form a cystine and cationic amino acid transporter. The other heavy chain, 4F2hc, can interact with seven different light chains to form various transporters corresponding to systems L, y(+)L, asc or x(-)(c). The importance of some of these transporters in intestinal and renal (re)absorption of amino acids is highlighted by the fact that mutations in either the rBAT or b degrees (,+)AT subunit result in cystinuria whereas a defect in the y(+)-LAT1 light chain causes lysinuric protein intolerance. Here we investigated the localization of these transporters in intestine since both diseases are also characterized by altered intestinal amino acid absorption. Real time PCR showed organ-specific expression patterns for all transporter subunit mRNAs along the intestine and Western blotting confirmed these findings on the protein level. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated basolateral coexpression of 4F2hc, LAT2 and y(+)-LAT1 in stomach and small intestine, whereas rBAT and b degrees (,+)AT were found colocalizing on the apical side of small intestine epithelium. In stomach, 4F2hc and LAT2 were localized in H(+)/K(+)-ATPase-expressing parietal cells. The abundant expression of several members of the heterodimeric transporter family along the murine small intestine suggests their involvement in amino acids absorption. Furthermore, strong expression of rBAT, b degrees (,+)AT and y(+)-LAT1 in the small intestine explains the reduced intestinal absorption of some amino acid in patients with cystinuria or lysinuric protein intolerance.

  17. Genetic code correlations - Amino acids and their anticodon nucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The data here show direct correlations between both the hydrophobicity and the hydrophilicity of the homocodonic amino acids and their anticodon nucleotides. While the differences between properties of uracil and cytosine derivatives are small, further data show that uracil has an affinity for charged species. Although these data suggest that molecular relationships between amino acids and anticodons were responsible for the origin of the code, it is not clear what the mechanism of the origin might have been.

  18. Co2 chemosorption by functionalized amino acid derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid.......The absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using a composition comprising an ionic compound comprising a cation [A+] and an anion [B-] is described, wherein the anion [B-] is a mono-amine functionalized amino acid....

  19. Interpretation of plasma amino acid profile using multiple marker approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Subbotina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plasma amino acid profile in a group of patients with left ventricular outflow tract pathology (n = 151 increased levels of serine, alanine, arginine, and lysine has been found. These metabolic shifts can be linked with the development of circulatory deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. The differentiation of the reference values intervals helps in the assessment of individual amino acid profiles.

  20. AMINO ACID BLOOD POOL OF CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmulich O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid blood pool of children with atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, angioedema was investigated. The variability of blood plasma amino acid content (tryptophan, histidine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine was observed. The changes of histidine and tryptophan levels might be connected with the formation of biogenic amines, such as histamine, serotonine, with take part in the development of allergic reactions and inflammatory processes in organism.

  1. Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Roberto; Jeanne-Julien, Louis; René, Adeline; Martinez, Jean; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-06-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated α-amino acids was performed by asymmetric alkylation. Two methods were investigated and their enantiomeric excess measured and compared. The first route consisted of an enantioselective approach induced by the Corey-Lygo catalyst under chiral phase transfer conditions while the second one involved the hydroxypinanone chiral auxiliary, both implicating Schiff bases as substrate. In all cases, the use of a prochiral Schiff base gave higher enantiomeric excess and yield in the final desired amino acid.

  2. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  3. Did Evolution Select a Nonrandom "Alphabet" of Amino Acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Gayle K.; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties - a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  4. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  5. Release of selected amino acids from zinc carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyja Renata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the results of an investigation of the release of selected amino acids (histidine, tryptophan, tyrosine from model suspensions prepared by co-precipitation with zinc chloride. It has been proven that the influence of the Zn(II/amino acid molar ratio on dissolution profiles of the tested amino acids and dissolution half-life (t1/2 of histidine or tryptophan is significant. The amount of amino acid in the dispersed phase (supporting dose is a determinant of the amino acid release profile. There is a minimal supporting dose (30.0 μmol of histidine or 17.4 μmol of tryptophan that provides release of similar amounts of amino acid (4.1–4.6 μmol of histidine or 8.7–9.9 μmol of tryptophan after the same time intervals. The tyrosine release profiles follow first order kinetics since the supporting dose (0.9–11.2 μmol is limited by the tyrosine low solubility in water.

  6. Computational protein design quantifies structural constraints on amino acid covariation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Ollikainen

    Full Text Available Amino acid covariation, where the identities of amino acids at different sequence positions are correlated, is a hallmark of naturally occurring proteins. This covariation can arise from multiple factors, including selective pressures for maintaining protein structure, requirements imposed by a specific function, or from phylogenetic sampling bias. Here we employed flexible backbone computational protein design to quantify the extent to which protein structure has constrained amino acid covariation for 40 diverse protein domains. We find significant similarities between the amino acid covariation in alignments of natural protein sequences and sequences optimized for their structures by computational protein design methods. These results indicate that the structural constraints imposed by protein architecture play a dominant role in shaping amino acid covariation and that computational protein design methods can capture these effects. We also find that the similarity between natural and designed covariation is sensitive to the magnitude and mechanism of backbone flexibility used in computational protein design. Our results thus highlight the necessity of including backbone flexibility to correctly model precise details of correlated amino acid changes and give insights into the pressures underlying these correlations.

  7. Cytokinin producing bacteria stimulate amino acid deposition by wheat roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Melentiev, Alexander I; Martynenko, Elena V; Timergalina, Leila N; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Shendel, Galina V; Kuz'mina, Ludmila Yu; Dodd, Ian C; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormone production is one mechanism by which rhizobacteria can stimulate plant growth, but it is not clear whether the bacteria gain from this mechanism. The hypothesis that microbial-derived cytokinin phytohormones stimulate root exudation of amino acids was tested. The rhizosphere of wheat plants was drenched with the synthetic cytokinin trans-zeatin or inoculated with Bacillus subtilis IB-22 (which produces zeatin type cytokinins) or B. subtilis IB-21 (which failed to accumulate cytokinins). Growing plants in a split root system allowed spatial separation of zeatin application or rhizobacterial inoculation to one compartment and analyses of amino acid release from roots (rhizodeposition) into the other compartment (without either microbial inoculation or treatment with exogenous hormone). Supplying B. subtilis IB-22 or zeatin to either the whole root system or half of the roots increased concentrations of amino acids in the soil solution although the magnitude of the increase was greater when whole roots were treated. There was some similarity in amino acid concentrations induced by either bacterial or zeatin treatment. Thus B. subtilis IB-22 increased amino acid rhizodeposition, likely due to its ability to produce cytokinins. Furthermore, B. subtilis strain IB-21, which failed to accumulate cytokinins in culture media, did not significantly affect amino acid concentrations in the wheat rhizosphere. The ability of rhizobacteria to produce cytokinins and thereby stimulate rhizodeposition may be important in enhancing rhizobacterial colonization of the rhizoplane.

  8. On the physical basis of the amino acid polar requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Damien C; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2008-05-01

    Understanding how codons became associated with their specific amino acids is fundamental to deriving a theory for the origin of the genetic code. Carl Woese and coworkers designed a series of experiments to test associations between amino acids and nucleobases that may have played a role in establishing the genetic code. Through these experiments it was found that a property of amino acids called the polar requirement (PR) is correlated with the organization of the codon table. No other property of amino acids has been found that correlates with the codon table as well as PR, indicating that PR is uniquely related to the modern genetic code. Using molecular dynamics simulations of amino acids in solutions of water and dimethylpyridine used to experimentally measure PR, we show that variations in the partitioning between the two phases as described by radial distribution functions correlate well with the measured PRs. Partition coefficients based on probability densities of the amino acids in each phase have the linear behavior with base concentration as suggested by PR experiments.

  9. The preferences of orientations between the Pairs of amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ying; Wang Jun; Wang Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this work,we make an investigation on the preferences of orientations between amino acids using the orientation defined based on the local geometry of the amino acids concerned.It is found that there are common preferences of orientations (70°,30°,140°) and (110°,340°,100°) for various pairs of amino acids.Different side chains may strengthen or weaken the common preferences,which is related to the effect of packing.Some amino acids having specific local flexibility may possess some preferences of orientations besides the common ones,such as (10°,280°,210°) .Another analysis on the pairs of the amino acids with different secondary-structure preferences shows that the directional interaction may affect the distribution of orientation more effectively than the packing or local flexibility.All these results provide us some insight of the organization of amino acids in protein,and their relation with some related interactions.

  10. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Ureilites Including Almahata Sitta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Callahan, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Ureilites are a class of meteorites that lack chondrules (achondrites) but have relatively high carbon abundances, averaging approx.3 wt %. Using highly sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS), it was recently determined that there are amino acids in. fragment 94 of the Almahata Sitta ureilite[l]. Based on the presence of amino acids that are rare in the Earth's biosphere, as well as the near-racemic enantiomeric ratios of marry of the more common amino acids, it was concluded that most of the detected amino acids were indigenous to the meteorite. Although the composition of the Almahata Sitta ureilite appears to be unlike other recovered ureilites, the discovery of amino acids in this meteorite raises the question of whether other ureilites rnav also contain amino acids. Herein we present the results of LC-FDlTo.F-MS analyses of: a sand sample from the Almahata Sitta strewn held, Almahata Sitta fragments 425 (an ordinary H5 chondrite) and 427 (ureilite), as well as an Antarctic ureilite (Allan lulls, ALHA 77257).

  11. Amino acids in the rhizosphere: from plants to microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Luke A

    2013-09-01

    Often referred to as the "building blocks of proteins", the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids are ubiquitous in biological systems as the functional units in proteins. Sometimes overlooked are their varying additional roles that include serving as metabolic intermediaries, playing structural roles in bioactive natural products, acting as cosubstrates in enzymatic transformations, and as key regulators of cellular physiology. Amino acids can also serve as biological sources of both carbon and nitrogen and are found in the rhizosphere as a result of lysis or cellular efflux from plants and microbes and proteolysis of existing peptides. While both plants and microbes apparently prefer to take up nitrogen in its inorganic form, their ability to take up and use amino acids may confer a selective advantage in certain environments where organic nitrogen is abundant. Further, certain amino acids (e.g., glutamate and proline) and their betaines (e.g., glycine betaine) serve as compatible solutes necessary for osmoregulation in plants and microbes and can undergo rapid cellular flux. This ability is of particular importance in an ecological niche such as the rhizosphere, which is prone to significant variations in solute concentrations. Amino acids are also shown to alter key phenotypes related to plant root growth and microbial colonization, symbiotic interactions, and pathogenesis in the rhizosphere. This review will focus on the sources, transport mechanisms, and potential roles of the 20 canonical proteinogenic amino acids in the rhizosphere.

  12. Highly viscous guar gum shifts dietary amino acids from metabolic use to fermentation substrate in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochus, Kristel; Janssens, Geert P J; Van de Velde, Hannelore; Verbrugghe, Adronie; Wuyts, Birgitte; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Hesta, Myriam

    2013-03-28

    The present study evaluated the potential of affecting amino acid metabolism through intestinal fermentation in domestic cats, using dietary guar gum as a model. Apparent protein digestibility, plasma fermentation metabolites, faecal fermentation end products and fermentation kinetics (exhaled breath hydrogen concentrations) were evaluated. Ten cats were randomly assigned to either guar gum- or cellulose-supplemented diets, that were fed in two periods of 5 weeks in a crossover design. No treatment effect was seen on fermentation kinetics. The apparent protein digestibility (P= 0.07) tended to be lower in guar gum-supplemented cats. As a consequence of impaired small-intestinal protein digestion and amino acid absorption, fermentation of these molecules in the large intestine was stimulated. Amino acid fermentation has been shown to produce high concentrations of acetic and butyric acids. Therefore, no treatment effect on faecal propionic acid or plasma propionylcarnitine was observed in the present study. The ratio of faecal butyric acid:total SCFA tended to be higher in guar gum-supplemented cats (P= 0.05). The majority of large-intestinal butyric acid is absorbed by colonocytes and metabolised to 3-hydroxy-butyrylcoenzyme A, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. This metabolite was analysed in plasma as 3-hydroxy-butyrylcarnitine, which was higher (P= 0.02) in guar gum-supplemented cats. In all probability, the high viscosity of the guar gum supplement was responsible for the impaired protein digestion and amino acid absorption. Further research is warranted to investigate whether partially hydrolysed guar gum is useful to potentiate the desirable in vivo effects of this fibre supplement.

  13. Amino Acid Synthesis in a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide - Water System

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mars is a CO2-abundant planet, whereas early Earth is thought to be also CO2-abundant. In addition, water was also discovered on Mars in 2008. From the facts and theory, we assumed that soda fountains were present on both planets, and this affected amino acid synthesis. Here, using a supercritical CO2/liquid H2O (10:1) system which mimicked crust soda fountains, we demonstrate production of amino acids from hydroxylamine (nitrogen source) and keto acids (oxylic acid sources). In this research...

  14. Abiotic Racemization Kinetics of Amino Acids in Marine Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, Andrew D.; Bo Barker Jørgensen; Bente Aa Lomstein

    2013-01-01

    The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and alanine in bulk sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, taken from the surface, 30 cm, and 340 cm depth be...

  15. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: