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Sample records for digestibility blood characteristics

  1. Evaluation of and on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs

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    L. Yan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i CON (basal diet, ii ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg, iii H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg and iv T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg. In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p0.05 was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p0.05 the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC, IgG, lymphocyte. No difference was observed on (p0.05. In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  2. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

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    S. M. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  3. The effect of dietary phytase on broiler performance and digestive, bone, and blood biochemistry characteristics

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    JPL de Sousa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dietary inclusion of phytase increases nutrient and energy bioavailability for broilers. The effect of phytase increases nutrients and energy bioavailability for either the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of nutrient and energy reduction in diets supplemented with phytase on the performance, gastrointestinal pH, organ and bone composition, and blood biochemistry of broilers between eight and 21 days of age. In the study, 1.120 male Cobb 500(r broilers, with 161±1g average weight, were used. At eight days of age, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments in a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement with eight replicates of 20 broiler each. Treatments corresponded to reduction of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, amino acids and energy, or reduction of Ca, P, amino acids and energy; supplementation or not of phytase; and a positive control treatment. Broiler fed the diet with reduced Ca and P levels and phytase supplementation presented the best performance of all groups. The diet with reduced amino acid and energy levels and phytase addition reduced gizzard and proventriculus pH. Dietary Ca and P reduction increased relative liver and heart weights, as well as albumin blood levels. The bones of broilers fed phytase-supplemented diets presented higher ash content.

  4. Effect of Fermented Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

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    L. Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i negative control (NC, basal diet (without antibiotics; ii positive control (PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii (fermented chlorella 01 FC01, NC+0.1% FC, and iv fermented chlorella 02 (FC02, NC+0.2% FC. In this study, feeding pigs PC or FC01 diets led to a higher average daily gain (ADG and dry matter (DM digestibility than those fed NC diet (p0.05 was observed on the body weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI, gain:feed (G:F ratio, the apparent total tract digestibility of N and energy throughout the experiment. The inclusion of PC or FC did not affect the blood characteristics (p>0.05. Moreover, dietary FC treatment led to a higher (p<0.05 lactobacillus concentration and lower E. coli concentration than the NC treatment, whereas the antibiotic supplementation only decreased the E. coli concentration. Pigs fed FC or PC diet had reduced (p<0.05 fecal NH3 and H2S content compared with those fed NC diet. In conclusion, our results indicated that the inclusion of FC01 treatment could improve the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial shedding (lower E. coli and higher lactobacillus, and decrease the fecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs when compared with the group fed the basal diet. In conclusion, dietary FC could be considered as a good source of supplementation in growing pigs because of its growth promoting effect.

  5. Effects of dietary recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, blood characteristics, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

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    Choi, H; Jung, S K; Kim, J S; Kim, K-W; Oh, K B; Lee, P-Y; Byun, S J

    2017-03-01

    The use of chlorella as an immune stimulant to enhance nonspecific host defense mechanisms or as an antimicrobial to inhibit bacterial growth has been reported. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation on growth performance, meat quality, and the blood profile, excreta microflora, and nutrient digestibility in broilers. A total of 375 one-day-old ROSS 308 broilers (male and female) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments using 5 cages with 15 chicks per cage. Treatments were: 1) NC, basal diet supplemented with 1.0% E. coli fermented liquor (EFL); 2) PC1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella; 3) PC2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella; 4) T1, 0.2% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral); and 5) T2, 1.0% EFL with chlorella (anti-viral). The broilers in the T2 treatment groups showed higher body weight gain (BGW) by 2.55% (P < 0.01) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 2.75% (P < 0.05) compared with those fed the control NC treatment group. Moreover, the blood contents of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and IgA in the broilers of the T2 treatment group were significantly increased by 28.12, 23.07, and 29.72%, respectively -more than those found in the broilers of the NC treatment group (P < 0.01). In contrast, the LDL/C in the blood from the animals in the T2 treatment group was significantly decreased by 23.23% - more than that in the blood from the NC broilers (P < 0.05). Based on these results, we suggest that the dietary supplementation of broilers with recombinant chlorella could improve their growth performance, increase the concentration of IgA and apparently metabolizable nitrogen in the blood, and decrease ammonia emissions. Therefore, our findings have important implications for the effect of recombinant chlorella supplementation through increasing the concentration of IgA and the level of metabolizable nitrogen.

  6. Evaluation of Houttuynia cordata and Taraxacum officinale on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Fecal Microbial Shedding in Diet for Weaning Pigs.

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    Yan, L; Zhang, Z F; Park, J C; Kim, I H

    2012-10-01

    A total of 144 pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] with an average initial BW of 8.45±0.57 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trial. Pigs were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 9 replications per pen in a randomized complex block design. Dietary treatments included: i) CON (basal diet), ii) ANT (CON+tylosin 1 g/kg), iii) H1 (CON+H. cordata 1 g/kg) and iv) T1 (CON+T. officinale 1 g/kg). In this study, pigs fed the ANT and T1 treatment had a higher (p0.05) was observed on the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility with H1 supplementation compared with the CON treatment. The inclusion of ANT treatment led to a higher (p0.05) the blood characteristics (white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), IgG, lymphocyte). No difference was observed on (p0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of T. officinale (1 g/kg) increased growth performance, feed efficiency, energy digestibility similarly to the antibiotic treatment. Dietary supplementation of T. officinale and H. cordata (1 g/kg) reduced the fecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  7. Digestive Physiological Characteristics of the Gobiidae

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    Hur, Sang-Woo; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Kim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Bae-Ik; Park, Su-Jin; Hwang, Hyung-Gyu; Jun, Je-Cheon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of CCK-producing cells and mucus-secreting goblet cells with respect to stomach fish and stomachless fish of the Gobiidae in order to provide a basis for understanding the digestive physiology. Hairychin goby (Sagamia geneionema), which is stomachless fish, the numbers of mucus-secreting goblet cells is highest in the posterior intestine portion (P<0.05), while CCK-producing cells are scattered throughout the intestine. Gluttonous goby (Chasmichthys gulosus), which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells are most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05), whereas CCK-producing cells are observed only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Trident goby (Tridentiger obscurus) which is stomach fish, mucus-secreting goblet cells were most abundant in the mid intestine portion (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are found in the anterior and mid intestine portion. Giurine goby, Rhinogobius giurinus which is also stomach fish, the largest number of mucus-secreting goblet cells showed in anterior intestine portion except for esophagus (P<0.05). CCK-producing cells are present only in the anterior and mid intestine portion. In S. geneionema, digestive action occurs in the posterior intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. In contrast, in C. gulosus, T. obscurus and R. giurinus, their digestive action occurs in the anterior and mid intestine portion to protect and functions to activate digestion. Further studies of the modes of food ingestion by these fish, the contents of their digestive tracts, and the staining characteristics of the goblet cells need to be carried out. PMID:27796002

  8. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

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    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2017-08-11

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and higher copper levels compared to those of the control treatment. Supplementation of higher amounts of CTM (medium and high CTM) also increased the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, iron, magnesium, and glutathione peroxidase values. In conclusion, supplementation of CTM at the level of 1 g/bird/day to the drinking water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented garlic powder on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, blood characteristics and faecal microbial concentration in weanling pigs.

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    Yan, L; Kim, I H

    2013-06-01

    A total of 144 weanling pigs (5.5 ± 0.42 kg) were used in a 5-week trial to evaluate the effect of fermented garlic powder (FGP) supplementation in weaning pigs. Pigs were randomly allocated to the following four dietary treatments: (i) control (CON; basal diet), (ii) FGP0.5 (CON + 0.5 g/kg FGP), (iii) FGP1 (CON + 1 g/kg FGP), (iv) FGP2 (CON + 2 g/kg FGP). There were six replications with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. Pigs fed FGP0.5 treatments increased (p dietary FGP throughout the experiment. Pigs fed FGP1 and FGP2 treatments increased the lymphocyte concentration (p Dietary FGP decreased the blood total cholesterol (p Pigs fed FGP1 and FGP2 treatments had a lower number of Escherichia coli in faeces on 21 (p dietary fermented garlic powder (0.5 g/kg) can improve ADG and ADFI in weanling pigs, but not at higher levels (1 and 2 g/kg). Dietary fermented garlic powder can also increase the nutrient digestibility, lymphocytes and RBC concentrations, but decrease the faecal E. coli concentration in weaning pigs.

  10. Impact of structural characteristics on starch digestibility of cooked rice.

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    Tamura, Masatsugu; Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2016-01-15

    To examine the impact of structural characteristics of cooked rice grains on their starch digestibility, a simulated in vitro gastro-small intestinal digestion technique was applied to intact and homogenised cooked rice samples. The starch hydrolysis percentage increased during simulated small intestinal digestion, in which approximately 65% and 24% of the starch was hydrolysed within the first 5min, for homogenised and intact cooked rice, respectively. The kinetic constant of homogenised cooked rice, which was regarded as an estimated digestion rate, was ∼8 times higher than the intact cooked rice. The homogenised and intact samples were also examined for any microstructural changes occurring during the in vitro digestion process using fluorescent and scanning electron microscopy. In the intact samples, the aleurone layers of the endosperm remained as thin-film like layers during in vitro digestion and thus may be regarded as less digestible materials that influence cooked rice digestibility.

  11. Effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers.

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    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2014-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium butyricum supplementation in broilers. A total of 400 one-day-old mixed sex Ross 308 broilers with an initial average BW of 46 ± 0.5 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers in each pen for 35 d. Dietary treatments were (1) an antibiotic-free diet (CON), (2) CON + 5 mg/kg of avilamycin, (3) CON + 1 × 10(5) cfu of multistrain probiotics/kg of diet (P1), and (4) CON + 2 × 10(5) cfu of multistrain probiotics/kg of diet (P2). Broilers fed the P1 and P2 diets had greater BW gain than broilers fed the CON diet during d 22 to 35 (P = 0.01) and overall (P = 0.02). Feed conversion ratios in P1 and P2 were decreased (P = 0.03) compared with that in CON from d 22 to 35. Ileal digestibility of most essential amino acids, with the exception of His and Phe, were increased (P growth performance, ileal amino acids digestibility, and humoral immunity. Furthermore, the probiotics decreased the cecal numbers of E. coli and decreased the NH3 content of excreta.

  12. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

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    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  13. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon.

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    Cuetos, Maria José; Martinez, E Judith; Moreno, Rubén; Gonzalez, Rubén; Otero, Marta; Gomez, Xiomar

    2017-05-01

    The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6-8 g/L). The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  14. Agronomic characteristics of five different urban waste digestates.

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    Tampio, Elina; Salo, Tapio; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-03-15

    The use of digestate in agriculture is an efficient way to recycle materials and to decrease the use of mineral fertilizers. The agronomic characteristics of the digestates can promote plant growth and soil properties after digestate fertilization but also harmful effects can arise due to digestate quality, e.g. pH, organic matter and heavy metal content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences and similarities in agronomic characteristics and the value of five urban waste digestates from different biogas plants treating either food waste, organic fraction of organic solid waste or a mixture of waste-activated sludge and vegetable waste. The digestate agronomic characteristics were studied with chemical analyses and the availability of nutrients was also assessed with growth experiments and soil mineralization tests. All studied urban digestates produced 5-30% higher ryegrass yields compared to a control mineral fertilizer with a similar inorganic nitrogen concentration, while the feedstock source affected the agronomic value. Food waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste digestates were characterized by high agronomic value due to the availability of nutrients and low heavy metal load. Waste-activated sludge as part of the feedstock mixture, however, increased the heavy metal content and reduced nitrogen availability to the plant, thus reducing the fertilizer value of the digestate.

  15. Effects of Different Levels of Raw and Processed Oak Acorn (Quercus castaneifolia on Performance, Small Intestine Morphology, Ileal Digestibility of Nutrients, Carcass Characteristics and Some Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens

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    Rezaie M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of oak acorn (Quercus castaneifolia on performance, small intestine morphology, ileal digestibility of nutrient, carcass and some blood parameters in broiler chicks. A total of fifty hundred four one-d old male chickens (Ross308 strain with seven treatments and four replicates in each treatment were used. Experimental diets were: control (corn-soybean meal diet, raw oak acorn at the levels of 10 and 20 percent, soaked oak acorn diet containing 10 and 20 percent oak acorn soaked in water for 24h., diets contain 10 and 20 percent of soaked oak acorn soaked in water for 48h with twice water substitution. Experiment lasted from 1 to 42 day of ages. Results showed that body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, ileal dry matter and protein digestibility, and small intestine morphology was significantly (P

  16. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

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    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  17. Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae (L.

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    Pimenta Paulo FP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs, retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies.

  18. Preferences, digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of several mulberry species in goats

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    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the preferences and nutritional qualities of four mulberry species (Morus cathyana, Morus nigra, Morus indica and Morus multicaulis in goat diet. Foliages were fed to six adult Boer x Kacang goats in a cafetaria style for preference analyses. Nutritional qualities (feed intake, apparent digestibility, N balances, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolites were measured in a digestion trial. Twenty male goats were used in a completely randomised arrangement of four treatments (mulberry species and five replications. The selectivity indices were +0,389, -0,156, -0,154 and -0,234 for M. multicaulis, M. nigra, M. cathyana and M. indica, respectively, indicating that M. multicaulis was the most and M. indica was the least preferred species. When fed as the sole foliage the DM intake was higher (P0.05 among the species ranging from 60-65%. The N balances (N retained was highest (P0,05 among treatments. The ammonia concentration was higest (P>0,05 in the M. multicaulis and was lowest in the M. indica and M. cathyana groups. The bacteria and protozoa population was not different (P>0,05 among the treatments. It is concluded that M. multicaulis was more preferred by goats compared to M. nigra, M. indica and M. cathyana, but all species have potential as foliages for goats as shown by its high intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation rates.

  19. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

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    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  20. Growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using various types of sewage.

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    Hidaka, Taira; Inoue, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Tsumori, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Microalgal cultivation combined with anaerobic digestion at wastewater treatment plants is promising to recover energy. This study investigated the growth and anaerobic digestion characteristics of microalgae cultivated using nutrients in sewage. Microalgae were cultivated using primary effluent, secondary effluent, and dewatering filtrate. Microscopic observation indicated that Chlorella was cultivated using dewatering filtrate of anaerobic digestion without controlling the type of species. Batch anaerobic digestion experiments with digested sludge showed that the methane conversion ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 40-65%. Different cultivation time did not affect the microalgal contents. Methane recovery mass was 0.13NL-methane/L-cultivation liquor. The C/N ratio of the cultivated mixture was approximately 3-5, but the apparent ammonia release ratio was smaller than that of sewage sludge during digestion. These results proved the applicability of methane recovery from microalgae cultivated using nutrients included in anaerobically digested sludge.

  1. Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and plasma glucose and urea in dogs fed a commercial dog food once or three times daily.

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    Brambillasca, Sebastián; Purtscher, Frederick; Britos, Alejandro; Repetto, José L; Cajarville, Cecilia

    2010-02-01

    Digestibility, fecal characteristics, and levels of glucose and urea in the plasma were determined in 8 dogs that received 2 different dog foods once or 3 times daily. One dog food (A) was 5 times more expensive than the other (B). Fecal pH and consistency, digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and crude fiber (CF) were determined. Blood samples were taken from 30 min before to 60 min after a meal. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP, and fecal consistency were higher, and daily fecal excretion and fecal pH were lower when dogs were fed food A (P food 3 frequency interactions was significant for the parameters studied.

  2. Investigation on the precaecal and faecal digestibility of lactulose and inulin and their influence on nutrient digestibility and microbial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branner, Gertraud R; Böhmer, Barbara M; Erhardt, W; Henke, Julia; Roth-Maier, Dora A

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the pre-caecal and faecal digestibility of lactulose and inulin and the influence of these substances on nutrient digestibility and microbial characteristics. In metabolic trials three of six male growing pigs (German Landrace x Pietrain) were fitted with an ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA) in end-to-end technique with preserved ileo-caeco-colic valve. The metabolic trials were conducted from day 21-63 after surgery. The remaining pigs were used as intact partners (IN) for the IRA pigs. The experimental diets, based on corn, wheat, barley and soybean meal, were supplemented with either 1.5% lactulose or 2% inulin in replacement of diatomaceous earth (control). Pre-caecal digestibility of lactulose and inulin was assessed to be 79 and 98%, respectively. faecal digestibility was determined as 100%. The supplementation of lactulose and inulin had only minor effects on the pre-caecal and faecal digestibility of nutrients. Significant differences in nutrient digestibility were obvious between IRA and IN pigs, whereas the IRA pigs showed lower digestibility values with the exception of ether extracts (EE). Bacterial population in the digesta of IRA and IN pigs were not affected by the experimental diets except the concentration of gram-negative anaerobes, which inclined when the IRA pigs received the lactulose diet. The pH of chyme was significantly lower than the pH of faeces, however the pH was unaffected by the different supplemented diets. The concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in pre-caecal chyme decreased significantly when IRA pigs received the lactulose supplemented diet whereas VFA in faeces were unaffected by the supplementation. IRA pigs administered with lactulose excreted more N via the urine, but the nitrogen balance remained unaffected. From the present investigation it can be concluded that lactulose and inulin did only partly or scarcely fulfill the expectation of acting as prebiotics in pigs.

  3. In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2008-11-26

    Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems.

  4. Blood flow characteristics in the aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; van Wyk, Stevin; Mihaiescu, Mihai; Fuchs, Laszlo; Gutmark, Ephraim; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2012-11-01

    The purpose with this study is to investigate the flow characteristics of blood in the aortic arch. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with specific locations in the arterial tree. Considering atherogenesis, it is claimed that the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) along with its temporal and spatial gradients play an important role in the development of the disease. The WSS is determined by the local flow characteristics, that in turn depends on the geometry as well as the rheological properties of blood. In this numerical work, the time dependent fluid flow during the entire cardiac cycle is fully resolved. The Quemada model is applied to account for the non-Newtonian properties of blood, an empirical model valid for different Red Blood Cell loading. Data obtained through Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging have been used in order to reconstruct geometries of the the aortic arch. Here, three different geometries are studied out of which two display malformations that can be found in patients having the genetic disorder Turner's syndrome. The simulations show a highly complex flow with regions of secondary flow that is enhanced for the diseased aortas. The financial support from the Swedish Research Council (VR) and the Sweden-America Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. A STUDY ON THE USE OF FECAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR FEED DIGESTIBILITY DETERMINATION IN GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.B. Santoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore physical characteristics and its correlation to feed digestibility in goat.Sixteen Ettawah Grade goats in the second milk production periods and in the 4-5th month of lactationwere used in this study. The study was arranged with completely randomized block block design basedon milk production as replications. The goats were fed ration containing 16% of crude protein and 65%of total digestible nutrients (TDN. Some of crude protein content were supplied by urea. The treatmentswere control ration (without urea; T0, ration with 0.4% urea (T1, ration with 0.8% urea (T2, andration with 1.2% urea (T3. Parameters observed were feed digestibility, fecal extended level (FEL, andfecal rough particle distribution (FRPD. Data were analyzed using correlation-regression to find thecorrelation between fecal characteristics and feed digestibility. The results showed that urea content inthe rations up to 1.2% of dry matter did not affect dry mater digestibility, water content and fecalcharacteristics (FEL and FRPD. There were highly negative correlation (r= -0.665 between feeddigestibility and water content of feces as well as feed digestibility and FEL (r= -0.553, whilecorrelation between digestibility and FRDP was positive (r=0.608. The conclusion of this study waswater content, degree of FEL and FRPD can be used to determine the quality of feed. If feces composedof finer texture, dried and small particles indicated having better digestibility, while if feces composed ofrough texture, wet, and large particles indicated having low digestibility.

  6. Laboratory Exercise: Study of Digestive and Regulatory Processes through the Exploration of Fasted and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K.; Maurer, Luke W.

    2013-01-01

    Digestive physiology laboratory exercises often explore the regulation of enzyme action rather than systems physiology. This laboratory exercise provides a systems approach to digestive and regulatory processes through the exploration of postprandial blood glucose levels. In the present exercise, students enrolled in an undergraduate animal…

  7. Improvement of dewatering characteristics by co-digestion of rice straw with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingting; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, Ryoko; Tsuchiya-Nakakihara, Eri; Watanabe, Haruki; Suetsugu, Yasutaka; Yanai, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    A continuous mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and softened rice straw was conducted and the dewatering characteristics of digested sludge were evaluated by a dewatering experiment using a belt press. The digestion was operated with solid retention time (SRT) of 25 days, and the feeding ratio of sludge to rice straw was 1:0.5 (total solids base). After 129 days of stable operation, the properties of digested sludge were analysed; then five kinds of cationic coagulants were tested to select the optimal coagulants for dewatering, and two coagulants were selected and used in the dewatering experiment because of lower doses and lower moisture of sludge cakes. Sludge property analysis showed that by the addition of rice straw, the fibrous materials in the digested sludge increased remarkably and the normalized capillary suction time (CST) decreased significantly, indicating that the dewatering properties was improved. The results of dewatering experiment showed that by the addition of rice straw, specific filtration rate of digested sludge increased by 81.2% and 174.6%, respectively; water content of dewatered sludge cakes decreased by 8.2% and 13.4%, respectively. The dewaterability of digested sludge was suggested to be improved due to rice straw addition.

  8. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter formed in aerobic and anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Li, Fusheng

    2017-02-01

    The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) formed in aerobic and anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge (EAS) was investigated for three total solid (TS) concentrations (1.2, 2.3 and 5.2%) and three temperatures (5, 20 and 35 °C). The results on the overall concentration of DOM evaluated by TOC showed significantly higher values in anaerobic than aerobic digestion (2.8-6.9 times for TS 1.2-5.2% at 20 °C). Data analysis with a first-order sequential reaction model revealed that higher occurrence of DOM in anaerobic digestion was a result of comparatively faster hydrolysis (1.3-5.5 times for TS 1.2-5.2% at 20 °C; 1.4-49.3 times for temperatures 5-35 °C with TS 1.2%) and slower degradation (0.3-1.0 times for TS 1.2-5.2% at 20 °C; 0.5-8.3 times for temperatures 5-35 °C with TS 1.2%). In aerobic digestion, more humic substances were formed; while, in anaerobic digestion, proteins and aromatic amino acids were the major constituents. For both digestions, except for a few exceptions, proteins and humic substances increased as the TS concentration increased; and increasing the temperature led to a decrease in the content of proteins formed in both aerobic and anaerobic digestion, and an increase in the content of humic substances in the aerobic digestion. The UV-absorbing DOM constituents were highly heterogeneous, and were comparatively larger in anaerobic digestion; and did not change significantly with the TS concentrations and temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics of canola co-products simulate their digestion in the pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Jha, R; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2016-06-01

    Canola co-products are sources of amino acid and energy in pig feeds, but their fermentation characteristics in the pig intestine are unknown. Thus, we determined the in vitro fermentation characteristics of the canola co-products Brassica juncea solvent-extracted canola meal (JSECM), Brassica napus solvent-extracted canola meal (NSECM), B. napus expeller-pressed canola meal (NEPCM) and B. napus cold-pressed canola cake (NCPCC) in comparison with soybean meal (SBM). Samples were hydrolysed in two steps using pepsin and pancreatin. Subsequently, residues were incubated in a buffer solution with fresh pig faeces as inocula for 72 h to measure gas production. Concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) per gram of dry matter (DM) of feedstuff was measured in fermented solutions. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent hindgut fermentation (AHF) of gross energy (GE) for feedstuffs were obtained from pigs fed the same feedstuffs. On DM basis, SBM, JSECM, NSECM, NEPCM and NCPCC contained 15, 19, 22, 117 and 231 g/kg ether extract; and 85, 223, 306, 208 and 176 g/kg NDF, respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDDM) of SBM (82.3%) was greater (Pfermentation characteristics of canola co-products and SBM simulated their fermentation in the small and large intestine of pigs, respectively. The 30% greater VFA production for JSECM than NSECM due to lower lignified fibre of JSECM indicates that fermentation characteristics differ between canola species. The NSECM had the highest fermentability followed by NEPCM and then NCPCC, indicating that fat in canola co-products can limit their fermentability in the hindgut.

  10. Probiotic in swine diets on the blood parameters and rations digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Alcides Robles-Huaynate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two assays were accomplished being, both using a randomized block design: Assay 1 the aimed was to evaluate the blood parameters of weaned recently pigs and receiving rations with and without probiotic. Twenty pigs with body weight of 6.99 ± 0.42 kg were used and were collected samples of blood to the 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after wean, for determinations of the bool parameters. Assay 2 the objective was to determine the rations digestibility for growth swine supplemented or not with probiotic in the rations. The rations and the ages of the animals influenced most of the variables of the blood parameters. The probiotic didn’t alter the ration digestibility to exception for mineral matter. It is ended that the blood parameters were altered for the use of the probiotic and the age of the animals, both emphasized to challenges happened after wean and the mineral matter was better taken advantage with the use of the probiotic.

  11. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein In vitro Digestibility and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingmei; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Long, Guohui

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area) of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003); moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004). On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (pproteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  12. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein Digestibility and Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingmei Bai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003; moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004. On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (p<0.001 and solubility (p = 0.002. These results demonstrate that the molecular structure characteristics of feed proteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  13. Organics Characteristics of Sludge from a Full-Scale Anaerobic Digester Treating Domestic Mixed Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge, normally in form of mixed sewage sludge is treated using anaerobic digester worldwide. In Malaysia, sewage sludge was categorized as domestic sewage sludge since sewage treatment plant treats only domestic sewage. The complex organic compounds in form of carbohydrates and proteins are transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion. The characteristics of complex organic compounds in domestic mixed sewage sludge are needed to assess the energy recovery form digesting domestic mixed sewage sludge. Besides that, it is common to use anaerobic biomass from existing anaerobic digester for the new setup of the anaerobic reactor. Therefore, this study was outlined to study the characteristics of domestic mixed sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass, particularly on the complex organic compounds. The complex organic compounds measured were carbohydrates and proteins. The higher complex organic solubilisation as a result of thermal pre-treatment was proven to improve the methane production. Therefore, in this study, the impact of low thermal pre-treatment in improving the organics solubilisation was assessed too. Low thermal pre-treatment at 70°C and 90°C at various treatment time were applied to the domestic mixed sewage sludge. The results indicated that the domestic sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass from a full-scale anaerobic digester contained complex organic compounds; existed mostly in form of particulate as shown by the low value of soluble to total ratio. Besides that, the low thermal treatment at 70°C and 90°C increased the organics solubilisation. Protein solubilisation was observed exceeded 8% after being treated for 20 min at both thermal treatments. However, the impact of low thermal treatment was better at 90°C, in which higher solubilisation was observed at longer treatment time.

  14. Product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched dried vegetable paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria da Rocha, Silvia; Kappaun Rodrigues, Marla Cristina; Legemann Monte, Micheli; Quites Larrosa, Ana Paula; de Almeida Pinto, Luiz Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a preparation of vegetable paste with bovine blood in order to maximize the protein content using linear programming, and to analyze the product characteristics and quality of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste dried in a spouted bed. The drying experiments were performed by evaluating the effects of inlet air temperature, paste flow rate and paste solids concentration on the dried product characteristics and quality (functional and nutritional properties). The vegetable paste enriched with bovine blood was a good source of protein (∼0.20 g g(-1) , dry basis), and the linear programming was adequate to select the constituents (carrot, onion, potato, kale, tomato, soybean oil and bovine blood) and optimize their quantities. The drying conditions of bovine blood-enriched vegetable paste in the spouted bed that gave the best product characteristics were an air temperature of 110 °C and a paste flow rate of 600 mL h(-1) with 0.07 g g(-1) solids concentration. The addition of bovine blood to vegetable paste by linear programming increased the protein content of the paste and improved its functional properties and digestibility. The powder obtained from the spouted bed drier showed suitable functional and nutritional properties and was also a good source of antioxidant compounds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Impact of crop-manure ratios on energy production and fertilizing characteristics of liquid and solid digestate during codigestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.; Vries, de J.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of maize silage-manure ratios on energy output and digestate characteristics was studied using batch experiments. The methane production, nutrients availability (N and P) and heavy metals' content were followed in multiflask experiments at digestion times 7, 14, 20, 30 and 60 days. In

  16. The Effect of Oak Kernel on Digestibility and Fermentative Characteristics in Arabian Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Harsini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of oak kernel on fermentative and microbial characteristics in Arabian sheep. Sixteen sheep were used (average weight of 45±3 kg in a completely randomized design. Treatments were four levels of oak kernel (0, 21, 42 and 63% DM. Animals were fed experimental diets for 28 days. Faecal with the ort feed of eight sheep collected for measured apparent digestibility during the last 5 days in the experiment. Rumen fluid obtained from all animals was used for gas production technique and measured fermentation parameters. Results showed that digestibility of dry matter of diets (respectively 63/55, 70/70, 71/73 and 75/80 increased linearly with increasing levels of oak. The rumen pH (respectively 6.29, 6/23, 6/17 and 5/90 and concentration of ammonia nitrogen (respectively 15/66, 13/75, 13/58 and 13/11 significantly reduced by increasing the level oak in the diet. Potential gas production, digestibility of ADF and NDF, digestible organic matter using gas production techniques were not affected by the experimental rations. So the No negative effect of oak kernel tannin. Oak kernel can be used as a source of carbohydrate and energy in sheep rations.

  17. Rumen fermentation characteristics, nitrogen balance and growth in lambs fed methane digester effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedeken, F.K.; Paterson, J.A.; Koeln, L.L.; Fischer, J.R.; Williams, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    A laboratory silo trial, two lamb metabolism trials and a lamb growth trial were conducted to compare the nitrogen (N) value of swine methane digester effluent (MDE) to that of urea. Using laboratory silos (four/treatment), fermentation characteristics were measured for silages containing cracked corn, ground wheat straw and MDE added at levels of 0, 4, 8 or 12% of silage dry matter (DM). Lactic acid concentration increased linearly with up to 8% MDE addition, but then decreased with 12% MDE. Butyric acid was highest with 12% MDE, indicating an undesirable fermentation. In a metabolism study, DM, organic matter and N digestibilities and N balance were similar between urea and MDE, but DM digestibility was lower for ensiled diets (52%) than diets fed fresh daily (59.4%). Mean ruminal volatile fatty acid, ruminal ammonia-N and plasma urea-N concentrations were similar between urea- and MDE-fed lambs. Plasma urea-N was higher and ruminal isovaleric acid lower in animals fed ensiled than fresh diets. In the second metabolism trial, digestibility of N was lowest for MDE and highest for soybean meal, but N balance was similar among all diets.

  18. 信息动态%EFFECT OF MESOPHILIC DRY DIGESTION ON CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION AND STRUCTURE OF SMOOTH CORDGRASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of biogas production from mesophilic dry digestion of smooth cordgrass (SC) in leaching bed reactor were investigated, and the changes of the chemical composition, crystalline structure and chemical structure of untreated and treated SC were examined by the chemical analysis, X-ray and FT-IR analysis during compost and digestion. The results showed that mesophilic dry digestion of SC was technically feasible and the cumulative biogas yield added up to 178.4 mL·g-1VS (0 ℃, 1.01×105Pa) during 60d dry digestion. XRD results confirmed that the crystalline structure of SC fibre was cellulose I which did not change after compost pretreatment and dry digestion, but crystalllinity index of cellulose decreased 15.42% after pretreatment. The results of FT-IR spectroscopy study showed that the depolymerization and degradation of polysaccharides and the modification of lignin structure occurred during pretreatment and dry digestion.

  19. Calcium supplementation of chocolate: effect on cocoa butter digestibility and blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Y; Murset, C; Meirim, I; Duruz, E; Guinchard, S; Cavadini, C; Acheson, K

    2001-02-01

    The digestibility of cocoa butter was reported in animal but not human studies to be low (60-70% and 89-94%, respectively). These differences could be due to the much higher ratio of calcium to fat (by wt) in the diet of rats (0.04-0.18) than in that of humans (0.01). We investigated whether supplementation of chocolate with 0.9% calcium (by wt), as an integral part of a Western diet, reduces absorption of cocoa butter and hence the digestible energy value of chocolate. We also assessed the effect of calcium supplementation on the blood lipid profile. Ten men were fed control diets containing 98-101 g chocolate/d with or without a 0.9%-Ca supplement (0.9 g Ca/d) for 2 periods of 2 wk each. The study was conducted with use of a randomized, double-blind crossover design under free-living conditions but with strict control of food intake. Calcium supplementation of chocolate increased fecal fat 2-fold (from 4.4 to 8.4 g/d; P chocolate by approximately 9%. This supplementation also reduced plasma LDL cholesterol by 15% (P chocolate. Supplementation with 2.25% CaCO3 had no effect on the taste of chocolate, was well tolerated by the subjects, and reduced LDL cholesterol in a short-term study.

  20. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p matter in dry matter and metabolisable energy were also decreased in treated lemon pulp (p physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. [RP-HPLC characteristics of dragon's blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Peng-Jiao; Zhang, Min

    2007-10-01

    To study the fingerprint of dragon's blood resina draconis by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples are extracted with methanol and separated on a Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-H2O in gradient mode, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 275 nm and the temperature of column was 40 degrees C. Loureirin B was used as the reference compound. HPLC fingerprint of dragon's blood was established and the similarity of the fingerprint was compared. The method is simple, accurate, and can be used to control the quality of dragon's blood.

  2. Bromatological characteristics and ruminal digestibility of grain corn hybrids with different vitreousness in silage maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandrei Santos Rossi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate vitreousness in commercial corn hybrids with flint and dent grains and to study the effect of this characteristic on agronomic behavior, nutritional value, and ruminal degradability of grains harvested in silage maturity. Twelve commercial corn hybrids were evaluated. They were divided in two groups (six with flint grains and six with dent grains. The experiments were conducted in two municipalities represented by Guarapuava and Laranjeiras do Sul, both in Paraná State. The harvest for the grain quality analysis was performed at ¾ of the milk line stage in the grain. The following characteristics were evaluated: grain yield, grain yield in silage maturity, vitreousness, ruminal digestibility of grain, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein. The grains in the group of dent hybrids exhibited better degradability associated with lower vitreousness than the group of flint hybrids. The group of dent hybrids exhibited better ruminal digestibility of the grains associated with lower vitreousness versus the group of flint hybrids. There is a negative correlation between vitreousness and the digestibility of the grain; thus, vitreousness can be a criterion for selecting genotypes for forage production.

  3. Analysis of damping characteristics of arterial catheter blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part, by the damping characteristics of the arterial catheter blood pressure ... A cross-sectional, observational study of arterial line measurements in a large general ICU. ... and perfusion pressure, whilst preventing excessively high pressures.

  4. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values ABO (X(2): 2.635; p-value=0.451), Secretor (X(2): 0.056; p-value=0.812) or Lewis (X(2): 2.092; p-value=0.351) histo-blood group phenotypes between patients and controls. However, B plus AB Secretor phenotypes were prevalent in pooled data from megaesophagus and megacolon patients (OR: 5.381; 95% CI: 1.230-23.529; p-value=0.011; pc=0.022) in comparison to A plus O Secretor phenotypes. The tissue antigen variability resulting from the combined action of ABO and Secretor histo-blood systems is associated with the digestive forms of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  5. A cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic immobilized-enzyme reactor for rapid digestion of proteins from dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Bert; Dapic, Irena; Valkenburg, Thalassa S E; Wouters, Sam; Niezen, Leon; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Corthals, Garry L; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-03-31

    A critical step in the bottom-up characterization of proteomes is the conversion of proteins to peptides, by means of endoprotease digestion. Nowadays this method typically uses overnight digestion and as such represents a considerable bottleneck for high-throughput analysis. This report describes protein digestion using an immobilized-enzyme reactor (IMER), which enables accelerated digestion times that are completed within seconds to minutes. For rapid digestion to occur, a cyclic-olefin-copolymer microfluidic reactor was constructed containing trypsin immobilized on a polymer monolithic material through a 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone linker. The IMER was applied for the rapid offline digestion of both singular protein standards and a complex protein mixture prior to liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. The effects of protein concentration and residence time in the IMER were assessed for protein standards of varying molecular weight between 11 and 240kDa. Compared to traditional in-solution digestion, IMER-facilitated protein digestion at room temperature for 5min yielded similar results in terms of sequence coverage and number of identified peptides. Good repeatability was demonstrated with a relative standard deviation of 6% for protein-sequence coverage. The potential of the IMER was also demonstrated for a complex protein mixture in the analysis of dried blood spots. Compared to a traditional workflow a similar number of proteins could be identified, while reducing the total analysis time from 22.5h to 4h and importantly omitting the sample-pre-treatment steps (denaturation, reduction, and alkylation). The identified proteins from two workflows showed similar distributions in terms of molecular weight and hydrophobic character.

  6. Anaerobic digester foaming in full-scale cylindrical digesters--effects of organic loading rate, feed characteristics, and mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2014-05-01

    Cylindrical anaerobic digesters (AD) were investigated to determine the causes and contributors of AD foaming due to the following: organic loading rate (OLR) and mixing effects, waste activated sludge (WAS) storage effects and foam suppression mixing at the surface of AD, and the effects of primary sludge (PS) solids fraction in the feed sludge. No foaming was observed over the duration of the study, indicating absence of a primary foaming cause even though the suspected contributors to AD foaming were present. Total solids and temperature profiles showed that reducing mixing frequency did not significantly impact digester performance or the homogeneity of the digester contents. The results showed that high organic loading rates, reduced mixing, and feed sludge storage by themselves do not cause foaming in most ADs when the primary foaming cause is absent. Reduced mixing and surface sludge sprays are practical strategies to control AD foaming.

  7. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LYMPH NODE SINUS CONTAINING BLOOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Tong; JI Xiao-long

    2001-01-01

    This study is to find out the histopathological characteristics of lymph node sinus containing blood. Routine autopsy was carried out in the randomly selected 102 patients(among them,100 patients died of various diseases, and 2 of non-diseased causes),their superficial lymph nodes locating in the bilateral neck, axilla, inguina, thorax and abdomen were sampled. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was performed on 10% formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node tissue sections(5μm).The histological characteristics of the lymph node sinuses containing blood were observed under light microscope. Among the 1362 lymph nodes sampled from the 100 autopsies, lymph sinuses containing blood were found in 809 lymph nodes sampled from 91 cases, but couldn't be seen in the lymph nodes sampled from the non-diseased cases. According to histology, five kinds of lymph sinuses containing blood were found:vascular-opening sinus, blood-deficient sinus, erythrophago-sinus, blood-abundant sinus, and vascular-formative sinus. It is concluded that in the state of disease, the phenomenon of blood in the lymph sinus is not uncommon. Blood could possibly enter into lymph sinus through lymphatic-venous communications between the veins and sinuses in the node. Lymph circulation and blood circulation could communicate with each other in the lymph sinus.

  8. Short communication: Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs fed diet replacing corn with orange pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with orange pulp (OP) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs. Twenty male lambs were placed in individual pens and fed with four levels of replacement...... of corn by OP (0, 33, 66, 100%) during 60 days. Average daily gain (ADG) showed a quadratic effect (p...-N concentration showed a linear decrease (pcorn by OP (p

  9. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  10. Prioritizing blood flow: cardiovascular performance in response to the competing demands of locomotion and digestion for the Burmese python, Python molurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; White, Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Individually, the metabolic demands of digestion or movement can be fully supported by elevations in cardiovascular performance, but when occurring simultaneously, vascular perfusion may have to be prioritized to either the gut or skeletal muscles. Burmese pythons (Python molurus) experience similar increases in metabolic rate during the digestion of a meal as they do while crawling, hence each would have an equal demand for vascular supply when these two actions are combined. To determine, for the Burmese python, whether blood flow is prioritized when snakes are digesting and moving, we examined changes in cardiac performance and blood flow in response to digestion, movement, and the combination of digestion and movement. We used perivascular blood flow probes to measure blood flow through the left carotid artery, dorsal aorta, superior mesenteric artery and hepatic portal vein, and to calculate cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume. Fasted pythons while crawling experienced a 2.7- and 3.3-fold increase, respectively, in heart rate and cardiac output, and a 66% decrease in superior mesenteric flow. During the digestion of a rodent meal equaling in mass to 24.7% of the snake's body mass, heart rate and cardiac output increased by 3.3- and 4.4-fold, respectively. Digestion also resulted in respective 11.6- and 14.1-fold increases in superior mesenteric and hepatic portal flow. When crawling while digesting, cardiac output and dorsal aorta flow increased by only 21% and 9%, respectively, a modest increase compared with that when they start to crawl on an empty stomach. Crawling did triggered a significant reduction in blood flow to the digesting gut, decreasing superior mesenteric and hepatic portal flow by 81% and 47%, respectively. When faced with the dual demands of digestion and crawling, Burmese pythons prioritize blood flow, apparently diverting visceral supply to the axial muscles.

  11. The effect of combined probiotics with catalyst supplementation on digestion and rumen characteristic in Priangan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantan Krisnan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of probiotics and catalyst on digestion and rumen characteristic in Priangan sheep. The trial was conducted using 16 heads of young male Priangan sheep with average initial weight of 18 kg in completely randomized design with factorial 2x2 and 4 replication. The first factor was two types of probiotics mixed with catalyst supplement, while the second factor was two levels of supplement percentage of catalyst at 0.5 and 1.0% of concentrate. The type of probiotics applied was probion and probiotics of buffaloes rumen microbes. The feeding level was set at 3% of body weight based on dry matter and consisting of forage (King grass and concentrate at 50:50 ratio. The results indicated a significantly greater fibre digestion value (NDF and proportion of acetate molar in the group of sheep fed combination of probiotics of buffaloes rumen microbes and catalyst supplement. It was concluded that the recommendation level of the combined rumen microbe probiotics with catalyst supplement in sheep ration was 0.5%.

  12. Effect of repeated retrogradation on structural characteristics and in vitro digestibility of waxy potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Pei; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2014-11-15

    The effects of repeated retrogradation (RR) treatment on the structural characteristics and in vitro digestibility of waxy potato starch were investigated. The cycling times of RR ranging from 1 to 5 were designated as RR-1, RR-2, RR-3, RR-4, and RR-5, respectively. A maximum SDS content (40.41%) was obtained by RR-2 treatment with the time interval of 48h. RR-2-treated starch product exhibited a narrower melting temperature range, a higher onset temperature and a lower melting enthalpy compared with RR-1 treatment. Compared with native starch, X-ray diffraction patterns of treated starches were altered from B-type to C-type. The variation in relative crystallinity of RR-treated starch products was consistent with that in melting enthalpy. Moreover, compared with RR-1-treated starch, a large number of cavities were observed on the surface of RR-2-treated starch product with a time interval of 48h, whereas more smooth regions were found on the surface of RR-5-treated starch product. This study suggested that structural changes of waxy potato starch treated with different cycling times of RR significantly affected the digestibility.

  13. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  14. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the peptide characteristics of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted digestion in discovery and targeted proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengguang; Cheng, Jie; Sun, Haidan; Sun, Wei

    2017-08-30

    Fast digestion methods can dramatically accelerate enzyme digestion and increase the throughput of proteomic analysis. However, the peptide characteristics of fast digestion methods and their performance in discovery and targeted proteomic analysis must be systematically evaluated. Three digestion methods, including overnight digestion, microwave-assisted protein enzymatic digestion (MAPED), and high-intensity focused ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion (HIFUSAED), in trypsin or in trypsin/Lys-C were comprehensively compared in both discovery and targeted proteomics analysis using the HeLa cell proteome. In discovery proteomic analysis, the highest numbers of peptides and proteins were identified when the sample was digested via the MAPED method with trypsin/Lys-C. The fast digestion methods showed a higher mis-cleavage rate and a lower semi-tryptic rate than the overnight digestion method. In both label-free quantitative analysis and targeted proteomic analysis, both fully cleaved peptides (FCPs) and mis-cleaved peptides (MCPs) from the fast digestion methods and the overnight digestion method showed good reproducibility if they showed good abundance. When both the FCPs and MCPs were included in the analysis, the MAPED with trypsin/Lys-C method showed the best results for both discovery proteomic analysis and relative quantitative targeted proteomic analysis. These results will be beneficial for the application of fast digestion methods to proteomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The antioxidant role of xanthurenic acid in the Aedes aegypti midgut during digestion of a blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor L A Lima

    Full Text Available In the midgut of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever, an intense release of heme and iron takes place during the digestion of a blood meal. Here, we demonstrated via chromatography, light absorption and mass spectrometry that xanthurenic acid (XA, a product of the oxidative metabolism of tryptophan, is produced in the digestive apparatus after the ingestion of a blood meal and reaches milimolar levels after 24 h, the period of maximal digestive activity. XA formation does not occur in the White Eye (WE strain, which lacks kynurenine hydroxylase and accumulates kynurenic acid. The formation of XA can be diminished by feeding the insect with 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[4-(3-nitrophenylthiazol-2-yl] benzenesulfonamide (Ro-61-8048, an inhibitor of XA biosynthesis. Moreover, XA inhibits the phospholipid oxidation induced by heme or iron. A major fraction of this antioxidant activity is due to the capacity of XA to bind both heme and iron, which occurs at a slightly alkaline pH (7.5-8.0, a condition found in the insect midgut. The midgut epithelial cells of the WE mosquito has a marked increase in occurrence of cell death, which is reversed to levels similar to the wild type mosquitoes by feeding the insects with blood supplemented with XA, confirming the protective role of this molecule. Collectively, these results suggest a new role for XA as a heme and iron chelator that provides protection as an antioxidant and may help these animals adapt to a blood feeding habit.

  16. Selected gelling agents in canned dog food affect nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics of ileal cannulated dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karr-Lilienthal, L.K.; Merchen, N.R.; Grieshop, C.M.; Smeets-Petersen, M.J.E.; Fahey, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of gelling agents in canned dog food on nutrient digestibilities and fecal characteristics. Dogs were fed canned diets with either no gelling agent (control) or one of three gelling agents, wheat starch, a guar gum/carrageenan mixture (50:50), and a locust bean meal

  17. Effects of dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides on microbial characteristics of ileal chyme and faeces in weaner pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.; Hartemink, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Bosch, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), were included at 10 and 40 g/kg in an NDO--free control diet at the expense of purified cellulose. Each of the 5 diets was fed to 4 weaner pigs and microbial characteristics of their

  18. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  19. Effects of sorghum wet distillers grains plus solubles in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and digestibility characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sorghum wet distillers grains (SWDGS) in finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility. In Exp. 1, 240 steers (initial BW = 379 +/-1 kg) were fed steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based diets with or without 25%...

  20. Nutrient digestion, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites of Jersey heifers fed chitosan and whole raw soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rodrigues Gandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine the effects of chitosan and whole raw soybean on nutrient intake and total tract digestion, nitrogen utilization, microbial protein synthesis, blood metabolites, and energy balance of dairy heifers. Twelve Jersey heifers (6±0.5 months of age and 139.50±25.56 kg of live weight; mean ± standard deviation were randomly assigned to a replicated Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experimental period consisted of 14 days of adaptation to diets, six days of sampling, and five days of washout. The experimental diets were: control (CO; chitosan (CHI, inclusion of 2.0 g kg−1 DM of chitosan; whole raw soybean (WS, 163.0 g kg−1 of WS on diet DM basis; and chitosan + whole raw soybean (CHI+WS. Chitosan decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intakes; however, CHI increased DM total tract digestion. An interaction effect was observed on retained nitrogen, which increased when animals were fed CHI+WS compared with CO or CHI, but did not differ from that of animals fed WS. Chitosan decreased microbial nitrogen and crude protein flow of heifers. Energy balance was improved when heifers received diets containing WS. Efficiency of energy utilization was not affected by experimental diets. An interaction effect was observed for blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration, which increased with both dietary inclusion of CHI and WS compared with the other diets, and CHI provided the lowest value of HDL cholesterol. Chitosan and whole raw soybean do not alter nutrient intake and total tract digestion; however, they decrease nitrogen urinary excretion and increase blood HDL cholesterol of heifers.

  1. Dynamic characteristics and mechatronics model for maglev blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kun; Chen, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic bearing system(MBs) has been developed in the new-generation blood pump due to its low power consumption, low blood trauma and high durability. However, MBs for a blood pump were almost influenced by a series of factors such as hemodynamics, rotation speeds and actuator response in working fluids, compared with those applied in other industrial fields. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of MBs in fluid environments, including the influence of the pumping fluid and rotation of the impeller on the radial dynamic model were investigated by measuring the frequency response to sinusoidal excitation upon coils, and the response of radial displacement during a raise in the speed. The excitation tests were conducted under conditions in which the blood pump was levitated in air and water and with or without rotation. The experimental and simulated results indicate that rotations of the impeller affected the characteristics of MBs in water apparently, and the vibration in water was decreased, compared with that in air due to the hydraulic force. During the start-up and rotation, the actuator failed to operate fully and timely, and the voltage supplied can be chosen under the consideration of the rotor displacement and consumption.

  2. Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath György

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis. In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose. Methods In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested. Results The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective.

  3. Modelling grass digestibility on the basis of morphological and physiological plant characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental

  4. Influence of feed characteristics on the removal of micropollutants during the anaerobic digestion of contaminated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barret, M., E-mail: barret@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, 11100 Narbonne (France); Barcia, G. Cea, E-mail: cea@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, 11100 Narbonne (France); Guillon, A., E-mail: a.guillon@ism.u-bordeaux1.fr [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, 11100 Narbonne (France); Carrere, H., E-mail: carrere@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, 11100 Narbonne (France); Patureau, D., E-mail: patureau@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UR 050, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l' Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, 11100 Narbonne (France)

    2010-09-15

    The removal of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 7 polychlorobiphenyls and nonylphenol was measured during the continuous anaerobic digestion of five different sludge samples. The reactors were fed with one of the following: primary/secondary sludge (PS/SS), thermally treated PS, cellulose-added SS, or SS augmented with dissolved and colloidal matter (DCM). These various feeding conditions induced variable levels of micropollutant bioavailability (assumed to limit their biodegradation) and overall metabolism (supposed to be linked to micropollutant metabolism throughout co-metabolism). On the one hand, overall metabolism was higher with secondary sludge than with primary and the same was observed for micropollutant removal. However, when overall metabolism was enhanced thanks to cellulose addition, a negative influence on micropollutant removal was observed. This suggests that either the co-metabolic synergy would be linked to a specific metabolism or co-metabolism was not the limiting factor in this case. On the other hand, micropollutant bioavailability was presumably diminished by thermal treatment and increased by DCM addition. In both cases, micropollutant removal was reduced. These results suggest that neither overall metabolism nor bioavailability would absolutely limit micropollutant removal. Each phenomenon might alternatively predominate depending on the feed characteristics.

  5. Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Seare T; Yuan, XianJun; Li, Junfeng; Shao, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Ensiling characteristics, structural and nonstructural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility (ED) of Napier grass silage was examined. Napier grass ensiled with no additive control, 0.2% formic acid, 0.4% molasses, and 0.3% fibrolytic enzyme for, 7, 30, 60 and 90days. Additives increased lactic acid, soluble carbohydrate and decreased all of lignocellulosic contents except acid detergent lignin and pH than control. The highest value of nonstructural carbohydrate and large reduction in lignocellulosic contents was observed in formic acid and fibrolytic enzyme silage respectively. The content of glucose and fructose showed rapid drop in the first 7days of ensilage. Ensilage decreased lignocellulosic contents and increased ED compared to fresh material. The ED of formic acid and molasses silage was significantly higher than control and fibrolytic enzyme silages in all tested days. In summery the ensiling quality structural and nonstructural carbohydrate and ED value of mature Napier grass silage improved through additives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Digestion Methods for Blood Arsenic Determination%不同血砷消化方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 王惠惠; 张强; 刘博莹; 林琳; 孙贵范

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比酸消化、碱消化和未消化3种血砷前处理方法对血砷测定的影响.方法 于2010年9月,采集沈阳市某医院4名正在接受砷剂治疗和4名刚刚停用砷剂的白血病患者的血液样品(分别为血样1~4和血样5~8),分别采用酸消化法和碱消化法对样品进行前处理,以氢化物发生-冷阱捕获-原子吸收(HG-cold trap-AAS)法检测血液中总砷(tAs)和各形态砷含量.结果 血tAs波动范围为0.91~120.96 μg/L.经酸消化、碱消化和未消化后血样中tAs含量间比较,差异无统计学意义(F=0.097,P>0.05).血iAs波动范围为0.17~69.93 μg/L.经酸消化、碱消化和未消化后血样中tAs含量间比较,差异无统计学意义(F=0.097,P>0.05).碱消化组各样品iAs水平略低于酸消化组和未消化组iAs的值,但差异无统计学意义(F=1.527,P>0.05).血MMA波动范围为0~78.37 μg/L,MMA含量从高到低排序均为未消化组>碱消化组>酸消化组,差异有统计学意义(F=103.751,P<0.01).进一步两两比较分析后发现各组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).经酸消化、碱消化法和未消化后全部检出MMA的样品只有4个,均为正在接受砷剂治疗的白血病患者.酸消化血样中均未检出DMA;仅未消化血样3中检出DMA,含量为13.28 μg/L;而碱消化血样1~5中检出DMA,含量在1.45~17.91 μg/L之间.TMA仅在碱消化血样2中检出,含量为7.19 μg/L;未消化和酸消化血样中均未检出 TMA.结论 血样经酸消化、碱消化和未消化后,均可用于各形态砷的检测,而碱消化更适于各形态砷的检测.%Objective To compare the reliability and feasibility of different digestion methods for blood arsenic determination. Methods In September 2010,the blood samples were collected from patients with leukemia who receiving arsenical treatment and four who just stop arsenical treatment in a hospital in Shenyang, Liaoning. By acid digestion method and alkali digestion method for sample

  7. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  8. Effects of heat stress on metabolism, digestibility, and rumen epithelial characteristics in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, M Hossein; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H R; Amanlou, H; Mahjoubi, E; Nabipour, A; Aghaziarati, N; Baumgard, L H

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the direct effects of heat stress (HS) and reduced DMI on metabolic and physiological variables, morphometry, and gene expression of transporters involving in ruminal VFA absorption, 16 Holstein bull calves (178.1 ± 7.55 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete design using 2 experimental periods. In period 1 (P1), all animals were housed in thermoneutral (TN) conditions (20.7 ± 3.0°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 65.2 ± 3.1) and fed ad libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2; 9 d), half of the calves ( = 8) were subjected to HS condition (29.9 to 41.0°C and a THI ≥ 85 for 8 h/d) and the other half ( = 8) were maintained in TN conditions but were pair fed (pair-fed thermoneutral [PFTN]) to the HS calves. Heat stress decreased DMI (20%; calves had similar reduced intakes. During P1, ADG was similar between groups (1.7 kg/d), but ADG was reduced similarly for both groups (0.14 kg/d) during P2 ( calves had decreased plasma glucose levels (12.5%; calves (71%; calves. Circulating NEFA concentrations did not differ between periods in the HS calves, but PFTN animals had increased basal NEFA levels (100%; calves had increased blood urea nitrogen concentration in P2 ( calves. Heat stress had no measurable effect on nutrient digestibility. Rumen papillae height increased (51%; calves whereas papillae top width decreased (40%; calves (albeit tissue composition of growth is not unknown).

  9. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  10. Determination of methyl mercury in whole blood by ethylation-GC-CVAFS after alkaline digestion-solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Evens, C; Lazoff, S; Woods, J S; Cernichiari, E; Horvat, M; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples based on ethylation-gas chromatography-cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry after alkaline digestion-solvent extraction is described. The extraction procedure and conditions were optimized, and the matrix interference after extraction was critically investigated. The storage stability of MeHg in blood samples and a series of extracts was determined. The method detection limit was found to be approximately 0.02 ng/g for a 0.5-g blood sample with relative standard deviations of less than 10%. The accuracy and precision were evaluated by summarizing the quality-control (QC) data generated over a one and one half year period. Appropriate procedures for sample collection, transportation, and storage were adapted to the method. Using this method accompanied by explicit QC protocols and procedures, background levels of MeHg and total mercury in blood for 150 8-10-year-old Portuguese children with nonoccupational and nonamalgamal exposure were determined and reported with summarized QC data.

  11. Effect of dietary arsonic acids on performance characteristics of swine waste anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumm, M.C.; Sutton, A.L.; Jones, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    A completely random design experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary arsonic acids on the performance of laboratory swine waste anaerobic digesters. Fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing no arsonic acids (control), 100 ppm arsanilic acid or 75 ppm roxarsone were fed to growing-finishing pigs. Fresh waste (including urine) from all treatments were collected daily for 74 days and loaded at a rate of 2.4 kg volatile solids/cubic meter into nine 25-L anaerobic digesters heated to 34 degrees with continuous agitation and total gas collection. After a 60-day acclimation period, daily gas production and composition and nutrient composition data were obtained from the anaerobic digesters. Inclusion of the arsonic acids in swine diets reduced dry matter and volatile solids content. Dietary arsonic acids also increased NH4+-N. Alky. was high in all the digesters; however, arsonic acids decreased alky. Dietary arsonic acids reduced the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the gas compared to the control. Significant amounts of As accumulated in the digesters. Alcohol, ethanol, and propanol concentrations were increased by roxarsone, and arsanilic acid increased the PrCO2H concentrations over the percentage in both the roxarsone and control digesters.

  12. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  13. Physical characteristics of conditioned anaerobic digested sludge - A fractal,transient and dynamic rheological viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yili Wang; Emilie Dieude-Fauvel; Steven K Dentel

    2011-01-01

    The changes in the physical characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned anaerobic digested sludge (ADS) biosolids,such as capillary suction time (CST),yield stress,average size and fractal dimensions,were investigated through a CST test,transient and dynamic rheological test and image analysis.The results showed that the optimum polymer dose range was observed when CST or its reciprocal value was employed as an indicator.There were good correlations between the yield stresses determined from both a controlled shear stress test and a strain amplitude sweep test.The yield stress and storage modulus (G') increased as the polymer dose increased in most cases.A frequency sweep test revealed that polymer conditioning could extend the frequency sweep ranges for their elastic behaviors over viscous behaviors as well as the gel-like structure in the linear viscoelastic range.These results implied that more deformation energy was stored in this rigid structure,and that elastic behavior became increasingly dominant with the addition of the polymer in most cases.In addition,both the average sizes and two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids presented a similar up-climax-down variation trend as the polymer doses increased,whereas the critical polymer doses at the highest average sizes or two-dimensional fractal dimensions,were different.Correlation analysis revealed that the conditioned ADS dewaterability was not correlated with the yield stresses,while the average sizes or the two-dimensional fractal dimensions for conditioned ADS biosolids could be taken as the indication parameters for ADS dewaterability.

  14. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X H; Heo, P S; Hong, J S; Kim, N J; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs' diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  15. Influences of Phytoncide Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Profiles, Diarrhea Scores and Fecal Microflora Shedding in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 140 weaning pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc, BW = 6.47±0.86 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trail to determine the effects of phytoncide supplementation on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD, blood profiles, diarrhea scores and fecal microflora shedding. Pigs were assigned randomly by BW into 5 treatments, dietary treatments were: i NC, basal diet; ii PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii EO, NC+0.1% essential oil; iv PP, NC+0.2% PP (phytoncide with 2% citric acid, and v PA, NC+0.2% PA (phytoncide. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. All pigs were housed in pens with a self-feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experimental period. During 0 to 2 wks, supplementation with essential oil and PA decreased (p0.05 was observed in diarrhea scores among treatments. In conclusion, phytoncide can elevate feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and improve the fecal Lactobacillus counts in weaning pigs. Our results indicated that the phytoncide could be used as a good antibiotics alternative in weaning pigs.

  16. Effects of lasalocid or monensin supplementation on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

    2007-12-01

    Six ruminally fistulated midlactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design (35-d periods) to study the effects of lasalocid (LAS) and monensin (MON) supplemented at 24 mg/ kg of dry matter on digestion, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production. Cows were blocked according to milk production and fed a red clover silage-based total mixed ration (17.8% crude protein) without supplementation or supplemented with LAS or MON. Daily dry matter intake, milk production, and milk fat and protein concentrations were similar among treatments and averaged 23.5 kg, 36.6 kg, 3.36%, and 3.38%, respectively. Rumen lipogenic:glucogenic volatile fatty acids and NH(3)-N concentration were lower, and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and gross energy were higher with than without ionophore supplementation. Compared with LAS, MON increased concentrations of plasma urea-N and milk urea-N, and excretion of urinary urea-N and total N. Monensin also decreased N retention and tended to reduce plasma concentration of nonessential AA in comparison with LAS. Both ionophores reduced daily fecal excretion of N by 13 g compared with the control, but MON increased daily losses of urinary N by 36 g compared with LAS. Results from this study suggest that postabsorptive metabolism of N might be altered by the type of ionophore fed.

  17. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Seo, J; Kim, W; Yun, H M; Kim, S C; Jang, Y; Jang, K; Kim, K; Kim, B; Park, S; Park, I; Kim, M K; Seo, K S; Kim, H B; Kim, I H; Seo, S; Song, M

    2015-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; psows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×10(3)/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×10(3)/μL; psows fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers to lactation diet based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and WBC changes of lactating sows.

  18. Effects on roughage inclusion and particle size on digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics of beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughage is fed to cattle to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage could ...

  19. Effect of single-, dual-, and triple-retrogradation treatments on in vitro digestibility and structural characteristics of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pei; Xie, Yao-Yu; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2014-08-15

    The effects of single-retrogradation (SR), dual-retrogradation (DR) and triple-retrogradation (TR) treatments on in vitro digestibility and structural characteristics of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The yield of slowly digestible starch in a DR-treated starch with retrogradation time interval of 48 h reached a maximum of 44.41%. The gelatinization temperature range and gelatinization enthalpy of DR-treated starch samples were the lowest. Moreover, compared with native starch, X-ray diffraction patterns of treated starches were altered from A-type to B-type and relative crystallinity was significantly decreased, which was responsible for the interaction between amylose-amylose and/or amylose-amylopectin chains that may generate more imperfect structures. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that compared with SR-treated and TR-treated starches, the surface of DR-treated starch with a retrogradation time interval of 48 h exhibited a net-like structure with numerous cavities. These results suggest that structural changes of waxy wheat starch by cycled retrogradation treatment significantly affect digestibility, and DR treatment can be used for preparing SDS product.

  20. Effects of wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hee Han

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.

  1. Feeding characteristics of an amoeba (Lobosea: Naegleria) grazing upon cyanobacteria: food selection, ingestion and digestion progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinyao, Liu; Miao, Shi; Yonghong, Liao; Yin, Gao; Zhongkai, Zhang; Donghui, Wen; Weizhong, Wu; Chencai, An

    2006-04-01

    Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates has been widely studied in aquatic environments, but data on the grazing of amoebae, are still scarce. From the water samples of Dianchi Lake (Kunming, Yunnan Province, China), we isolated an amoeba, designated as Naegleria sp. strain W2, which had potent grazing effects on some kind of cyanobacteria. The food selection mechanism and the digestion process of the amoeba were investigated in batch experiments. Predation experiments showed that filamentous cyanobacteria (e.g., Anabaena, Cylindrospermum, Gloeotrichia, and Phormidium) were readily consumed, with clearance rates ranging from 0.332 to 0.513 nL amoeba(-1) h(-1). The tight threads (Oscilltoria) and aggregates (Aphanizomenon) could not be ingested; however, their sonicated fragments were observed inside food vacuoles, suggesting that their morphologies prevent them from being ingested. Live video microscopy noted that unicellular Chroococcaceae (e.g., Synechococcus, Aphanocapsa, and Microcystis) were excreted after ingestion, indicating that food selection takes place inside food vacuoles. To determine whether the tastes or the toxins prevented them from being digested, heat-killed cells were retested for predation. Digestion rates and ingestion rates of the amoebae for filamentous cyanobacteria were estimated from food vacuole content volume. Through a "cold-chase" method, we found that the food vacuole contents declined exponentially in diluted amoebae cells, and digestion rates were relatively constant, averaging about 1.5% food vacuole content min(-1) at 28 degrees Celsius. Ingestion strongly depended on the satiation status of the amoebae, starved amoebae fed at higher rates compared with satiated amoebae. Our results suggest that the food selection and food processing mechanisms of the amoeba are similar to those of interception feeding flagellates; however, filamentous cyanobacteria cannot obtain a refuge under the grazing pressure of

  2. Effect of digestible methionine + cystine concentration on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 concentrations of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively.

  3. Blunting the knife: development of vaccines targeting digestive proteases of blood-feeding helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Ranjit, Najju; Loukas, Alex

    2010-08-01

    Proteases are pivotal to parasitism, mediating biological processes crucial to worm survival including larval migration through tissue, immune evasion/modulation and nutrient acquisition by the adult parasite. In haematophagous parasites, many of these proteolytic enzymes are secreted from the intestine (nematodes) or gastrodermis (trematodes) where they act to degrade host haemoglobin and serum proteins as part of the feeding process. These proteases are exposed to components of the immune system of the host when the worms ingest blood, and therefore present targets for the development of anti-helminth vaccines. The protective effects of current vaccine antigens against nematodes that infect humans (hookworm) and livestock (barber's pole worm) are based on haemoglobin-degrading intestinal proteases and act largely as a result of the neutralisation of these proteases by antibodies that are ingested with the blood-meal. In this review, we survey the current status of helminth proteases that show promise as vaccines and describe their vital contribution to a parasitic existence.

  4. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denm...

  5. Some characteristics of a raw starch digestion inhibitory factor from Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Saha, B.C.; Fujio, Yusaku; Ueda, Seinosuke

    1988-09-01

    The effect of an inhibitory factor (IF) from Aspergillus niger 19 on raw starch digestion by pure glucoamylase I of black Aspergillus, pure glucoamylase of Rhizopus niveus, bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase, fungal ..cap alpha..-amylase and various combination was investigated. The IF caused higher inhibition of raw starch hydrolysis by the combined action of glucoamylase and fungal ..cap alpha..-amylase than of hydrolysis by the individual enzymes. A protein moiety of IF might play an active part in this inhibition phenomenon. The IF was found to starch granules, preventing hydrolysis by the enzymes, and caused decreased raw starch hydrolysis yields.

  6. Effects of dietary inclusion of sunflower soap stocks on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and ruminal and blood metabolites of light fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, F J; Prieto, N; Morán, L; Andrés, S; Benavides, J; Tejido, M L; Bodas, R

    2014-09-01

    Forty-four merino lambs (6 to 8 wk old; BW 15.6 ± 0.21 kg) were used to study the effect of adding different proportions of sunflower soap stock (SS) to pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) for fattening lambs on feed intake, animal growth and dressing percentage, ruminal fluid characteristics, and blood acid-base parameters. Lambs were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups (11 lambs per group), each randomly assigned to 1 dietary treatment: 00SS (0 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 15SS (15 g SS/kg TMR pellet), 30SS (30 g SS/kg TMR pellet), and 60SS (60 g SS/kg TMR pellet). Lambs were individually fed the corresponding diet ad libitum. On d 19 to 23, total feces were collected and sampled from 4 lambs per group. When lambs reached 27 kg BW, they were slaughtered. Dry matter intake, ADG, and length of fattening period were not affected by the dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Animals in the 30SS group tended to show the best G:F values (P 0.10), but the propionate proportion linearly increased (P < 0.05), and the acetate to propionate ratio tended to decrease with SS supplementation. Increasing dietary content of SS linearly decreased the cold carcass weight (P < 0.05) but did not affect other measured carcass characteristics. Ruminal fluid pH tended to decrease (P < 0.10) and mucosa color decreased as SS increased in the TMR (P < 0.05). Blood pH and Na concentration increased (P < 0.05), whereas the anion gap, CO2 pressure, and K concentration linearly decreased (P < 0.05) as SS increased. Including more than 30 g SS/kg TMR in the diet for fattening lambs reduces DM and fiber digestibility without affecting feed intake and ADG. The acidotic rumen conditions that induced a darkening of rumen mucosa were counteracted by blood acid-base parameters. The optimum level of inclusion seems to be 30 g SS/kg TMR.

  7. Changes in molecular characteristics of cereal carbohydrates after processing and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-12-10

    Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (M(w)) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the M(w) of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  8. Changes in Molecular Characteristics of Cereal Carbohydrates after Processing and Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Erik Bach Knudsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF, whole meal rye bread (GR, rye bread with kernels (RK, wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG. The weight average molecular weight (Mw of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the Mw of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  9. Comparison of anaerobic digestion characteristics and kinetics of four livestock manures with different substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Ronghou; Sun, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestions of pig manure (PM), dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and rabbit manure (RM) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 8 g VS/L, 16 g VS/L, 32 g VS/L, 64 g VS/L were investigated under mesophilic conditions. The maximum methane yields of 410, 270, 377 and 323 mL CH4/g VSadded for PM, DM, CM and RM were all obtained at initial VSL of 8 g VS/L, respectively. The improvement of substrate concentration to 64 g VS/L not only decreased the methane yield and biodegradability both by 22.4%, 37.3%, 49.1% and 34.6% for PM, DM, CM and RM respectively, but also reduced the methane content in final biogas production. The Cone model (R(2): 0.9910-0.9974) showed a better fit to the experiment data and the calculated parameters indicated that anaerobic digestion of manures at higher loading has longer lag phase and lower hydrolysis rate.

  10. Effect of temperature-cycled retrogradation on in vitro digestibility and structural characteristics of waxy potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yao-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Pei; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2014-06-01

    The effects of temperature-cycled retrogradation treatment on the structural characteristics and in vitro digestibility of waxy potato starch were investigated in this study. The results showed that the maximum yield of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in waxy potato starch reached 38.63% by retrogradation treatment under temperature cycles of 4/25°C for 3 days with an interval of 24h. The starch products prepared under the temperature cycles of 4/25°C exhibited a narrower melting temperature range (Tc-To), a higher melting enthalpy (ΔH) and a higher IR absorbance ratio (1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1)) than that prepared at a constant temperature of 25°C. Compared to native starch, X-ray diffraction pattern of treated starch was altered from B-type to C-type. Furthermore, the relative crystallinity of the starch products prepared under temperature-cycled retrogradation was the highest. This study suggests that more imperfect crystallites are formed in the crystalline matrix under temperature-cycled retrogradation, resulting in a high yield of SDS.

  11. The Effect of Organic Acid and Desiccated Ox Bile Supplementation on Performance, Fat Digestibility, Blood Metabolites and Ileal Digesta Viscosity of Broiler Chickens Fed Tallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alzawqari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different levels of desiccated ox bile (DOB; 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50% and organic acid (OA; 0.00, 0.15, and 0.30% of the diet on performance, fat digestibility, blood metabolites and ileal digesta viscosity in broiler chickens fed diets containing 5% tallow, in a completely randomized design with a 3×3 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates in each treatment, 360 day-old Ross male broiler chickens were used. The isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter and grower diets were fed ad libitum to chickens from 0-21 and 21-42 days of age, respectively. Feed intake (FI, body weight gains (BWG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was measured for starter (7-21d and grower periods (21-42 days of age. Chromic oxide at the rate of 3 g/kg was added to experimental diets to determine fat digestibility at 19-21 and 40-42 days of age. Serum cholesterol (Chol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and ileal digesta viscosity were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. Addition of DOB significantly increased BWG during 7 to 42d of age and FCR during 7 to 21 was improved. Although fat digestibility significantly increased by supplemental 0.50% DOB and 0.15% OA in the starter period, no interaction was observed between dietary DOB and OA for these parameters. Dietary OA had no effect on blood parameters, but supplemental 0.50% DOB significantly increased blood chemistry. Interaction between DOB and OA showed an increasing effect in Chol and TG at 42 days of age. Digesta viscosity was remained unchanged by dietary treatments. The results of this study indicated that supplementation of DOB in the diet significantly increased BWG and measured blood metabolites. Dietary supplementation of DOB increased fat digestibility of the birds fed diet containing 5% tallow.

  12. Leaching characteristics of poultry litter in first phase of multistage anaerobic digestion

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    Surya P Sunkavalli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Poultry litter is highly biodegradable in nature. Therefore, it could be subjected to biomethanation to produce valuable biogas and bio-manure as byproducts. Some studies have been conducted along these lines in India by utilizing the poultry litter as a substrate in batch type dung digesters of KVIC and DENABANDHU models. However, these reactors have the drawbacks of high residence time (30 – 35 days, scum formation problems etc. Moreover, these batch type plants are not suitable for the treatment of large quantities of solid waste. Multistage anaerobic digestion has the potential to overcome some of the aforesaid issues. Anaerobic leaching experiments were conducted at different total solids concentration and pH using poultry litter in order to evaluate the leachate quality for a period of 7 days. The increase in Total solids (TS % from 15 to 20% show inverse effect on VFA and Alkalinity. The change in pH from 8.5 to 5.5 didn’t show much impact on VFA but there is a small impact on alkalinity. It was also observed that the leaching of the organic matter in the solid to the liquid phase is very fast and it is taking place approximately in three to four days and subsequently leachate getting saturated. Therefore, reactor set up was made in the last phase to regularly remove the water from the reactor so that higher driving force is available for leaching. The study resulted in leaching of maximum organic content in the solid to liquid within three days. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10516 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 76-82

  13. Effects of Dietary Crude Glycerin Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility, Ruminal Fermentation, Blood Metabolites, and Nitrogen Balance of Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chanjula

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin (CGLY in diets on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats. Four male crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian goats, with an average initial weight of 26±3.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design with four 21 days consecutive periods. Treatments diets contained 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of dietary DM of CGLY. Based on this experiment, there were no significant differences (p>0.05 among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF. Likewise, mean serum glucose, BHBA, and PCV concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by dietary treatments, whereas serum insulin concentration linearly increased (L, p = 0.002 with increasing the amount of CGLY supplementation. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and BUN concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except for 20% of CGLY, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (p<0.05 than for the diets 10% of CGLY, while the difference between the diets 0%, 5%, and 20% of CGLY were not significant. The amount of N absorption and retention were similar among treatments. Based on this study, CGLY levels up to 20% in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats and this study elucidates a good approach to exploiting the use of biodiesel production for goat production.

  14. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  15. Effect of essential oils, tylosin, and monensin on finishing steer performance, carcass characteristics, liver abscesses, ruminal fermentation, and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N F; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Greenquist, M A; Luebbe, M K; Williams, P; Engstrom, M A

    2009-07-01

    A feedlot (Exp. 1) experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of an essential oil mixture (EOM), experimental essential oil mixture (EXP), tylosin, and monensin (MON) on performance, carcass characteristics, and liver abscesses. A metabolism experiment (Exp. 2) was conducted to evaluate the effects of EOM, EXP, and MON on ruminal fermentation and digestibility in finishing steers. In Exp. 1, 468 yearling steers (398 +/- 34 kg initial BW) were used in 50 pens (10 pens/treatment) and received their respective dietary treatments for 115 d. Five dietary treatments were compared in Exp. 1: 1) control, no additives (CON); 2) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily; 3) EXP, 1.0 g/steer daily; 4) EOM, 1.0 g/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (EOM+T); and 5) monensin, 300 mg/steer daily plus tylosin, 90 mg/steer daily (MON+T). Compared with CON, steers fed MON+T had decreased DMI (P 0.58). There was a trend (P = 0.09) for a treatment effect on 12th-rib fat thickness, which resulted in a significant increase in calculated yield grade for the EOM+T treatment. No other carcass characteristics were affected by treatment (P >/= 0.10). Prevalence of total liver abscesses was reduced for steers fed tylosin compared with no tylosin (P 0.30). Feed intake patterns were similar among feed additive treatments (P > 0.13). Total VFA (P = 0.10) and acetate (P = 0.06) concentrations tended to be affected by treatment with EOM numerically greater than CON. Average ruminal pH ranged from 5.59 to 5.72 and did not differ among treatments. Addition of a EOM or monensin to a diet containing tylosin improves G:F, but little difference was observed in metabolism or digestibility.

  16. Spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo by therapeutic doses of ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Ulashchik, V. S.; Kalosha, I. I.

    2009-10-01

    The influence of therapeutic doses of UV radiation (λ = 254 nm) on spectral characteristics of blood irradiated in vivo has been studied. A comparative analysis of the electronic and IR absorption spectra of blood and its components before and after irradiation, as well as of the gas composition and concentration of blood hemoglobins, revealed that phototransformations of hemoglobins are primary mechanisms of photoreactions in blood UV irradiated in vivo.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  18. Effects of partial or total replacement of maize with alternative feed source on digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites and economics in limousin crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F H; Fang, L; Meng, Q X; Wu, H; Du, J P; Xie, X X; Ren, L P; Zhou, Z M; Zhou, B

    2014-10-01

    Increasing cost and scarcity of maize has stimulated the use of alternative feed sources (AFS) in the diets of cattle. In this study, we investigated the effects of partial or total replacement of maize on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood metabolites, and economics in Limousin crossbred feedlot cattle. Forty-five Limousin×Luxi crossbred bulls were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups, orthodox diet (OD; 45.0% maize), partial replacement diet (PRD; 15% maize, 67% AFS), total replacement diet (TRD; 0% maize, 100% AFS). The growth feeding trial lasted for 98 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) were recorded. The digestion trial was carried out after the end of the growth trial. Total faeces and feed samples were measured daily. Digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were calculated. After the feeding trial, blood metabolites were measured in 12 animals from each group. Initial and final body weights did not differ significantly among treatment groups (p>0.05). The ADG and DMI were 1.72 and 8.66, 1.60 and 9.10, and 1.40 and 9.11 kg/d for OD, PRD, and TRD, respectively. The PRD and TRD exhibited lower ADG (p0.5). Feed efficiency of PRD and TRD were lower than OD (p0.05). Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) in PRD and TRD was higher than OD (pprofit ($/head) and daily profit ($/head/d) did not differ significantly between treatments (p>0.05), although TRD showed the highest economic benefits overall (peconomically feasible due to their lower costs and comparable nutrient digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. Partial replacement may prove economically competitive in the current situation of China.

  19. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  20. Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, O M; Montano, M F; Calderon, J F; Valdez, J A; Chirino, J O; Gonzalez, V M; Salinas-Chavira, J; Mendoza, G D; Soto, S; Zinn, R A

    2016-06-01

    Eight Holstein steers (216±48 kg body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous 4×4 Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (pstraw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect (p≥0.48) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (pstraw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (pstraw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH.

  1. Type of dietary fibre (soluble versus insoluble) influences digestion, faeces characteristics and faecal waste production in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Leenhouwers, J.I.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of nutrients influence the physical characteristics of faeces and thus may affect waste removal efficiency. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of type of non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) on digesta viscosity, faeces recovery and nutrient digestibility in Nil

  2. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Performance, Carcass characteristics, Carcass Composition and Some Blood Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Endogenous enzymes of broilers cannot adequately digest nonstarch polysaccharides and subsequently the ingestion of high levels of soluble NSP leads to increased digesta viscosity and reduced nutrient digestibility and absorption. Supplementation of NSPs degrading enzymes may remove the anti nutritive effects of NSPs and release some nutrients (starch, protein from these elements. Therefore, in a completely randomized design the effects of a multi-enzyme (Endofeed W produced from Aspergillus niger, with minimum activity of 2250 u g−1 xylanase and 700 u g−1 β-glucanase supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, carcass composition and some blood parameters in Cobb 500 broilers fed on corn-soybean meal-wheat diets were studied. Approach: A total of 150 one-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 3 replicates. The main ingeridients of diets included corn, soybean meal and wheat. The enzyme levels added to the diets were 0.00 (control and 500 mg kg−1 DM. Results: Enzyme supplementation significantly improved relative growth, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 11-28 days of age. Adding enzyme significantly decreased body weight gain, feed intake and improved feed to gain ratio, energy efficiency and protein efficiency from 29-44 days of age (pConclusion: Results of this study indicated that supplementation diets with 500 mg kg−1 multi-enzyme (Endofeed W in corn-soybean meal-wheat based diet improved broiler chickens feed to gain ratio, carcass yield and it can change the concentrations of thyroid hormones and some metabolites in blood, but it had not significant effect on carcass composition.

  3. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  4. Effects of using pistachio hull and Polyethylene Glycol on intake and digestibility of feed, blood metabolites and milk yield and fatty acids profile in Saanan dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding Pistachio Hull (PH as a source of tannin and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG supplementation on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, milk yield and compositions, blood lipid metabolits and milk fatty acids profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine maltiparus Saanen dairy goats were used in a 3 × 3 replicated latin square design with 21-d periods, including 14 d of adaptation followed by 7 d of sampling. Three treatments were formulated: T1 Control, without PH, T2 30% PH and T3 30% PH + 1% PEG (DM basis. Results showed that DMI was not affected by the diets. DM, ADF and NDF digestibility were not significantly different between treatments (P

  5. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage alone or in combination with calcium in dogs: effects on apparent digestibility of fat and energy and fecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybroe, S; Astrup, A; Bjørnvad, C R

    2016-12-01

    In humans, dietary supplementation with flaxseed mucilage and calcium decrease apparent digestibility of fat and energy. These supplements could prove useful for weight management in dogs. To examine dry matter, energy and fat apparent digestibility, and fecal characteristics following dietary flaxseed mucilage supplementation alone or in combination with calcium. A single-blinded crossover feeding trial was conducted on 11 privately owned dogs. During three consecutive 14-day periods, dogs where fed commercial dog food supplemented with potato starch (control diet), flaxseed mucilage or flaxseed mucilage and calcium. Feces from the past 2 days of each period were collected for analysis. Owners recorded fecal score (1-7: 1=very hard/dry feces, 2-3=ideal and 7=diarrhea). Apparent digestibility of fat was lower in both flaxseed mucilage diet (94.5±0.8%), and flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet (92.9±0.9%) compared with control diet (96.9±0.2%, Pfat digestibility in flaxseed mucilage and calcium diet being significantly lower than the diet supplemented with only flaxseed mucilage. Dry matter and energy digestibility was not significantly affected by diet. Fecal wet weight, dry weight and dry matter percentage was not affected by diet despite a higher fecal score for test diets (3.7±0.3) compared with control (2.8±0.2, Pfat apparent digestibility and this effect was enhanced when combined with calcium. Dry matter and energy apparent digestibility was not affected. Decreased fecal quality may limit the acceptable level of supplementation. Further studies on incorporating flaxseed mucilage in pet food products for weight management are needed.

  6. Effects of Juniperus species and stage of maturity on nutritional, in vitro digestibility, and plant secondary compound characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Naumann, H D; Cherry, N M; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Estell, R E

    2015-08-01

    Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional characteristics, 48-h true IVDMD (tIVDMD), microbial gas production, and secondary compound characteristics of entire woody plant material of 4 species-, , , and -at immature and mature stages of growth. Immature plants had greater CP concentrations and lower NDF concentrations ( < 0.001) than mature plants regardless of species. Mature plants also had greater ( < 0.001) concentrations of ADF compared with immature plants with the exception of . In general, immature , , and had greater ( < 0.02) tIVDMD and total 48-h and asymptotic gas production than mature plants. Immature and plants were more digested (tIVDMD; < 0.001) than immature and , but tIVDMD did not differ in mature plant material across species. Condensed tannins (CT) were greater ( < 0.001) in immature and than mature plants; differences in CT concentrations among immature species were also detected ( < 0.04). Volatile oil yields were similar across maturity and species with 1 exception: immature yielded more ( < 0.02) volatile oil than mature material. Volatile oil composition across species varied and contained a range of 65 to 70 terpene compounds. The dominant terpenes across species were generally greater ( < 0.05) in immature vs. mature plant material with the exception of . Labdane acids were negligible in , , and and greater in ( < 0.001). Ground material from mature juniper species, although inferior in nutritional quality compared with immature plants, is comparable to traditional low-quality roughage ingredients. Given that has been successfully fed in lamb feedlot diets, the similarities of , and suggest that all three species have potential to be effective roughage ingredients.

  7. Eosinophilic density in graft biopsies positive for rejection and blood eosinophil count can predict development of post-transplant digestive tract eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jonathan W; Mohammad, Saeed; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Kagalwalla, Amir F; Arva, Nicoleta C

    2016-06-01

    EGID is a known post-transplant complication. Its etiology has been related to antirejection medication, but other factors may also play a role as only few transplant recipients develop EGID despite standardized treatment. This study aimed to determine whether EGID is associated with rejection events and with a specific phenotype of the rejection-positive graft biopsies in children with solid organ transplant. All patients with liver, heart, and kidney transplant followed at our institution were included in the study. Digestive tract eosinophilia was more common in heart and liver recipients and was a rare event after renal transplantation. Subjects with EGID had higher incidence of rejection and elevated peripheral blood AEC. The first rejection event and high AEC values preceded EGID diagnosis in the majority of patients. Histologically, the initial rejection-positive graft biopsy revealed accentuated eosinophilia in EGID patients compared with non-EGID cohort, which correlated with higher blood eosinophil counts at the time of first rejection episode. Prominent graft tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia prior to EGID diagnosis suggests a predisposition for eosinophil activation in patients with post-transplant digestive eosinophilic disorder. These parameters can be used as markers for subsequent development of EGID. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. BLOOD LEAD AND SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MENSES IN U.S. GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood Lead and Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in U.S. Girls. *T. Wu, P. Mendola, and G.M. Buck (SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214)Purpose: To investigate the association between blood lead and puberty (presence of public hair, breast development, and menarch...

  9. An explorative study of in vivo digestive starch characteristics and postprandial glucose kinetics of wholemeal wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Small, Alexandra; Preston, Tom; Elzinga, Henk; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on in vitro measurements, it is assumed that starch in wholemeal bread is rapidly digestible, which is considered to be less desirable for health. To evaluate the in vitro prediction, we characterized starch digestion of wholemeal wheat bread (WB) and postprandial glucose kinetics in healthy v

  10. Transport characteristics of tramadol in the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-10-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose action is mediated by both agonistic activity at opioid receptors and inhibitory activity on neuronal reuptake of monoamines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of tramadol by means of microdialysis studies in rat brain and in vitro studies with human immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3). The Kp,uu,brain value of tramadol determined by rat brain microdialysis was greater than unity, indicating that tramadol is actively taken up into the brain across the BBB. Tramadol was transported into hCMEC/D3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was inhibited by type II cations (pyrilamine, verapamil, etc.), but not by substrates of organic cation transporter OCTs or OCTN2. It was also inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor but was independent of extracellular sodium or membrane potential. The uptake was altered by changes of extracellular pH, and by ammonium chloride-induced intracellular acidification, suggesting that transport of tramadol is driven by an oppositely directed proton gradient. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that tramadol is actively transported, at least in part, from blood to the brain across the BBB by proton-coupled organic cation antiporter.

  11. Combined effect of crude fat content and initial substrate concentration on batch anaerobic digestion characteristics of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqin; Lang, Qianqian; Fang, Ming; Li, Xin; Bah, Hamidou; Dong, Hongmin; Dong, Renjie

    2017-05-01

    The mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) characteristics of food waste (FW) with different crude fat (CF) contents and four initial substrate concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10gVS/L) were investigated. The maximum methane yields of FW with CF contents of 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% were 565.0, 580.2, 606.0, 630.2 and 573.0mLCH4/gVSadded, respectively. An acidification trend with a drop in pH (0.4) were found for CF contents of 30% (10gVS/L) and 35% (8 and 10gVS/L). A 35% CF content in FW led to decrease in the first-order degradation constant of approximately by 40%. The modified Gompertz model showed that the lag phase (λ) was prolonged from 0.4 to 7.1days when the CF content in FW and initial substrate concentration were increased to 35% and 10gVS/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions.

  13. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  14. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Riviere, Beatrice; Penny, Daniel J; Rusin, Craig G

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time-step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ...

  15. Growth performance, nutrients digestibility, and blood metabolites of lambs fed diets supplemented with probiotics during pre- and post-weaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Saleem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects on growth performance, digestibility, and blood metabolites of lambs during pre- and post-weaning period of inclusion of a commercial probiotic (PRO containing a mixture of two strains of Pediococcus, Pediococcus acidilactici (1×106 colony-forming unit [cfu]/g and Pediococcus pentosaceus (1.3×106 cfu/g, with dextrose as the carrier compound compared to a diet based on concentrate mixture and wheat straw. Methods In exp. 1, 24 male lambs of about 15±2.6 d age and initial body weight (BW of 5.52±0.6 kg were randomly allocated into three groups. One group received control diet without additives, and remainders received control diet supplemented with 0.5 or 1 g PRO/lamb/d. Daily feed intake and biweekly BW were recorded. In exp. 2, five lambs, (initial BW = 29.72±1.15 kg, age = 6.54±0.32 mo were used as experimental animals in a digestion trial. They were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. Results The supplementation of PRO did not result in any significant differences in milk intake, average daily gain (ADG, or total gain between treatments during the pre-weaning period. Total dry matter intake tended to be greater (p = 0.07 with addition of PRO in the post-weaning diets. During post-weaning phase, the final BW, ADG, total gain, and feed conversion ratio of the lambs receiving PRO treatments tended to be greater (p≤0.10 than the control group. Addition of PRO in post-weaning diet decreased (p≤0.01 blood urea and cholesterol concentrations. With the exception of ether extract digestibility, all nutrients digestibility were improved with inclusion PRO in the post-weaning diets. Conclusion Lambs that received PRO in post-weaning diet appeared to show a better performance than lambs in pre-weaning period. Addition of the probiotic in the post-weaning diet trended towards improved dry matter intake, growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and nutrients digestibility.

  16. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  17. Modelling grass digestibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Grass digestibility is determined by the rate of plant development, mass of plant organs (leaf blades, leaf sheaths and stem internodes) and composition of organs. The development of an integrating model for grass digestibility necessitates the quantification of developmental characteristics of plan

  18. Effects of blood in veins of dragonfly wing on the vibration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhao, Hongxiao; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    How the blood in veins of dragonfly wing affects its vibration characteristics is investigated. Based on the experimental results of the wing's morphology and microstructures, including the veins, the membranes and the pterostigma, accurate three-dimensional finite element models of the dragonfly forewing are developed. Considering the blood in veins, the total mass, mass distribution and the moments of inertia of the wing are studied. The natural frequencies/modal shapes are analyzed when the veins are filled with and without blood, respectively. The based natural frequency of the model with blood (189 Hz) is much closer to the experimental result. Relative to bending modal shapes, the torsional ones are affected more significantly by the blood. The results in this article reveal the multi-functions of the blood in dragonfly wings and have important implications for the bionic design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

  19. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  20. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority.

  1. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  2. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  3. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  4. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  5. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Beloshapka, Alison N; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. Four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, Malayan tigers, jaguars, and Amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. Raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). All cats were acclimated to the diet for 16 days followed by a 4 day collection period, where total feces, including one fresh sample, were collected. All feces were scored on collection. Intake did not differ due to diet, but fecal output was greater when cats consumed the horse-based diet. Total tract apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher (Phorse-based diet. CP digestibility was similar in domestic cats and cheetahs, and greater (Phorse-based diet compared with the beef-based diet. Domestic cats had lower (Phorse-based diet. Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the beef-based diet. Our results suggest that the domestic cat serves as an appropriate model for large exotic felid species, but differences among the species exist. Decreased nutrient digestibility by tigers and jaguars should be considered when developing feeding recommendations for these species based on domestic cat data.

  6. 论脉之生理特性%Discussion of physiological characteristic of blood vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲

    2011-01-01

    The blood vessel has been named as extraordinary Fu-organ by traditional Chinese medicine. It's role is transporting the blood to nourishing the tissues and organs. As it hide between in the tissues,it lacks of the theories of physiological and pathological characteristics. So more blood vessel's diseases must be treated by adjusting blood. By modern technology,it has been proved that the blood vessel's disease is not only independent existence,but also the main pathological factor of the blood diseases. So preventing the blood vessel diseases,the main method is regulating and nourishing the blood vessel. This article thought that the physiological characteristics of the blood vessel are having unblocked's and nomal contraction or expansion's and solid wall's channel. It's also an organ of more Qi and blood. Besides the heart control,the healthy of blood vessel dependent on the unfold and smooth's liver Qi,and spleen Qi's manage.%传统中医学认为脉是奇恒之腑,具有输送血液濡养组织器官的作用.由于脉深藏于组织之间,故缺乏对脉生理、病理特点的论述,致使脉病多从血论治.现代科技手段证明脉病不仅独立存在,还是导致血病的主要病理因素.调脉、养脉是防治血病的重要环节.认为脉以柔顺畅达、舒缩有度、约束有节为生理特性,为多气多血组织,除心主血脉外,肝气的疏泄及脾气固摄都是脉保持健康、通畅的保证.

  7. Clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansui, Yasuo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Kida, Haruko; Sakata, Satoko; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Ibaraki, Ai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    Strict control of blood pressure is important to prevent cardiovascular disease, although it is sometimes difficult to decrease blood pressure to target levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of resistant hypertension evaluated by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred in-hospital patients, whose 24-hour average blood pressure was higher than 130/80 mmHg even after treatment with more than three antihypertensive drugs, were included in the present analysis. Circadian variation of blood pressure was evaluated by nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure. Average blood pressures of all patients were high in both daytime and nighttime, 150.0/82.9 and 143.8/78.2 mmHg, respectively. Twenty patients had been treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In 63 patients out of the other 80 patients (79%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was also decreased (blood pressure variation only by renal dysfunction. These results show that a large number of the patients with resistant hypertension suffered from renal dysfunction, although it was difficult to explain altered circadian blood pressure variation based on renal dysfunction alone.

  8. Effects of Feeding Barley Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Chemistry of Gilts and Growth Recoveries by Feeding a Non-contaminated Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of feeding barley naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth performance, vulva swelling, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein of gilts and the recovery of gilts fed normal diets immediately after the exposure to contaminated diets by measuring growth performance and vulva swelling. In Exp. 1, four diets were prepared to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% contaminated barley containing 25.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol and 26.0 μg/kg zearalenone. Sixteen gilts with an initial body weight (BW of 33.3 kg (standard deviation = 3.0 were individually housed in a metabolism crate and assigned to 4 diets with 4 replicates in a randomized complete block design based on BW. During the 14-d feeding trial, individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal lengths of vulva were measured every 3 d. From d 10, feces were collected by the maker-to-marker method for 4 d. Blood samples were collected on d 14. During the overall period, the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain:feed of pigs linearly decreased (p<0.01 as the dietary concentration of contaminated barley increased. However, the digestibility of crude protein was linearly increased (p = 0.011 with the increasing amounts of contaminated barley. Increasing dietary Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations did not influence vulva size, blood characteristic as well as immunoglobulin level of pigs. In the Exp. 2, a corn-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a recovery diet. Pigs were fed the recovery diet immediately after completion of the Exp. 1. During the 14-d of recovery period, the individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal length of vulva were measured every 3 d from d 0. On d 7, the feed intake of pigs previously fed contaminated diets already reached that of pigs fed a diet with 0% contaminated barley and no

  9. [Serological Characteristics and Family Survey of 3 Cases of H-deficient Blood Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wei; Gao, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Lin-Wei

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the serological characteristics and the genetic status of the family of H-deficient blood group in Jining area of Shandong province in China. ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. The presence of weak A or B on the RBC was confirmed by using the adsorption-elution procedure. Three cases of H-deficient blood group were identified to be para-Bombay blood group (secretor), out of 3 cases, 2 cases were Bh, 1 case was Ah, and anti-H or anti-HI antibody was detected in their serum. Three cases of H-deficerent blood group are para-Bombay phenotype, among them one proband's parents have been confirmed to be consanguineous relationship.

  10. Fat digestibility, nitrogen retention, and fatty acid profiles in blood and tissues of post-weaning piglets fed interesterified fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Jakobsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a designer fat as to changes in triacylglycerol structure in dietary fat on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profile of plasma, erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were examined in four groups of post-weaning piglets. The test...... fats added by 10% (w/w) to the diets were: R1 regiospecific structured fats with decanoic acid mainly located in the sn-1/3 positions and a long-chain fatty acid from rapeseed oil in the sn-2 position, R2 similar fat subjected to chemical randomization, R3 physical mixture of tridecanoin and rapeseed...

  11. Chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, digestibility, and degradability of silages from two amaranth varieties (Kharkovskiy and Sem), corn, and an amaranth-corn combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahjerdi, N Karimi; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-12-01

    Amaranth ( sp.) is a C plant adapted to poor soils and regions with limited rainfall and high temperatures. The plant is characterized by a yield of up to 85 t/ha, CP concentration of up to 28.5% of DM, and DM digestibility of 59 to 79%, which may vary depending on the species and variety. The potential of this plant as a forage source for ruminants has not been completely considered. This study aimed at assessing the nutritive value of silages from corn (), 2 amaranth () varieties (var. Kharkovskiy and Sem), and an amaranth-corn combination by chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vivo digestibility, and in situ DM degradability. Treatments evaluated were ensiled corn var. hybrid SC 704 (EC), ensiled amaranth var. Kharkovskiy (EK), ensiled amaranth var. Sem (ES), ensiled corn-amaranth var. Kharkovskiy mixture, and ensiled corn-amaranth var. Sem mixture. Five sheep were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to determine in vivo digestibility. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ DM degradability using 3 ruminally fistulated sheep. Compared with EK, ES had greater ash-free NDF (NDFom) and CP concentrations. In comparison with EC, the ensiled amaranths and corn-amaranth mixtures had a greater ( Silage pH and ammonia-N concentration were the least ( silages. The in vivo DM digestibility ( = 0.035) and ME ( = 0.030) of EK and ES were greater than those of EC. Effective degradability of DM in EK and ES was less ( silages. Overall, mixing amaranth with corn improved concentration of CP and digestibility of the mixed corn-amaranth silages and has the potential of completing corn in ruminant diets.

  12. Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Seda, P.; Killeen, G.F.; Hawley, W.A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The success of distinguishing blood meal sources of Anopheles gambiae Giles through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification at the TC-11 and VWA human short tandem repeats (STR) loci. Blood meal size and locus had no significant effect

  13. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  14. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  15. Effect of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as a forage source in growing and finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C P; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2017-07-01

    Two experiments evaluated the use of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as an alternative forage source in feedlot diets. Seventy-two crossbred steers (397 kg [SD 23]) were used to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by BW into pens of 6 steers and randomly assigned to growing diets containing 40% (DM basis) sorghum silage (SS; 57.6% NDF) or grass hay (CON; 63.3% NDF) for 56 d ( = 6 pens per treatment). Within each treatment, steers transitioned to dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets (fed for 56 d) containing 6% effective NDF contributed by the forage source, resulting in forage inclusions of 16% for SS and 13.1% for CON, where forage replaced corn. A subsample of steers ( = 12 per treatment) housed in pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks were used for determination of growing phase diet total tract digestibility. From d 28 to 42, steers received titanium dioxide at approximately 10 g∙steer∙d, and fecal samples were collected on d 41 and 42. Fecal and total mixed ration samples were dried and ground for analysis of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract (EE), and starch. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS, with fixed effects of treatment and block for performance and carcass data or treatment for digestibility data; significance was determined at ≤ 0.05 and tendencies at ≤ 0.10. Growing phase DMI and ADG did not differ due to treatment ( ≥ 0.19); however, SS-fed steers had improved G:F compared with CON-fed steers ( = 0.04). Finishing period ADG and G:F did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between treatments, despite SS-fed steers having lesser ( = 0.008) DMI than CON-fed steers. No differences in DMI, ADG, or G:F over the whole trial were noted between treatments ( ≥ 0.12) nor were any carcass traits affected ( ≥ 0.23). During the digestibility assessment period, DMI was less ( = 0.003) in SS-fed steers. Growing phase total tract apparent digestibility of DM and starch did not differ ( ≥ 0.19) due to treatment

  16. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.

  18. Relationship between wheat characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers: comparison between total collection and marker (titanium dioxide) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, N; Nuyens, F; Van Campenhout, L; Delezie, E; Pannecoucque, J; Niewold, T

    2015-07-01

    Three wheat cultivars (Orpheus, Rustic, and Viscount) were used to formulate 3 test feeds (62.4% wheat) in a broiler digestibility trial. The diets were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The wheat cultivars mainly differed in their amount of non-starch polysaccharides ( NSP: ). The cultivar Orpheus was chosen to represent a high amount of NSP (102 g/kg DM), whereas the cultivars Rustic and Viscount represented low amounts of NSP (83.4 g/kg DM and 73.9 g/kg DM, respectively). Furthermore, the cultivars Orpheus and Viscount were feed quality wheat, whereas Rustic was a milling quality wheat. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn contents of the diets were measured from 18 to 22-days-old by total excreta collection, or with the use of the indigestible marker titanium dioxide. In addition, the ileal viscosity was measured when the broilers were 25-days-old. Wheat cultivar affected N retention, DM digestibility, and AMEn. In general, the feed formulated with the high NSP wheat cultivar Orpheus resulted in the least favorable nutrient digestibilities and AMEn, whereas the results were better when the feed was formulated with the low NSP cultivars Viscount and Rustic. Feeding the Rustic cultivar caused the highest intestinal viscosity, although this was not reflected in the animal responses. Nutrient digestibilities and AMEn content of the diets were lower when calculated with the titanium dioxide marker than with the total excreta collection procedure. Moreover, the P-values of the effect of wheat cultivar on DM digestibility, N retention, crude fat digestibility and AMEn were lower with the use of the titanium dioxide marker. It can be concluded that wheat cultivar affected nutrient digestibility and AMEn, and that the observed differences were related to the amount of NSP. Furthermore, both the titanium dioxide marker and the total excreta collection methods showed the same trends despite the different values obtained. The titanium dioxide marker method was the

  19. Blood viscosity monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass based on pressure-flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Shigeyuki; Zu Soh; Takahashi, Shinya; Sueda, Taijiro; Tsuji, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a blood viscosity estimation method based on pressure-flow characteristics of oxygenators used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a previous study that showed the estimated viscosity to correlate well with the measured viscosity. However, the determination of the parameters included in the method required the use of blood, thereby leading to high cost of calibration. Therefore, in this study we propose a new method to monitor blood viscosity, which approximates the pressure-flow characteristics of blood considered as a non-Newtonian fluid with characteristics of a Newtonian fluid by using the parameters derived from glycerin solution to enable ease of acquisition. Because parameters used in the estimation method are based on fluid types, bovine blood parameters were used to calculate estimated viscosity (ηe), and glycerin parameters were used to estimate deemed viscosity (ηdeem). Three samples of whole bovine blood with different hematocrit levels (21.8%, 31.0%, and 39.8%) were prepared and perfused into the oxygenator. As the temperature changed from 37 °C to 27 °C, the oxygenator mean inlet pressure and outlet pressure were recorded for flows of 2 L/min and 4 L/min, and the viscosity was estimated. The value of deemed viscosity calculated with the glycerin parameters was lower than estimated viscosity calculated with bovine blood parameters by 20-33% at 21.8% hematocrit, 12-27% at 31.0% hematocrit, and 10-15% at 39.8% hematocrit. Furthermore, deemed viscosity was lower than estimated viscosity by 10-30% at 2 L/min and 30-40% at 4 L/min. Nevertheless, estimated and deemed viscosities varied with a similar slope. Therefore, this shows that deemed viscosity achieved using glycerin parameters may be capable of successfully monitoring relative viscosity changes of blood in a perfusing oxygenator.

  20. Characteristic of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaochao; Xu Mingtong; Kong Minyi; Xue Shengneng

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To observe the characteristic of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive diabetic subjects with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Methods Fifty-two normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes received ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were divided into normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups according to their albumin excretion rate, the other 28 normotensive subjects without diabetes were contributed as control group. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on a working day and measurement of blood pressure circadian rhythm was analyzed. Results Normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients had higher night-time systolic blood pressure and more blood pressure burden than normotensive normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Additionally, the microalbuminuric patients had a higher frequency of non-dippers than normoalbuminuric ones, although they were all normotensive. Compared to the normotensive non-diabetic control subjects, the nighttime systolic blood pressure and frequency of nondippers of the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients were significantly higher. Conclusions Intensive attention should be paid in control of blood pressure in diabetic patients to prevent and limit damage of target organ including kidney, even in those normotensive subjects.

  1. [Spectrophotometric characteristics of the amniotic fluid in Rh isoimmunization following intrauterine fetal blood transfusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrova, T S; Vasileva, Iu

    1989-01-01

    The amniotic fluids of 7 pregnant women with Rh-isoimmunization were examined. On the basis of the data of this investigation as well as of the clinical and ultrasound data intrauterine blood transfusions were made in fetuses--from 4 to 8 in number. Forty two spectrophotometric analyses were made in all, but the amniotic fluids were examined before intrauterine blood transfusions as well as before the performance of each subsequent blood transfusion. The authors found changes in the characteristic of the amniotic fluid after intrauterine blood transfusion, which were manifested by the fact that the pigment peak of delta 450 nm was reduced, but the peak of delta 410 nm was increased. In connection with these findings after intrauterine blood transfusions delta 450 nm lost its diagnostic and prognostic value. delta 410 nm before intrauterine blood transfusions manifested gravity of fetal hemolytic disease. After intrauterine blood transfusions its increase was due to blood transfusions and accumulation of methemoglobin in the amniotic fluid.

  2. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  3. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.01) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance.

  4. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the GI tract, also called gut flora or microbiome, help with digestion. Parts of the nervous and circulatory systems also play roles in the digestive process. Together, a combination of nerves, hormones, bacteria, blood, and the organs ...

  5. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF.

  6. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p flow than controls (p blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7%, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9%). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow.

  7. Slowly digestible starch from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch: preparation, structural characteristics, and glucose response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was optimized to increase the formation of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in waxy potato starch, and the structural and physiological properties of this starch were investigated. A maximum SDS content (41.8%) consistent with the expected value (40.1%) was obtained after...

  8. On the non-linear attachment characteristics of blood to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Diosángeles Soto; Alam, Catharina; Toivola, Diana M; Toivakka, Martti; Alam, Parvez

    2014-04-01

    In this communication, we report a non-linear variation in the strength of blood attachment to bacterial cellulose/kaolin biomaterials as the fractions of bacterial cellulose to kaolin are increased. The changes observed for attachment strength are elucidated following both experimental and numerical investigations on both the biomaterial and the blood-biomaterial interface. Our research reveals that the non-linear strength of attachment of blood is related to topographical characteristics on the surface of the biomaterial, the maleability of the biomaterial and the intermolecular strength of attraction between clotted blood proteins (fibrinogen) with the cellulose/kaolin components of the biomaterial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Research on flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump based on CFD technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunzhang; Luo, Binhai; Wu, Wenquan; Jiang, Lei

    2010-10-01

    The problem of thrombus and hemolysis in blood pump has always been an important topic to study in the development of the blood pump. Numbers of research results show that it is the complicated flow and the high shear stress of the mechanical movement that result in the thrombus and hemolysis. In this study, with the cooperation of Shanghai Children's Medical Center, we have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial software FLUENT to compute and analyze the flow characteristics in a non-blade centrifugal blood pump. The results figure out that this pump has a reasonable flow distribution and the shear stress distribution is under the critical broken state of red blood cell; meanwhile, there is less thrombus and hemolysis in this pump. So it is in the foreground for clinical use.

  10. Fate of PCBs, PAHs and their source characteristic ratios during composting and digestion of source-separated organic waste in full-scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braendli, Rahel C. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECOTOX), Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: thomas.bucheli@art.admin.ch; Kupper, Thomas [Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, EAWAG, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Mayer, Jochen [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Stadelmann, Franz X. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Analytical Chemistry, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tarradellas, Joseph [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECOTOX), Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Composting and digestion are important waste management strategies. However, the resulting products can contain significant amounts of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study we followed the concentration changes of PCBs and PAHs during composting and digestion on field-scale for the first time. Concentrations of low-chlorinated PCBs increased during composting (about 30%), whereas a slight decrease was observed for the higher chlorinated congeners (about 10%). Enantiomeric fractions of atropisomeric PCBs were essentially racemic and stable over time. Levels of low-molecular-weight PAHs declined during composting (50-90% reduction), whereas high-molecular-weight compounds were stable. The PCBs and PAHs concentrations did not seem to vary during digestion. Source apportionment by applying characteristic PAH ratios and molecular markers in input material did not give any clear results. Some of these parameters changed considerably during composting. Hence, their diagnostic potential for finished compost must be questioned. - During field-scale composting, low molecular weight PCBs and PAHs increased and decreased, respectively, whereas high molecular weight compounds remained st0010ab.

  11. In vitro digestibility, crystallinity, rheological, thermal, particle size and morphological characteristics of pinole, a traditional energy food obtained from toasted ground maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Y; Utrilla-Coello, R; Bello-Pérez, A; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2015-06-05

    Flour obtained from toasted ground maize grains is widely consumed by different ethnic groups of Northern Mexico and Southwest USA as an energy source. In this work the in vitro digestibility, crystallinity, rheological, thermal, particle size distribution and morphological characteristics of toasted ground white and blue maize flours were studied. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystallinity content was reduced, but that the hydrolysis rate and the in vitro digestibility of starch were greatly improved by the toasting process. The relative amount of rapidly digestible starch showed an important increase at the expense of resistant starch content reduction. The thermal properties of white maize starch increased slightly, but those of the blue maize starch decreased slightly after toasting. Aqueous dispersions formed with 10% (w/w) flour were heated at 90°C for 5min to induce starch gelling, in order to resemble thin porridges. The dispersed gels exhibited higher elastic modulus (G') than loss modulus (G'') in the linear viscoelastic region, with blue maize dispersions displaying higher moduli magnitudes. At higher shear strain amplitudes, G' decreased but G'' first increased and then decreased (overshoot phenomenon). The effects of toasting on the structure and functionality of maize starch are explained on the basis of limited gelatinization of the granules. The results in this work provide insights for understanding the extensive use of pinole by impoverished ethnic groups, and more recently by high performance ultra-runners and athletes, as an energy food.

  12. The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without hydrolysed protein sources on digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, A; Hesta, M; Hermans, J M; Janssens, G P J

    2006-11-01

    Dogs with food allergy are often treated by giving a diet with hydrolysed protein sources. Prebiotics might also be successful in prevention and treatment of allergic disease through their effect on the colonic microflora, analogous to studies on probiotics in allergic children. The present study was set up to investigate the effect of supplementing inulin (IN) to commercial hypoallergenic dog diets on apparent nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, haematology and Ig in dogs. Supplementation of 3 % IN did not affect faecal pH, food and water intake and urine production. Compared with the intact protein diet with a limited number of ingredients (L), the diet with a hydrolysed protein source (H) resulted in an increased water intake (Pdogs fed the L+IN diet. Total faecal IgA concentrations were lower in the H group (P<0.05) because of lower antigenic stimulation of hydrolysed protein, which implies that hydrolysed protein is really hypoallergenic. The present study indicates that the use of hydrolysed protein diets for canine food allergy treatment can affect digestibility and that combination with IN affected apparent protein digestibility but not IgA response.

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Egorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to evaluate macro-and microrheology hemorheological characteristics parameters in patients with COPD, and their dependence on the severity of COPD.Materials and methods. The study included 107 people, 80 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease I, II, III, IV degree and 27 persons as a control group. Rheological examination included determination of the viscosity of whole blood and erythrocyte suspensions with a hematocrit (HT 40 % in plasma and nonggregating environment, the plasma viscosity. Measuring the effectiveness of oxygen delivery to tissues produced by the formula: TO2 = Ht/η, where η — viscosity of blood. The degree of erythrocyte aggregation was evaluated by microscopy with video recording of diluted blood, and computer image analysis. Indices of rigidity of the red blood cells were calculated, indicators of internal viscosity of red blood cell content and efficiency of transport of oxygen to the tissues.Results. In patients with COPD were identified expressed disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters were identified. Blood viscosity at all shear stresses were increased by 23–27% compared with the control group, plasma viscosity – 21.5 % (p < 0.001. Indicators of hemoglobin and hematocrit (by 9.7 % and 8.8 % respectively, p < 0,001 were Significantly higher in patients with COPD. The viscosity of erythrocyte suspension to a standard hematocrit of 40 % in saline and in autologous plasma at different shear stresses were increased by 19,5–25,3 % (p < 0,001 and 22–24 % (p < 0,001, respectively. Revealed significant changes in properties of the blood stream, which in turn led to a marked reduction in oxygen-function of the blood in 27.5 % (p < 0.001.Conclusions. In patients with COPD, there are marked disturbances of macro-and microrheology of blood parameters, the viscosity of whole blood and plasma increases greatly, red blood cell deformability is reduced, and changing of the

  14. A comparison of microbial characteristics between the thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters exposed to elevated food waste loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohui; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Faqian; Zhu, Weijing; Wu, Weixiang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion reactors (TR and MR) using food waste as substrate were compared with emphasis on microbial responses to increasing organic loading rate (OLR). At OLR ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 g VS L(-1) d(-1), MR exhibited more stable performance compared to TR in terms of methane yield. Amplicons pyrosequencing results revealed the distinct microbial dynamics in the two reactors. Primarily, MR had greater richness and evenness of bacteria species. With OLR elevated, larger shifts of bacterial phylogeny were observed in MR; Methanosaeta dominated in archaeal community in MR while Methanothermobacter and Methanoculleus were favored in TR. The high functional redundancy in bacterial community integrated with acetoclastic methanogenesis in MR resulted in its better performance; whereas delicate interactions between hydrogen-producer and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in TR were much more prone to disruption. These results are conductive to understanding the microbial mechanisms of low methane yield during food waste anaerobic digestion.

  15. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  16. Enhanced waste activated sludge digestion using a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor: performance, sludge characteristics and microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) plays an important role in waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment; however, conventional AD (CAD) process needs substantial improvements, especially for the treatment of WAS with low solids content and poor anaerobic biodegradability. Herein, we propose a submerged anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) for simultaneous WAS thickening and digestion without any pretreatment. During the long-term operation, the AnDMBR exhibited an enhanced sludge reduction and improved methane production over CAD process. Moreover, the biogas generated in the AnDMBR contained higher methane content than CAD process. Stable carbon isotopic signatures elucidated the occurrence of combined methanogenic pathways in the AnDMBR process, in which hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway made a larger contribution to the total methane production. It was also found that organic matter degradation was enhanced in the AnDMBR, thus providing more favorable substrates for microorganisms. Pyrosequencing revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were abundant in bacterial communities and Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta in archaeal communities, which played an important role in the AnDMBR system. This study shed light on the enhanced digestion of WAS using AnDMBR technology.

  17. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M.M. de; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and

  18. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M.M. de; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and met

  19. Biofuel feedstock and blended coproducts compared with deoiled corn distillers grains in feedlot diets: Effects on cattle growth performance, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, T L; Campanili, P R B; Lemos, B J M; Ovinge, L A; Baggerman, J O; McCuistion, K C; Galyean, M L; Sarturi, J O; Trojan, S J

    2016-01-01

    Crossbred steers (British × Continental; = 192; initial BW 391 ± 28 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of feeding ethanol coproducts on feedlot cattle growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by initial BW and assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments within block. Treatments (replicated in 8 pens with 4 steers/pen) included 1) control, steam-flaked corn-based diet (CTL), 2) corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS; DRY-C), 3) deoiled corn dried DGS (DRY-CLF), 4) blended 50/50 corn/sorghum dried DGS (DRY-C/S), 5) sorghum dried DGS (DRY-S), and 6) sorghum wet DGS (WET-S). Inclusion of DGS was 25% (DM basis). The DGS diets were isonitrogenous, CTL was formulated for 13.5% CP, and all diets were balanced for ether extract. Final shrunk BW, ADG, and DMI did not differ among CTL and DGS treatments ( ≥ 0.19). Overall G:F did not differ from CTL for DRY-C, DRY-CLF, or WET-S ( ≥ 0.12); however, G:F was 9.6% less for DRY-S compared with CTL ( < 0.01) and tended ( = 0.09) to be less for DRY-C/S than CTL. For grain source, ADG and G:F were less for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.05), but blending DRY-C/S tended ( = 0.07) to increase ADG and increased ( = 0.05) carcass-adjusted G:F vs. DRY-S. For WET-S, final BW and ADG were greater ( < 0.05), and G:F tended ( = 0.06) to be greater than for DRY-S. There was no difference in ADG, DMI, or G:F of steers fed DRY-C vs. DRY-CLF ( ≥ 0.35). Apparent DM and OM digestibility did not differ for CTL, DRY-C, DRY-CLF, and WET-S ( ≥ 0.30) but were lower for DRY-C/S and DRY-S ( < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was lower for DRY-S vs. DRY-C ( < 0.01), but apparent digestibility of OM, DM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract, and starch were increased ( < 0.01) for DRY-C/S vs. DRY-S. Although starch digestibility did not differ between DRY-S and WET-S ( 0.18), digestibility of other measured nutrients was greater for WET-S vs. DRY-S ( < 0.01). Ether extract digestibility was

  20. Characteristic absorption peak of the human blood measured with differential photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new highly sensitive spectroscopy technique- differential photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is presented in this paper. The blood samples from 3 healthy persons, patients with leukemia, patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and 40 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured by the PAS technique. The normalized, the first order, and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy of the blood were gained. The results show that (ⅰ) weak absorption peaks or shoulder peaks, which could not be found using conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy, were determined by the first order and the second order differential photoacoustic spectroscopy which significantly improve the sensitivity of detection; and (ii) that two characteristic absorption peaks were found at the wavelength of 637 and 664 nm in all persons' blood samples by the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. This experiment concludes that the differential photoacoustic spectroscopy technique is superior to the conventional photoacoustic spectroscopy technique in detecting photoacoustic spectroscopy of biological samples.

  1. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Raskin, R.E.; Balazs, G.H.; Whittaker, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective - To identify and characterize blood cells from free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas. Sample Population - 26 green turtles from Puako on the island of Hawaii and Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu. Procedure - Blood was examined, using light and electron microscopy and cytochemical stains that included benzidine peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, alpha naphthyl butyrate esterase, acid phosphatase, Sudan black B, periodic acid-Schiff, and toluidine blue. Results - 6 types of WBC were identified: lymphocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, heterophils, basophils, and eosinophils (small and large). Morphologic characteristics of mononuclear cells and most granulocytes were similar to those of cells from other reptiles except that green turtles have both large and small eosinophils. Conclusions - Our classification of green turtle blood cells clarifies imporoper nomenclature reported previously and provides a reference for future hematologic studies in this species.

  2. [Clinical characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with abnormal complete blood count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Miao; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Bin; Chen, Ding-Bao; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Lu, Jin; Lu, Xi-Jing; Bao, Li; Shi, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) with an abnormal complete blood count (CBC). Data of 19 newly diagnosed SMZL patients with abnormal CBC were analyzed retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by using splenic histology, 12 patients who did not undergo splenectomy were diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical presentation and cytologic, immunophenotypic and histologic characteristics of peripheral blood and bone marrow, according to SBLG guidelines. The results showed that leukocytosis (≥ 10.0×10(9)/L) was seen in 5 cases (26.3%); leukocytopenia (complete response was achieved in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. It is concluded that SMZL with abnormal CBC has a higher incidence of cytopenia, bone marrow involvement and autoimmune phenomena. Therapeutic strategies consisting of Rituximab show a better efficacy.

  3. Cryopreservation does not affect the stem characteristics of multipotent cells isolated from equine peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Mascarello, Francesco; Patruno, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian adult stem cells show, in vitro, extensive differentiative ability and may represent a versatile tool for tissue regenerative purposes, even after long term storage. Multipotent stem cells isolated from horse blood have been shown to possess the capacity to differentiate into diverse mesenchymal lineages although their full characterization is still at an early stage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cryopreservation on stemness characteristics of adult equine mes...

  4. Ultrasonic characteristics and clinical significance of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai; Yin Xu; Xing-Wei Ma; Li Zhang; Ming-Juan Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study ultrasonic characteristics of umbilical cord blood flow in acute fetal distress and its correlation with umbilical artery blood gas parameters, oxidative stress parameters, neonatal brain injury and myocardial injury. Methods: The pregnant women delivered in Department of Obstetrics of our hospital were chosen during the period from May 2012 to August 2015. The pregnant women with acute fetal distress were included in the distress group, and the healthy pregnant women with no acute fetal distress were included in the control group. The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio of umbilical artery were measured at 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy. After delivery, umbilical artery blood was taken for analysis of blood gas and determination of oxidative stress parameters. The venous blood of newborns was taken to measure the myocardial injury and brain injury parameters. Results: At 24–30 weeks, 31–36 weeks and 37–41 weeks of pregnancy, RI, S/D and PI in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group. The pH, contents of arterial partial pressure of oxygen, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dis-mutase and glutathione peroxidase in umbilical artery blood in pregnant women of distress group was significantly lower than those in control group and negatively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery, lactic acid and malondialdehyde in pregnant women of distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated with the umbilical artery RI, PI and S/D. The contents of lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB, S100B, neuron-specific enolase, creatine kinase-BB and Tau in newborns' venous blood in distress group were significantly higher than those in control group and positively correlated

  5. Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fabiano Werner Koscheck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. The supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

  6. The Effects Of Antiretroviral Drugs On The Absorbance Characteristics Of Blood Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the absorbance characteristics of blood components have been studied. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs two HAARTFDC and three single drugs and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten blood samples of HIV negative persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. Reflectance Dielectric constant etc were derived from the absorbance data. For these drugs to be effective as HIV blockers they should be able to coat the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The question therefore arises as to what extent these drugs are able to coat the surfaces of the blood cells This was established using the extent of absorbance change. Models for coating effectiveness were formulated. The coating effectiveness was therefore calculated from peak absorbance values. Red blood cells were shown not to give reliable results. The results obtained however establish the fact that some coating of the drug had really occurred on the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The drug films were determined for lymphocytes and used to explain some observed clinical findings. The use of the findings of this work in drug design may be expected to yield good results.

  7. Characteristic microbial community of a dry thermophilic methanogenic digester: its long-term stability and change with feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Ji, Pan; Hayashi, Junpei; Koike, Yoji; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    Thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion of sludge for cellulose methanization was acclimated at 53 °C for nearly 5 years using a waste paper-based medium. The stability of the microbial community structure and the microbial community responsible for the cellulose methanization were studied by 16S rRNA gene-based clone library analysis. The microbial community structure remained stable during the long-term acclimation period. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated in methanogens and Methanothermobacter, Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanosarcina were responsible for the methane production. Bacteria showed relatively high diversity and distributed mainly in the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Synergistetes. Ninety percent of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, indicating the crucial roles of this phylum in the digestion. Relatives of Clostridium stercorarium, Clostridium thermocellum, and Halocella cellulosilytica were dominant cellulose degraders. The acclimated stable sludge was used to treat garbage stillage discharged from a fuel ethanol production process, and the shift of microbial communities with the change of feed was analyzed. Both archaeal and bacterial communities had obviously changed: Methanoculleus spp. and Methanothermobacter spp. and the protein- and fatty acid-degrading bacteria became dominant. Accumulation of ammonia as well as volatile fatty acids led to the inhibition of microbial activity and finally resulted in the deterioration of methane fermentation of the garbage stillage.

  8. Morphological characteristics of the digestive tract of Schizodon knerii (Steindachner, 1875, (Characiformes: Anostomidae: An anatomical, histological and histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella L. Dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tracts of 44 specimens of Schizodon knerii were studied using anatomical, histological and histochemical techniques. The mouth has terminal position, the lip epithelium is squamous stratified with mucous, claviform cells and taste buds, teeth have an incisive form and the tongue has a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells and taste buds. The oropharynx cavity is formed by gill apparatus and pharyngeal teeth. The oesophagus presented pleated mucosa, a stratified squamous epithelium with mucous cells, oesophageal glands and taste buds. The stomach presented cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions, simple prismatic epithelium with tubular glands, with none in the pyloric region. The intestine contains 11-15 pyloric caeca, a simple prismatic epithelium with brush border, goblet cells and lymphocytes. Mucosal cells, oesophageal glands and goblet cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. Gastric prismatic cells reacted positively to PAS, amylase + PAS, but only those in the pyloric region reacted positively to Ab pH 2.5 and Ab pH 0.5. The results improve the understanding of the anatomy of S. knerii feeding habits and the presence of mucosubstances in the epithelium, highlights the importance of glycoproteins for passing food through the digestive tract.

  9. Mathematical modeling for the prediction of biogas generation characteristics of an anaerobic digester based on food/vegetable residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, J.; Chowdhury, R.; Bhattacharya, P. [Chemical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2007-01-15

    An anaerobic digester of 10L capacity has been operated in batch mode at an optimum temperature of 40{sup o}C and at a pH of 6.8 using vegetable/food residues as the feed material. The effect of slurry concentration and that of the concentration of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the slurry on the biogas production rate and methane concentration in the biogas have been studied. The slurry concentration has been varied in the range of 72.0-700kgm{sup -3}. At a slurry concentration of 67.7kgm{sup -3} the effect of carbohydrate concentration has been studied by varying the ratios of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the range of 6.9:4.3:1-12.1:4.3:1 by using a sole carbohydrate source, namely sucrose. The effect of protein concentration has been studied by varying the ratios of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the range of 5.6:7.0:1-5.6:13.0:1 by using a sole protein source, namely papain and that of fat concentration has been studied by varying the ratios of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the range of 7.2:10:1.6-7.2:10:5 by using a fat source, namely vanaspati. A deterministic mathematical model using differential system equations have been developed and it is capable of predicting the behaviour of the digester satisfactorily. (author)

  10. Heart period and blood pressure characteristics in splanchnic arterial occlusion shock-induced collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletti, Federico; Gambarotta, Nicolò; Penn, Alexander H; Ferrario, Manuela; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2017-02-01

    The nature of hemodynamic instability typical of circulatory shock is not well understood, but an improved interpretation of its dynamic features could help in the management of critically ill patients. The objective of this work was to introduce new metrics for the analysis of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in order to characterize the risk of catastrophic outcome in splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) shock. Continuous ABP (fs = 1 kHz) was measured in rats during experimental SAO shock, which induced a fatal pressure drop (FPD) in ABP. The FPD could either be slow (SFPD) or fast (FFPD), with the latter causing cardiovascular collapse. Time series of mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure and heart period were derived from ABP. The sample asymmetry-based algorithm Heart Rate Characteristics was adapted to compute the Heart Period Characteristics (HPC) and the Blood Pressure Characteristics (BPC). Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed by means of a bivariate model. The approach to FPD of the animals who collapsed (FFPD) was characterized by higher BRS in the low frequency band versus SFPD animals (0.36 ± 0.15 vs. 0.19 ± 0.12 ms/mmHg, p value = 0.0196), bradycardia as indicated by the HPC (0.76 ± 0.57 vs. 1.94 ± 1.27, p value = 0.0179) and higher but unstable blood pressure as indicated by BPC (3.02 ± 2.87 vs. 1.47 ± 1.29, p value = 0.0773). The HPC and BPC indices demonstrated promise as potential clinical markers of hemodynamic instability and impending cardiovascular collapse, and this animal study suggests their test in data from intensive care patients.

  11. Feeding different types of cooked white rice to piglets after weaning influences starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics and the faecal shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluske, John R; Montagne, Lucile; Cavaney, Fiona S; Mullan, Bruce P; Pethick, David W; Hampson, David J

    2007-02-01

    Forty-eight, 21-d-old pigs were used to examine the effects of different types of cooked white rice on starch digestion, digesta and fermentation characteristics, shedding of beta-haemolytic Escherichia coli and performance after weaning. Pigs received one of three rice-based diets: (i) medium-grain Amaroo (AM), (ii) long-grain Doongara (DOON), and (iii) waxy (WAXY). The remainder of the diet consisted predominantly of animal proteins. A fourth diet contained mainly wheat, barley and lupins (WBL). On days 1, 3, 7 and 9 after weaning, a faecal swab was taken for assessment of beta-haemolytic E. coli and faecal consistency. Apparent digestibility of starch measured in the ileum 14 d after weaning was highest (P = 0.004) in AM and WAXY and lowest, but the same (P>0.05), in DOON and WBL. Starch digestibility in the rectum was highest in all rice diets (P < 0.001). Digesta viscosity was highest in pigs fed WBL in both the ileum (P < 0.001) and caecum (P = 0.027). Pigs fed rice generally had lighter (P < 0.05) gastrointestinal organs than pigs fed WBL. Performance of pigs was similar for all treatments; however, pigs fed rice-based diets had a higher (P < 0.001) carcass percentage than pigs fed WBL. Pigs fed WBL produced more acid (P < 0.05) but had lower molar proportions of acetate (P < 0.05), isobutyrate (P < 0.01) and isovalerate (P < 0.001) and a higher molar proportion of butyrate (P < 0.01) in the large intestine than pigs fed rice. Shedding of E. coli was low; however, pigs fed AM and WBL shed less E. coli than pigs fed other diets.

  12. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwanda, Allen Tapiwa; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-09-01

    Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L) (pfloors caused higher (pfloor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (pfloors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (pfloors. Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  13. [Morphological characteristics and intracellular electrolytic composition of blood cells at surgeries on lower extremities arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katel'nitskiĭ, I I; Dudarev, I V; Matsionis, A E; Povilaĭtite, P E; Kvitko, I A

    2007-01-01

    Morphological characteristics and trace and macroelement composition of blood cells flowing out of ischemic lower limb before, during and after reconstructive surgeries under different type of anesthesia. A total of 102 male patients aged 45 to 60 years with atherosclerotic occlusions of the arteries of the femoral-popliteal zone were included into the study. According to anesthesia type all the patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 consisted of 34 patients operated under spinal anesthesia, 37 patients of group 2 underwent surgery under combined anesthesia (spinal anesthesia with intravenous sedation), 31 patients of group 3 - under total intravenous anesthesia with myoplegia and artificial pulmonary ventilation. All the blood examinations were carried out with scanning electron microscope XL-30 ("Philips") and X-ray spectrum microanalyzer Edax ( "Edax International", USA). It is demonstrated that in spinal and combined anesthesia morphological characteristics of blood cells normalized due to optimization of intraerythrocytic and intrathrombocytic electrolytic homeostasis unlike total intravenous anesthesia, when intracellular imbalance of trace and macroelements progresses and ultrastructural cellular alterations persist.

  14. Digestibilidade, desempenho e características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório de leitões desmamados sob dietas com mananoligossacarídeo Digestibility, performance and morphophysiological characteristics of the digestive tract of weaned piglets under diets with mannanoligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Maia dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição do prebiótico mananoligossacarídeo (MOS nas dietas de leitões sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, o desempenho e as características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 16 leitões com peso de 24,8±2,79 kg. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de fezes para determinar a digestibilidade das rações controle e com 0,5% de prebiótico. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se o desempenho e a incidência de diarreia em 30 leitoas com idade entre 22 e 63 dias e peso inicial de 6,28±1,40 kg. No terceiro experimento, foram avaliados a morfometria intestinal, os pesos relativos do fígado e do pâncreas e o pH dos conteúdos do estômago, intestino delgado e ceco em 15 leitoas com idade entre 22 e 63 dias e peso inicial de 5,74±0,93 kg. No segundo e terceiro experimentos, os tratamentos foram: controle positivo (dieta basal + sulfato de neomicina; controle negativo (dieta basal e os tratamentos dieta basal acrescida de 0,25, 0,50 ou 0,75% de MOS. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso. A utilização de diferentes níveis de mananoligassacarídeo nas dietas dos leitões não promove melhorias na digestibilidade dos nutrientes, no desempenho ou nas características morfofisiológicas do trato digestório.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding mannanoligosaccharides (MOS to piglet diets on digestibility of nutrients, performance and morphophysiological characteristics of the digestive tract. In the first experiment, 16 piglets with a weight of 24.8±2.79 kg were used. Total feces were collected to determine the digestibility of the control feed and feed with 0.5% prebiotic. In the second experiment, 30 gilts with ages ranging from 22 to 63 days and a mean weight of 6.28±1.40 kg were used to evaluate diarrhea performance and incidence. In the third experiment, 15 gilts ranging from 22 to 63 days in age and a

  15. Characteristics of randomised trials on diseases in the digestive system registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: a retrospective analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the adequacy of reporting of protocols for randomised trials on diseases of the digestive system registered in http://ClinicalTrials.gov and the consistency between primary outcomes, secondary outcomes and sample size specified in http://ClinicalTrials.gov and published...... trials. Methods Randomised phase III trials on adult patients with gastrointestinal diseases registered before January 2009 in http://ClinicalTrials.gov were eligible for inclusion. From http://ClinicalTrials.gov all data elements in the database required by the International Committee of Medical Journal...... Editors (ICMJE) member journals were extracted. The subsequent publications for registered trials were identified. For published trials, data concerning publication date, primary and secondary endpoint, sample size, and whether the journal adhered to ICMJE principles were extracted. Differences between...

  16. Ruminal characteristics, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen and nitrogen balance in Nili-Ravi buffalo (bubalus bubalis bulls fed diets containing various level of ruminally degradable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shahzad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminal degradable protein (RDP is considered essential for ruminal microbial growth. This not only improves the ruminal fermentation but it also ensures an adequate supply of microbial protein to the host animal. One of the most effective methods to enhance ruminal microbial protein supplies to the host is an efficient utilization of non-protein nitrogen substances (Sarwar et al., 2004. This makes the ruminant animal production cost-effective through minimizing its ruminally undegradable protein (RUP needs (Blummel et al., 1999. Urea can be used all or a part of the supplemental protein to meet the dairy cow requirement (Russell et al., 1992. It is documented that exotic lactating cows perform equally good when urea contributes to build up 12 % RDP of the ration (Gould, 1969. However, scientific information regarding this effect in buffalo is limited. Therefore the present study was planned to determine the impact of varying level of RDP on ruminal characteristics, digestibility, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and N balance in buffalo bulls.

  17. In-vitro investigation for blood flow characteristics in stenotic right coronary artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. M.; Min, Y. U.; Kang, M. J.; Ji, H. S.; Kim, K. C.

    2010-03-01

    It is very important to investigate hemodynamic and hemorheologic features of blood flow from fluid mechanical point of view because they play major roles in understanding the pathogenesis on cardiovascular disorders. Generally, hemorheologic characteristics of blood flow near the vessel wall are well-known as the most important factor in thrombosis generation according to several hypotheses. To investigate the hemodynamic and hemorheological features related to circulatory diseases, in-vitro experiments were carried out using Micro-PIV technique. Numerical simulation methods using conventional CFD codes were also used to compare with experimental results. The vessel models with stenotic lesion and clinical stent implantation were made of PDMS channel based on Right Coronary Artery (RCA) from clinical angiogram for the patient with stenotic lesion. The hemodynamic and hemorheologic behaviors for control volume near stenotic lesion were evaluated by velocity profiles.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN DAYA CERNA TEMPE SORGUM COKLAT (Sorghum bicolor) [Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum ...

  19. Effect of Vitamin C on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Some Blood Parameters of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.H Rahmati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin C on laying hens performance, egg characteristics and some blood parameters under normal rearing condition. One hundred and ninety two 24 - weeks - old laying hens diet were used in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg vitamin C/kg diet and 4 replicates for 105 days. Although feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and hen–day egg production were similar among treatments (P>0.05, final body weight was significantly increased (P

  20. Relationships between oxidative stress markers and red blood cell characteristics in renal azotemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranakarl, C; Trisiriroj, M; Pondeenana, S; Tungjitpeanpong, T; Jarutakanon, P; Penchome, R

    2009-04-01

    Oxidative stress parameters and erythrocyte characteristics were studied in 15 normal healthy dogs and 33 renal azotaemic dogs from Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University. Dogs with renal azotaemia had reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (PDogs with severe renal azotaemia had higher intraerythrocytic sodium contents (RBC-Na) (Pred blood cell catalase activity and glutathione and plasma malondialdehyde were unaltered while urinary malondialdehyde-creatinine ratio (U-MDA/Cr) increased significantly (Pdogs. Moreover, the U-MDA/Cr is a sensitive biochemical parameter which increased along with degree of renal dysfunction.

  1. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P diets. Inclusion of CaO up to 1.6% was effective in improving performance of feedlot cattle.

  2. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  4. Portal vein blood flow is related to characteristics of the migrating motor complex of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Niels; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Troensegaard, P.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To measure variation in portal blood flow during the interdigestive state in relation to the migrating motor complex (MMC) in healthy volunteers. Design: Portal blood flow was measured by a duplex and colour Doppler technique with 5-min intervals during an entire MMC cycle. Total....... Conclusion: Blood flow in the portal vein varies with the characteristics of the MMC, a relationship which must be considered in future studies in health and disease....

  5. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  6. Characteristics of Raw Starch-Digesting α-Amylase of Streptomyces badius DB-1 with Transglycosylation Activity and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivlata, L; Satyanarayana, T

    2017-04-01

    Streptomyces badius DB-1 produces α-amylase extracellularly, and its production was enhanced 5.1-fold (from 9.47 ± 0.51 to 48.23 ± 1.45 U mL(-1)) due to optimization by one-variable-at-a-time and statistical approaches. Soluble starch emerged as the most influential factor that strongly affected enzyme production. The purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of ~57 kDa and optimally active at 50 °C and pH 6.0. The enzyme hydrolyzes soluble as well as raw starches into simpler sugars with a high proportion (>40.0 %) of maltotetraose. It is optimally active at moderate temperature and generates maltooligosaccharides from starch, thus, useful as an antistale in bread making. It also plays a role in increasing the formation of maltooligosaccharides due to transglycosylation activity, thus, finds application in functional foods. This is the first report on the production of raw starch-digesting α-amylase by S. badius with transglycosylation activity.

  7. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ling-ling; ZHANG Zhe; ZHENG Jie-sheng; SHENG Ji-fang; LIU Ke-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at developing a simple and easy way to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in vitro. Methods: PBMCs were isolated directly from white blood cell rather than whole blood and purified by patching methods (collecting the attached cell and removing the suspension cell). DCs were then generated by culturing PBMCs for six days with 30 ng/ml recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and 20 ng/ml recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) in vitro. On the sixth day, TNF-alpha (TNFα) 30 ng/ml was added into some DC cultures, which were then incubated for two additional days. The morphology was monitored by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy, and the phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Autologous mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were used to characterize DC function after TNFα or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations for 24 h. Results: After six days of culture, the monocytes developed significant dendritic morphology and a portion of cells expressed CD 1 a, CD80 and CD86, features of DCs. TNFα treatment induced DCs maturation and up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD83. Autologous MLR demonstrated that these DCs possess potent T-cell stimulatory capacity. Conclusion: This study developed a simple and easy way to generate DCs from PBMCs exposed to rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. The DCs produced by this method acquired morphologic and antigenic characteristics of DCs.

  8. Computational Modelling of Blood Flow Development and Its Characteristics in Magnetic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Chandra Shit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of concern in this paper is an investigation of the entrance length behind singularities in cardiovascular hemodynamics under magnetic environment. In order to get better interpretation of scan MRI images, the characteristics of blood flow and electromagnetic field within the circulatory system have to be furthermore investigated. A 3D numerical model has been developed as an example of blood flowing through a straight circular tube. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD fluid flow are reduced to a nondimensional form, which are then characterized by four dimensionless parameters. With an aim to validate our numerical approach, the computational results are compared with those of the analytical solution available in the developed region far from the singularity. The hydraulic impedance by unit length within the developed flow region increases with the magnetic field. The time average entrance length with a greater precision on the unsteady case decreases with increasing magnetic field strength. The overall voltage characteristics do not depend on the developed flow field within the entry region.

  9. Effects of Replacing Different Levels of Alfalfa Hay with Pistachio Hull on Feed Intake, Digestibility of Nutrients, Rumen Fermentative Parameters, Blood Metabolites and Nitrogen Balance in Balochi Male Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the effects of replacing different levels of alfalfa with Pistachio Hull (PH on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentative parameters, blood metabolites and nitrogen metabolism in Balochi male lambs. Three male lambs (35±2 kg live weight equipped with ruminal and abomasual cannulas were randomly assigned into a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Experimental diets included 1 30% alfalfa, 20% wheat straw, 50% concentrate (DM basis and in 2 and 3 diets the 15 and 30% of alfalfa was replaced with Pistachio Hull, respectively. Result showed that feed intake was not different between treatments. Total tract digestibility for DM, OM, ADF and NDF were not significantly affected by the diets, but CP in total tract was significantly decreased. Dietary PH content resulted in a decrease in the rumen N-NH3 concentration. The concentration of liver enzymes, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and VLDL were not influenced by PH content of diet. As tannin was increased in the diets, the nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion from urine and digested nitrogen significantly were decreased. Nitrogen excretions from fecal were significantly increased by increased of dietary tannin. Therefore, using of PH in level of 30% (DM basis due to supply appropriate levels of tannin without negative effects on feed intake and nutrient digestibility, can improve animal performance and with increasing nitrogen excretion from urine to feces environmentally can be very beneficial.

  10. Effects of Supplemental Dietary Phytase and 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol on the Digestive and Reproductive Organ Characteristics of Commercial Layers Inoculated Before or at the Onset of Lay with the F-Strain of Mycoplasma galli

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 3 trials, the effects of dietary supple mentation with phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-D3) on the digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers that were inoculated pre-lay (12 wk of age) or at the onset of lay (22 wk of age) with F-strain Mycoplasma gallis...

  11. Dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol influence the digestive and reproductive organ characteristic of commercial...at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum 1 , 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Effects of 2 supplemental concentrations of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the gross digestive and reproductive organ characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) w...

  12. Influence of methionine supplementation of growing diets enriched with lysine on feedlot performance and characteristics of digestion in Holstein steer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentera, Noemí; Carrasco, Ramsés; Salinas-Chavira, Jaime; Plascencia, Alejandro; Zinn, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Two trials were conducted in order to examine the effects of level of supplemental methionine on productive performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration, and digestive function. Methods Dietary treatments consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based diet containing urea as the only source of supplemental nitrogen supplemented with no supplemental amino acid (control), or control plus 1.01% lysine and 0.032%, 0.064%, 0.096%, or 0.128% methionine. In Trial 1, 150 Holstein steer calves (127±4.9 kg) were utilized to evaluate the influence of treatments on growth-performance, dietary energetic, plasma amino acid concentration during the first 112 days of growing period. During the initial 56-d period calves received the 5 experimental diets. During the subsequent 56-d period all calves were fed the control diet. Results During the initial 56-d period, methionine supplementation increased (linear effect, p<0.01) plasma methionine. In the presence of supplemental lysine, increases on level of methionine in diet did not affect average daily gain. However, increased gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.03) and estimated dietary net energy (NE; linear effect, p = 0.05). Estimated metabolizable methionine supply was closely associated (R2 = 0.95) with efficiency NE utilization for maintenance and gain. During the subsequent 56-d period, when all calves received the control diet (no amino acid supplementation), plasma amino acid concentrations and growth performance was not different among groups. However, the effects of methionine supplementation during the initial 56-period carried over, so that following a 56-d withdrawal of supplementation, the overall 112-d effects on gain efficiency (quadratic effect, p = 0.05) dietary NE (linear effect, p≤0.05) remained appreciable. In Trial 2, 5 cannulated Holstein steers were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion and amino acid supply to the small intestine. There were no

  13. Effects of glycerin on receiving performance and health status of beef steers and nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics of growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Kraich, K J; Bondurant, R G; Meyer, B E; Luebbe, M K; Brown, M S; Cole, N A; MacDonald, J C

    2013-09-01

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of glycerin (GLY) on animal performance and health when used as a partial replacement for roughage in receiving diets. The second experiment was conducted using ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers in a 4 × 4 Latin square to determine the site of nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics when GLY replaced roughage at 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of diet DM. In Exp. 1, steers (initial BW = 245 ± 2.3 kg) were fed treatment diets over a 42-d period that consisted of a control diet based on steam-flaked corn with GLY inclusion in replacement of dietary roughage at 0%, 5%, and 10% of diet DM. A linear reduction in DMI was observed as GLY increased (P = 0.01). Glycerin incorporation tended to improve G:F in a linear manner (P = 0.07); efficiency was improved 5.4% and 4.7% at 5% and 10% GLY. The number of animals receiving treatment for bovine respiratory disease did not differ among treatments. Furthermore, there were no differences among treatments for mortality or the frequency of steers that were seropositive for serum antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis on d 28. In Exp. 2, apparent OM and apparent and true starch digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05) as GLY concentration increased, whereas true OM digestibility responded in a quadratic (P < 0.01) manner. Bacterial OM and bacterial starch flow responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.02), and flow increased from 0% to 5% GLY inclusion and decreased thereafter. Feed OM flow responded quadratically (P ≤ 0.05), where it decreased from 0% to 2.5% GLY and increased from 2.5% to 10% GLY inclusion. Feed starch (P = 0.02) and total starch (P = 0.02) flow from the duodenum decreased linearly as the concentration of GLY increased in the diet. Bacterial N flow to the duodenum responded quadratically (P < 0.01); it increased with increasing GLY in the diet up to 5% and then decreased from 5% to 10%. The acetate to propionate (A:P) ratio in

  14. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  15. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SYSTEM BLOOD CIRCULATION'S ILLNESSES OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Erzhapova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Death rate from illnesses of cardiovascular system makes more than half of all death, being one of principal causes of a considera-ble gain of death rate in Russia. Causing pressure of all systems of a human body, extreme climatic, geophysical and anthropogen-ous factors have adverse an effect on health, adaptive reserves exhaust, promote acceleration of formation of various diseases, first of all, cardiovascular system. To ecologically unsuccessful regions Russian Federations for which high level of disease is characte-ristic, the Republic Dagestan concerns also. The purpose of the given work was complex ekologo-geographical research of compo-nents of the natural and anthropogenous environment of areas and cities of republic Dagestan for dependence revealing between quality of environment and dynamics of disease illnesses of system of blood circulation.

  16. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  17. [Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Fei; Hu, Da-yi; Ding, Rong-jing; Yu, Xiao-jun; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xue-bin; Guo, Ji-hong; Liu, Wen-ling; Li, Cui-lan; Li, Lei; Gao, Chuan-yu; Zhao, Luo-sha; Chu, Ying-jie; Huang, Zhen-wen; Wei, Jing-han; Hua, Shao-hua; Liu, Rui-yun; Zhuang, Xiao-feng

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population, and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure. Eighty-six passive smokers [mean age: (52.4 ± 7.6) years] were recruited from patients and their relatives who visited cardiovascular outpatient department and excluded structural heart disease between June 2010 and June 2012, 80 normal subjects who were not exposed to smoking served as controls. Questionnaire survey, 24 hours ambulatory electrocardiogram examination and blood pressure measurement were performed in all recruited subjects. (1) Non-marriage rate [18.60% (16/86) vs. 3.75% (3/80), P professional technology industry employers [20.93% (18/86) vs. 36.25% (29/80), P restaurants (48.84%, 42/86). (2) Standard of the normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN), the normal consecutive sinus RR interval difference between the root-mean-square (rMSSD) and adjacent the difference between the RR interval>50 ms the number of share the percentage (PNN50) were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P 0.05). Ultra-low-frequency power (VLF), low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF) and LF/HF were significantly lower in passive smoking group than in the control group (all P 0.05). Marriage status, education level, profession and daily working time are independent determinants for passive smoking. Passive smoking mainly occurred in the workplace, entertainment venues and restaurants. Passive smoking is linked with reduced heart rate variability, increased 24 h average heart rate and diastolic blood pressure.

  18. Parameter estimation and actuator characteristics of hybrid magnetic bearings for axial flow blood pump applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tau Meng; Cheng, Shanbao; Chua, Leok Poh

    2009-07-01

    Axial flow blood pumps are generally smaller as compared to centrifugal pumps. This is very beneficial because they can provide better anatomical fit in the chest cavity, as well as lower the risk of infection. This article discusses the design, levitated responses, and parameter estimation of the dynamic characteristics of a compact hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) system for axial flow blood pump applications. The rotor/impeller of the pump is driven by a three-phase permanent magnet brushless and sensorless motor. It is levitated by two HMBs at both ends in five degree of freedom with proportional-integral-derivative controllers, among which four radial directions are actively controlled and one axial direction is passively controlled. The frequency domain parameter estimation technique with statistical analysis is adopted to validate the stiffness and damping coefficients of the HMB system. A specially designed test rig facilitated the estimation of the bearing's coefficients in air-in both the radial and axial directions. Experimental estimation showed that the dynamic characteristics of the HMB system are dominated by the frequency-dependent stiffness coefficients. By injecting a multifrequency excitation force signal onto the rotor through the HMBs, it is noticed in the experimental results the maximum displacement linear operating range is 20% of the static eccentricity with respect to the rotor and stator gap clearance. The actuator gain was also successfully calibrated and may potentially extend the parameter estimation technique developed in the study of identification and monitoring of the pump's dynamic properties under normal operating conditions with fluid.

  19. Characteristics and Predictive Value of Blood Transcriptome Signature in Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Holm, Ingrid A.; Campbell, Malcolm G.; Lee, In-Hee; Brewster, Stephanie J.; Hanson, Ellen; Harris, Heather K.; Lowe, Kathryn R.; Saada, Adrianna; Mora, Andrea; Madison, Kimberly; Hundley, Rachel; Egan, Jessica; McCarthy, Jillian; Eran, Ally; Galdzicki, Michal; Rappaport, Leonard; Kunkel, Louis M.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a spectrum of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in which known mutations contribute to disease risk in 20% of cases. Here, we report the results of the largest blood transcriptome study to date that aims to identify differences in 170 ASD cases and 115 age/sex-matched controls and to evaluate the utility of gene expression profiling as a tool to aid in the diagnosis of ASD. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for the neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation/depression, and notch signaling pathways. We developed a 55-gene prediction model, using a cross-validation strategy, on a sample cohort of 66 male ASD cases and 33 age-matched male controls (P1). Subsequently, 104 ASD cases and 82 controls were recruited and used as a validation set (P2). This 55-gene expression signature achieved 68% classification accuracy with the validation cohort (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62–0.77]). Not surprisingly, our prediction model that was built and trained with male samples performed well for males (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.65–0.82), but not for female samples (AUC 0.51, 95% CI 0.36–0.67). The 55-gene signature also performed robustly when the prediction model was trained with P2 male samples to classify P1 samples (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58–0.80). Our result suggests that the use of blood expression profiling for ASD detection may be feasible. Further study is required to determine the age at which such a test should be deployed, and what genetic characteristics of ASD can be identified. PMID:23227143

  20. Experimental determination of dynamic characteristics of the VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael K H; Zhang, Nong; Tansley, Geoff D; Qian, Yi

    2004-12-01

    The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump, intended for long-term ventricular assist, is under development and is currently being tested for its rotor-dynamic stability. The pump consists of a shaftless impeller, which also acts as the rotor of the brushless DC motor. The impeller remains passively suspended in the pump cavity by hydrodynamic forces, which result from the small clearances between the outside surfaces of the impeller and the pump cavity. These small clearances range from approximately 50 microm to 230 microm in size in the version of pump reported here. This article presents experimental investigation into the dynamic characteristics of the impeller-bearing-pump housing system of the rotary blood pump for increasing pump speeds at different flow rates. The pump was mounted on a suspension system consisting of a platform and springs, where the natural frequency and damping ratio for the suspension system were determined. Real-time measurements of the impeller's displacement were performed using Hall effect sensors. A vertical disturbance force was exerted onto the pump housing, causing the impeller to be displaced in vertical direction from its dynamic equilibrium position within the pump cavity. The impeller displacement was represented by a decaying sine wave, which indicated the impeller restoring to its equilibrium position. From the decaying sine wave the natural frequency and stiffness coefficient of the system were determined. Furthermore, the logarithmic decrement method was used to determine the damping ratio and eventually the damping coefficient of the system. Results indicate that stiffness and damping coefficients increased as flow rate and pump speed increased, representing an increase in stability with these changing conditions. However, pump speed had a greater influence on the stiffness and damping coefficients than flow rate did, which was evident through dynamic analysis. Overall the experimental method presented in this

  1. Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P S; Bennett, A; Lignot, J-H; Mackie, R I; McWhorter, T J; Secor, S M; Skovgaard, N; Sundset, M A; Wang, T

    2010-01-01

    The digestive system is the interface between the supply of food for an animal and the demand for energy and nutrients to maintain the body, to grow, and to reproduce. Digestive systems are not morphologically static but rather dynamically respond to changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the diet and the level of food intake. In this article, we discuss three themes that affect the ability of an animal to alter digestive function in relation to novel substrates and changing food supply: (1) the fermentative digestion in herbivores, (2) the integration of cardiopulmonary and digestive functions, and (3) the evolution of dietary specialization. Herbivores consume, digest, and detoxify complex diets by using a wide variety of enzymes expressed by bacteria, predominantly in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Carnivores, such as snakes that feed intermittently, sometimes process very large meals that require compensatory adjustments in blood flow, acid secretion, and regulation of acid-base homeostasis. Snakes and birds that specialize in simple diets of prey or nectar retain their ability to digest a wider selection of prey. The digestive system continues to be of interest to comparative physiologists because of its plasticity, both phenotypic and evolutionary, and because of its widespread integration with other physiological systems, including thermoregulation, circulation, ventilation, homeostasis, immunity, and reproduction.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of modified zinc oxide on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Ho; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty piglets ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc, 21 day of age) with an initial weight of 6.50 ± 0.71 kg, were randomly allotted into four treatments to determine the effects of a modified form of zinc oxide (ZnO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding and fecal score in weanling pigs. Dietary treatments were: (i) NC, negative control, basal diet containing zinc (Zn) from the premix; (ii) PC, positive control, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO; (iii) H1, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 3000 ppm ZnO (phase 1, days 1 to 14)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2, days 15 to 42); (iv) H2, basal diet containing Zn-free premix + 300 ppm modified ZnO (phase 1)/200 ppm modified ZnO (phase 2). During days 1 to 14, average daily gains (ADG) were higher (P = 0.04) in PC, H1 and H2 groups than that in NC group. Overall, H1 treatment increased the ADG compared with NC (P = 0.05). On day 14, the alkaline phosphatase and plasma Zn concentration were increased (P = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) in PC, H1 and H2 treatments compared with NC treatment. On days 14 and 42, the fecal Lactobacillus counts in NC group were lowest (P = 0.01, P = 0.04 respectively) among treatments. All supplemented groups showed lower (P = 0.03) fecal score than NC treatment on days 21 and 28. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with modified ZnO increased growth rates and reduced fecal scores in weanling pig. Modified ZnO could be used as a substitute to ZnO as a growth promoter and reduce Zn excretion to the environment because of the lower dosage. [Correction added on 3 February 2015, after first online publication: the initial weight of '6.50 ± 1.11 kg' has been replaced with '6.50 ± 0.71 kg' in the abstract.].

  3. Grazing system and floor type effects on blood biochemistry, growth and carcass characteristics of Nguni goats

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    Allen Tapiwa Chikwanda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Purpose was to determine the effects of grazing system and floor type on concentrations of blood metabolites, activity of creatine kinase, body weight and carcass characteristics of castrated Nguni goats. Methods Forty eight, 7 month old goats were randomly allocated to herding and tethering treatments from 0800 to 1300 hours and accommodated on slatted and earth floors daily. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture every fifteenth day for metabolite analysis. Slaughter was done at a commercial abattoir following 5 months of monitoring. Results Tethered goats had significantly higher concentrations of urea (5.19 mmol/L (p< 0.001, creatinine (55.87 μmol/L (p<0.05, total protein (64.60 g/L (p<0.01, and globulin (49.79 g/L (p<0.001, whereas herded goats had higher glucose (3.38 mmol/L (p<0.001, albumin (15.33 g/L (p<0.05, albumin/globulin ratio (0.34 (p<0.01, and body weight (24.87 kg (p< 0.001. Slatted floors caused higher (p<0.01 albumin at 15.37 g/L. The interaction of grazing system and floor type affected creatinine, total protein, globulin at (p<0.01 and albumen/globulin ratio at (p<0.01. The least creatinine concentration and albumin/globulin ratio was in herded and tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors, respectively. The highest total protein and globulin concentrations were in serum of tethered goats that were accommodated on earth floors. The highest (p<0.05 dressing percentage (45.26% was in herded goats accommodated on slatted floors. Conclusion Herding of goats lowered globulin concentration, improved estimated feed intake, blood glucose and albumin concentrations, albumin globulin ratio, increased body weights and weight related carcass characteristics. Floor type had very little effects on metabolites where earth floors only reduced albumin concentration. Tethering and housing goats on earth floors resulted in double stress that increased chronic infections.

  4. Risk factors and characteristics of blood stream infections in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

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    Huang, Chun-Teng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ko, Po-Shen; Liu, Han-Tsung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Ling-Ju; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-06

    Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center. Between November 2002 and December 2008, consecutive patients with multiple myeloma in Taipei Veterans General Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Characteristics of patients with or without BSI were collected. Possible factors associated with development of BSI were analyzed by Cox regression. There were a total of 222 patients. The incidence of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis is 11.7%. The patients with BSI had poorer survival outcomes than those without (mortality rate: 50% vs. 20.9%, p  2 vs. ≤ 2: OR 3.58, p = 0.005) were the independent risk factors of BSI, whereas immunoglobulin deficiency and low absolute lymphocyte count were not associated with risk of BSI development. Our study highlights the characteristic of myeloma patients with BSI and the importance of disease and host factors on risk of BSI. Myeloma patients with risks of BSI should be properly managed to reduce early mortality.

  5. Fluorescent characteristics and pharmacokinetic profiles of the fluorescent probe BCECF in various tissues: the role of blood content

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    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie; Mordon, Serge R.; Maillols, H.

    1997-05-01

    Microspectrofluorometry and fluorescence imaging have been largely used to measure the intracellular pH of living cells. Such in vivo measurements require the knowledge of the optical properties of the tissue and the pharmacokinetic of the dye. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo spectral characteristics of BCECF. In vitro, measurements in presence of blood show that blood content can greatly affect pH measurement by increasing the fluorescence ratio. In vivo, the presence of blood in high vascularized tissue leads to the modification of BCECF spectral characteristics. Fluorescence kinetic profiles provides information about tissue perfusion. Consequently, pH measurements using BCECF or fluorescein derivatives by the double excitation method may be performed taking in account the tissue blood content and the tissue pharmacokinetic of the dye.

  6. KARAKTERISTIK KANDUNGAN KIMIA DAN DAYA CERNA TEMPE SORGUM COKLAT (Sorghum bicolor [Characteristics of Chemical Content and Digestibility of Brown Sorghum Tempeh

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    Erni Sofia Murtini*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown sorghum (Sorghum bicolor is rarely used for food product because its protein has lower digestibility compared to other cereals. One factor affecting lower sorghum protein digestibility is anti nutritional effect from tannin and phytic acid. Some processing methods of sorghum have successfully increased protein digestibility, one of them is tempeh fermentation. The aims of this research were to degrade anti nutritional compounds and to increase in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain using tempeh fermentation. This research was performed in two steps; preparation of sorghum grain and production of sorghum tempeh. Proximate contents, anti nutritional compounds, and in vitro protein digestibility were tested. The test was applied to each of sorghum tempeh samples every 12 hour until 72 hours of total incubation time. The result of study showed that fermentation process decreased anti nutritional factors such as tannin and phytic acid, and increased in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain. The reduction of anti nutritions and increase of in vitro protein digestibility of sorghum grain were time-dependent in the fermentation process. The highest in vitro protein digestibility (79.13% was observed from 72 hour-fermented sorghum.

  7. Growth, body characteristics and blood parameters of ostrich chickens receiving commercial probiotics

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    Karimi-Kivi, R.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Seidavi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of four commercial probiotics on growth, body characteristics and haematological parameters of ostrich chicks. A total of 25 ostrich chicks (937±68.1 g) were individually allocated and fed the experimental diet for six weeks (n=5 per treatment). Experimental diets consisted of a corn/soybean meal-based diet unsupplemented (T1: Control), and four diets supplemented with probiotics according to the recommendations of the manufacturer (T2: 0.04% Bioplus 2B; T3: 0.09% Primalac; T4: 0.1% Thepax; and T5: 0.03% Protexin). Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and seven body characteristics (e.g. height) were measured every week. Blood samples and other body characteristics were also taken in the last week. There was an interaction effect between diet and time on all the growth variables and body characteristics (p<0.05). Both the BW and the BW gain of the ostrich chicks were, in general, higher for those fed the diet T2 than those fed the control diet (0.42, 1.07, 0.99, 1.09, 2.51, and 1.66 kg BW gain vs 0.28, 0.41, 0.83, 0.94, 1.15, and 1.15 kg BW gain at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days respectively), while for those fed the other diets containing probiotics differences were only observed at 42 days (p<0.05). Consuming probiotics over an extended period influenced several of the haematological parameters differently compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). T2 and T3 increased the concentration of total cholesterol (157 and 210 mg/dL respectively), when compared to those fed the control diet (119 mg/dL), while total cholesterol was slightly reduced (p>0.05) for those fed the diet containing Thepax (T4, 79 mg/dL). In conclusion, the effects of commercial probiotics on growth performance, body characteristics and haematological parameters varied among probiotics. (Author)

  8. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

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    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P red blood cells and white blood cells concentration were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs

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    Li Pengfei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 2,121 growing-finishing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White were utilized in six experiments conducted to determine the effects of different ratios of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Exps. 1 (30 to 50 kg, 2 (52 to 70 kg and 3 (81 to 104 kg were conducted to find an optimum ME level and then this level was used in Exps. 4 (29 to 47 kg, 5 (54 to 76 kg and 6 (84 to 109 kg to test the response of pigs to different ratios of SID-Lys:ME. In Exps.1 to 3, four treatments were used consisting of diets with a formulated ME content of 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 or 3.4 in Exps. 1 and 2 while Exp. 3 used 3.05, 3.15, 3.25 or 3.35 Mcal/kg. A constant SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.6, 2.3 or 2.0 g/Mcal was used in Exps. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Weight gain was significantly increased with increasing energy level in Exp.1 while weight gain was unaltered in Exps. 2 and 3. For all three experiments, feed intake was decreased (P P P P P P

  10. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf-fed Holstein are consistent with current tabular standards. Extra-caloric value of DDGS as a metabolizable AA source is apparent during the initial growing phase. The UIP value of DDGS used in this study (35%) was considerably less than current tabular estimates (52%; NRC, 2000).

  11. A spatial regression analysis of German community characteristics associated with voluntary non-remunerated blood donor rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, C; Schneider, S; Litaker, D; Weck, E; Klüter, H

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown substantial geographical variation in blood donation within developed countries. To understand this issue better, we identified community characteristics associated with blood donor rates in German municipalities in an ecological analysis. We calculated an aggregated rate of voluntary blood donors from each of 1533 municipalities in south-west Germany in 2007 from a database of the German Red Cross Blood Service. A multiple linear regression model estimated the association between the municipality-specific donor rate and several community characteristics. Finally, a spatial lag regression model was used to control for spatial autocorrelation that occurs when neighbouring units are related to each other. The spatial lag regression model showed that a relatively larger population, a higher percentage of inhabitants older than 30 years, a higher percentage of non-German citizens and a higher percentage of unemployed persons were associated with lower municipality-specific donor rates. Conversely, a higher donor rate was correlated with higher voter turnout, a higher percentage of inhabitants between 18 and 24 years and more frequent mobile donation sites. Blood donation appears to be a highly clustered regional phenomenon, suggesting the need for regionally targeted recruiting efforts and careful consideration of the value of mobile donation sites. Our model further suggests that municipalities with a decreasing percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds and an increasing percentage of older inhabitants may experience substantial declines in future blood donations. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and different levels of starch

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    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of nitrogen supplementation associated with different levels of starch on voluntary intake, digestibility, and rumen and metabolic characteristics of cattle fed low-quality tropical forage (Brachiaria decumbens hay, 7.4% crude protein, CP were evaluated using ruminal and abomasal cannulated steers. Methods Five European×Zebu young bulls (186 kg body weight, BW were distributed according to a 5×5 Latin square. The following treatments were evaluated: control, supplementation with 300 g CP/d (0:1, supplementation with 300 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (1:1, supplementation with 600 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (2:1, and supplementation with 900 g starch/d and 300 g CP/d (3:1. A mixture of nitrogenous compounds provided 1/3 from true protein (casein and 2/3 from non-protein nitrogen (mixture of urea and ammonium sulphate, 9:1 was used as the nitrogen supplement. In order to supply energy a unique source of corn starch was used. Results Supplements increased (p0.05 forage intake. There was a cubic effect (p0.05 neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein (NDFap digestibility. There was a positive linear effect (p0.05 by the amount of supplemental starch. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentrations were higher (p<0.05 in supplemented animals, however, a negative linear effect (p<0.05 of amount of starch was observed. Supplements increased (p<0.05 the nitrogen balance (NB and efficiency of nitrogen utilization. These effects were attributed to increased body anabolism, supported by higher (p<0.05 serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Increasing the amount of starch tended (p<0.06 to linearly increase the NB. In spite of this, there was a highest NB value for the 2:1 starch:CP ratio amongst the treatments with supplementation. Conclusion Nitrogen supplementation in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage increases nitrogen retention in the animal’s body. An additional supply of starch increases nitrogen retention by

  13. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction.

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    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50°C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55°C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1 h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3 h of hydrolysis at 45°C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process.

  14. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

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    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  15. Blood cell characteristic, hematological and serum biochemistry values of Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala

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    Worapol Aengwanich

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell characteristics, hematological and serum biochemistry values were examined in 10 mature healthy Painted Storks (Mycteria leucocephala (5 males and 5 females from Khow Khoew Open Zoo, Chonburi province, Thailand. The morphology of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were similar to those of other avian species, but oval shaped granules of heterophils were less stained by Giemsa-Wright solution. Erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cells, percentage of leukocytes (lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, thrombocytes, serum glucose, serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase values of Painted Storks were 3.24 + 0.82 106cells / μl, 0.82 106cells /μl, 17.67 + 1.56 g/dl, 42.40 + 3.57 %, 139.47 + 38.70 fl, 58.56 + 18.24 g/dl, 41.76 + 2.90 pg, 3.88 + 2.60 104cells /μl, 76.10 + 10.28 %, 10.60 + 9.49 %, 0.00 + 0.00 %, 12.00 + 8.54 %, 1.00 + 1.33 %, and 1.29 + 0.42104cells /μl, 270.50 + 42.85 mg/dl, 6.19 + 1.70 mg/dl, 249.47 + 42.19 IU/L and 124.29 + 8.81 IU/L, respectively. Total erythrocytes and mean corpuscular volume (MCV differed significantly between male and female Painted Stork (P < 0.05.

  16. The effects of concentrate added to pineapple (Ananas comosus Linn. Mer.) waste silage in differing ratios to form complete diets, on digestion, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and blood metabolites in growing, male, Thai swamp buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Suthikrai, W; Usawang, S; Vongpipatana, C; Sophon, S; Liang, J B

    2009-04-01

    Four, male, growing Thai swamp buffaloes (197 +/- 5.3 kg and all 1 year old) were used to evaluate the effects of concentrate added to pineapple waste silage in differing ratios, to form a complete diet, studying in vivo digestion, the rate of passage, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites. Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 diets, using four combinations of pineapple waste silage (P) and concentrate (C), in the proportions (on a dry matter basis) of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.4 (P60:C40), 0.4:0.6 (P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The results showed that the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), nitrogen (N), the N-balance, urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion, the ratios of allantoin to creatinine (CR), PD to CR, the plasma urea-N (PUN) and insulin increased in the animals, but the intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), the coefficient of whole tract, apparent digestibility of NDF, the transit time (TT) and the mean retention time (TMRT) decreased, when the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased. This study indicated that the proportion of P40:C60 in the diet produced the best efficiency of urinary PD excretion (mmol) per digestible OM intake (kg DOMI).

  17. Effect of super dosing of phytase on growth performance, ileal digestibility and bone characteristics in broilers fed corn-soya-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S

    2016-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Characteristics of Tfh cells in the peripheral blood in recipients of liver allograft: A pilot study

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    Yan-chao SHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the expression characteristics of peripheral blood follicular helper T cells (Tfh and their molecules during pre- and post-transplantation period in liver transplant patients to explore the role of Tfh in alloreactive response after liver transplantation. Methods Twenty liver transplant (LT patients and 20 healthy individuals as control were enrolled in this study. Thirteen LT patients with stable liver function were included for cross-sectional study. Another seven LT patients with complete clinical data were included for follow-up study. The frequencies of Tfh cells were examined by flow cytometry. For the seven patients, Tfh cells and level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT were monitored dynamically for one month after LT. Results The frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh and CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ cells in peripheral blood increased significantly after liver transplantation as compared with those before liver transplantation (P<0.05. In addition, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ cells showed a rising trend, but no statistical difference. In early follow-up period it was found that the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh obviously increased after liver transplantation in patients with stable liver function, and reached the peak value after one week and then decreased. The ALT level also decreased when reaching peak 10 days after surgery. Interestingly, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+ Tfh in one patient with acute rejection after liver transplantation showed the same trend with ALT levels changes. Furthermore, the frequencies of CD4+CXCR5+Tfh, CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ and CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ cells in stable liver function group were higher than those in the healthy control group (P<0.05. Conclusion The CD4+CXCR5+Tfh cells in peripheral blood will be upregulated in liver transplant patients, which indicates that the Tfh may be involved in liver alloreactive response. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.08

  19. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

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    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  20. Supplementation of increasing amounts of linseed oil to dairy cows fed total mixed rations: effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Romero-Pérez, G A; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Eugene, M; Petit, H V; Côrtes, C

    2012-08-01

    The effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, forage (i.e., timothy hay) in sacco ruminal degradation, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, milk production, and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows was investigated. Four ruminally cannulated, primiparous lactating cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (28-d periods). They were fed a total mixed ration (50:50 forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio [dry matter (DM) basis] without supplementation (control, CTL), or supplemented (wt/wt; DM basis) with LO at 2, 3, or 4%. Supplementation with LO had no effect on DM intake (19 kg/d) and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and gross energy). Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile FA concentrations were not changed by LO supplementation to diets. Extent of changes in volatile FA pattern and effective ruminal degradability of DM of timothy hay were minor. Neither the total numbers nor the genera distribution of protozoa was changed by the addition of increasing amounts of LO to the diet. Milk yield increased linearly (26.1, 27.3, 27.4, and 28.4 kg/d for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO added to the diet increased. Milk fat content was not affected by LO supplementation, whereas milk protein content decreased linearly with increasing amounts of LO in the diet. Milk fat proportions of several intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated FA (i.e., trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11,cis-15 18:2, and cis-9,trans-11,cis-15 18:3) increased linearly with LO addition to the diet. The proportion of cis-9,cis-12 18:2 decreased linearly (2.06, 1.99, 1.91, and 1.83% for CTL to LO4, respectively) as the amount of LO in the diet increased. Milk fat content of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 increased as the level of LO in the diet increased up to 3% but no further increase was observed when 4% of LO

  1. Blood pressure differences in people with various individual characteristics in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦劲壮; 饶栩栩; 刘小清

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the differences in blood pressure (BP)levels and the main factors raising BP among the population in Guangdong province.Methods The data analyzed stem from the sampling survey of hypertension in Guangdong Province in 1991,covering 42,894 subjects over 15 years old.Individual characteristics included age,sex,occupation education,smoking,alcohol drinking and body mass indx(BMI).Results Systolic and diastolic BP increased with age.The hypertension prevalence rate in male is higher than in female.The age-adjusted prevalence rate in office personnel is the highest(12.9%)among all occupations.It was increased with educfation level and BMI (in people educated atuniversity and over is 13.1%),and higher in smokers and alcohol-drinkers than non -smokers and nonalcohol-drinkers.Conclusions Age,occupation,education,smoking,alcohol drinking and BMI all effect BP.These risk factors should be reduced in the Guangdong population.

  2. Population characteristics and impact on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure of passive smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the basic characteristics of passive smoking population,and the impact of passive smoking on heart rate variability,heart rate and blood pressure.Methods Eighty-six passive smokers[mean age: (52.4±7.6) years]were recruited from patients

  3. Digestibilidade de dietas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos e sua influência na glicemia e insulinemia de cães Digestibility of diets with different sources of carbohydrates and your influence in the blood glucose and blood insulin in health dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Walter da Silva Júnior

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influência das dietas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos na glicemia e insulinemia pós-prandial de cães, foi conduzido, no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, um experimento com cães da raça Foxhound Americano. Foram utilizados 24 cães machos com peso médio de 34,61 ± 3,42 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com parcela subdividida no tempo, com quatro tratamentos, e um animal por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em três dietas, formuladas para conterem as mesmas quantidades (63% dos cereais avaliados (milho, sorgo e arroz e uma quarta dieta constituindo uma mistura em partes iguais de cada cereal. As dietas foram isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os animais foram alimentados uma vez ao dia, pela manhã, e as quantidades ingeridas foram estabelecidas de acordo com a equação de predição de Heusner (1982 para energia de manutenção acrescidas em 10%. Foram avaliadas a digestibilidade da matéria seca, a digestibilidade do amido total, a energia digestível, a glicemia e a insulinemia. Para a diferenciação das médias, foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott (PIn order to evaluate the influence of the diets with different carbohydrates sources in blood glucose and blood insulin in dogs, were conducted, in Animal Science Department of Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, a experiment with dogs of breed American Foxhound. Were utilized 24 males dogs with average weight of the 34,61 ± 3,42 kg, allotted in randomized blocks design with subdivided piece in time, with four treatments, and one animal per unit experimental. The treatments were three diets formulated to contain the same amount (63% of the cereals evaluate (corn, sorghum and rice and a forth diet being a blend in equal parts of each cereal. The animals were fed once per day, for the morning, and the consume established agreed with the prediction equation of the Heusner (1982 for

  4. Effect of protein source and protease addition on performance, blood metabolites and nutrient digestibility of turkeys fed on low-protein diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahir, M H; Rahimi, R; Taheri, H R; Heidariniya, A; Baradaran, N; Asadi Kermani, Z

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a monocomponent protease and dietary inclusion of canola meal (CM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of turkeys fed on low crude protein (CP) diets from 28 to 55 d post hatch. Experimental treatments included control, maize-soybean meal diet including 258.3 g/kg CP; negative control 1 (NC1), maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg); NC2, control diet (CP, 258.3 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg); NC3, maize-soybean meal diet with reduced CP (232.4 g/kg) including CM (80 g/kg) and PBM (80 g/kg). Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets were created by addition of protease enzyme (30 000 units/kg of diet) to the NC1 and NC3 diets, respectively. The NC3 group had lower body weight gain (BWG) compared to those fed on the control diet, and no improvement with enzyme addition (NC3 + P) was achieved. The protease addition to the NC1 diet (NC1 + P) improved BWG to the level of the control diet. The NC1 group had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control and NC3 + P, but protease addition to the NC1 diet improved FCR. Protease addition to the low CP diets resulted in higher nitrogen (N) retention than in the control and NC2 groups. Also, the NC1 + P and NC3 + P diets increased apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP compared to the control group. It was concluded that addition of CM (up to 80 g/kg) and PBM (up to 80 g/kg) to turkey diets had no negative effect on growth performance from 28 to 55 d of age. The NC1 + P group achieved the BWG of the control group which was partially due to increases in N retention and AID of CP, but the NC3 + P group failed to recover the growth losses. This difference implies that the efficacy of the protease may depend upon the protein source in the ration.

  5. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and 3 bedding floor types on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Lin, Y M; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2017-03-02

    The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm). Utilization of CC reduced milling cost by 9.47 cents per MT with similar nutrient content of screened pellets. The 50% CC treatment exhibited improved (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake at 42 d (2.5%) and 49 d (3.0%), and BW (5.4%) and FCR from 28 d (1.4%). Birds on NEW litter exhibited improved (P litter birds exhibited increased (P ≤ 0.05) gizzard weight at 28 d and 49 d and decreased proventriculus weight as compared to NET at 49 days. The 50% CC treatment exhibited decreased (P ≤ 0.05) litter moisture at 35 and 42 d, litter N at 35 and 49 d, and litter pH at 49 days. OLD litter birds exhibited greater (P litter N at 14, 35, and 49 d, as well as litter moisture, pH, and ammonia concentration at 49 days. The 50% CC group also exhibited improved AID of nitrogen (P litter moisture while use of NEW litter resulted in a somewhat similar effect, which indicated that consumption of NEW litter also facilitated gastric development and function.

  6. Characteristics of high-sulfate wastewater treatment by two-phase anaerobic digestion process with Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chao-hai; WANG Wen-xiang; DENG Zhi-yi; WU Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    A new anaerobic reactor,Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed(JLAFB),was designed for treating high-sulfate wastewater.The treatment characteristics,including the effect of influent COD/SO42- ratio and alkalinity and sulfide inhibition in reactors,were discussed for a JLAFB and a general anaerobic fluidized bed(AFB)reactor used as sulfate-reducing phase and methane-producing phase,respectively,in two-phase anaerobic digestion process.The formation of granules in the two reactors was also examined.The results indicated that COD and sulfate removal had different demand of influent COD/S042- ratios.When total COD removal Was up to 85%,the ratio was only required up to 1.2,whereas,total sulfate removal up to 95%required it exceeding 3.0.The alkalinity in the two reactors increased linearly with the growth of influent alkalinity.Moreover,the change of influent alkalinity had no significant effect on pH and volatile fatty acids(VFA)in the two reactors.Influent alkalinity kept at 400-500 mg/t,could meet the requirement of the treating process.The JLAFB reactor had great advantage in avoiding sulfide and free-H2S accumulation and toxicity inhibition on microorganisms.When sulfate loading rate was up to 8.1 kg/(m3·d),the sulfide and free-H2S concentrations in JLAFB reactor were 58.6 and 49.7 mg/L,respectively.Furthermore,the granules,with offwhite color,ellipse shape and diameters of 1.0-3.0 mm,could be developed in JLAFB reactor.In granules,different groups of bacteria were distributed in different layers,and some inorganic metal compounds such as Fe,Ca,Mg etc.were found.

  7. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Lee, G I; Jin, X H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G)-2finishing(F) phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement). In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2) at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06) and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09). In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01) and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07) as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to other treatments. Feeding the low energy diet

  8. EFFECT OF OXIDIZED CASEIN ON THE OXIDATIVE DAMAGE OF BLOOD AND DIGESTIVE ORGANS IN MICE%氧化酪蛋白对小鼠血液和消化器官氧化损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李竹青; 吴伶艳; 乐国伟; 施用晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of the oxidized casein on oxidative damage of blood and digestive organs in mice. Method Casein was oxidized by H2O2 combined with Cu (Ⅱ) (H2O2-Cu) and MDA, then casein digestibility in vitro and free radical scavenging ability of casein digestive products were measured. After 10 w feeding, oxidative damage indicators in blood and digestive organs, including liver, pancreas and jejunum were detected. Results The contents of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), dityrosine (Dtyr) and carbonyl in oxidized casein increased, while thiol content decreased. Protein digestibility in vitro and free radical scavenging capacity of gastric juice decreased. The digestive organs lost their redox balance. The contents of ROS, carbonyl, MDA, Dtyr and AOPP increased (P<0.05), and GSH-Px, CAT and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) significantly decreased (P<0.05) in oxidized casein group. Growth rate decreased, while viscera index (liver, pancreas) increased. Conclusion Oxidized casein could cause oxidative stress and accumulation of protein oxidation products in digestive organs.%目的 评估H2O2-Cu及脂质氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)氧化修饰的酪蛋白对小鼠血液和消化器官氧化损伤的影响.方法 用H2O2-Cu、MDA处理酪蛋白,测定蛋白体外蛋白消化率及消化产物清除自由基的能力.用氧化酪蛋白饲喂小鼠10 w,测定小鼠血液和消化器官的抗氧化及氧化损伤指标.结果 酪蛋白经过氧化处理后,羰基、双酪氨酸(Dtyr)、氧化蛋白晚期产物(AOPP)含量上升,巯基含量下降.氧化蛋白体外消化率下降,消化液清除自由基能力下降.饲喂氧化酪蛋白日粮组小鼠的血液和消化器官氧化还原状态失衡,谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px),过氧化氢还原酶(CAT)活性及总体抗氧化(T-AOC)能力下降,并积累大量活性氧(ROS)和氧化蛋白产物,包括羰基、MDA、Dtyr、AOPP.小鼠体重增长率下降,脏体比上升.结论

  9. Characteristics and prognostic value of lymphatic and blood vascular microinvasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arame, Alex; Mordant, Pierre; Cazes, Aurélie; Foucault, Christophe; Dujon, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2012-11-01

    The prognostic value of vascular microinvasion (VMI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a matter of discussion in recent decades. The last T N M classification does not take VMI into account, but many points remain questionable. A retrospective study was performed of patients undergoing operations for NSCLC during a 20-year period. Lymphatic VMI (LVMI) was classified as group (G) 1, blood VMI (BVMI) as G2, LVMI and BVMI as G3, and no VMI as G4. The demographic, pathologic, T N M characteristics, and long-term survival of each group were analyzed. A total of 3,868 patients (G1, 334; G2, 642; G3, 172; G4, 2,720), mean age 61.9 ± 10.1 years, underwent different types of resection, with complete lymphadenectomy in 88.5%. Adenocarcinomas were more frequent in G1 and G3, and squamous cell carcinomas in G2. In G2, more N1 tumors needed more extensive resections. G1 was equally distributed regardless of tumor size, but G2 prevalence increased with augmenting size. Nodules in the same lobe were significantly more frequent in LVMI than in BVMI. After exclusion of patients with R1 and R2 resections, multivariate analysis confirmed that LVMI and BVMI were independent prognostic factors as well as age, sex, type of resection, T extension, and N involvement. VMI is generally associated with a poorer prognosis. LVMI is less frequent than BVMI but has lower survival rates. The benefit of adjuvant therapy in VMI patients needs to be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. IV. Changes during the growing season in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to fermentation characteristics of a lower internode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Improving digestibility of forage maize (Zea mays L.) through breeding is important to optimize the efficiency of ruminant's rations. It can partly be achieved by improving the digestibility of stem tissue, a genetically complex and diverse trait changing drastically during the growing season. We

  11. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. IV. Changes during the growing season in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to fermentation characteristics of a lower internode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Improving digestibility of forage maize (Zea mays L.) through breeding is important to optimize the efficiency of ruminant's rations. It can partly be achieved by improving the digestibility of stem tissue, a genetically complex and diverse trait changing drastically during the growing season. We tr

  12. [Analysis of Therapeutic Regularities and Characteristics of Blood-letting Therapy for Acne Patients Based on Data Mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.

  13. Correlation study of uterine spiral artery blood flow characteristics with placental development and hypoxia in patients with preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of uterine spiral artery blood flow characteristics with placental development and hypoxia in patients with preeclampsia.Methods:A total of 66 patients diagnosed with preeclampsia in our hospital between June 2013 and May 2016 were selected as the preeclampsia group (PE group) of the study and healthy women who gave birth in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. At 32-37 weeks of gestation, uterine spiral artery ultrasonography was conducted to determine blood flow parameters PI, RI and S/D, and peripheral blood was collected to separate mononuclear cells and then determine CTLA-4 and CD28 mRNA level; after childbirth, placenta tissue was collect to determine the levels of placental development-related cytokines and apoptotic molecules.Results: Uterine spiral artery RI, PI and S/D of PE group were significantly higher than those of control group; PLGF, NGF, EGF, IGF-I, VEGF, Xiap, Survivin, bcl-2 and CD28 content in placenta tissue of PE group were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D while GDF-15, caspase-3, caspase-9 and CTLA-4 content were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D; CTLA-4 mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PE group was significantly higher than that of control group and positively correlated with uterine spiral artery were PI, RI and S/D while CD28 mRNA level was significantly lower than that of control group and negatively correlated with uterine spiral artery PI, RI and S/D.Conclusion:Uterine spiral artery blood flow resistance increases and blood flow volume decreases in patients with preeclampsia, and the above blood flow characteristics will hinder the placental development, induce cell apoptosis and aggravate the placental hypoxia.

  14. Characteristics of blood vessels forming “sausages-on-a-string” patterns during hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsborg Beierholm, Ulrik; Christian Brings Jacobsen, Jens; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Alstrøm, Preben

    2007-03-01

    A phenomenon of alternate constrictions and dilatations in blood vessels has been studied for over 50 years. Recently, a theory has been presented involving a Rayleigh type instability. We analyze the model in terms of the lengths of the deformations in relation to the wall thickness, blood pressure and stress. Analytical and numerical results obtained are consistent with experimental data.

  15. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIOR, BLOOD-PRESSURE, AND ADRENAL HORMONES IN COLONY RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Gugten, Jan van der

    Previous experiments suggested that rats with an active behavioral strategy and high endocrine and blood pressure responses to social interactions would be at risk to get a high blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, a long-term study of social behavior was performed in laboratory colonies of

  16. MACROMICROSCOPIC AND ULTRAMICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HART AND ITS BLOOD VESSELS IN MICE EHRLICHIOSIS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhil S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The macromicroscopic, ultramicroscopic studying change’s in the hart and its blood vessels in unlinear immunocomprometive laboratory male and female mice with the experimental ehrlichiosis is presented in this article. The cardiac destructive and degenerative changes,cardiomyopathy, cardiosclerosis had been established inexperimental animal group’s. The blood vessels endothelial lieyr disorganization, stasis, thrombosis has been noted.

  17. Blood pressure, edema and proteinuria in pregnancy. 3. Study design, population and data characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, R F

    1976-01-01

    1. The mean blood pressure runs a curvilinear pattern during the course of pregnancy, with the lowest reading between 20 and 27 weeks of gestation, a continuous rise from 28 to 36 weeks, followed by a plateau. 2. the mean blood pressure in pregnancies without edema and proteinuria are lowest throughout pregnancy. However, the mean blood pressures in pregnancies complicated by edema, proteinuria, or both, are less than 5 mm. Hg higher after 28 weeks of gestation. 3. The mean blood pressures are lower in black gravidas than in white gravidas throughout pregnancy, independent of the presence or absence of edema, proteinuria, or their combinations. 4. The mean blood pressure is related to age and parity. Median-age gravidas (20-34 years) of parity 1-5 have the lowest mean blood pressures overall at any time during gestation. The mean blood pressure of nulliparas, independent of age, is elevated over the mean blood pressure of comparable multiparas. Independent of parity, maternal age systematically affects the mean blood pressure. 5. The standard deviations for the mean diastolic and systolic blood pressures are approximately 9 and 11 mm. Hg, respectively, independent of the weeks of gestation. They are affected very little by the absence or presence of edema or proteinuria, or both. 6. Edema of hands and/or face occurs more often in black gravidas. 7. The overall perinatal mortality rates in pregnancies complicated by edema are not higher than in pregnancies without edema. Perinatal mortality rates in pregnancies with proteinuria, or edema and proteinuria, on the other hand, are approximately double the rates for pregnancies without edema and proteinuria.

  18. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  19. Effect of maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and farrowing characteristics in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Berg, E P; Berg, E L; Vonnahme, K A

    2013-02-01

    Yorkshire gilts either remained in their individual stall from d 40 to term (CON; n = 7) or were subjected to exercise for 30 min 3 times per week from mid to late gestation (EX; n = 7) to determine the impact of increased maternal activity during gestation on maternal behavior, fetal growth, umbilical blood flow, and parturition. In parity 1, maternal body composition (10th rib back fat and LM area), maternal behavior, and farrowing characteristics were recorded. In parities 1 and 2, fetal growth, fetal heart rate, pulsatility index and resistance index, and umbilical blood flow were monitored beginning at d 39 of gestation continuing to d 81 of gestation. Exercise continued until d 104. Gilts allowed to exercise sat less (P gestation in the pig increased umbilical blood flow and appeared to reduce maternal restlessness, impacts on offspring development in postnatal life are not known.

  20. Echocardiographic and Blood Pressure Characteristics of First-Year Collegiate American-Style Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Stephen F; White, Stephanie; Erwin, John P; Meade, Thomas H; Martin, Steven E; Oliver, Jonathan M; Joubert, Dustin P; Lambert, Bradley S; Bramhall, Joe P; Gill, Kory; Weir, David

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiographic (echo) and blood pressure (BP) reference values may help identify athletes at cardiovascular risk, yet benchmarks are inadequate for collegiate American-style football (ASF) players. Our purpose was to describe echo characteristics and BP values in collegiate ASF athletes compared with normal. First-year players (n = 80, age = 18 ± 1 years, height = 186 ± 7 cm, weight = 100.1 ± 22.0 kg, body mass index = 28.7 ± 5.0), body surface area [BSA] = 2.24 ± 0.25; percentage fat = 16.5 ± 9.7%) were measured for systolic and diastolic BP, and underwent echo procedures by a certified sonographer. Data analyses included simple statistics, Pearson r, frequencies in normal ranges, and t test; α = 0.05. Selected echo measurements (and indexed by BSA) were: left ventricular (LV) internal diameter diastole = 5.3 ± 0.5 cm (2.4 ± 0.3); left atrial diameter = 3.9 ± 0.5 cm (1.8 ± 0.2): LV end-diastolic volume = 138 ± 30 ml (62 ± 11); septal wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.2 cm (0.5 ± 0.1); LV posterior wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 cm (0.5 ± 0.1), LV mass = 212 ± 46 g (95 ± 18); and relative wall thickness = 0.39 ± 0.07. Correlations between BSA and echo variables were significant (r = 0.26 to 0.50). Indexing by BSA reduced percentages above reference ranges from 36% to 7%. Septal wall thickness index was significantly greater in black (0.5 ± 0.1) than nonblack (0.4 ± 0.1) athletes. Fifty-nine athletes were hypertensive or prehypertensive, and diastolic BP was significantly greater in black (76 ± 10 mm Hg) compared with nonblack athletes (71 ± 8 mm Hg). ASF athletes demonstrated LV wall thicknesses and cavity sizes consistent with sport-training hypertrophy but which were unremarkable when indexed by BSA. Ethnicity generally did not influence echo variables. No ASF players were identified with cardiac dysfunction or disease.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  2. [Characteristics of foot blood supply in rigidity of the great toe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, A A; Kramarenko, G N; Istomina, I S

    1991-07-01

    By means of angiography, made in 20 patients with rigidity of the first toes due to osteoarthrosis, there have been revealed chronic deficiency of blood circulation in the foot tissues, especially in its antero-internal section. Blood circulation deficiency is due either to the congenital anomaly of the foot vessels or to the consequences of their traumatic injuries. Blood supply deficiency results in degenerative-dystrophic changes of the first metatarsophalangeal articulations with development of their rigidity, aggravated by post-ischemic contracture of the foot muscles.

  3. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo

    2016-07-21

    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  4. Are published characteristics of the ambulatory blood pressure generalizable to rural Chinese? The JingNing population study

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in rural Chinese and compared its characteristics with those reported in other population-based studies. METHODS: We enrolled inhabitants from six villages of the JingNing County, China. We recorded the ambulatory BP using 90207 SpaceLabs monitors. Trained physicians measured the conventional BP at the participants' homes. Hypertension was defined as a conventional BP of >/=140/>/=90 mmHg or a condition requiring the intake of anti...

  5. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  6. Comparação do valor nutritivo de farinhas de sangue e de farinhas de vísceras para suínos utilizando-se o método da proteína e gordura digestíveis e o método de substituição Comparison of digestible energy of blood meals and poultry by-product meals for pigs using the digestible protein and fat method and the replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Dionísio Henn

    2006-08-01

    with 49 and 65 kg barrows (EXP 1 and 2, respectively to determine digestible energy (DE values of three sources of blood meals (EXP 1: conventional (CBM, flash dried (FDBM and spray dried red blood cells (SDRBC, and of three poultry by-product meals (EXP 2 (PBM-10.1, PBM-12.7, and PBM-16.7% of ash content by an alternative method to the replacement method (SbM. The method was based on the starch basal diet replacement with increasing levels of ingredient test (7 and 14%. Digestibility coefficients of protein (DCP and fat (DCF were obtained by the regression analysis between the percentage of added protein (or fat in the basal diet and the dietary digestible protein (or digestible fat percentage. Total feces collection was performed, during 5 days, for the digestibility assays, after 4 days of adaptation. Another treatment consisted of starch basal diet replacement with 25% of CBM or PBM-10.1 to determine DE by SbM. The DCP, DE and AME were of 30%, 1,432, and 1,246 kcal/kg for CBM; 86.7, 4.185, and 3,648 kcal/kg for FDBM and 84.6%, 4,041, and 3.512 kcal/kg for SDRBC, respectively. Regression lines difference was found between CBM and the other two sources. DE of CBM measured by SbM was of 988±268 kcal/kg. For PBM-10.1, PBM-12.7 and PBM-16.7, DCP, DCF, DE and AME were, respectively, 93.0, 87.6, 4,106, 3,719, 96.4, 85.6, 4,390, and 3,987 and 84.3%, 80.5%, 3,925, and 3,580 kcal/kg. Regression lines difference was found between PBP-16.7 and the other two sources for DCP. For DCF lines, no differences were found. DE value of PBM 10.1, measured by SbM, was of 4,057±164 kcal/kg. It is probable that SbM underestimate ingredient DE, specially for those with little palatability, as blood meals. The alternative method is a good option for DE calculations.

  7. Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorbable atoms and molecules. During the process of absorption, nutrients that come from the food (including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) pass through channels in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. The blood works ...

  8. Effect of lactic acid bacteria inoculant and beet pulp addition on fermentation characteristics and in vitro ruminal digestion of vegetable residue silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Cai, Y; Takahashi, T; Yoshida, N; Tohno, M; Uegaki, R; Nonaka, K; Terada, F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beet pulp (BP) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on silage fermentation quality and in vitro ruminal dry matter (DM) digestion of vegetable residues, including white cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, and lettuce. Silage was prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and treatments were designed as control silage without additive or with BP (30% fresh matter basis), LAB inoculant Chikuso-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum, 5mg/kg, fresh matter basis), and BP+LAB. In vitro incubation was performed using rumen fluid mixed with McDougall's artificial saliva (at a ratio of 1:4, vol/vol) at 39°C for 6h to determine the ruminal fermentability of the vegetable residue silages. These vegetable residues contained high levels of crude protein (20.6-22.8% of DM) and moderate levels of neutral detergent fiber (22.7-33.6% of DM). In all silages, the pH sharply decreased and lactic acid increased, and the growth of bacilli, coliform bacteria, molds, and yeasts was inhibited by the low pH at the early stage of ensiling. The silage treated with BP or LAB had a lower pH and a higher lactic acid content than the control silage. After 6h of incubation, all silages had relatively high DM digestibility (38.6-44.9%); in particular, the LAB-inoculated silage had the highest DM digestibility and the lowest methane production. The vegetable residues had high nutritional content and high in vitro DM digestibility. Also, both the addition of a LAB inoculant and moisture adjustment with BP improved the fermentation quality of the vegetable residue silages. In addition, LAB increased DM digestibility and decreased ruminal methane production.

  9. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachikawa Masanori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Guanidino compounds (GCs, such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF barrier (BCSFB have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC 6A8 expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6 and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3 expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen

  10. Dynamic optical absorption characteristics of blood after slow and fast heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Chen, Bin; Li, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Laser treatment is the most effective therapy in dermatology for vascular skin disorders, such as port-wine stains (PWS). Changes in heat-induced absorbance in blood must be determined for accurate numerical simulation and implementation of multi-pulse laser therapy for treatment of PWS. Thermally induced absorbance changes in hemoglobin in blood were compared in vitro between slow water bath heating and fast heating irradiated by using sub-millisecond Nd:YAG laser. Blood composition at different temperatures was calculated by comparing blood absorption spectra with those of pure HbO2, Hb, and metHb at room temperature. Blood absorbance to heat energy were categorized into three stages distinguished by metHb and coagulation points, which are the validity and security thresholds of the optimized therapy, respectively. Rapid laser heating can distinctively enhance blood absorbance by photochemically induced strong instability compared with slow heating at a constant temperature. Slow heating facilitates metHb point at 70 °C and coagulation point at 75 °C as the temperature of the water bath increases. However, the temperature at which metHb or coagulation point shifts to higher than 10 °C when pulses and fluence in laser irradiation change. Laser fluence less than 20 J/cm(2) and more than 50 J/cm(2) is unsuitable for laser treatment because of its low probability to coagulate vascular hyperplasia and high probability to damage normal tissues adjacent to target lesions, respectively. Few bubbles formed after mediate fluence is beneficial to minimize adverse side-effects. Considering blood absorbance, temperature evolution, and bubble formation, we recommend 30-40 J/cm(2) and 2-4 Hz frequency as the optimal laser parameters in sub-millisecond Nd:YAG laser.

  11. Amino Acid Compositions and Digestion Characteristics in Imitative Gastrointestinal Environments of Alga Paper Foods%纸型海藻食品的氨基酸构成和模拟胃肠消化特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立春; 陈丽娟; 倪玲; 张启; 葛亮; 叶子; 包斌

    2012-01-01

    研究纸型紫菜食品和纸型海带食品的氨基酸构成特点及2种海藻食品模拟胃肠消化的特性。分别以紫菜和海带为原料,制作纸型紫菜和纸型海带,通过氨基酸分析、模拟胃消化、模拟肠消化分析纸型海藻食品的营养成分和消化特性。纸型紫菜和纸型海带均含有人体必需的8种氨基酸,2种半必需氨基酸及8种其他氨基酸。纸型紫菜的氨基酸含量为19.62g/100g,纸型紫菜和纸型海带的鲜味氨基酸占氨基酸的总量超过20%。纸型紫菜经5h模拟胃消化的消化率为57%,高于非纸型紫菜消化率(36%),纸型海带经5h模拟胃消化的消化率为18%,高于非纸型海带消化率(13%)。纸型紫菜和纸型海带经5h模拟肠消化的消化率分别为78%和28%,均显著高于非纸型海藻模拟肠消化的消化率。纸型紫菜和纸型海带具有合乎FAO/WHO的氨基酸参考模式,具有优良的胃消化特性和肠消化特性。%The purpose of this study was to explore the amino acid composition and digestion characteristics in a simulated gastric solution and a simulated intestinal solution of laver and kelp paper foods. The results indicated that both laver paper and kelp paper contained 8 essential amino acids, 2 semi-essential amino acids and 8 other amino acids. The content of amino acids in laver paper was 19.62 g/100 g. Flavor amino acids accounted for more than 20% of total amino acids in both paper foods. The digestibility of laver paper was 57% after 5 h of simulated gastric digestion compared with 36% for regular laver. The digestibility after 5 h of simulated gastric digestion was 18% for kelp paper and 13% for regular kelp. Laver paper and kelp paper showed a digestibility of respectively 78% and 28% after 5 h of simulate intestinal digestion, which were both much higher that that of their respective raw materials. In conclusion, laver paper and kelp paper can meet the FAt

  12. Historical Analysis of Portuguese Primary School Textbooks (1920-2005) on the Topic of Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graca S.; Silva, Rui; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Portuguese primary school pupils and teachers have three main difficulties in the representation of the digestion process: the sequence of the digestive tract, blood absorption, and the relationship of the digestive function with other human functions. In this study we analysed the topic of digestion in 63…

  13. Methane emission, digestive characteristics and faecal archaeol in heifers fed diets based on silage from brown midrib maize as compared to conventional maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Schweigel-Röntgen, Monika; Kreuzer, Michael; Ortmann, Sylvia; Gill, Fiona; Kuhla, Björn; Meyer, Ulrich; Lohölter, Malte; Derno, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to compare silage prepared from maize having a brown midrib (BMR) mutation with control (CTR) maize to identify their effects on enteric methane emission, digesta mean retention time (MRT), ruminal fermentation and digestibility. In addition, the utility of archaeol present in faecal samples was validated as a proxy for methane production. Seven German Holstein heifers were fed total mixed rations with a maize-silage proportion (either BMR or CTR) of 920 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a change-over design. Heifers were fed boluses with markers to measure MRT; faeces were collected for 7 days and rumen fluid was collected on the penultimate day. Methane emission was measured in respiration chambers on one day. Data were analysed by t-test and regression analysis. DM intake did not differ between the two diets. The apparent digestibility of DM and most nutrients was unaffected by diet type, but apparent digestibility of neutral and acid detergent-fibre was higher in those heifers fed BMR than in those fed CTR. Comparisons between diets revealed no difference in particle or solute MRT in the gastro-intestinal tract and the reticulorumen. Concentrations of short-chain fatty acid and ammonia in rumen fluid and its pH were not affected by silage type. Independent of the mode of expression [l/d, l/kg DM intake, l/kg digested organic matter], methane emissions were not affected by maize-silage type, but with BMR, there was a trend towards lower methane production per unit of digested neutral detergent fibre than there was with CTR silage. Results of the present study show that feeding heifers BMR silage does not increase methane emissions despite a higher fibre digestibility as compared to CTR silage. Therefore, it is assumed that improvements in animal productivity achieved by feeding BMR silage, as some studies have reported, can be obtained without extra environmental cost per unit of milk or meat. Neither faecal archaeol content [µg

  14. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  15. Achievement of Target Blood Pressure Levels among Japanese Workers with Hypertension and Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Therapeutic Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagako Kudo

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined Japanese with regard to the achievement rates for target blood pressure levels, or the relationship between these rates and healthy lifestyle characteristics in patients with hypertension as defined by the newly established hypertension management guidelines (JSH2014. The aim of this study was to elucidate achievement rates and examine healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with achievement status among Japanese.This cross-sectional study, conducted in January-December 2012, examined blood pressure control and healthy lifestyle characteristics in 8,001 Japanese workers with hypertension (mean age, 57.0 years; 78.8% were men who participated in a workplace health checkup. Data were collected from workplace medical checkup records and participants' self-administered questionnaires. We divided into 5 groups [G1; young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (65-74 years old without diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (CKD (<140/90 mmHg, G2; late-phase elderly patients (≥75 years old without diabetes mellitus or CKD (<150/90 mmHg, G3; diabetic patients (<130/80 mmHg, G4; patients with CKD (<130/80 mmHg, and G5; patients with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (<140/90 mmHg] according to JSH2014. And then, achievement rates were calculated in each group. Multivariate analysis identified healthy lifestyle characteristics associated with "therapeutic failure" of target blood pressure.Target blood pressures were achieved by 60.2% of young, middle-aged, and early-phase elderly patients (G1, 71.4% of late-phase elderly patients (G2, 30.5% of diabetic patients (G3, 33.4% of those with chronic kidney disease (G4, and 66.0% of those with cerebrovascular and/or coronary artery diseases (G5. A body mass index of 18.5-24.9 and non-daily alcohol consumption were protective factors, and adequate sleep was found to contribute to therapeutic success.We found low achievement rates for treatment goals

  16. Characteristics of selected peripheral blood parameters in polar fox (Alopex lagopus L.) fed diets with inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymeczko, Roman; Głowińska, Beata; Burlikowska, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Bogusławska-Tryk, Monika; Kozłowska, Izabela; Brudnicki, Adam; Pietruszyńska, Dominika

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating changes in selected peripheral blood parameters in male polar foxes fed diets with different supplementation of inulin: 0.25% (group El), 0.5% (E2) and 1% (E3). The blood for analysis was sampled from the brachial vein. The study showed that adding 0.25 and 0.5% of inulin to fox feed resulted in a lower content of haemoglobin (Hb) as well as mean mass of Hb in red blood cells in the 0.5% inulin group. The total count of thrombocytes decreased significantly with a higher level of prebiotic, while the total number of white blood cells and the percentage of different leukocytes tested remained invariable. The lowest supplementation of inulin affected the partial pressure of carbon dioxide, however, the remaining acid-base parameters did not change. The present study provides the first preliminary information about the effect of dietary inulin on some haematological indices and acid-base parameters in adult polar foxes. The results may be helpful in practice to improve the health condition of farmed polar foxes.

  17. Cassava root peel as a replacement for maize in diets for growing pigs: effects on energy and nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola, Olufemi S.; Amos O. Fanimo; J. Adeniyi Agunbiade; Andreas Susenbeth; Eva Schlecht

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate cassava root peel (CRP) as diet component for fattening pigs. In the first experiment, ten male pigs were used to investigate the nutrient digestibility and the nutritive value of CRP as replacement for maize in the diet at 0 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 % and 60 %, while supplementing free amino acids (fAA). During two experimental periods, faeces were quantitatively collected and analysed for chemical composition. In the second experiment, 40 pigs received th...

  18. Analysis of Selenium in Blood of Patients with Lung Cancer by Microwave Digestion-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry%微波消解-原子荧光光谱法分析肺癌患者全血中硒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琳; 张欣欣; 王继灵; 吴桂平; 杨庆斌

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨肺癌患者血样中硒含量的变化。方法采集肺癌组和对照组血样,用硝酸、过氧化氢混合液微波消解样品,采用原子荧光光谱法测定血样中硒的含量。结果肺癌组和对照组硒平均质量浓度分别为0.087、0.123 mg/L。结论肺癌患者血样硒含量明显降低,缺硒可能是导致肺癌高发的重要因素。%Objective The paper investigates the change of the selenium content in the blood samples of patients with lung cancer .Methods The writer applies miscible liquids of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the digestion of the collected blood samples from lung cancer group and the control group , using atomic fluorescence spectrometry to determine the content of selenium in blood samples .Results The average content of selenium in the lung cancer group and control group in average content of selenium are 0.087 mg/L and 0.123 mg/L respectively .Conclusion The content of selenium significantly lowered in the blood samples collected from patients with lung cancer .Selenium deficiency may be an important factor leading to high incidence of lung cancer .

  19. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Optimisation of resistant starch II and III levels in durum wheat pasta to reduce in vitro digestibility while maintaining processing and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Nisha; Sissons, Mike; Fellows, Christopher M; Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2013-01-15

    Foods with elevated levels of resistant starch (RS) may have beneficial effects on human health. Pasta was enriched with commercial resistant starches (RSII, Hi Maize™ 1043; RSIII, Novelose 330™) at 10%, 20% and 50% substitution of semolina for RSII and 10% and 20% for RSIII and compared with pasta made from 100% durum wheat semolina to investigate technological, sensory, in vitro starch digestibility and structural properties. The resultant RS content of pasta increased from 1.9% to ∼21% and was not reduced on cooking. Significantly, the results indicate that 10% and 20% RSII and RSIII substitution of semolina had no significant effects on pasta cooking loss, texture and sensory properties, with only a minimal reduction in pasta yellowness. Both RS types lowered the extent of in vitro starch hydrolysis compared to that of control pasta. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering verified the incorporation of RS and, compared to the control sample, identified enhanced crystallinity and a changed molecular arrangement following digestion. These results can be contrasted with the negative impact on pasta resulting from substitution with equivalent amounts of more traditional dietary fibre such as bran. The study suggests that these RS-containing formulations may be ideal sources for the preparation of pasta with reduced starch digestibility.

  1. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigve Holmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS.In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest.We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001, increased vascular density (p = 0.015 and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071. Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%.The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis.

  2. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus blood stream infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Mahoko; Yagihara,Yuka; Tatsuno, Keita; Okazaki, Mitsuhiro; Okugawa, Shu; Moriya, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus is one of the pathogens causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, few reports have documented the antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics of Bacillus cereus BSI and the importance of empirical therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of B. cereus isolates from patients with BSI and to analyze the impact of appropriate empirical therapy on the outcome of patients...

  3. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanette Grundström; Jenny M Reimer; Sofia E Magnusson; Gunnar Nilsson; Sara Wernersson; Lars Hellman

    2012-01-01

    Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transc...

  4. The effects of a combination of garlic, oyster mushroom and propolis extract in comparison to antibiotic on growth performance, some blood parameters and nutrients digestibility of male broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Daneshmand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of garlic, oyster mushroom and propolis extract on the growth performance, organ weights, antibody response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, serum lipid concentrations and nutrient digestibility of male broilers. A total of 192 day old chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to 3 treatments with 4 replications (16 birds per replication. Experimental treatments were a maize- soybean based diet as control, control diet supplemented with a combination of garlic (30 g/kg, oyster mushroom (2 g/kg and propolis extract (0.2 g/kg known as GMP, and control diet supplemented with Virginamycin (0.25 g/kg as antibiotic. The inclusion of GMP decreased (p < 0.05 live body weight, average daily gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion ratio when compared to control diet. GMP and antibiotic had no effects on relative weight of organs. Antibiotic decreased (p < 0.05 the relative weight of small intestine segments. GMP decreased total cholesterol but did not affect other serum lipids when compared to control group. Antibiotic increased (p < 0.05 cholesterol concentration in serum. The inclusion of GMP to the diet improved antibody response to NDV when compared to control and antibiotic diets. In conclusion, the results showed that GMP decreased growth performance but improved immunity of broiler chickens. More studies should be performed to confirm the action modes of such combinations.

  5. Molecular and epidemiological characteristics of blood-borne virus infections among recent immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Carlos; Jiménez, Victoria; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodés, Berta; Holguín, Africa; Alvarez, Patricia; García-Campello, Marta; Gómez-Hernando, César; Guelar, Ana; Sheldon, Julie; de Mendoza, Carmen; Simón, Ainhoa; Soriano, Vincent

    2006-12-01

    The increased immigration from developing regions to Western countries raises public health concerns related to blood-borne viruses. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infections among recent immigrants attending several Spanish diagnostic centers in years 2002 and 2003 was examined. Genetic characterization of viral subtypes and its relationship with distinct at-risk populations was carried out. A total of 1,303 immigrants were identified. They originated in Latin America (46.9%), Sub-Saharan Africa (23.7%), Eastern Europe (9.4%), and the Maghreb (9.2%). Seroprevalence rates were as follows: HIV-1 4.2%, HBV 4.1%, HCV 2.9%, and HTLV-1 0.8%. All patients with HIV-1 non-B subtypes, HBV genotypes E and A3, and HCV genotype 4 were sub-Saharan Africans, and had been infected mainly through heterosexual contacts. In contrast, Latin American homo/bisexual men carried HIV-1 subtype B most likely acquired after their arrival to Spain. In conclusion, while Sub-Saharan Africans carry wide diverse genetic variants of blood-borne viruses, the absence of high-risk practices in most cases could limit the spread of these variants. In contrast, Latin Americans with high-risk sexual practices may be a particularly vulnerable collective to acquire blood-borne viruses in the receptor country.

  6. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  7. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored.

  8. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Pei, Ke; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Gang; Li, Songlin; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored. PMID:24914306

  9. Evaluation of Autograft Characteristics After Pterygium Excision Surgery: Autologous Blood Coagulum Versus Fibrin Glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Kanhaiya; Gupta, Shikha; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Vanathi, Murugesan; Sharma, Namrata; Agarwal, Tushar; Vajpayee, Rasik Bihari

    2017-01-01

    To compare graft outcomes following pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft fixation using patient's in situ autologous blood or standard fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft adhesion. Outcomes of 23 consecutive eyes which underwent pterygium excision and conjunctival autograft with autologous in situ blood coagulum (group I) were compared with historical case controls (20 eyes) that had undergone fibrin glue-assisted conjunctival autograft (group II). Primary outcome measure was graft stability. Secondary outcome measure was severity of graft inflammation at day 1, day 7, 3 months, and 6 months. The two groups were similar regarding age, gender, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, tear function tests, and pterygium size. Mean surgical time was similar for the two groups (14.2±2.74 min, group I; 12.25±1.88 min, group II; P=0.1); with the mean difference in operative time being 1.95 min (95% CI, 0.48-3.42 min). Postoperatively, there was a statistically significant reduction in astigmatism and improvement in UCVA, BCVA, and spherical equivalent in all eyes. No difference was found in mean epithelial defect healing time, UCVA, BCVA, astigmatism, tear film break-up time, and Schirmer I and II at 6 months between the two groups. Initial graft stability was better for group II at 1 month (P=0.001) but was similar for both groups at 6 months. Median score of graft inflammation was significantly more for group II during the first week (P<0.05; Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Autologous blood may be used as an effective alternative with lesser postoperative inflammation in comparison to glue-assisted autograft fixation.

  10. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of the ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy on growth performance, blood metabolites and hormones of lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lingfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 335 lactating sows (Landrace × Large White were used in two experiments to determine the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys to metabolizable energy (ME for mixed parity sows during lactation. In Exp. 1, 185 sows (weighing an average of 256.2 ± 6.5 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.3 were allocated to one of six experimental diets in a completely randomized block design within parity groups (1, 2, and 3+. The experimental diets were formulated to contain 3.06, 3.16, 3.20, 3.25, 3.30 or 3.40 Mcal/kg of ME and each diet was fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. All diets provided a similar SID-lysine level (0.86%. As a result, the diets provided a SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.81, 2.72, 2.69, 2.65, 2.61 or 2.53 g/Mcal ME. Sow feed intake was significantly (P P P P P P = 0.02; entire cohort, P P P P P P P = 0.04 were decreased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio of the diet increased. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (P = 0.02, estradiol (P P = 0.02 were increased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio in diet increased. Based on a broken-line model, the estimated SID-Lys:ME ratio to maximize litter weight gain was estimated to be 3.05 g/Mcal.

  12. Influence of source and level of glycerin in the diet on growth performance, liver characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in broilers from hatching to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalawi, H A; Kimiaeitalab, M V; Obregon, V; Menoyo, D; Mateos, G G

    2014-11-01

    The influence of source and level of inclusion of raw glycerin (GLYC) in the diet on growth performance, digestive traits, total tract apparent retention (TTAR), and apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients was studied in broilers from 1 to 21 d of age. There was a control diet based on corn and soybean meal and 8 additional diets that formed a 2 × 4 factorial with 2 sources of GLYC and 4 levels of inclusion (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%). The GLYC used were obtained from the same original batch of soy oil that was dried under different processing conditions and contained 87.5 or 81.6% glycerol, respectively. Type of processing of the GLYC did not affect any of the variables studied except DM and organic matter retention (P < 0.05) that was higher for the 87.5% glycerol diet. From d 1 to 21, feed conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (L, P ≤ 0.01) as the GLYC content of the diet increased, but ADG was not affected. On d 21, the relative weight (% BW) of the liver and the digestive tract increased (L, P < 0.01) as the level of GLYC in the diet increased, but lipid concentration in the liver was not affected. The TTAR of DM and organic matter increased quadratically (Q, P < 0.05) and the AME(n) content of the diet increased linearly (L, P < 0.01) with increases in dietary GLYC. Also, the apparent ileal digestibility of DM (L, P < 0.05; Q, P = 0.07) and gross energy (L, P < 0.01) increased as the GLYC content of the diet increased. It is concluded that raw GLYC from the biodiesel industry can be used efficiently, up to 10% of the diet, as a source of energy for broilers from 1 to 21 d of age and that the energy content of well-processed raw GLYC depends primarily on its glycerol content.

  13. Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Fat Metabolites of Broilers Fed Oil Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad EL-QUB

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil sediment (OOS with soybean oil soap stock (SOY traditionally used in poultry rations, on broilers growth performance, dressing proportions, carcass cut, blood lipid metabolites and meat quality (i.e. water holding capacity, WHC; colony forming unit, CFU. A total of 416 day-old Cobb-500 chicks were used in this experiment. Birds were divided into 2 experimental treatments of 208 birds in each. Each treatment was composed of 8 replicates with 26 birds in each. Oil supplements were added (day 22 to the finishing diets at a level of 30 g/kg diet. Chicks fed the OOS had a better (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio (FCR compared to those of the SOY fed birds. Similar effect of OSS on the dressing proportions was observed. Carcasses of broilers fed the OOS had higher (p < 0.05 WHC compared to that of SOY fed broilers. The OOS resulted in more than 100 % improvement in WHC compared to the traditionally used SOY. Carcasses of SOY fed broilers had more (p < 0.05 CFU count compared to that of birds fed OOS diets. Levels of all tested blood metabolites at day 28 and 35 compared to the baseline levels (day 21, prior to oil supplementation, were significantly affected by the type of oil.

  14. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Children with Blood Lead Levels ≥45 μg/dL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brett; Faciano, Andrew; Tsega, Adey; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy. Inclusion criteria were residence in NYC and an elevated confirmatory venous test within 2 weeks of the initial BLL ≥45 µg/dL. Data collected during case coordination of these children were linked with blood testing data and home inspection reports. Children with BLLs ≥45 µg/dL also were compared with the general population of children younger than 18 years of age in NYC. A total of 145 children lead poisoning has declined in the US, severe cases still occur. Physicians should be especially vigilant in certain at-risk populations including children who eat paint chips or soil, spend time outside the US (particularly in Pakistan), use imported products, or have developmental delays or sickle cell disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Blood characteristics, microbial and gastrointestinal parasites of street pigeons (Columba Livia in Owerri Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Opara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the haematological and biochemical indices and the naturally occurring haemo and gastrointestinal microbes of 150 matured street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The PCV, WBC, MCV, MCH and total bilirubin values of the female pigeons were significantly (p0.05 between the two group. Out of 150 street pigeons examined for prevalence of parasites, 70 (46.70% of them were infected with gastro-intestinal parasites of which 30 (42.93% were males and 40 (57.1% were females. Four gastro-intestinal parasites were identified with Trichomonas sp. giving the highest prevalence rate (42%, followed by Eimeria sp. (28%, and whereas Coccidia sp. and Ascaridia sp. returned the least with each having the prevalence rate of (14%. Results of haemo -parasitological examination of thin blood smears revealed haematozoa of two genera: Haemoproteus sp. which was more common gave a prevalence rate of 40 (66% for the male and 70 (87% for the female pigeons. Plasmodium sp. with prevalence of 20 (33% and 10 (12% in male and female pigeons respectively. Fecal cultures recorded high growth of bacterial organisms, of which Proteus sp. returned 50 (83% and Enterococcus sp. returned 10 (16%. In totality, 40% of the pigeons had bacterial infections. In conclusion, the prevalence of gastrointestinal and haemoparasites in street pigeons in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. However, these parasites did not cause any visible deleterious effects in the blood parameters of the pigeons examined.

  16. [Changes of physiological and biochemical characteristics of rat erythrocytes after blood loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, M N; Kazennov, A M; Katiukhin, L N; Novozhilov, A V; Skverchinskaia, E A; Tavrovskaia, T V

    2007-01-01

    In experiments of Wistar male rats, changes are studied of erythrocyte hematological, biochemical (activitities of transport ATPases), and rheological properties (capability for aggregation and deformability) 7 days after bloodletting of 12-15 % of the total blood mass. It has been shown that alongside with an elevation of erythrocyte volume and of the number of immature cells - reticulocytes, there was a statistically significant increase of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase activities in the whole erythrocytes and their membrane preparations - ghosts, the increment of activity in the case of Na,K-ATPase being essentially higher in the whole cells. This indicates the appearance of an enzyme activator inside the erythrocytes. There are also revealed a decrease of firmness of erythrocyte aggregates, a deceleration of spontaneous aggregation, and an increase of index of erythrocyte deformability. The conclusion is made that changes of erythrocyte rheological properties are interconnected with changes of the Na,K-ATPase activity and are directed to optimization of blood circulation in large vessels and capillary network.

  17. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  18. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bornhorst, GM; Gouseti, O.; Wickham, MSJ; Bakalis, S.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®. Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digest...

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL BLOOD PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction of the left ventricle assist axial pump and the cardiovascular system. It is shown the axial pumps are working in conditions «left ventricle- aorta» generates a pulsed flow. The slope of the flow-pressure characteristics determine the amplitude of the pulsation. Data are confirmed in the chronic experiments on the biological models with the extracorporeal connection of the pump. The possibility of using this characteristic for the develope of the automatic control systems to ensure adequate operation of the pump in range of the physical activity of a patient ‘s physical activity. 

  20. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in captive Asian water monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Narkkong, Naul-Anong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Kranjanapitukkul, Kwanjai

    2014-12-01

    The Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator) is the most common monitor lizard in Thailand. Reported data regarding hematology and morphology of blood cells for this species are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess routine hematologic variables and characterize the morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural features of blood cells in the Asian water monitor. Blood samples from 55 monitors (22 males and 33 females) were obtained for a CBC. Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B [SBB], peroxidase [PO], α-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase [BG]), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed using standard methods. Determined mean (range) hematologic results of all monitors included PCV 0.32 L/L (0.20-0.44 L/L), HGB 106 g/L (62-157 g/L), WBC 15.9 × 10(9) /L (4.0-34.0 × 10(9) /L), heterophil 6.3 × 10(9) /L (1.5-17.1 × 10(9) /L, azurophil 2.6 × 10(9) /L (0.7-9.5 × 10(9) /L), basophil 0.1 (0.1-0.5 × 10(9) /L), lymphocyte 6.8 × 10(9) /L (0.5-13.1 × 10(9) /L), and monocyte 0.2 × 10(9) /L (0.04-1 × 10(9) /L) counts. Heterophils and basophils stained strongly positive with SBB, ANAE, and BG. Heterophils contained 2 types of granules, round SBB-positive and PO-negative granules, and electron-dense, large rod-shaped granules. Gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. were found in <1% RBC of 43 monitors. There was no significant difference between hematologic variables in Hepatozoon-positive and -negative monitors. Heterophils in Asian water monitors may also function as eosinophils based on cytochemical and ultrastructural features. The quantitative results may be used as base for further studies in healthy and diseased Asian water monitors. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Meat Characteristics, Fatty Liver Weight and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Force-Feeding Geese

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A study on growth performance, meat characteristics, fatty liver weight and serum biochemical parameters (ASAT, ALAT, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine) in Landes geese before and after force-feeding was carried out. The overfeeding of geese with corn was taken after 90-days of age. Frequency of daily force feeding was gradually increased from 2 to 5 until the 15th day of force feeding. During force-feeding period, the body weight inc...

  2. Comparative effects of virginiamycin supplementation on characteristics of growth-performance, dietary energetics, and digestion of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Lenin, J; Ponce, E; Sanchez, U; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2009-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of virginiamycin supplementation on growth performance and digestive function. In trial 1, 144 Holstein steer calves (119 kg of initial BW) were used in a 340-d trial. Treatments were (DM basis) 1) control (no antibiotic); 2) 16 mg/kg of virginiamycin; 3) 22.5 mg/kg of virginiamycin; and 4) 28 mg/kg of monensin. Calves received a steam-flaked corn-based growing diet for the first 112 d and thereafter were fed a finishing diet from d 112 until slaughter. Steers were divided into 2 BW groups (lighter-half and heavier-half), and assigned within groups to 24 pens (6 steers/pen). Virginiamycin did not affect (P > 0.20) ADG, but increased 340-d G:F (linear; P = 0.02) and dietary NE (linear; P = 0.04). Improvements in dietary NE were most pronounced during the final 116 d of the feeding period (linear; P = 0.04) that comprised the hot summer months (June through September). Monensin did not affect (P > 0.20) growth performance or dietary NE. Although average initial BW of the lighter-half and heavier-half BW groups differed by only 4 kg, the heavier BW group had greater HCW (13 kg, P = 0.02), LM area (5.4%, P = 0.01), ADG (4.3%, P = 0.02), G:F (2.3%, P = 0.08), and dietary NE (3.2%. P = 0.01) than the lighter BW group. In trial 2, 4 Holstein steers (269 +/- 3.5 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate treatment effects on digestion. Virginiamycin did not affect (P > 0.20) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, and N, and microbial efficiency, but tended to linearly increase (P = 0.09) ruminal N efficiency (nonammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake). Likewise, virginiamycin did not affect (P > 0.20) postruminal or total tract digestion of OM, starch, NDF, and N. Compared with the control diet, monensin depressed total tract digestion of OM (4.2%, P = 0.03) and NDF (29.5%, P = 0.02). There were no treatment effects (P > 0.20) on ruminal pH, or ruminal

  3. The Digestion and Metabolism Characteristics of Sillkworm Feces in Meat Rabbits%蚕沙在肉兔体内的消化代谢特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏雪; 郭春华; 谢晓红; 郭志强

    2011-01-01

    为摸清蚕沙在肉兔饲养中的饲用价值,为动物饲料合理开发利用提供科学依据,选取12只3月龄体重相近、健康的新西兰兔(公、母各半),随机分成2组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,蚕沙组饲喂80%基础日粮+20%蚕沙,采用全收粪尿法测定日粮各营养物质的消化代谢率,利用套算法计算蚕沙各营养物质的消化率和代谢率.结果表明:与对照组相比,蚕沙组肉兔的采食量、干物质、粗蛋白、能量和酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)的消化率差异不显著(P>0.05),而粗纤维(CF)和中性洗涤纤维(NDF)的消化率分别提高15.16%和20.69%(P<0.05);蚕沙组的食入氮量提高(P>0.05),排出粪氮量增加(P>0.05),沉积氮提高4.76%(P>0.05);蚕沙在新西兰兔体内的干物质、粗蛋白、CF、NDF和ADF消化率分别为59.43%、70.74%、36.3%、49.17%和32.2%;消化能为6.96 MJ/kg,代谢能为6.47 MJ/kg.%To provide a scientific basis for silkworm feces rational development and utilization as ■ animal feed, 12 3-month-old New Zealand rabbits, six males and six females, were allocated in individual cages for two groups, which were fed with basal diet and 80% basal diet + 20% silkworm feces respectively. The digestibility and metabolic rate of nutrient in diet were determined by collecting fecal and urine entirely, and the digestibility and metabolic rate of nutrient in silkworm feces were calculated by displacement analysis. The results showed that the intake and the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, energy and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of 20% silkworm feces treated group had no significant difference compared with control group(P>0. 05). But crude fiber(CF) and neutral detergent fiber(NDF) ? Increased by 15. 16% and 20. 69% respectively (P0. 05), fecal nitrogen output raised (P>0. 05) and the deposition nitrogen raised 4. 76%(P>0. 05). The digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, CF, NDF and ADF of silkworm feces in New Zealand

  4. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  5. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure.

  6. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  7. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  8. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Grundström

    Full Text Available Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transcriptome, umbilical cord blood cells were therefore cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL-3 for 9 days and basophils were enriched by removing non-basophils using magnetic cell sorting. The majority of purified cells demonstrated typical metachromatic staining with Alcian blue dye (95% and expression of surface markers FcεRI and CD203c, indicating a pure population of cells with basophil-like phenotype. mRNA was extracted from these cells and used to construct a cDNA library with approximately 600 000 independent clones. This library served as tool to determine the mRNA frequencies for a number of hematopoietic marker proteins. It was shown that these cells express basophil/mast cell-specific transcripts, i.e. β-tryptase, serglycin and FcεRI α-chain, to a relatively low degree. In contrast, the library contained a high number of several eosinophil-associated transcripts such as: major basic protein (MBP, charcot leyden crystal (CLC, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP, eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO. Out of these transcripts, MBP and EPO were the most frequently observed, representing 8% and 3.2% of the total mRNA pool, respectively. Moreover, in a proteome analysis of cultured basophils we identified MBP and EPO as the two most prominent protein bands, suggesting a good correlation between protein and mRNA analyses of these cells. The mixed phenotype observed for these cells strengthens the conclusion that

  9. Human cord blood derived immature basophils show dual characteristics, expressing both basophil and eosinophil associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundström, Jeanette; Reimer, Jenny M; Magnusson, Sofia E; Nilsson, Gunnar; Wernersson, Sara; Hellman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Basophils are blood cells of low abundance associated with allergy, inflammation and parasite infections. To study the transcriptome of mature circulating basophils cells were purified from buffy coats by density gradient centrifugations and two-step magnetic cell sorting. However, after extensive analysis the cells were found to be transcriptionally inactive and almost completely lack functional mRNA. In order to obtain transcriptionally active immature basophils for analysis of their transcriptome, umbilical cord blood cells were therefore cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-3 for 9 days and basophils were enriched by removing non-basophils using magnetic cell sorting. The majority of purified cells demonstrated typical metachromatic staining with Alcian blue dye (95%) and expression of surface markers FcεRI and CD203c, indicating a pure population of cells with basophil-like phenotype. mRNA was extracted from these cells and used to construct a cDNA library with approximately 600 000 independent clones. This library served as tool to determine the mRNA frequencies for a number of hematopoietic marker proteins. It was shown that these cells express basophil/mast cell-specific transcripts, i.e. β-tryptase, serglycin and FcεRI α-chain, to a relatively low degree. In contrast, the library contained a high number of several eosinophil-associated transcripts such as: major basic protein (MBP), charcot leyden crystal (CLC), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Out of these transcripts, MBP and EPO were the most frequently observed, representing 8% and 3.2% of the total mRNA pool, respectively. Moreover, in a proteome analysis of cultured basophils we identified MBP and EPO as the two most prominent protein bands, suggesting a good correlation between protein and mRNA analyses of these cells. The mixed phenotype observed for these cells strengthens the conclusion that eosinophils and

  10. The effect of the ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy on growth performance, blood metabolites and hormones of lactating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A total of 335 lactating sows (Landrace × Large White) were used in two experiments to determine the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible lysine (SID-Lys) to metabolizable energy (ME) for mixed parity sows during lactation. In Exp. 1, 185 sows (weighing an average of 256.2 ± 6.5 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.3) were allocated to one of six experimental diets in a completely randomized block design within parity groups (1, 2, and 3+). The experimental diets were formulated to contain 3.06, 3.16, 3.20, 3.25, 3.30 or 3.40 Mcal/kg of ME and each diet was fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. All diets provided a similar SID-lysine level (0.86%). As a result, the diets provided a SID-Lys:ME ratio of 2.81, 2.72, 2.69, 2.65, 2.61 or 2.53 g/Mcal ME. Sow feed intake was significantly (P sow parity. Using regression analysis, feed intake was shown to be maximized at 3.25, 3.21, 3.21 and 3.21 Mcal/kg of ME for parity 1, 2, 3+ sows and the entire cohort of sows respectively (quadratic; P sows and the entire cohort (P sows (weighing 254.6 ± 7.3 kg and having an average parity of 3.4 ± 0.4) were allocated to one of five treatments in a completely randomized block design within parity (1, 2, and 3+). The experimental diets were formulated to contain 2.1, 2.4, 2.7, 3.0 or 3.3 g/Mcal of SID-Lys:ME ratio with all diets providing 3.25 Mcal/kg of ME. The diets were fed to the sows throughout a 28 day lactation. Sow body weight loss was affected by dietary treatment (parity 3+ sows, P = 0.02; entire cohort, P sow parity (P sows and the entire cohort (P sow parity (P < 0.01). Plasma urea nitrogen (P < 0.01), creatinine (P < 0.01) and non-esterifide fatty acids (P = 0.04) were decreased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio of the diet increased. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (P = 0.02), estradiol (P < 0.01) and luteinizing hormone (P = 0.02) were increased as the SID-Lys:ME ratio in diet increased. Based on a broken-line model, the estimated SID-Lys:ME ratio to

  11. Effects of full fat or defatted rice bran on growth performance and blood characteristics of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used. Seven additional diets that were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units/kg of microbial xylanase were also formulated. On the last day of the 23-d experiment, 2 blood samples were collected from 1 pig in each pen. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IgA, and peptide YY (PYY) were measured in plasma samples and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein, and albumin were measured in serum samples. Initial and final BW were not affected by the inclusion level of FFRB or DFRB or by the addition of xylanase. The ADFI linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as inclusion of FFRB increased in diets and there was a tendency ( = 0.08) for reduced ADFI as DFRB was increased in the diets. Pigs fed diets containing DFRB had greater ADFI ( < 0.05) than pigs fed diets containing FFRB. The ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, < 0.05) with increasing level of FFRB or DFRB in the diets. The G:F linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB increased, and the G:F was greater ( < 0.05) in pigs fed diets containing FFRB than in pigs fed diets containing DFRB. The concentration of BUN linearly decreased ( < 0.05) when pigs were fed diets containing increasing levels of FFRB or DFRB. There was a tendency for the concentrations of TNF-α and PYY to linearly decrease ( = 0.09 and = 0

  12. Using hybrid models to predict blood pressure reactivity to unsupported back based on anthropometric characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurmanik KAUR‡; Ajat Shatru ARORA; Vijender Kumar JAIN

    2015-01-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in epidemiological studies, screening programmes, and re-search studies as well as in clinical practice for the early detection and prevention of high BP-related risks such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Posture of the participant plays a vital role in accurate measurement of BP. Guidelines on measurement of BP contain recommendations on the position of the back of the participants by advising that they should sit with supported back to avoid spuriously high readings. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is fused with forward stepwise regression (SWR), artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model for the prediction of BP reactivity to an unsupported back in normotensive and hypertensive participants. PCA is used to remove multi-collinearity among anthropometric predictor variables and to select a subset of com-ponents, termed‘principal components’ (PCs), from the original dataset. The selected PCs are fed into the proposed models for modeling and testing. The evaluation of the performance of the constructed models, using appropriate statistical indices, shows clearly that a PCA-based LS-SVM (PCA-LS-SVM) model is a promising approach for the prediction of BP reactivity in com-parison to others. This assessment demonstrates the importance and advantages posed by hybrid models for the prediction of variables in biomedical research studies.

  13. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  14. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  15. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  16. Effects of abrupt introduction and removal of high and low digestibility corn distillers dried grains with solubles from the diet on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrands, A M; Johnston, L J; McClelland, K M; Cox, R B; Baidoo, S K; Souza, L W O; Shurson, G C

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding continuously a diet containing 40% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or intermittently diets containing 20 or 40% DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Responses of the pigs to abrupt introduction and removal of dietary DDGS with differing concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA were also evaluated. In Exp. 1, crossbred pigs (n=216; initial BW=51.3±3.1 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments, which included a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 20% DDGS diet (D20), a switch between D20 and CON (D20-CON), and a switch between a 40% DDGS diet and CON (D40-CON) with 6 pens per treatment. Pigs abruptly introduced and removed from a 20% DDGS diet (D20-CON) exhibited no differences in growth performance or carcass quality compared with CON pigs. However, intermittently feeding a 40% DDGS diet (D40-CON) resulted in lighter HCW (Ppigs (n=324; initial BW=33.2±3.0 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 40% low SID AA DDGS diet (LD), a 40% high SID AA DDGS diet (HD), LD and CON diets alternated (LD-CON), HD and CON diets alternated (HD-CON), or HD and LD diets alternated (HD-LD) with 6 pens per treatment. Final BW and ADG were less (Ppigs compared with CON pigs, but HD pigs tended to have reduced (Ppigs compared with CON pigs (Pdietary treatment. Backfat of DDGS-fed pigs was more unsaturated than CON pigs, but AA digestibility of DDGS did not affect this response. Digestibility of AA in DDGS can influence pig performance and carcass quality when fed at high concentrations (40% or more). The use of a high SID AA DDGS source may diminish some of the negative responses observed for growth performance and carcass characteristics when feeding high concentrations of DDGS if accurate values of SID AA are used in diet formulation. Periodic inclusion and removal of 40% DDGS from diets did not adversely affect

  17. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  18. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to look at the structure of the stem secondary protective tissue of D. draco to detect anatomical features of the ducts which are responsible for the process of secretion. The studies were carried out with material collected from the stem of D. draco plants growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Warsaw University Botanic Garden. Hand-cut sections of a fresh material as well as microtome sections of the samples embedded in paraffin wax and epon resin were used for the analysis. The sections were examined under the light microscope and in UV light. Characteristics of the cork tissue of the stems at different age were elucidated. In young stems of D. draco the cork cells form radial arrangement similar to that of ‘storied cork’. However, as the stems become older, the groups of cork cells of a common origin are difficult to distinguish. The cells are tangentially stretched and more or less crushed due to the tension of radial growth. The areas that contain red secretory products were detected and anatomically described. Our results are discussed in relation to the anatomy of secondary protective tissues and the secretion structures in coniferous and broadleaved trees.

  19. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  20. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, blood biochemical parameters and immune response in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, E; Shokrollahi, B; Karimi, K; Amiri-Andi, M

    2016-06-01

    This study had the aim of evaluating the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on performance, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and antibody titre against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in quail. A total of 240 quail chicks were allotted to 4 treatments consisting of respectively 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/kg dietary MCFA. There were no significant differences in body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio among treatments at different stages of the experiment. MCFAs had no significant effect on breast, thigh, liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius weight ratios. However, the relative weight of abdominal fat significantly decreased in quail receiving 0.2 and 0.4 MCFA as compared to other treatments. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides and total cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was increased in quail chicks receiving MCFA compared with control quail chicks. The concentrations of SRBC antibody were not statistically different among treatments. It is concluded that MCFA significantly decreased LDL, triglycerides, cholesterol and abdominal fat and increased HDL in quail chicks.

  1. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  2. BLOOD SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SCROTAL CIRCUMFERENCE AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS IN NILI-RAVI BUFFALO BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SAJJAD, S. ALI, N. ULLAH1, M. ANWAR1, S. AKHTER AND S. M. H. ANDRABI1

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the blood serum testosterone level and its relationship with scrotal circumference and physical characteristics of semen in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Semen samples were collected weekly from three buffalo bulls of 14 years age for 12 weeks and were evaluated for physical characteristics i.e. ejaculatory volume, sperm motility, sperm concentration, pH and sperm abnormalities. Jugular blood samples were collected from each bull at weekly intervals and analyzed for serum testosterorse concentrations. Mean (+ SE blood serum testosterone level (ng/ml, scrotal circumference (cm, semen volume (ml, progressive sperm motility (%, sperm concentration (106/µl, semen pH and total sperm abnormalities (% observed were 0.69 ± 0.12, 34.6 ± 0.9, 3.59 ± 0.41, 51.53 ± 2.23, 0.99 ± 0.07, 7.01 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.90, respectively. Positive correlations between testosterone level and scrotal circumference (r=0.414 and ejaculatory volume (r=0.348 were observed. However, no correlation of testosterone level with sperm motility (r=0.145, sperm concentration (r=0.264, semen pH (r=-0.208 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.242 was found. Similary, ejaculatory volume did not show any correlation with sperm motility percentage (r=0.115, sperm concentration (r=0.045, semen pH (r=-0.015 and total sperm abnormalities (r=-0.135. Sperm motility percentage had positive correlation with sperm concentration (r=0.347 and negative correlation with semen pH (r=-0.670. Sperm concentration was negatively correlated with semen pH (r=-0.501. It was concluded that in 14 years old buffalo bulls the level of serum testosterone and scrotal circumference and ejaculatory volume were positively correlated. The other semen quality parameters including sperm motility, sperm concentration, semen pH and sperm abnormalities were not related with serum testosterone level.

  3. Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Qp, Yp/s, Yp/X, and qp were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax values for starch were 3.4 mg mL−1 and 19.5 IU mg−1 protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α-amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol−1, respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH∗ and entropies of activation (ΔS∗ for denaturation of α-amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α-amylases.

  4. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  5. 香蕉秸秆与牲畜粪便固体联合厌氧发酵产沼气的特性%Biogas production characteristics of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks and manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田梦; 刘晓玲; 李十中; 刘建双; 赵云飞

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks with swine manure or with cow manure, the effect of manure to banana stalks ratio on the biogas production potential was evaluated in a laboratory scale, which operated at mesophilic (35℃±1℃) and solid-state (20% total solids) conditions. The experimental results showed that cumulative biogas from the co-digestion mixture with 75%of manure increased 1.3 to 2.0 times compared with banana stalks alone. Adding manure could enhance the bioconversion of biogas, but the improved efficiency was different for the two kinds of manure. The anaerobic digestibility of the mixture (swine manure with banana stalks) was higher than that of the mixture (cow manure with banana stalks). The highest methane yield of 191 mL/g and the highest cumulative methane of 12.7 L were both achieved by the co-digestion mixture with 50%of swine manure, which respectively increased by 69%and 92%above that obtained from the co-digestion of cow manure with banana stalks. As for the highest biogas yield and the highest cumulative biogas, they were observed in the co-digestion mixture with 75%of swine manure and separately reached 365 mL/g and 23.9 L. These were about 18%and 32%higher than those of the mixture of cow manure with banana stalks, respectively. In addition, it was found that the two kinds of manure could enhance the degradation of cellulose and semi-cellulose in the mixture, and that their maximum degradation ratios could increase by 1.2 times and by 3.6 times respectively as compared with the digestion of banana stalks alone. The results of this paper will provide a reference for biogas projects of solid-state anaerobic co-digestion of banana stalks with manure.%  为了探讨香蕉秸秆与牲畜粪便的组合对固体厌氧发酵产沼气特性的影响,该文在20%的固体质量分数和中温(35±1)℃条件下,分别开展了不同质量分数的牛粪或猪粪与香

  6. Mid-trimester fetal blood-derived adherent cells share characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells but full-term umbilical cord blood does not

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinjunYu; ZhifengXiao; LiShen; LingsongLi

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for many conditions.Although stem cells can be isolated from many tissues, blood is the ideal source of these cells due to the ease of collection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been paid increased attention because of their powerful proliferation and pluripotent differentiating ability. But whether MSCs reside in blood (newborn umbilical cord blood and fetal or adult peripheral blood) is also debatable. The present study showed that MSC-like cells could be isolated and expanded from 16-26 weeks fetal blood but were not acquired efficiently from full-term infants' umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent cells separated from postnatal UCB were heterogeneous in cell morphology. Their proliferation capacity was limited and they were mainly CD45+, which indicated their haematopoietic derivation. On the contrary, MSC-like cells shared a similar phenotype to bone marrow MSCs. They were CD34- CD45- CD44+ CD71+ CD90+ CD105+. They could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage cells. Single cell clones also showed similar phenotype and differentiation ability. Our results suggest that early fetal blood is rich in MSCs but term UCB is not.

  7. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  8. An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-04-01

    The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases.

  9. Characteristics and significance of peripheral blood Th17 cells and regulatory T cells in liver transplantation patients with acute rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-guo REN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the characteristics of changes and clinical significance of Th17 cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg in peripheral blood in liver transplant patients suffering from acute transplant rejection. Methods A total of 25 liver transplant patients admitted in 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army from January to September 2011 underwent needle biopsy for the transplanted hepatic tissue. The patients were divided into two groups: acute rejection group (12 cases and stable-graft group (13 cases. In addition, 13 healthy people were enlisted in the study and regarded as control. Flow cytometric analysis was used to measure the proportion of Th17 cells and Treg cells in peripheral blood among CD4+ T cells, and to observe the relationship between change in Th17/Treg ratio and liver injury. Results The proportion of Th17/CD4+T in acute rejection group (3.50%±0.86% after transplantation was higher than that in the stable-graft group (2.10%±0.52% and control group (1.79%±0.42%, P 0.05. The Treg/CD4+T cell ratio in the peripheral blood of the patients from acute rejection and stable-graft group (0.90%±0.25% and 1.51%±0.23%, respectively were significantly lower than that of control group (2.57%±0.79%, P < 0.01, and that of acute rejection group was notably lower than that of stable-graft group (P < 0.05. The Th17/Treg ratio in acute rejection group (4.20±1.69 was significantly higher than that of stable-graft group (1.43±0.47 and control group (0.75±0.28, P < 0.01, and that of stable-graft group was higher than that of control group (P < 0.01. The ratio of Th17/Treg was positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamate transaminase (GGT levels (r=0.5023, P=0.0105; r=0.4561, P=0.0219; r=0.4393, P=0.0280; and r=0.5516, P=0.0043, respectively. Conclusions Th17/ Treg imbalance exists in liver transplant patients suffering from

  10. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Standard models describing bio-gasification using anaerobic digestion do not include necessary processes to describe digester dynamics under the conditions of oxygen presence. Limited oxygenation in anaerobic digestion can sometimes be beneficial. The oxygen effects included anaerobic digestion model, ADM 1-Ox, was simulated against experimental data obtained from laboratory scale anaerobic digesters operated under different oxygenation conditions. ADM 1-Ox predictions are generally in good agreement with the trends of the experimental data. ADM 1-Ox simulations suggest the existence of an optimum oxygenation level corresponding to a peak methane yield. The positive impact of oxygenation on methane yield is more pronounced at conditions characterized by low hydrolysis rate coefficients (slowly degradable feed and low biomass concentrations. The optimum oxygenation point moves towards zero when the hydrolysis rate coefficient and the biomass concentration increase. Accordingly, the impact of oxygenation on methane yield can either be positive or negative depending on the digestion system characteristics. The developed ADM 1-Ox model can therefore be a valuable tool for recognizing suitable operating conditions for achieving the maximum benefits from partial aeration in anaerobic digestion.

  11. 3D Computer Simulations of Pulsatile Human Blood Flows in Vessels and in the Aortic Arch: Investigation of Non-Newtonian Characteristics of Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Sultanov, Renat A; Engelbrekt, Brent; Blankenbecler, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics are applied to simulate pulsatile blood flow in human vessels and in the aortic arch. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated in simple vessels of actual size. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of two different geometries are presented. For pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and widely used method in literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, wall sear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. We consider this result as theoretical evidence that supports existing clinical observations and those models not using non-Newtonian treatment underestimate the risk of disru...

  12. 膨润土改善鸡粪厌氧消化产酸产甲烷特性%Improving production characteristics of methane and organic acid during anaerobic batch digestion of poultry manure by adding bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘君廷; 马俊怡; 郜天磊; 邱凌; 刘宏斌

    2016-01-01

    There were approximately 20 billion chickens in the world in 2010, with 23% of the chicken population found in China. In 2009, the rapid development of chicken farms in China resulted in the production of 126 million tons of poultry manure. If managed inappropriately, poultry manure can cause serious environmental problems by polluting water, air, and soil. Anaerobic digestion is a complex bioconversion process that can treat organic waste and generate biogas with a high methane content that can be used as renewable energy, hence reducing the consumption of fossil fuel and curtailing greenhouse gas emissions. Ca2+-betonite is an environmental friendly material and is widely used in compost, heavy metal removal, pollutant adsorption, etc. In order to investigate the effect of betonite addition on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure, an orthogonal experiment L8(23)was conducted to determine amount of poultry manure (organic loading rate (OLR)), amount of bentonite and inoculum concentration on characteristics of methane production and organic acid production during anaerobic batch digestion of poultry manure under mesophilic condition (35±1)℃. The results showed that bentonite addition could significantly increase methane production per VS by 22.72% and 27.72% with 3.0% and 1.5% betonite addition (based on poultry manure total solids), respectively compared to the control group under low OLR condition. Methane production from poultry manure with 3.0% or 1.5% betonite addition had no significant (P>0.05) difference under low OLR condition. Specifically, methane production could be very significantly (P<0.05) increased by adding betonite under high OLR condition. Methane production was increased by 78.68% and 55.41% with 3.0% and 1.5% betonite addition, respectively, compared to the control group under high OLR condition. Methane production from poultry manure with 3.0% or 1.5% betonite addition had significant (P<0.05) difference under high OLR condition. In the

  13. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive. [Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aimed at improving the process operating characteristics of anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization and SNG production, this study evaluates the effects of a lactobacillus additive under normal, variable, and overload conditions. This whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of L. acidophilus fortified with CoCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. Data indicate that the biochemical additive increases methane yield, gas production rate, and volatile solids reduction; decreases volatile acids accumulation; enhances the digester buffer capacity; and improves the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue. Digester capacities could be potentially doubled when the feed is so treated. Results of field tests with six full-scale digesters confirm observations made with bench-scale digesters.

  14. Digestive system; Appareil digestif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L.; Touboul, E.; Lerouge, D.; Deniaud-Alexandre, E.; Grahek, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Petegnief, Y.; Gres, B.; El Balaa, H.; Keraudy, K.; Servagi-Vernat, S.S.; Lorchel, F.L.; Crehange, G.C.; Miny, J.M.; Bosset, J.F.B.; Mineur, L.; Chastel, D.; Combescure, C.; Guillot, N.; Garcia, R.; Reboul, F.; Huguet, F.; Andre, T.; Hammel, P.; Artru, P.; Balosso, J.; Ruszniewski, P.; Touboul, E.; Gramont, A. de; Louvet, C.; Moretti, L.; Meert, N.; Magne, N.; Daisne, J.F.; Berben, D.; Bral, S.; Alen, R.; Van Cleef, A.; Florescu, C.; Henry-Amar, M.; Jacob, J.; Ollivier, J.M.; Gallais, M.P.; Guillois, J.M.; Vie, B.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Mercier, M.; Gerard, J.P.; Ducreux, M.; Lemanski, C.; Francois, E.; Giovannini, M.; Cvitkovic, F.; Mirabel, X.; Peiffert, D

    2005-11-15

    Seven articles concern the digestive system cancer, mixing of images, toxicity of the chemoradiotherapy, comparison of dosimetry tools, pancreas cancer, rectum cancer, treated by chemoradiotherapy. (N.C.)

  15. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  16. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  17. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  18. Digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with Bacillus subtilis in diet Digestibilidade e características das fezes de cães suplementados com Bacillus subtilis na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Portella Félix

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the benefice demonstrated by the modulating action of probiotics on the host intestinal microbiota, this study aimed to evaluate diet digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with diets supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Twelve young Beagle dogs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of two treatments: diet with no addition or with the addition of 0.01% Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Dogs passed through 25 days of adaptation to the diets, and five days of total feces collection. The following fecal characteristics were evaluated: pH, fecal score (1 - watery feces; 5: dry and hard feces, and ammonia content. Diet mean digestibility was compared by the Tukey test, and fecal characteristics by the Tukey-Kramer test. Diet digestibility was not different between treatments, but dogs supplemented with the tested probiotic presented dryer feces (39.1% vs. 36.5% dry matter, higher fecal score (3.4 vs. 3.0 and lower fecal ammonia content (0.45% vs. 0.56%, than dogs fed with the control diet. The dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102 improves fecal texture and odor in dogs.Em virtude da capacidade moduladora dos probióticos sobre a microbiota intestinal a favor da saúde do hospedeiro, objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a digestibilidade e as características das fezes de cães suplementados com Bacillus subtilis (C-3102 na dieta. Foram utilizados 12 cães adultos da raça Beagle, os quais foram distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso, em dois tratamentos: dieta controle e dieta com adição de 0,01% de Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Os animais passaram por 25 dias de adaptação às dietas e por cinco dias para colheita total de fezes. As características das fezes foram avaliadas por meio da matéria seca, do escore (1: fezes moles, malformadas a 5: fezes secas e duras, do pH, da amônia e da produção de fezes. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade; entretanto, os c

  19. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P compounds differed (P bioactive compounds, total polyphenols tended to be different (6.3 vs 7.2 g/kg DM), but there were no differences in erucic acid and condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF LACTINA® PROBIOTIC ON SOME MICROBIOLOGICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF MUSCOVY DUCKLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo HRISTEV

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on the infl uence of Lactina probiotics on the content of some microbial species and some histological characteristics in the intestine of Muscovy ducklings has been conducted. The authors proved, that Lactina probiotic had a signifi cant effect on the microfl ora in the large intestines, suppressing the development of the enterococci and pathogenic bacteria of Salmonella species and stimulating the development of the lactic acid bacteria. The structure of the intestinal wall corresponded to an active functional status, no signifi cant differences being established in the histological structure between the experimental and the control groups.

  1. Estimation of the optimum ratio of standardized ileal digestible isoleucine to lysine for eight- to twenty-five-kilogram pigs in diets containing spray-dried blood cells or corn gluten feed as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltafsky, M K; Bartelt, J; Relandeau, C; Roth, F X

    2009-08-01

    Two growth assays and 1 N balance trial were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio in 8- to 25-kg pigs using spray-dried blood cells or corn gluten feed as a protein source. In Exp. 1, 48 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 7.7 kg) were used in a 6-point SID Ile titration study (analyzed SID Ile of 0.36, 0.43, 0.50, 0.57, 0.64, and 0.72%) by addition of graded levels of L-Ile. The basal diet contained 1.00% SID Lys, 18.4% CP, and 13.6 MJ of ME/kg. Diets were based on wheat, barley, corn, and 7.5% spray-dried blood cells as a protein source. Dietary SID Leu and Val levels were 1.61 and 1.02%, respectively. For the 35-d period, ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.04) with increasing SID Ile:Lys. Estimates of optimal SID Ile:Lys ratios were 59% for ADG and ADFI. In Exp. 2, 24 N balances were conducted using the Exp. 1 diets (12 pigs; individually penned; average BW = 11.5 kg). Pigs were fed 3 times daily with an amount equal to 1.0 MJ of ME/kg of BW(0.75). Preparation and collection periods (7 d each) were repeated after rearranging the animals to treatments. Increasing the dietary SID Ile:Lys ratio increased N retention linearly (P < 0.01), and N utilization linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01). An optimal SID Ile:Lys ratio of 54% was estimated for N retention. In Exp. 3, 48 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 8.0 kg) were fed grain-based diets in a 6-point SID Ile titration (analyzed SID Ile of 0.35, 0.41, 0.49, 0.56, 0.62, and 0.69%). Dietary SID Ile was increased by graded addition of L-Ile. The basal diet contained 0.97% SID Lys, 16.8% CP, and 13.6 MJ of ME/kg. In contrast to Exp. 1 and 2, spray-dried blood cells were excluded and corn gluten feed was used as a protein source. Dietary SID Leu and Val were set to 1.05 and 0.66%. For the 42-d period, ADG, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.01) with increasing SID Ile:Lys. Estimated

  2. Components and Functional Characteristics of Crocodile Blood%鳄鱼血的成分组成和功能特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和平; 陈孙福; 罗永康

    2014-01-01

    测定和分析了鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的主要组分及其功能特性。结果表明,鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的蛋白含量丰富,脂肪含量低,是一种高蛋白、低脂肪的营养物质,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,其不饱和脂肪酸含有二十碳五烯酸( EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸( DHA)。此外,鳄鱼血浆粉中的免疫球蛋白G的含量也达到了20.89%。本文研究为鳄鱼血产品的开发提供理论依据。%This article measured and analyzed the components and functional characteristics of blood plasma powder and blood cell powder of crocodile, and results showed that crocodile blood was a kind of nutritive material with high protein and low lipid. The unsaturated fatty acid of crocodile blood contained EPA and DHA. Besides, the crocodile blood was rich in essential amino acids, and the content of immunoglobulin G in crocodile plasma reached 20. 89%. The research would contribute to understand crocodile blood sufficiently and provide theoretical foundation for the development of crocodile blood products.

  3. Metacomprehension. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standiford, Sally N.

    Intended for administrators and policymakers as well as teachers, this digest explores the nature of students' metacomprehension, or their awareness of their own understanding, and the implications of this awareness for reading instruction. After defining metacomprehension, the digest discusses why this awareness is important to the learning…

  4. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  5. Distribution characteristics of blood culture pathogens%血培养分离菌分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣; 刘彦; 许青霞

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析临床不同人群患者血流感染病原菌的分布特点,为临床预防控制血流感染提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月我院血培养分离菌的分布及其患者临床资料,用WHONET 5.6软件进行统计分析.结果 25 397份血培养标本中共分离菌1 306株,阳性率为5.1%.革兰阳性菌846株(64.8%),革兰阴性菌408株(31.2%);假丝酵母菌52株(4.0%).检出率较高的革兰阳性菌主要为凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CNS) 564株(43.2%)和金黄色葡萄球菌96株(7.4%),屎肠球菌48株(3.7%)、肺炎链球菌31株(2.4%).屎肠球菌的分离率高于粪肠球菌20株(1.5%).检出率较高的革兰阴性杆菌为大肠埃希菌163株(12.5%)、克雷伯菌属81株(6.2%)、鲍曼不动杆菌26株(2.0%),铜绿假单胞菌23株(1.8%).结论 血培养分离菌中屎肠球菌分离率高于粪肠球菌,革兰阳性菌在儿童组中占绝对优势.婴幼儿、儿童、成人血培养分离菌中革兰阳性菌所占比例分别为85.2%、87.0%、46.5%.婴幼儿重症监护病区分离细菌264株,占婴幼儿全部分离细菌的67.3%;儿童重症监护病区分离细菌122株,占儿童全部分离细菌的56.7%;成人重症监护病区分离细菌255株,占成人全部分离细菌的36.5%.危重症患者为血流感染的易感人群.%Objective To investigate distribution characteristics of blood culture pathogens,and provid a basis for clinical prevention and control in bloodstream infections.Methods The data of the patients with positive blood culture and the nonduplicate strains were retrospectively analyzed with WHONET 5.6 software in the First People's Hospital of Shangqiu from January 2011 to December 2014.Results The total number of positive strains of blood culture was 1 306 from 25 397 blood cultures,and the positive rates were 5.1%,of which gram positive cocci and gram negative organisms accounted for 64.8% (846/1 306) and 31.2% (408/1 306

  6. Evaluation of flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtake, Tohru; Ohtomo, Kuni [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Wakita, Shinichi; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Harii, Kiyonori [Dept. of Plastic Surgery, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-29

    The estimation of intralesional haemodynamics is crucial in determining appropriate treatment for soft-tissue vascular malformations. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs). Seventy-nine soft-tissue vascular malformations, including 20 arteriovenous malformations and 59 venous malformations, in 57 patients were examined. Following the intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs, dynamic imaging was performed for 30 min with the lesion in the field of view ({sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study). A time-activity curve was generated for the lesion, and the lesion was categorized as a high-flow or low-flow lesion by visual inspection of the curve. In low-flow lesions, mean vascular transit time (MTT) was calculated by curve fitting based on a two-compartment model. Twenty-nine lesions in 19 patients were examined twice, and reproducibility was assessed. In 23 venous malformations in 16 patients, {sup 99m}Tc-Sn colloid was percutaneously injected into the intravascular space of the lesion, and dynamic data of 5-min duration were acquired (direct puncture scintigraphy). MTT was estimated from the washout curve and compared with MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study. {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study classified all 20 arteriovenous malformations as high-flow lesions and all 59 venous malformations as low-flow lesions. In the low-flow lesions, MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study ranged from 61.2 to 2174.9 s. In the reproducibility study, complete concordance in classification and high correlation in MTT were shown between the first and second examinations. MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study was significantly correlated with that estimated by direct puncture scintigraphy. In summary, {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study provides a quantitative indicator of intralesional haemodynamics in low-flow lesions in addition to accurate

  7. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. III. Intra-stem variability in anatomy, chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Tamminga, S.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The internodes of forage maize (Zea mays L.) stems were studied at anthesis for variation in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to digestibility. The study was carried out with a short (Vitaro) and a tall (Volens) cultivar differing in whole-plant digestibility, both of which were grown in

  8. The Dependence of the Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening Characteristics on Microbubble Size In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Feshitan, Jameel A.; Wang, Shougang; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Baseri, Babak; Borden, Mark A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent neuropharmaceutical developments have led to potent disease-modifying drugs. In spite of these advancements, most agents cannot traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deposit in the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles has been shown to induce noninvasive, localized, and transient BBB opening. Although promising, safety and efficacy concerns still remain. Previously reported experiments used conventional imaging contrast agents that have a wide size distribution. In this study, we hypothesize that BBB opening characteristics are dependent on bubble diameter. A 25 μl bolus of in-house manufactured, lipid-shelled bubbles with either 1-2 or 4-5 μm diameter ranges was injected intravenously. Pulsed FUS (frequency: 1.5 MHz, peak-negative pressure: 146-607 kPa, duty cycle: 20%, duration: 1-min) was then applied to the left hippocampus of mice (n = 16) in vivo through the intact skin and skull. MRI or fluorescence microscopy was used to determine BBB opening. Contrast-enhanced (Omniscan™; 0.75 mL; molecular weight: 574 Da) MRI (9.4-T) was acquired on multiple days after sonication to determine BBB opening and closing. Fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the feasibility of delivering large, 3 kDa dextran compounds through the BBB. The BBB opening acoustic pressure threshold for the 4-5μm bubbles was in the 146-304 kPa range while the threshold for the 1-2μm bubbles was higher. In conclusion, FUS-induced BBB opening and closing was shown to be dependent on the bubble diameter indicating the possibility of specifically designing bubbles to enhance this therapeutic application.

  9. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  10. A Pilot Clinical Study to Investigate the Human Whole Blood Spectrum Characteristics in the Sub-THz Region

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Gao, Hao-Cheng; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a pilot clinical study to not only investigate the THz spectra of ex-vivo fresh human whole blood of 28 patients following 8-hours fasting guideline, but also to find out the critical blood ingredients of which the concentration dominantly affects those THz spectra. A great difference between the THz absorption properties of human blood among different people was observed, while the difference can be up to ~15% of the averaged absorption coefficient of the 28 samples. Our pilot clinical study indicates that triglyceride and red blood cell were two dominant factors to have significant clinically defined negative correlation to the sub-THz absorption coefficients.

  11. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  12. Study on Characteristics of Biogas Production in Anaerobic Digestion of Mixture of Cow Dungand Straw in Cold Region%寒区牛粪稻秆混合厌氧消化产沼气特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴占江; 王大蔚; 高亚冰; 孙彬; 王粟; 刘杰

    2012-01-01

      Taking high activity microbial flora as samples ,which from sludge of digesters and pristine wetland selected in typical habitats of Heilongjiang province enriched in low temperatures ,taking mixture of cow dung and straw as raw material ,according to different proportion of TS to set up five matched groups ,the experi-ment on characteristics of biogas production in anaerobic digestion of mixture in alpine region was conducted under constant temperature of 20℃ .The results showed that mixed fermentation was an effective way to im-prove anaerobic fermentation .Biogas production showed best at cow dung and straw was 3 :1 ,the higher the proportion of straw ,the lower biogas production .Under the condition of the same of TS and temperature ,bio-gas production and content of biogas of the order were :T2> T3> T4> T5> T1 and T2> T5> T3> T4> T1 .%  选取黑龙江省典型生境沼气池污泥和原始湿地淤泥,经低温富集后活性较高的菌种样品,采用牛粪和稻秆混合作为原料,根据TS不同比例,设置5个配比组,在20℃恒定温度下,研究了寒区混料配比产沼气工艺特性.结果表明:混合发酵是提高厌氧发酵效果的有效方法.其中以粪草比3∶1产气效果最好,而稻秆比例越高,产气量越低.在保持相同发酵浓度和温度的条件下,其产气量以及甲烷含量的大小顺序为:T2>T3> T4> T5> T1,T2> T5> T3> T4> T1.

  13. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  14. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  15. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  16. Migrant Farmworkers and Their Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip

    This digest reviews the population characteristics of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their children. Since the 1960s, federal programs for migrant workers and their families have multiplied. However, these programs have differing definitions for "migrant and seasonal farmworker," and no current data system provides a reliable count…

  17. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  18. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  19. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  20. Effect of diet dilution at early age on performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosna Hajati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of energy and protein dilution during 16 to 20 d of age, on performance, carcass characteristics and blood parameters of broiler chickens was studied in a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 3 replicates in each treatment. A total of 144 mixed-sex chickens (Cobb 500 were randomly allocated to 9 pens. In order to dilute the diets three levels (0, 20 and 40% of rice hull was used. During the experiment feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. The results indicated that dilution of diet from 16 to 20 d of age increased feed intake in this period, but adjusted feed intake (excluded rice hull was decreased (P<0.05. Restricted bird consumed more feed in the whole period of the experiment (16 to 44 d. With increasing dilution rate during restriction period, body weight gain of chickens decreased in comparison to control group (P<0.05. Due to compensatory growth after restriction period, restricted chickens had higher body weight gain than control groups at 44 d of age. Feed dilution up to 20 percent had not significant effect on feed conversion ratio in the whole period of the experiment. Diet dilution had not significant effect on carcass, breast meat, legs, proventriculus, heart and feet weight proportion. Diet dilution significantly increased gizzard weight proportion, and decreased abdominal fat pad weight, carcass crude fat, and increased carcass crude protein proportion (P<0.05. Feed dilution up to 20% increased HDL and decreased LDL concentration in plasma at 21 d of age. Diet dilution up to 40% decreased the concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma T3, and increased the concentrations of uric acid and plasma T4 at 21 d of age (P<0.05. Diet dilution up to 20 percent increased plasma glucose concentration at 42 d of age (P<0.05. The results of the present study indicated that feed dilution with 20% rice hull during 16 to 20 d of age had not adverse effect on broiler

  1. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec; Mirela Tulik

    2014-01-01

    The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood) that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to...

  2. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... to be a general characteristic is resistance to digestion. This is based on studies showing that allergenic dietary proteins in general were more resistant to digestion than dietary proteins with no proven allergenicity, leading to the conclusion, that a correlation between stability to digestion and allergenic...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...

  3. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen (NPN) in the rumen, the effect of digestible energy on the rate and .... Fahey, 1982) and inhibitors of amino acid deamination. (Chalupa & Scott, 1976). ... the omasum, although both urea and ammonia may be absorbed (0,9 gld.

  5. Clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission systolic blood pressure after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bi; Yang, Yanmin; Zhu, Jun; Liang,Yan; Tan, Huiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prognostic value of lower admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction has been confirmed, but the impact of elevated admission SBP on short-term outcomes has been evaluated only by a limited number of studies and they have reported conflicting results. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission SBP after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Design A population...

  6. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    OpenAIRE

    Davidov Ivana; Cincović Marko R.; Radinović Miodrag; Erdeljan Mihajlo; Belić Branislava; Toholj Bojan; Stevančević Milenko

    2014-01-01

    The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were...

  7. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  8. Birth characteristics and risk of high systolic blood pressure in early adulthood: socioeconomic factors and familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Niklas; Iliadou, Anastasia; Tuvemo, Torsten; Cnattingius, Sven

    2005-09-01

    Although an inverse association between size at birth and blood pressure has been found in several studies, few studies have adjusted for the influence of socioeconomic and familial effects. We investigated whether the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in young men is confounded by socioeconomic factors in adolescence or familial factors (ie, common genes and shared environment). Our population-based cohort study comprised 330,768 Swedish men born between 1973 and 1981, and conscripted for military service between 1991 and 2000. The analyses of family effects were restricted to 89,856 siblings from the initial cohort. A high systolic blood pressure at conscription was defined as a systolic blood pressure >/=140 mm Hg. Birth weight for gestational age pressure (odds ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.22), even after adjustment for important confounders such as socioeconomic status. The increase in risk of high systolic blood pressure related to 1 standard deviation score decrease in birth weight for gestational age was similar within families (1.08; 1.04-1.12) and between families (1.05; 1.03-1.08). This study suggests that low birth weight for gestational age slightly increases the risk of high systolic blood pressure, and that the association appears not to be confounded by socioeconomic or familial effects.

  9. Qualidade de ovos, parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos e desenvolvimento do aparelho reprodutor de poedeiras comerciais Lohmann LSL alimentadas com níveis crescentes de lisina digestível - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3596 Egg quality, blood biochemical parameters and reproductive tract development for Lohmann LSL hens fed increasing levels of digestible lysine - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anúzia Barini Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de lisina para poedeiras Lohmann LSL sobre a qualidade dos ovos, parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos e mensurações do aparelho reprodutor. Cento e sessenta poedeiras com 24 semanas foram submetidas a níveis crescentes de lisina digestível (600, 700, 800 e 900 mg Lys kg-1 de ração até 48 semanas de idade. As dietas foram isoenergéticas e isonutritivas com 15,8%PB e 2.800 kcal EM kg-1. Delineamento inteiramente casualizado foi adotado com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram analisados: percentagem de casca, de gema e albúmen, gravidade específica dos ovos, unidade Haugh, índice gema, sólidos totais da gema, do albúmen e do ovo, parâmetros sanguíneos e mensuração do aparelho reprodutor. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial (5%, utilizando o programa SAS, e para os resultados sanguíneos e do aparelho reprodutor, foram analisados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de lisina não influenciaram os resultados para qualidade dos ovos. Houve aumento no peso do aparelho reprodutor com o avançar da idade. Os resultados do parâmetro sanguíneo não foram influenciados; já nas semanas, observa-se aumento na albumina, uratos e uratina. O nível de 600 mg kg-1 pode ser recomendado para poedeiras no período avaliado.In this experiment, the effect of lysine levels on egg quality, biochemical parameters and measurements of the reproductive tract on the diets of Lohmann LSL laying hens diets were evaluated. One hundred-sixty hens with 24 weeks of age were submitted to increasing levels of digestible lysine (600, 700, 800 e 900 mg Lys kg-1 of feed until 48 weeks of age. The diets were isoenergetic and isonutritive. A completely randomized design was used, with four treatments and four replicates. Percentages of eggshell, yolk and albumen, specific egg gravity, yolk index, total yolk, albumen and egg solids, blood parameters

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion versus mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludges from WTP; Digestion anaerobic termofilica versus digestion anaerobia mesofilica de lodos del EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubia de la Romero, M. A.; Perez Garcia, M.; Romero Garcia, L. I.; Sales Marquez, D.

    2001-07-01

    A literature search revealed that successful thermophilic digestion operation was achieved at several Sewage Treatment Plant: Hyperon Treatment Plant of the city of Los Angeles, operations at 49 degree centigree resulted in significant improvements in sludge handling characteristics; West-Southwest Sewage Treatment Works, Chicago, Illinois a stable thermophilic digester was established at a 8 day detention time; Lions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant of Vancouver pathogen destruction was the primary goal of this evaluation. Several other investigators have also conducted laboratory as well as pilot scale studied and reported several potential advantages of operating anaerobic digesters in the thermophilic range, rather than the conventional mesophilic range. Increased destruction of pathogenic organisms, increased rate of volatile solids destruction and improved destruction of organics are some advantages reported by all authors. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  12. Digestion of haemoglobin by schistosomes: 35 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J P; Smith, A M; Clough, K A; Brindley, P J

    1995-08-01

    Adult schistosomes obtain nutrients by digesting haemoglobin, which they obtain from ingested host red blood cells. Here John Dalton, Angela Smith, Karen Clough and Paul Brindley argue that a cathepsin L proteinase recently identified in their laboratory as the predominant cysteine proteinase activity of Schistosoma mansoni may play the leading role in haemoglobin digestion. They discuss the importance of elucidating the roles of both cathepsin B and cathepsin L in the digestion of haemoglobin, since both should be considered important targets to which novel schistosomicidal agents could be directed.

  13. Ultrastructural characteristics of the caeca of basal polyopisthocotylean monogeneans of the families Chimaericolidae and Hexabothriidae parasitic on cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Hemmingsen, Willy; Reed, Cecile; Gibson, David I

    2015-07-01

    Ultrastructural differences are shown between the caecal organization in three blood-feeding polyopisthocotylean monogeneans, i.e., the chimaericolid Chimaericola leptogaster from the holocephalan Chimaera monstrosa and two hexabothriids, Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi from the holocephalan Callorhynchus capensis and Rajonchocotyle emarginata from the elasmobranch Amblyraja radiata. In C. leptogaster, digestive cells and connecting syncytium, joined close to the luminal surface by septate junctions, are arranged alternately along the caecal epithelial wall; the nuclear regions of both cell types are sunk below the general level of the caecal epithelium; a concave depression on the apical margin of the digestive cells bears lamellae; and this depression is covered by a lamellate bubble formed by thin projections emanating from the connecting syncytium. The luminal surface of the connecting syncytium is covered with outgrowths terminating in the form of long, narrow processes. In R. emarginata and C. callorhynchi, the predominant digestive cells are at different stages of development and occur in groups, developing digestive cells bulge into the caecal lumen from the connecting syncytium with contact sites present close to the luminal surface, and the luminal surface structures of both the connecting syncytium and the digestive cells are short lamellae. In these two hexabothriids, a holocrine (or apocrine) process for the elimination of digestive product is assumed via the detachment of fully differentiated, bulging digestive cells. Free, apparently sloughed digestive cells and residual bodies are present within the caecal lumen, and replacement digestive cells are numerous in the connecting syncytium. In the chimaericolid, free bubbles containing residual bodies and portions of digestive cells filled with degenerating digestive vesicles occur in the caecal lumen along with large amounts of male and female reproductive material. The usefulness of characteristics of

  14. 沧州地区城镇居民高血压患者脂代谢特点研究%Study on characteristics of blood fat in Cangzhou area town resident with high blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘植蕊; 刘永兴; 尹雪梅; 姚淑红; 谢丙旗; 徐泽升

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析不同年龄与性别之间高血压病患者血压和血脂的关系与特点,了解高血压病患者血脂最新动态,为临床防治高血压提供依据.方法 4923例居民中962例高血压患者按随机分层抽样调查方法,分析高血压患者不同年龄、不同血压级别脂代谢状况及高血脂的相关因素.结果 ①总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)和低密度脂蛋白(LDL)随年龄增长总体趋势为先升后降,男性高峰为51~60岁,女性高峰在61~70岁,男女性别间比较有显著性差异(P<0.01).②各年龄组男性患者高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)均低于女性.③全部高血压患者随年龄增加收缩压升高,舒张压下降.④高血压患者较正常血压者血脂较高,且随血压升高血脂有上升趋势.⑤高血压患者血脂代谢异常组糖代谢异常及肥胖所占比例更高.结论 高血压患者随年龄增长血脂有先增高后下降趋势,男性血脂高峰多在60岁以前,女性多在60岁以后,高峰水平女性较男性约晚10a;随血压升高血脂也有上升趋势;血脂异常者发生糖代谢异常及肥胖比例更高.%Objective It is to analyzing the relationship and characteristics between blood pressure and blood fat of hypertension patients with different age and sex, understanding the latest developments of the blood fat in the patients, providing the basis for clinical prevention and treat. Methods Nine hundred and sixty-two patients with high blood pressure using random sampling stratification survey in 4 923 cases of residents, analyzing the related factors of fat metabolism and high blood fat in hypertension patients with different age groups and different blood pressure levels. Results ①The tendency of TC, TG, LDL changes were descending after increasing, reached the peak values at the age of 51 -60 years of age in men and 61 -70 years of age in women, there were significant differences between different sex ( P <0. 01 ). ②The level of HDL

  15. Influência da transfusão sanguínea no desenvolvimento de infecção em pacientes com neoplasias malignas do sistema digestório Influence of blood transfusion on development of infection in patients with malignant neoplasms of the digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Ronaldo Alberti; Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos; Andy Petroianu

    2006-01-01

    RACIONAL: A anemia afeta mais de 90% dos pacientes com câncer e mais de 60% são submetidos a transfusões sangüíneas durante ou após o tratamento. OBJETIVO: Determinar a influência da transfusão sangüínea homógena como possível fator relacionado à infecção em paciente com neoplasia maligna do sistema digestório. MÉTODO: Avaliaram-se aleatoriamente prontuários de 400 pacientes com neoplasia maligna do sistema digestório, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 200) - pacientes transfundidos e...

  16. Assessment of Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and analysis of their correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Pu; Yuan-Yuan Zhou; Wen-Shu Ge; Hui-Lan Hong; Jing-Feng Zhang; Chong Bai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and their correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics.Methods:Peripheral blood and serum specimens were collected from patients with non-small cell lung cancer and healthy volunteers to detect Treg and Th17 contents in peripheral blood as well as CEA, TSGF, CYFRA21-1, PTX3 and HE4 contents in serum; tumor tissue and paracancer tissue were collected from lung cancer patients to detect mRNA expression of TRIM25, PKM2, Endoglin, Pin1, Stahmin and HMGA2.Results:Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, and Th17 cell content was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers; the higher the TNM stage and the lower the degree of differentiation, the higher the Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio and the lower the Th17 cell content in peripheral blood; 1 week and 1 month after operation, Treg cell content and Treg/Th17 ratio in peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were lower than those before operation, and Th17 cell content was higher than that before treatment; serum CEA, TSGF, CYFRA21-1, PTX3 and HE4 contents of patients with non-small cell lung cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers and positively correlated with Treg/Th17 ratio; mRNA contents of TRIM25, PKM2, Endoglin, Pin1, Stahmin and HMGA2 in non-small cell lung cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in paracancer tissue and positively correlated with Treg/Th17 ratio.Conclusion:Increased Treg content and decreased Th17 content are related to the occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer.

  17. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yin; Jian-Hua Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow characteristics of gestational hypertension combined with fetal distress in uterus as well as their correlation with hypoxia. Methods: Puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and fetal distress in uterus, puerperae with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy alone and healthy puerperae who gave birth in our hospital between January 2013 and January 2016 were included in group A, group B and group C of the study respectively. At 34-36 weeks of pregnancy, color Doppler ultrasonography was conducted to determine fetal middle cerebral artery blood flow parameters; after childbirth, umbilical arterial blood was collected to determine blood gas analysis parameters, and the placenta tissue was collected to determine oxidative stress and mitochondria damage indexes.Results:Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI of group A were significantly higher than those of group B and group C while umbilical artery pH value and PaO2 as well as HCO3- and BE content were significantly lower than those of group B and group C; fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI as well as umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content of group B were not significantly different from those of group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group A were significantly lower than those of group B and group C while ROS content was significantly higher than those of group B and group C; Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content in placenta tissue of group B were significantly lower than those of group C while ROS content was significantly higher than that of group C. Fetal middle cerebral artery S/D, PI and RI were negatively correlated with umbilical artery pH value, PaO2, HCO3- and BE content as well as Nrf2, ARE, NQO1, VitC, SVCT1, SVCT2, ATP, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, NRF1 and NRF2 content, and were positively correlated

  19. 发酵血粉营养特性及其应用%Nutritional Characteristics and Application of Fermented Blood Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏双良; 谷子林; 刘亚娟

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of breeding industry, feed resources, especially poor protein resource has become one bottleneck to develop animal husbandry. In the development and utilization of unconventional animal protein feed, blood meal is one promising feed. Fermented blood meal is recognized to be the direction for blood meal development in China. Nutritional characteristics of fermented blood meal and its application in animal production were discussed in this paper.%随着养殖业的迅猛发展,蛋白饲料资源普遍贫乏已经成为发展畜牧业瓶颈之一。在非常规动物蛋白质饲料的开发利用中,血粉是大有前途的动物性蛋白饲料,而发酵血粉被公认为我国饲用血粉开发的一个重要方向。文章就发酵血粉营养特性及其在动物生产中的应用作一综述。

  20. Milk yield and composition, body condition, rumen characteristics, and blood metabolites of dairy cows fed diet supplemented with palm oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirovski, Danijela; Blond, Bojan; Katić, Marko; Marković, Radmila; Šefer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplement of palm oil on milk production, milk composition, rumen characteristics, and metabolic variables of early lactating dairy cows...

  1. Association of anemia, child and family characteristics with elevated blood lead concentrations in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, Elena I; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BPbs) have been identified in Uruguayan children in the La Teja neighborhood of Montevideo, but the extent of lead exposure in other city areas is unknown. Sources and predictors of exposure also remain understudied in this population. In 2007, the authors screened lead and hemoglobin levels in capillary blood of 222 preschool children from several areas of Montevideo, Uruguay, and identified predictors of elevated BPbs. Mean BPb was 9.0 +/- 6.0 microg/dL and 32.9% of children had levels >or= 10microg/dL. Mean hemoglobin level was 10.5 +/- 1.5 g/dL, with 44.1% having levels lead exposure, and fewer family possessions were also associated with higher BPbs. Pediatric lead exposure is a public health problem in Uruguay, with children experiencing elevated BPbs at a young age.

  2. Hematological, morphological and morphometric characteristics of blood cells from rhea, Rhea Americana (Struthioniformes: Rheidae: a standard for Brazilian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. M. Gallo

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood exams are an indispensable tool in bird medicine. This study aimed at describing values and aspects of rheas' hematology, Rhea americana, as well as analyzing the morphology and morphometry of all blood cells. Fifty eight adult rheas of both sexes from two farms, one in Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo State and the other in São Carlos, São Paulo State, were selected. Blood samples were taken and RBC count, PCV and Hb levels measured and used in hematimetric indexes calculations. The total and differentiated leukocyte counts, as well as the TPP and fibrinogen were determined. Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes were identified and characterized morphologically. The values for the red series and hematimetric indexes were: RBC (2.81±0.15×106/μL, PCV (44.20±2.86%, Hb (12.12±0.74 g/dL, MCV (15.75±0.89 fL, MCH (43.18±1.82 pg, MCHC (27.44±0.80 g/dL; the values of white series were: WBC (12.072±4116/μL, heterophils (64.10±9.90%, eosinophils (2.05±2.06%, monocytes (6.40±2.99%, lymphocytes (26.93±9.62%, basophils (0.52±1.27%. One may conclude that on average, rheas' blood cells are larger than those of other birds, but these cells in smears cannot be differentiated only by their size. Besides rheas' leukocytes have different components and coloring as in other bird species, however, there are no components or staining aspects unique to the species.

  3. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights.

  4. Characteristics of blood fluorescence spectra using low-level, 457.9-nm excitation from Ar+ laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shumei Gao(高淑梅); Xiufeng Lan(兰秀风); Ying Liu(刘莹); Zhonghua Shen(沈中华); Jian Lu(陆建); Xiaowu Ni(倪晓武)

    2004-01-01

    We measured the fluorescence spectra of the whole blood, the red blood cell (RBC) and the hemoglobin using 457.9-nm Ar+ laser excitation. It was found that the fluorescence spectra of the whole blood and the RBC have much similarities in the intensity, the emission peaks and the emitting region, and abundant peaks can be found. But for the hemoglobin, fluorescence could only be found in the wavelength range 580-650 nm. It was concluded that in the wavelength range of 650-850 nm, the fluorescence spectra were emitted by the new fluorophores generated by the breakdown of some weak bonds on the RBC membrane,such as the C-C bond and the C-N bond. In the wavelength range of 590 - 650 nm, the fluorescence spectra are mainly emitted by the hemoglobin, but the hemoglobin solution of cracked RBC has a strong quencher effect on the fluorescence spectrum. The experimental result and the theoretical analysis are meaningful for the medical diagnostics and the therapy.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release.

  6. Starch and fiber properties affect their kinetics of digestion and thereby digestive physiology in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, R T; Jha, R; Woodward, A D; Fouhse, J; van Kempen, T A T G

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally in swine nutrition, analyses of starch and fiber have focused on assessing quantity; however, both have a wide range of functional properties making them underappreciated nutrients. Starch ranging from low to high amylose changes from rapidly digestible in the upper gut to poorly digestible but fermentable in the lower gut thereby changing from a source of glucose to VFA source. Likewise, fibers ranging from low to high viscosity affect digesta flow and from slowly to rapidly fermentable alter production of VFA serving as energy for the gut or whole body. Our hypothesis is that total extent, kinetics, and site of digestion or fermentation of starch and fiber are important for whole body nutrient use and intestinal health. To elucidate their effects, we developed in vitro, lab-based methodologies to describe kinetics of digestion and fermentation and linked these with in vivo models including i) ileum cannulation to collect digesta, ii) portal-vein catheterization to sequentially sample blood, iii) slaughter method to collect site-specific intestinal tissue and digesta, and iv) indirect calorimetry. Using these methods, kinetics of nutrient absorption was associated with pancreatic and intestinal hormones released into the portal vein, intestinal microbiota, and gene expression in intestinal tissue and microbiota. These studies confirmed that slowly digestible starch is partially degraded in the distal small and large intestine and fermented into VFA including butyrate (10-fold increase in net portal appearance), which reduces insulin responses by 60% and whole body energy use. Starch entering the distal intestine altered mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and was bifidogenic. Extremely viscous purified fiber dampened glycemic responses and reduced digesta passage rate by 50% thereby increasing ileal digestion of dietary nutrients whereas increased fiber in feed grains reduced nutrient digestibility. Fermentable fiber increased butyrate and

  7. 儿童上消化道疾病发病特点及胃镜检查的应用研究%Analysis of clinical characteristics of upper digestive tract diseases and application of gastroscopy in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利伟; 赵长安; 刘鸿

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical characteristics of upper digestive tract diseases and the application of gastroscopy in children.MethodsA retrospective analysis was carried out on 327 cases who underwent gastroscopy from January 2014 to March 2015. The patients were divided into five groups according to the age including infant (<1 year), early childhood (1 year to 3 years), preschool age (3 years to 6 years), school-age (6 years to 10 years) and adolescence (10 years to 17 years), the differences of clinical symptoms and gastroscopy diagnosis among different age were analyzed statistically.Results (1) The examination results in 318 cases were abnormal and the diagnostic rate was 97.2%. Among them, two or more lesions were found in 61.9% patients. (2) 15 kinds of upper digestive tract diseases were found, and the proportion of chronic superficial gastritis was 88.4% and was higher with age, there was statistically significant difference among different age group (P<0.05). The proportion of peptic ulcer in children was 8.9%. Among them gastric ulcer was 34.5%, duodenal ulcer was 65.5%. (3) The main clinical symptoms in children were abdominal pain (69.1%), nausea and vomiting (35.8%), gastrointestinal bleeding (12.5%). Among them with two or more symptoms were 20.8%. The proportion of repeatedly periumbilical pain was the highest in the early childhood and it was decreased gradually with age, while the rate of upper abdominal pain was an increase with age, there was statistically significant difference among different age group (P<0.05). The proportion of peptic ulcer was 6.2% in children with repeated abdominal pain, the rate of symptoms with recurrent nausea and vomiting (50.8%) in <3 years old children was significantly higher than in≥3 years old group (32.3%), there was statistically significant difference between groups (P<0.05).ConclusionThe clinical symptoms and classification of upper digestive tract diseases were varied with age in children and gastroscope

  8. Psychopathology and personality characteristics in relation to blood serotonin in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cath, D C; Spinhoven, P; Landman, A D; van Kempen, G M

    2001-06-01

    Family studies suggest an interrelationship between Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some authors consider GTS to be part of a serotonergically mediated cluster of OCD spectrum disorders. The present study was undertaken to compare measures of psychopathology, personality and blood serotonin between GTS and OCD (without tics), and to investigate whether an OCD spectrum hypothesis is supported for GTS. Fifteen GTS without OCD subjects, 21 tic with (+) OCD subjects, 15 OCD without tic subjects and 26 controls (all without serotonergic medication) were evaluated with self-rated and clinician-rated measures of psychopathology and personality. Whole blood serotonin (5-HT) and platelet monoamine oxidase activity (MAO) was measured, and Spearman's correlations were calculated between whole blood 5-HT, MAO and rating scale scores within the entire sample and within subgroups. There were main effects of OCD on anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, neuroticism and extraversion scores. There were main effects of tics on depression, obsessive-compulsive, trait anxiety and neuroticism scores, and on platelet MAO. There were interaction effects on platelet MAO, 5-HT, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Rating Scale severity, trait anxiety and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores. Platelet MAO activity was elevated in tic-free OCD subjects when compared to tic + OCD, GTS without OCD and controls. Whole blood 5-HT was lowered in tic + OCD patients in comparison to GTS without OCD and tic-free OCD subjects. Whole blood 5-HT and obsessive-compulsive severity were negatively correlated within OCD without tic patients and MAO and Leyton Obsessive Inventory scores were negatively related within GTS without OCD patients. The biochemical data of this study suggest that in tic + OCD and in tic-free OCD patients, 5-HT dysregulations play a role, but not necessarily in pure GTS. Serotonergic dysregulations within tic + OCD and

  9. Gastric digestion in vivo and in vitro: how the structural aspects of food influence the digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Paul Singh, R

    2014-01-01

    Food digestion is crucial for sustaining life. Although it has been examined for more than 300 years, the basic principles are not entirely understood. Antral motility is well characterized, and current research is seeking to determine flow patterns generated by the stomach's peristaltic contractions. The rate of gastric emptying for solid and liquid meals has been determined according to variations in meal composition, energy content, and subject characteristics. The glycemic response has been measured for many carbohydrate foods and is altered by factors such as amount of processing, particle size, and starch structure. Similarly, ileal starch digestibility is altered by food and starch properties. Even though many foods have been studied according to their glycemic response, starch digestibility, and in vitro digestion kinetics, the rate-determining processes and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The link between food properties, digestion processes, and final health outcomes must be strengthened for functional food optimization.

  10. Evaluation of Digestible lysine levels in diets with high energy density for finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. To evaluate the effects of different levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Materials and Methods. Seventy crossbred barrows (initial body weight of 83.36 kg were used and allotted in a randomized block design with five treatments, seven replications and two pigs per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum with diets containing 3.5 kcal/kg of ME and five levels of digestible lysine (0.46, 0.52, 0.58, 0.64 and 0.70% during four weeks. Final live weight (FLW, daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion (FC, daily lysine intake (DLI, and the amount of lysine per body weight gain (DLI/DWG, were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from each pig to determine urea nitrogen concentration (UN in serum and slaughtered to evaluate quantitative and qualitative carcass characteristics. Results. The FLW increased linearly (p<0.05.There were no differences among treatments for DFI, DWG, FC, carcass characteristics and UN. The DLI and DLI/DWG varied significantly (p<0.001 and increased linearly (p<0.001 with each lysine level. Pigs that consumed the limiting diet in lysine (0.46% showed less DLI and DLI/DWG (p<0.001 than pigs fed the other diets. Conclusions. The amount of DLI/DWG increased with the evaluated levels of digestible lysine in diets with high energy density, without effects on productive performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

  11. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  12. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  13. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  14. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  15. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  16. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the pr

  17. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, L S; White, T W; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R; Blouin, D C; Froetschel, M A; Brown, T F; Lupton, C J; Chapa, A M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of replacing some soybean meal (SBM) protein with fish meal (FM) protein in diets adequate and slightly deficient in CP, with or without .75% sodium bentonite (NaB) on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of individually fed Suffolk lambs. Diets were based on corn, SBM, and cottonseed hulls. In Exp. 1, five lambs were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments (11% CP with 3% FM, 13% CP with 0 or 3% FM). Lambs fed diets that contained 11% CP with 3% FM or 13% CP with 0% FM had similar DMI and ADG. Gain and feed efficiency were slightly improved (P = .18) by the 13% CP diet with 3% FM. In Exp. 2, 32 lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments (13.5% CP of DM) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (0 or 3% FM, and 0 or .75% NaB on an as-fed basis). The DMI and ADG were increased (P < .05) by FM and NaB supplementation. Interactions (P < .05) revealed that NaB increased DMI, ADG, gain per feed (g/kg of DMI), and plasma urea N concentration in the absence of FM but not in the presence of FM in the diet. Neither FM nor NaB influenced (P = .25) wool growth. Total ruminal VFA were increased (P < .06) by FM and NaB. Differences in mineral content of phalanx bone, liver, and kidney were small and may be related to the mineral content of diets and the effect of NaB on mineral solubilities. Similar DMI and ADG of lambs fed FM and NaB separately and in combination suggest that their beneficial effect is not additive.

  18. Infant digestion physiology and the relevance of in vitro biochemical models to test infant formula lipid digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Laure; Wooster, Tim J

    2016-08-01

    Lipids play an important role in the diet of preterm and term infants providing a key energy source and essential lipid components for development. While a lot is known about adult lipid digestion, our understanding of infant digestion physiology is still incomplete, the greatest gap being on the biochemistry of the small intestine, particularly the activity and relative importance of the various lipases active in the intestine. The literature has been reviewed to identify the characteristics of lipid digestion of preterm and term infants, but also to better understand the physiology of the infant gastrointestinal tract compared to adults that impacts the absorption of lipids. The main differences are a higher gastric pH, submicellar bile salt concentration, a far more important role of gastric lipases as well as differences at the level of the intestinal barrier. Importantly, the consequences of improper in vitro replication of gastric digestions conditions (pH and lipase specificity) are demonstrated using examples from the most recent of studies. It is true that some animal models could be adapted to study infant lipid digestion physiology, however the ethical relevance of such models is questionable, hence the development of accurate in vitro models is a must. In vitro models that combine up to date knowledge of digestion biochemistry with intestinal cells in culture are the best choice to replicate digestion and absorption in infant population, this would allow the adaptation of infant formula for a better digestion and absorption of dietary lipids by preterm and term infants.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  20. Cuffless Blood Pressure Estimation with Photoplethysmograph Signal by Classifying on Account of Cardiovascular Characteristics of Old Aged Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satomi; Oguri, Koji

    Blood Pressure (BP) is a very important factor for monitoring the cardiovascular condition. In general, non-invasive BP measurements need a cuff. However, such measurement techniques can hardly monitor BP continuously. Recently it has gotten easier to measure biological signals daily because sensor technologies have well-developed, and because of availability of many kinds of miniaturized measurement instruments consuming less power. This study suggests a method of estimating Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) with a wearable sensor instead of a cuff. In particular, our study depends on only one pulse wave signal detected by a Photoplethysmograph (PPG) sensor since the PPG sensor is very small. Moreover, the human subject just wears the sensor on the surface of the body to measure the signal. Cardiovascular peculiarities keep changing as people get older. Additionally, the peculiarities vary among individuals according to the advanced rate of arteriosclerosis. Hence, it is necessary for estimating the SBP to divide the data into several classes, by parameters that relate to individual cardiovascular peculiarities. In this study, the regression equation of SBP was calculated from individual information and from features of the PPG signal in each class. As a result, the estimation accuracy was improved. This technique would make cuffless SBP monitoring become more convenient and helpful as only one device is required for monitoring, which is smaller than traditional measurements.

  1. A numerical study of the effect of catheter angle on the blood flow characteristics in a graft during hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Hong Sun; Kim, Soyoon; Ro, Kyoungchul

    2013-02-01

    For patients with renal failure, renal replacement therapies are needed. Hemodialysis is a widely used renal replacement method to remove waste products. It is important to improve the patency rate of the vascular access for efficient dialysis. Since some complications such as an intimal hyperplasia are associated with the flow pattern, the hemodynamics in the vascular access must be considered to achieve a high patency rate. In addition, the blood flow from an artificial kidney affects the flow in the vascular access. Generally, the clinical techniques of hemodialysis such as the catheter angle or dialysis dose have been set up empirically. In this study, a numerical analysis is performed on the effect of the catheter angle on the flow in the graft. Blood is assumed to be a non-Newtonian fluid. According to the high average wall shear stress value, the leucocytes and platelets can be activated not only at the arterial anastomosis, but also at the bottom of the venous graft, when the catheter angle is not zero. For a catheter angle less than five degrees, there is a low shear and high oscillatory shear index region that appears at the venous graft and the venous anastomosis. Thus, a catheter angle less than five degrees should be avoided to prevent graft failure.

  2. Analysis of Flow Characteristics of the Blood Flowing through an Inclined Tapered Porous Artery with Mild Stenosis under the Influence of an Inclined Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical investigation of MHD blood flow in a porous inclined stenotic artery under the influence of the inclined magnetic field has been done. Blood is considered as an electrically conducting Newtonian fluid. The physics of the problem is described by the usual MHD equations along with appropriate boundary conditions. The flow governing equations are finally transformed to nonhomogeneous second-order ordinary differential equations. This model is consistent with the principles of magnetohydrodynamics. Analytical expressions for the velocity profile, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress, and pressure gradient have been derived. Blood flow characteristics are computed for a specific set of values of the different parameters involved in the model analysis and are presented graphically. Some of the obtained results show that the flow patterns in converging region (ξ0, and nontapered region (ξ=0 are effectively influenced by the presence of magnetic field and change in inclination of artery as well as magnetic field. There is also a significant effect of permeability on the wall shear stress as well as volumetric flow rate.

  3. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernislav GÁLIK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings. The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Higher digestibility of calcium (Ca (71.11% vs. 69.09% and phosphorus (P (52.74% vs. 47.55% was determined in horses fed the phytogenic additives (P>0.05. In this group of horses we found significantly (P<0.05 higher digestibility of magnesium (Mg, 64.32% in comparison with the control group (43.55%. Insignificantly differences in sodium (Na digestibility we found (75.98% in control group vs. 76.58% in experimental group. Significantly (P<0.05 higher potassium (K digestibility we found in horses fed with phytoadditives (57.11%. In horses fed without phytoadditives we detected significantly (P<0.05 lower digestibility of K (30.55%. In conclusion, we found positive effects of a phytogenic additive on macroelements faecal digestibility in sport horses.

  4. Evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, J P; Yan, L; Huang, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    1. A total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. Birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (ME) 12.7 MJ/kg and crude protein (CP) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; ME 13.2 MJ/kg and CP 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or low nutrient density (ME 12.1 MJ/kg and CP 220.2 g/kg for 0-7 d; ME 12.6 MJ/kg and CP 209.8 g/kg for 8-28 d)] and 0 or 2 g/kg probiotics (1.0 × 10(10) viable spores/g of Bacillus subtilis endospores and 1.0 × 10(9) viable spores/g of Clostridium butyricum). 3. The high-nutrient-density diet increased body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration relative to the low-nutrient-density diet. High-nutrient-density diet reduced water loss ratio of breast muscle, liver and fat relative to body weight compared to low-nutrient density-diet. The inclusion of probiotics increased BWG and feed intake throughout the experiment. Dietary probiotics increased the percentage of blood lymphocytes and relative weight of spleen and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-probiotic treatment. The inclusion of probiotics decreased serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations and lightness (L*) value of breast meat compared to the non-probiotic-supplemented diet. 4. In conclusion, high dietary nutrient density increased growth performance and serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in broiler chickens. The inclusion of probiotics increased growth performance but reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. The positive effect of probiotic supplementation on growth performance was reduced by the high-nutrient-density diet during the first week of life.

  5. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  6. Slowly digestible starch--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.

  7. Structure and Function of the Digestive System of Solen Grandis Dunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Xiuzhen; ZHAN Wenbin; REN Sulian

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of the digestive system of a bivalve mollusc, Solen grandis, were studied using light microscopy and histochemical methods. The wall of digestive tube consists of four layers: the mucosal epithelium, connective tissue, muscular and fibrosa or serosa (only in the portion of rectum) from the inner to the outer. The ciliated columnar epithelial cells, dispersed by cup-shaped mucous cells, rest on a thin base membrane. There are abundant blood spaces in connective tissue layer. The digestive diverticula are composed of multi-branched duct and digestive tubules. The digestive tubules are lined with digestive and basophilic secretory cells, and surrounded by a layer of smooth muscle fibers and connective tissues. Activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, esterase and lipase are detected in the digestive cells, and the epithelia of stomach and intestine, suggesting that these cells are capable of intracellular digesting of food materials and absorbing.Besides, acid phosphatase and esterase activities are present in the posterior portion of esophagus. Phagocytes are abundant in blood spaces and the lumens of stomach and intestine, containing brown granules derived from the engulfed food materials. The present work indicates that phagocytes play important roles in ingestion and digestion of food materials, which is supported as well by the activities of acid phosphatase, esterase and lipase detected in blood spaces.

  8. Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Trial Participants and Non-participants: Example of Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT-CTN) 0201 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Nandita; Majhail, Navneet S.; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Naya; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Akpek, Görgün; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Beattie, Sara; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Burns, Linda J.; Dalal, Jignesh D.; Freytes, César O.; Gupta, Vikas; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Lazarus, Hillard M.; LeMaistre, Charles F.; Steinberg, Amir; Szwajcer, David; Wingard, John R.; Wirk, Baldeep; Wood, William A.; Joffe, Steven; Hahn, Theresa E.; Loberiza, Fausto R.; Anasetti, Claudio; Horowitz, Mary M.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Controversy surrounds the question of whether clinical trial participants have better outcomes than comparable patients who are not treated on a trial. We explored this question using a recent large, randomized, multi-center study comparing peripheral blood (PB) with bone marrow (BM) transplantation from unrelated donors (URD), conducted by the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN). METHODS AND FINDINGS We compared characteristics and outcomes of study participants (n=494) and non-participants (n=1384) who appeared eligible and received similar treatment without enrolling on the BMT CTN trial at participating centers during the study time-period. Data were obtained from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Outcomes were compared between the two groups using Cox proportional hazards regression models. No significant differences in age, sex and disease distribution, race/ ethnicity, HLA matching, comorbidities and interval from diagnosis to HCT were seen between the participants and non-participants. Non-participants were more likely to have lower performance status, lower-risk disease, and older donors, and to receive myeloablative conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin. Non-participants were also more likely to receive PB grafts, the intervention tested in the trial (66% vs. 50% ptransplant-related mortality, and incidences of acute or chronic GVHD were comparable between the two groups though relapse was higher (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02–1.46, p=0.028) in non-participants. CONCLUSION Despite differences in certain baseline characteristics, survival was comparable between study participants and non-participants. The results of the BMT CTN trial appear generalizable to the population of trial-eligible patients. PMID:26071866

  9. Analysis of morphometric and ultrastructural characteristics of blood microcirculation in hippocampus of rats with alloxan diabetes under administration of citicoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Иванович Жилюк

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: determine morphometric and ultrastructural features of blood microcirculation in hippocampus of rats with alloxan diabetes under experimental therapy with citicoline.Materials and methods. The research was carried out on 48 white male Wistar rats (250-300 g randomized in 3 groups by 16 animals: I – intact (distilled water, intragastrically; II – animals with diabetes (distilled water, intragastrically; III – animals with diabetes + citicoline (500 mg/kg, intragastrically. Diabetes was reproduced by single subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was determined on the 11th day after administration of alloxan using a glucometer. Citicoline and distilled water were introduced once a day during 20 days starting from the 11th day after administration of alloxan. In morpho-functional study of hippocampal CA1-zone neurons the histological sections were deparaffinized and dyed with gallocyanin-chrome alum by Einarson for specific detection of RNA. Pictures were received with a microscope Axioskop (Zeiss, Germany. Using a computer-based picture analysis system VIDAS-386 (Kontron Elektronik, Germany the density of endothelial nuclei, the nucleus area and the concentration of RNA in the nucleus were determined. The study of ultrastructural changes of blood microcirculation in hippocampus was carried out using transmission electron microscope PEM-100-01 («SELMI», Ukraine by standard procedure and in accordance with common standards. Statistical difference between the groups were assessed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test.Results. It has been established that citicoline contributed to recovery of proliferative activity of endothelium in vascular bed of hippocampus manifested with increase of endothelial nuclei density, their area and levels of nuclear RNA by 19,4% (p < 0,001, 17,2% (p < 0,05 and 25,8% (p < 0,01. Simultaneously it has been determined that hematoencephalic barrier damage in hippocampus of

  10. Characteristic enhancement of blood pressure V-shaped waves in sinoaortic-denervated rats in a conscious and quiet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan; Gu, Hong-Xia; Gong, Min; Han, Ji-Ju; Wang, Yun; Xia, Zuo-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Min

    2016-11-08

    A hemodynamic feature of chronic sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats is the increase in blood pressure variability (BPV) without significant changes in the average level of blood pressure (BP). The current study was designed to investigate the changes in BP V-shaped waves (V waves) in SAD rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 2 groups: SAD rats and sham-operated rats (n=13). Hemodynamics measurements were obtained in conscious, freely moving rats, four weeks after sinoaortic denervation or sham operation. V wave indices were evaluated in rats in both conscious and quiet states. Additionally, normal and high BPV was simulated by the production of V waves with different amplitudes. The results showed that the V wave amplitude was dramatically increased, with a significantly prolonged duration and reduced frequency in SAD rats. V wave BPV in SAD rats was significantly increased, though BP remained unchanged. The twenty-four hour BPV in all rats was positively correlated with amplitude, duration time and V wave BPV and negatively correlated with frequency. The systolic BP spectral powers in the low frequency range (0.38-0.45 Hz) were significantly reduced in the V waves of SAD rats. Moreover, there was a remarkable increase in mean BPV and a normal mean BP after simulating high BPV in SAD rats. These results suggest that enhancement of V waves might be a waveform character of BP in SAD rats in both the conscious and quiet states. These types of V waves appear to be related to a depression of sympathetic regulation of BP induced by sinoaortic denervation.

  11. Magnetic targeting in the impermeable microvessel with two-phase fluid model--non-Newtonian characteristics of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Sachin; Murthy, P V S N

    2010-09-01

    The present investigation deals with finding the trajectories of the drug dosed magnetic carrier particle in a microvessel with two-phase fluid model which is subjected to the external magnetic field. The radius of the microvessel is divided into the endothelial glycocalyx layer in which the blood is assumed to obey Newtonian character and a core and plug regions where the blood obeys the non-Newtonian Herschel-Bulkley character which is suitable for the microvessel of radius 50 microm. The carrier particles, bound with nanoparticles and drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from malignant tissue, and captured at the tumor site using a local applied magnetic field. The applied magnetic field is produced by a cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body and near the tumor position. The expressions for the fluidic force for the carrier particle traversing in the two-phase fluid in the microvessel and the magnetic force due to the external magnetic field are obtained. Several factors that influence the magnetic targeting of the carrier particles in the microvasculature, such as the size of the carrier particle, the volume fraction of embedded magnetic nanoparticles, and the distance of separation of the magnet from the axis of the microvessel are considered in the present problem. An algorithm is given to solve the system of coupled equations for trajectories of the carrier particle in the invasive case. The trajectories of the carrier particle are found for both invasive and noninvasive targeting systems. A comparison is made between the trajectories in these cases. Also, the present results are compared with the data available for the impermeable microvessel with single-phase fluid flow. Also, a prediction of the capture of therapeutic magnetic nanoparticle in the impermeable microvasculature is made for different radii, distances and volume fractions in both the invasive and noninvasive cases.

  12. The influence of selenium and zinc addition in food on concentration of these elements in blood and milk, on somatic cells number and histological characteristics of cows udders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment included 30 cows of Holstein-Friesian breed, out of which 15 were receiving selenium and zinc in optimal doses before calving, while the others had never been supplemented with these micronutrients. There was analysed the concentration of selenium and zinc in blood and milk serum as well as the average number of somatic cells in corresponding lactation. After the cows exclusion from production, histological characteristics of cows udders were examined. The results of the investigation have shown that addition of selenium and zinc before calving has a positive effect on the values of these microelements in the blood and milk during the period of early lactation, that is, the concentration of these elements was significantly higher in the blood and milk of the cows that obtained selenium and zinc supplements. Also, in these cows there was significantly lower number of somatic cells during the following lacation period. In the parenchyma of the udder there was found less pronounced infiltration of leukocytes, notably thicker keratin layer of ductus papillaris and less expressed repairing processes that indicate a chronic inflammation of the udder in the samples after exclusion of the cows from production. There was a significant positive correlation between selenium in blood and milk, while there was not observed such a correlation for zinc. On the other hand, there was a significant negative correlation between the concentration of selenium in the blood and milk with the average number of somatic cells and the degree of infiltration of leukocytes, while its influence on the keratin layer of ductus papillarus was not shown. Zinc from blood and udder had a negative correlation with the number of somatic cells, had a positive correlation with the thickness of ductus papillaris keratin layer and had no influence on the level of leukocyte infiltration of udder parenchyma. Zinc demonstrates a positive influence on the formation of ductus

  13. Mechanisms of cementitious material deterioration in biogas digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegel, C; Bertron, A; Erable, B

    2016-11-15

    Digesters produce biogas from organic wastes through anaerobic digestion processes. These digesters, often made of concrete, suffer severe premature deterioration caused mainly by the presence of fermentative microorganisms producing metabolites that are aggressive towards cementitious materials. To clarify the degradation mechanisms in an anaerobic digestion medium, ordinary Portland cement paste specimens were immersed in the liquid fraction of a running, lab-scale digester for 4weeks. The anaerobic digestion medium was a mixture of a biowaste substrate and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant used as a source of anaerobic bacteria. The chemical characteristics of the anaerobic digestion liquid phase were monitored over time using a pH metre, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (HPIC). An initial critical period of low pH in the bioreactors was observed before the pH stabilized around 8. Acetic, propionic and butyric acids were produced during the digestion with a maximum total organic acid concentration of 50mmolL(-1). The maximum ammonium content of the liquid phase was 40mmolL(-1), which was about seven times the upper limit of the highly aggressive chemical environment class (XA3) as defined by the European standard for the specification of concrete design in chemically aggressive environments (EN 206). The changes in the mineralogical, microstructural and chemical characteristics of the cement pastes exposed to the solid and liquid phase of the digesters were analysed at the end of the immersion period by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). A 700-μm thick altered layer was identified in the cement paste specimens. The main biodeterioration patterns in the bioreactors' solid/liquid phase were calcium leaching and carbonation of the cement matrix.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  15. 互花米草与土豆混合厌氧发酵产酸和产沼气特性%Characteristics of acidification fermentation and biogas production for co-digestion of Spartina alterniflora and potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 杨世关; 郑正

    2011-01-01

    研究了中温(35℃)批量发酵条件下互花米草与土豆VS配比分别为6∶1、7∶1和9∶1时混合厌氧发酵的产酸发酵和产沼气特性.试验结果表明:1)与互花米草单独发酵时的丙酸型产酸发酵不同,混合发酵的产酸发酵表现为丁酸型发酵:混合发酵时发酵液中总挥发性有机酸(TVFAs)的浓度比互花米草单独发酵时提高了1倍多;混合发酵时发酵液中各单一有机酸浓度依次为乙酸>丙酸>丁酸,而互花米草单独发酵时为丙酸>乙酸>丁酸;2)6∶l、7∶1和9∶l三种配比下的沼气产量分别为460、431和415mL/g VS,比互花米草单独发酵时的361 mL/gVS分别提高了27.4%、19.3%和15.0%;3)6∶1、7∶1和9∶1三种配比下的沼气中的甲烷含量分别为60.3%、62.4%和62.7%,比互花米草单独发酵条件下57.4%的平均甲烷含量提高了大约3%~5%.总之,混合发酵显著改变了互花米草的产酸发酵特性,这些改变对促进互花米草的厌氧发酵和提高所产沼气的质量均具有积极的意义.%Influences of anaerobic co-digestion of Spartina alterniflora, a lignocellulosic material, and potato on acidification fermentation of S. Alterniflora and its biogas production were investigated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments conducted at S. Alterniflora to potato ratio of 6:1, 7:1 and 9:1 at 35 ℃. The results indicated that acidification fermentation for co-digestions was butyrate type compared with that of propionate type for mono-digestion of pure S. Alterniflora, and the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations for co-digestion increased more than twice compared with that of mono-digestion of pure S.alterniflora. The results also indicated that the cumulative biogas yields for co-digestion at SC∶P ratios of 6∶1, 7∶1 and 9∶1, respectively amounted to 460, 431 and 415 mL/g VS, increased by 27.4%, 19.3% and 15.0% than the 361 mL/g VS obtained in mono-digestion of pure S

  16. Analysis on clinical characteristics and nutriture in children with digestive diseases diagnosed by gastroscope inspection%胃镜检查诊断消化道疾病儿童临床特征与营养状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华; 黎海芪

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析胃镜检查诊断为消化道疾病的6~18岁儿童的临床表现、胃镜结果与营养状况关系.方法 以2010年8月至2011年1月在重庆医科大学附属儿童医院内镜中心行胃镜检查的儿童为研究对象,进行问卷调查,测量体格生长指标(身高和体重),分析临床表现和胃镜检查结果,参照WHO 2007年制定的"儿童生长标准"评价胃镜检查诊断为消化道疾病儿童的营养状况.结果 研究期间431例儿童行胃镜检查,排除资料不完整者25例,406例(94.2%)进入分析,其中6~12岁313例,~18岁93例.①244例以慢性反复性腹痛为主诉,病程多在1年以上;急性腹痛就诊59例,以进食后早饱、食欲不振就诊40例;以进食后恶心、呕吐就诊15例.②389/406例(95.8%)胃镜检查结果异常,其中73.3%(285例)为慢性胃炎,十二指肠、食管和急性胃黏膜病变检出率分别为78例(20.1%)、11例(2.8%)和8例(2.1%).③389例胃镜检查结果异常儿童BMI呈偏态分布;胃部病变、十二指肠病变、食管病变儿童BMI<P5分别占23.7%(71/300例)、16.7%(13/78例)和9.1%(1/11例);在BMI<P5的67例慢性胃炎患儿中,HP相关性慢性胃炎占38.8%(26/67例).④胃镜检查结果异常的243/389例慢性腹痛儿童中,40例(16.5%)BMI<P5;58/389例急性腹痛儿童中,1例(1.7%)BMI<P5;39/389例以"消瘦"为主诉就诊的儿童中,38例(97.4%)BMI<P5.结论 上消化道疾病儿童体型消瘦的比例较高.慢性腹痛、无明原因的体重减轻或消瘦等症状的学龄儿童和青少年需除外慢性上消化道疾病.%Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics and nutriture in gastroscope inspection in 406 children and adolescents diagnosed as digestive diseases. Methods Medical histories and the results of gastroscope inspection were collected in the endoscopy center, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from August 2010 to January 2011. The questionnaire investigation was performed. The

  17. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  18. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of currently alive HIV-1 infected former blood donors naive to antiretroviral therapy in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; SU Bing; DING Xin-ping; GAO Bing; GU Yong-bin; CAO Xiao-yun; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue; PENG Hong; ZHAO Quan-bi; YUAN Lin; WANG Jian-jun; FENG Yi; ZHANG Gui-yun; MA Li-ying; WU Lan; SHAO Yi-ming; HAN Li-feng; XU Chen; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Zhen-hou; CHEN Xi; LIU Zhen-dong; WANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Unregulated commercial blood/plasma collection among farmers occurred between 1992 and 1995 in central China and caused the second major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection in China. It is important to characterize HIV-1-infected former blood donors and to study characteristics associated with disease progression for future clinical intervention and vaccine development.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1-infected former blood donors (FBDs) and age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents. Demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and key laboratory data were collected from all study participants. Both unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regressions were employed to analyze the association of the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts with other characteristics.Results Two hundred and ninety-four HIV-1-infected FBDs and 59 age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents were enrolled in this study. The unregulated blood/plasma collection occurred more than a decade (10.8- 12.8 years) ago, which caused the rapid spread of HIV-1 infection and the high prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV, 89.5%); hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was observed in only 11 HIV+participants (3.7%). Deterioration in both clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters and increase of viral loads were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts. The decrease of total lymphocyte counts (P<0.001)and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and the appearance of dermatosis (P=0.03) were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts whereas viral loads (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-cell counts (P=0.01) were inversely associated with CD4+ T-cell counts.Conclusions Co-infection with HCV but not HBV is highly prevalent among HIV-1-infected FBDs. CD4+ T-cell counts is a reliable indicator for disease progression among FBDs. Total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin level and appearance of dermatosis were positively

  19. Blood characteristics of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standley, W.G.; McCue, P.M.

    1992-09-01

    Hematology, serum chemistry, and prevalence of antibodies against selected, pathogens in a San Joaquin kit fox population (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, in 1989 and 1990. Samples from 18 (10 female, 8 male) adult kit foxes were used to establish normal hematology and serum chemistry values for this population. Average values were all within the normal ranges reported for kit foxes in other locations. Three hematology parameters had significant differences between male and female values; males had higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts, and lower lymphocyte counts. There were no significant differences between serum chemistry values from male and female foxes. Prevalence of antibodies was determined from serum samples from 47 (26 female, 21 male) adult kit foxes and eight (4 female, 4 male) juveniles. Antibodies were detected against five of the eight pathogens tested: canine parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus, and canine hepatitis virus. Antibodies were not detected against Brucella, canis, Coccidioides immitis, or Yersinia pestis.

  20. Changes in electroencephalographic characteristics and blood-brain barrier permeability in WAG/Rij rats with cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Deniz; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Orhan, Nurcan; Arican, Nadir; Kaya, Mehmet; Gürses, Candan; Ates, Nurbay; Ahishali, Bulent

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of cortical dysplasia (CD) on electrophysiology and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in WAG/Rij rats with genetic absence epilepsy. Pregnant WAG/Rij rats were exposed to 145cGy of gamma-irradiation on embryonic day 17 to induce CD. An electroencephalogram was recorded from cortices subdurally in the offspring of the pregnant animals. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as determinant of BBB permeability. A massive tissue loss in the cerebral cortex was seen in WAG/Rij rats with CD (prats with CD when compared with the properties of SWDs in intact WAG/Rij rats (prats was significantly higher than that of control values (prats with CD increased and was higher than that of the control and WAG/Rij animals (prats with CD, suggesting a shift in seizure pattern. The association of these alterations with significant loss of cortical thickness and increased BBB permeability to HRP tracer may represent a causal relation of the EEG abnormalities with cerebral structural changes in these animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood Pressure and Left Ventricular Characteristics in Young Patients with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubertini Graziamaria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High steroid doses are often necessary in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH to suppress androgens and may increase blood pressure (BP. We evaluated 24-hour BP profile (ambBP, BP during exercise (excBP, and echocardiography in 20 young CAH patients. Systolic and diastolic BP during ambBP and excBP was normal in all patients. None presented myocardial hypertrophy. Nocturnal diastolic BP was affected by testosterone (: .016, 95% CI: 0.002 to 0.021, = 0.01. Left ventricular mass (LVM was affected by height SDS (: .007, 95% CI: 2.67 to 14.17, = 8.42, age (: , 95% CI: 2.12 to 5.82, = 3.97, and testosterone (: .008, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.09, = 0.053. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI correlated with BMI SDS (: .044, 95% CI: 0.09 to 6.17, = 3.13 and testosterone (: .031, 95% CI: 0.002 to 0.035, = 0.018. Hydrocortisone dose did not influence ambBP, excBP, or myocardial hypertrophy.

  2. 猪消化道中产苯乳酸乳酸菌的益生特性研究%Probiotic characteristics of phenyllactic acid-producing LAB from swine's digestive tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长建; 闫建芳; 刘秋; 姜波; 齐小辉

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] A simple and efficient method for screening lactic acid bacteria which would produce phenyllactic acid (PLA) would be developed. [Methods] Strain R53 was incubated in MRS ( de Man , Rogosa , Sharpe ) broth supplemented with phenylalanine by the anaerobic culture, and PLA in the fermentation broth was determined by HPLC. [Results] 31 strains were obtained from swine's digestive tract, of which strain R53 from duodenum showed the highest PLA-producing ability (321.7 mg/L). Strain R53 showed the ability to inhibit the on the three radicals. The results showed that the radical-scavenging ratios on -OH, O2 ,and DPPH were 11.2%, 52.7% and 63.2% respectively. In addition, strain R53 could degrade cholesterol and the degradation rate was 32.5% in vitro. [Conclusion] Strain R53 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarvm through its culture characteristics, morphological observation, biochemistry experiment and combining with the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA. L. plantarum R53 had the ability of phenyllactic acid-producing, cholesterol-reducing, and free radical-scavenging.%[目的]建立一种简单有效的产苯乳酸乳酸菌的筛选方法,并筛选到高产苯乳酸的乳酸菌.[方法]菌株经过添加了苯丙氨酸的培养基厌氧培养后,利用高效液相色谱法检测发酵液中苯乳酸的含量.[结果]从猪的消化道中共分离得到31株产苯乳酸的乳酸菌,其中菌株R53的苯乳酸产量最大,为321.7 mg/L.菌株R53对·OH、O2-和DPPH都有清除能力,清除率分别达到11.2%、52.7%和63.2%.同时R53也能降低培养基中胆固醇的含量,清除率为32.5%.[结论]乳酸菌g53经菌落形态、细胞形态、生化反应实验、16S rDNA测序,最终确定为植物乳杆菌.植物乳杆菌R53能产生苯乳酸,具有清除胆固醇和抗氧化能力.

  3. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    becomes a valuable resource. Co-digestion treatment has been successfully applied to several agricultural and industrial organic waste types in recent years. In Denmark, for example, the co-digestion concept has been successfully used since the mid 1980’s for the treatment of livestock waste......Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...

  4. 人血和尿中锡的高压微波络合消解氢化物发生-原子荧光测定法%Determination of tin in human blood and urine with high-pressure microwave digestion and complexing ligand and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 谢超

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometric method for the determination of tin in human blood and urine with high-pressure microwave digestion and complexing ligand.Methods Human blood and urine samples were digested by using high-pressure microwave.Then complexing ligand 1% EDTA,5 ml 150 g/L thiourea and ascorbic acid were added to mask the interfering ions such as nickel,iron,arsenic,selenium and etc.Tin concentration was determined with hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric method with sodium borohydride as the reductant in 2% sulphuric acid media.Results The linear range of tin was 10-100 μg/ml,the regression equations and correlation coefficients in blood and urine were y=9.391 1 x-16.312,r=0.999 7,y=8.244 7x-27.849 6,r=0.998 2,respectively.The limits of detection of tin in blood and urine were 0.090,0.020 μg/L respectively.The relative standard derivation of this method was 1.4%-6.1%.The rates of recovery were between 98.1% and 101.8%.Conclusion This method presents many advantages,such as completed sample digestion,rapid,less matrix disturbance,accurate,sensitive and is applicable to the determination of tin in blood and urine in grass-roots units.%目的 建立人血、尿中锡的高压微波络合消解氢化物发生-原子荧光测定法.方法 利用高压微波络合消解已加入1% EDTA溶液的人血和尿液,在样品测定液中加入150 g/L硫脲-抗坏血酸5ml来掩蔽镍、铁、砷、硒等干扰离子;以2%硫酸作为介质,以2%的硼氢化钠溶液作为还原剂,采用氢化物发生-原子荧光法测定锡浓度.结果 在10~100 μg/ml的线性范围内,血中锡所得回归方程为y=9.391 1x-16.312,r=0.999 7;尿中锡所得回归方程为y=8.244 7x-27.849 6,r=0.998 2.血、尿中锡的检出限分别为0.090、0.020 μg/L.该方法的RSD为1.4%~6.1%,回收率在98.1%~101.8%之间.结论 该方法样品消解完全,测定时间短,待测元素

  5. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD LIPIDS OF MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH THE COMPENSATED HYPOTHYROIDISM WHICH RESULTS FROM AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Malyshenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the lipid profile, including of non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C, in postmenopausal women with compensated hypothyroidism. The causes of hypothyroidism included Hashimoto thyroiditis.45 women with hypothyroidism participated in the study (mean ± sd, age (57.4 ± 7.7 years, disease duration (8.0 ± 6.4 years, the duration of postmenopause (6.4 ± 3.5 years. The mean dose of L-T4 (84.3 ± 28.5 μg/d. The control group – 85 women (mean ± sd, age (58.4 ± 5.4 years no abnormalities of the thyroid gland, as well as other chronic diseases, which could have an impact on lipid metabolism.The main and control group were matched for age. Average BMI basic group than in controls: (31.6 ± 3.4 and (28.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2 respectively (p = 0.001. Obtained statistical differences in terms of TSH in the study and control groups: 2.15 and 1,22 mU/L (p = 0.001. Upon reaching euthyrosis against the background of hormone replacement therapy with thyroid hormones do not reach the target total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C: 5.81 ± 1.14, 3.67 ± 1.06 respectively.We obtain lower high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C levels in women with drug euthyroidism compared with the control group. Do not get the difference in the values non-HDL-C in the groups studied. In postmenopausal women with compensated hypothyroidism is defined negative correlation ATTPO with HDL-C. Mean values of blood TC, non-HDL-C, LDL-C levels in the groups exceed the optimal ones.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions......Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...

  7. Reduced sensitivity of red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase to ethanol in vitro in male alcoholic patients: relationship to clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Reilly, E; Overall, J E

    1986-10-01

    We examined red blood cell (Na+,K+)-ATPase, its sensitivity to inhibition by ethanol in vitro, and its relationship to clinical characteristics and history in 41 newly admitted alcoholic patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls. Sensitivity to ethanol was significantly lower in the alcoholic patients and correlated negatively with ethanol intake. In addition, sensitivity of enzyme to ethanol was lower in patients with high agitation-anxiety ratings and correlated negatively with agitation and anxiety scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. There were no relationships between (Na+,K+)-ATPase measures and depressive symptoms, history of treatment for depression, or family history of depression. These data suggest that tolerance to the effects of ethanol on (Na+,K+)-ATPase occurs in man and may be related to the severity of ethanol dependence or withdrawal.

  8. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Antibody Titer and Blood Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis Essential Oil as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Bardzardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Myrtle Essential Oil (MEO on growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titer and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five dietary treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each. Dietary treatments were prepared by formulating a corn-soybean meal-based diet free of antibiotics (Control and supplementing the basal diet with three levels of MEO at 100, 200, 300 mg/Kg or antibiotic Flavophospholipol (FPL at 600 mg/Kg. The results showed that diets supplemented with MEO and FPL increased the feed intake, body weight gain and improved the feed conversion ratio compared to the control treatment (P. The relative carcass weight was significantly increased, whereas the weight of gastrointestinal tract and liver were decreased in broilers fed MEO (P. Supplementing the basal diet with MEO increased the antibody titers against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV and Newcastle disease Virus (NDV, although supplementing diet with 200 mg/Kg of MEO was more effective (P. Broilers fed MEO diets especially at the level of 300 mg/Kg had a lower white blood cells count and heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but a higher lymphocyte and red blood cells count (P. In conclusion, data showed that diet supplemented with MEO improved the growth performance and increased antibody titers against AIV and NDV, especially at the level of 200 mg/Kg, in broiler chickens and could be an adequate alternative to antibiotics.

  9. Viscoelastic and ultrastructural characteristics of whole blood and plasma in Alzheimer-type dementia, and the possible role of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Janette; Soma, Prashilla; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Patients typically present with neuro- and systemic inflammation and iron dysregulation, associated with oxidative damage that reflects in hypercoagulability. Hypercoagulability is closely associated with increased fibrin(ogen) and in AD patients fibrin(ogen) has been implicated in the development of neuroinflammation and memory deficits. There is still no clear reason precisely why (a) this hypercoagulable state, (b) iron dysregulation and (c) increased fibrin(ogen) could together lead to the loss of neuronal structure and cognitive function. Here we suggest an alternative hypothesis based on previous ultrastructural evidence of the presence of a (dormant) blood microbiome in AD. Furthermore, we argue that bacterial cell wall components, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative strains, might be the cause of the continuing and low-grade inflammation, characteristic of AD. Here, we follow an integrated approach, by studying the viscoelastic and ultrastructural properties of AD plasma and whole blood by using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography (TEG®) and the Global Thrombosis Test (GTT®). Ultrastructural analysis confirmed the presence and close proximity of microbes to erythrocytes. TEG® analysis showed a hypercoagulable state in AD. TEG® results where LPS was added to naive blood showed the same trends as were found with the AD patients, while the GTT® results (where only platelet activity is measured), were not affected by the added LPS, suggesting that LPS does not directly impact platelet function. Our findings reinforce the importance of further investigating the role of LPS in AD. PMID:26462180

  10. Effect of Impeller Geometry on Lift-Off Characteristics and Rotational Attitude in a Monopivot Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kento; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Maruyama, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Yamane, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the flow path geometry of the impeller on the lift-off and tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller against the hydrodynamic force was investigated in a centrifugal blood pump with an impeller supported by a single-contact pivot bearing. Four types of impeller were compared: the FR model with the flow path having both front and rear cutouts on the tip, the F model with the flow path having only a front cutout, the R model with only a rear cutout, and the N model with a straight flow path. First, the axial thrust and the movement about the pivot point, which was loaded on the surface of the impeller, were calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Next, the lift-off point and the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller were measured experimentally. The CFD analysis showed that the axial thrust increased gently in the FR and R models as the flow rate increased, whereas it increased drastically in the F and N models. This difference in axial thrust was likely from the higher pressure caused by the smaller circumferential velocity in the gap between the top surface of the impeller and the casing in the FR and R models than in the F and N models, which was caused by the rear cutout. These results corresponded with the experimental results showing that the impellers lifted off in the F and N models as the flow rate increased, whereas it did not in the FR and R models. Conversely, the movement about the pivot point increased in the direction opposite the side with the pump outlet as the flow rate increased. However, the tilt of the rotational axis of the impeller, which oriented away from the pump outlet, was less than 0.8° in any model under any conditions, and was considered to negligibly affect the rotational attitude of the impeller. These results confirm that a rear cutout prevents lift-off of the impeller caused by a decrease in the axial thrust.

  11. Relationship between time to positivity of blood culture with clinical characteristics and hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Shi-ning; BO Jian; NING Yong-zhong; ZHAO Yu; LU Xiao-lin; YANG Ji-yong; ZHU Xi; YAO Gai-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that the time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture is a parameter correlating with degree of the bacteremia and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli (E.co/i). The objective of this study was to further investigate the diagnostic and prognostic power of using TTP to predict E. coli bacteremia.Methods A retrospective cohort study at two university hospitals was conducted. We retrieved all the medical records of those with E. coli bloodstream infection according to the records generated by their microbiology departments.Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical factors correlating with fast bacterial growth and significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality.Results Medical records of 353 episodes of E. coli bacteremia diagnosed between January 1,2007 and December 31,2009 were retrieved in the investigation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the TTP≤7 hours group is associated with higher incidence of active malignancies (41.7% vs. 27.2%, P=0.010), neutropenia (30% vs.14.3%, P=0.007), primary bacteremia (55.0% vs. 33.4%, P=0.002), and poorer outcome (hospital mortality 43.3% vs.11.9%, P=0.000) than the TTP >7 hours group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant predictors of hospital mortality, in rank order from high to low, were TTP (for TTP <7 hours, odds ratio (OR): 4.886; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.572-9.283; P=0.000),neutropenia (OR: 2.800; 95% CI:1.428-5.490; P=0.003), comedication of steroids or immunosuppressive agents (OR:2.670; 95% CI: 0.971-7.342; P=0.057).Conclusions Incidence of malignancies, neutropenia and primary bacterernia correlates with fast bacterial growth in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The parameter of TTP has been identified as a variable of highest correlation to hospital mortality and therefore can be potentially utilized as a mortality prognostic marker.

  12. Comparison between Effects of Addition of Salvia mirzayanii Essence with Virginiamycin on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Factors and some Immune Parameters of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mosaddegh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate effects of addition of Salvia mirzayanii essence and comparison with antibiotic an experiment was conducted as dietary a completely of the randomized design with 5 treatments, and 5 replicates with 12 chickens per replicate for 42 days with treatments control, virginiamycin antibiotic 10% (100 ppm and three levels of S. mirzayanii essence (200, 400 and 600 ppm. Weight gain and feed intake recorded weekly and carcass characteristics analysis and blood parameters were determined at 28 and 42 days of age. Highest weight gain was observed at the level of 200 ppm essence at the 22-42 days of age (grower phase and at1-42 days of age (total of experiment, 200 and 600 ppm essence showed the highest results. Feed intake was highest in 200 and 600ppm essence level in the grower phase as well as overall. Best feed conversion ratio at the grower phase and total of experiment observed in the 200 ppm essence treatment. Gizzard and gastrointestinal tract weights significantly decreased with addition of antibiotic. This essence significantly decreased cholesterol, HDL and LDL. Bursa of fabricius weight was significantly highest at level of 400 ppm essence and lowest at the level of 600 ppm. Dietary addition of essence significantly decreased blood eosinofil. The results of this experiment showed that S. mirzayanii essence could be used as growth promoter and using low levels of the essence could improve performance and immune system.

  13. Effect of antibiotic and its possible alternatives (organic acid, probiotic, prebiotic on performance, egg characteristics and blood metabolites of commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mosayeb shalaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic effects on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in commercial laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain Hy line (W-36 from 32 to 42 weeks of age with 5 treatments and 4 replicates of 8 hens each. The experimental treatments consisted: 1- basal diet, 2- basal diet + 150 g/ton oxy tetracycline antibiotic, 3- basal diet + 3 kg/ton of organic acid supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g/ton probiotic (Protexin and 5- basal diet + 2 kg/ton of mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic. The results showed that the use of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic have significant effects on performance and egg quality traits. Accordingly, the maximum egg weight was obtained in treatments receiving organic acid and prebiotic that was significant compared to control treatment. Egg mass and feed conversion ratio in treatment received prebiotic significantly improved. The maximum egg shell weight was obtained in treatment received prebiotic that compared to the control treatment showed a significant increase. Between blood factors, glucose concentration in treatment received organic acid compared to control and antibiotic treatments, significantly increased. Consequently the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharides can have positive effects on performance and egg characteristics of laying hens.

  14. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  15. Effects of forage level and chromium-methionine chelate supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites in Korean native (Hanwoo) steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kyung-Il; Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Hong, Seok-Man; Ohh, Sang-Jip; Lee, Bae-Hun; Peng, Jing-Lun; Ji, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Byong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate and forage level over two years, 1(st) fattening and 2(nd) fattening period on growth parameters, carcass characteristics and blood metabolites of 46 Korean native (Hanwoo, Bos Taurus, BW = 183 ± 44 kg) steers. Treatments were: 1) Steers in the low forage (LF) group were fed diets that consisted of 60% concentrate and 40% forage; 2) Steers in the high forage (HF) group were fed diets that consisted of 40% concentrate and 60% forage. Following the 1(st) fattening period, steers (BW = 480 ± 37.6 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups: LF (40 F plus no Cr-Met supplementation in the 2(nd) fattening period), LFCM (40LF plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period), HF (60 F plus no added Cr-Met during the 2(nd) fattening period) and HFCM (60 F plus added 400 ppb of Cr-Met in the 2(nd) fattening period). Dry matter intake of the treatment diets did not differ during the raising and 1(th) fattening period (P > 0.05). The ADG in the raising period showed no difference between the 40 F and 60 F groups (P > 0.05). Carcass characteristics including rib-eye area and meat yield index were higher in HF than the other treatment groups (P 0.05). The Insulin concentration in the blood was significantly higher for the HFCM group than for the LF, LFCM and HF groups (P chelate could improve meat quality in beef steers.

  16. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  17. Rheological characterization of digested sludge by solid sphere impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiankai; Wu, Jing; Poncin, Souhila; Li, Huai Z

    2016-10-01

    An impact method was applied to investigate the rheological characteristics of digested sludge and reveal its transient dynamics. A high-speed camera allowed visualizing the dynamic impact process and observing interaction between impacting sphere and targeted sludge. A damping oscillation was observed after the impact. The crater diameter followed an exponential function, while the crater depth varied as a logarithmic function of both sphere diameter and free fall height. Furthermore, the viscosity and elasticity of digested sludge were evaluated by establishing a simplified impact drag force model. The impact elastic modulus was consistent with the Young's modulus measured by a penetrometer. The impact viscosity was reasonable as the estimated impact shear stress was greater than the yield stress of digested sludge resulting in the formation of crater. The impact method offers an alternative way to reveal the viscoelasticity of digested sludge through a dynamic process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe and other wild ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Cathrine

    Our current understanding of the complex digestive system of ruminants is mainly based on a few, but intensively studied livestock species. In comparison, information about the anatomy and function of the gastrointestinal tract of wild ruminants is limited. The aim of this thesis was to provide...... quantitative data on the digestive morphophysiology of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), the blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) and the Arabian sand gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica). Digestive tract anatomy was characterized by dimensions and weights of the different gastrointestinal tract sections......, and digesta samples were collected to describe the digestive function, as indirectly evidenced by the physical characteristics of the digesta. Of particular interest was to determine the presence/absence of rumen content stratification. The findings in each species were then evaluated against available data...

  19. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vinasse through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Petersen, Søren O.; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    , and from fertirrigated soils. This study assessed GHG emissions in experiments simulating this vinasse management system, and the potential for reducing emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from vinasse via anaerobic digestion (AD) in biogas plants. During 21 days’ storage of untreated...... vinasse, 29% of dry matter (DM) and 40% of volatile solids (VS) were lost, which resulted in cumulative CH4 emissions of up to 43.8 kg CO2eq kg−1 C-vinasse. In contrast, there were no CH4 emissions from AD-treated vinasse (digestate) during storage. GHG emission was related to the biochemical...... characteristics of the untreated and digested vinasse. The accumulation of oxidised nitrogen (N) compounds was up to four-fold higher in soil amended with untreated vinasse than from digestate-amended soil. The N2O emissions from soil amended with untreated vinasse were also higher than from soil amended...

  20. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output.

  1. Digestive health in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    Women experience the physiological changes of pregnancy in a variety of ways. Changes in pregnancy are associated with changing hormone levels. These hormonal changes have an impact on all body systems. Midwives need to have an understanding of the changes so that they can enable women to manage their digestive health effectively. The midwife needs to be vigilant in history taking to understand the woman's experiences and to be able to offer appropriate support and advice. There are a number of conventional and alternative treatments that can help to prevent and alleviate symptoms. This article will consider the impact on the gastro-intestinal system and how changes can be managed.

  2. The Change Characteristics of Blood Sugar and Blood Fat in Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Pregnancies and Normal Pregnancy Women%正常妊娠妇女和妊娠期高血压疾病患者血脂、血糖代谢的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the change characteristics of blood sugar and blood fat between pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH) pregnancies and normal pregnancy women. Method:A total of 60 pregnancy-induced hypertension women and 60 normal pregnancy women were selected. The change characteristics of blood sugar and blood fat were compared. Result:The level of blood fat in group PIH were significantly higher than those in normal labor group(P0.05)。结论:妊娠期高血压疾病患者可能伴有血脂、血糖代谢的紊乱,临床应加强孕期及围生期监测。

  3. Treatment-time regimen of hypertension medications significantly affects ambulatory blood pressure and clinical characteristics of patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ríos, María T; Crespo, Juan J; Moyá, Ana; Domínguez-Sardiña, Manuel; Otero, Alfonso; Sánchez, Juan J; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R; Ayala, Diana E

    2013-03-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension (RH) are at greater risk for stroke, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events than are those for whom blood pressure (BP) is responsive to and well controlled by therapeutic interventions. Although all chronotherapy trials have compared the effects on BP regulation of full daily doses of medications when ingested in the morning versus at bedtime, prescription of the same medications in divided doses twice daily (BID) is frequent. Here, we investigated the influence of hypertension treatment-time regimen on the circadian BP pattern, degree of BP control, and relevant clinical and laboratory medicine parameters of RH patients evaluated by 48-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). This cross-sectional study evaluated 2899 such patients (1701 men/1198 women), 64.2 ± 11.8 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project. Among the participants, 1084 were ingesting all hypertension medications upon awakening (upon-awakening regimen), 1436 patients were ingesting the full daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime (bedtime regimen), and 379 were ingesting split doses of ≥1 medications BID upon awakening and at bedtime (BID regimen). Patients of the bedtime regimen compared with the other two treatment-time regimens had lower likelihood of microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease; significantly lower albumin/creatinine ratio, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; plus higher estimated glomerular filtration rate and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The bedtime regimen was also significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than the upon-awakening and BID regimens. The sleep-time relative SBP and DBP decline was significantly attenuated by the upon-awakening and BID regimens (p pattern, associated with highest CVD risk, was much greater, 31.0% and 29.8%, respectively, among patients of the upon-awakening and BID

  4. 免疫性疾病患者输血前血型血清学特征分析%Analysis of blood group serological detecting characteristics in patients with autoimmune disease before blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋会; 胡兴斌; 孙文利; 安群星; 张玲玲; 张婧; 尹文

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析免疫性疾病患者的输血前血型血清学特征.方法 选择于2008年1月至2015年12月在第四军医大学西京医院拟接受输血治疗的6 890例免疫性疾病患者为研究对象.本研究纳入标准:临床诊断明确、病历资料完整者.排除标准:病历资料不完整者.应用试管法、微柱凝胶法、抗人球蛋白法、吸收放散试验等方法,于输血前对研究对象进行血型鉴定、抗体筛选、抗体鉴定及交叉配血检测.本研究遵循的程序符合第四军医大学西京医院人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准.结果 ①本研究检出ABO正反定型不符患者为370例(5.4%,370/6 890),其ABO正反定型不符的发生原因按照检出率由高到低依次为免疫球蛋白(Ig)M类不规则抗体(32.4%,120/370),冷自身抗体(26.8%,99/370),冷抗体(16.2%,60/370),缗钱状凝集(11.1%,41/370),直接抗人球蛋白试验阳性(9.5%,35/370),抗原、抗体减弱(4.0%,15/370).②本研究检出不规则抗体患者为570例(8.3%,570/6 890),其不规则抗体按照检出率由高到低依次为复合抗体(44.0%,251/570),同种抗体(35.8%,204/570),冷自身抗体+温自身抗体(13.8%,79/570),类同种抗体(4.4%,25/570),药物性抗体(1.9%,11/570).③本研究出现交叉配血困难患者为610例(8.8%,610/6 890),其罹患的免疫性疾病按照发生率由高至低依次为自身免疫性溶血性贫血(34.9%,213/610),结缔组织病(19.0%,116/610),系统性红斑狼疮(14.8%,90/610),类风湿性关节炎(9.0%,55/610),狼疮性肾炎(5.7%,35/610),强直性脊柱炎(5.2%,32/610)等.结论 免疫性疾病患者易发生血型鉴定及交叉配血困难.通过对免疫性疾病患者进行输血前血型血清学检测,可尽早发现其ABO正反定型不符原因,并且选择患者相合血液,进而确保临床输血安全.%Objective To investigate the blood group serological detecting characteristics in

  5. 红芸豆淀粉结构特征及其降解性质的研究%The Study of Starch Structural Characteristic Digestive Properties of Red Kidney Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中凯; 郑排云; 张岩; 陈晓珊; 杨艳

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the starch morphology of red kidney bean (RKB) during canning process were visualized using a microscope, and the image showed that the starch was still kept in granular shape.The bean was digested by a simulating human digestive tract and resistant starch (RS) was obtained after the digestion. The morphology, molecular distribution, I2 complexing capacity, UV/visible complexing spectrum of amylose-I2 and morphology of amylose-I2 complexing aggregate were studied. The results showed that the size distribution of RS particles was nar-row and it has multi-angular shape. It mainly contains amylose molecules with short chain length.%  以红芸豆为原料,研究淀粉在红芸豆籽粒中的形态及其在加工中的变化。显微镜观察结果表明,在罐制产品中,淀粉仍然以颗粒形态存在。采用模拟人体肠道的降解方法获得红芸豆抗性淀粉,然后对红芸豆抗性淀粉的颗粒形貌、分子量分布、碘结合能力、直链淀粉-碘络合可见光扫描图谱以及直链淀粉-碘络合物的的形态进行了分析。结果显示,红芸豆抗性淀粉颗粒分布范围窄,呈多边形态,其分子主要是由短链的直链淀粉分子组成。

  6. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  7. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on

  8. Characteristics of HIV infection among voluntary blood donors in Wanzhou district%万州地区无偿献血者HIV感染特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文平; 骆成辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of HIV infection among voluntary blood donors in Wanzhou district ,to pertinently propagandize the AIDS prevention knowledge for controlling the blood transfusion risk for HIV transmission from the source .Methods The data of voluntary blood donors and the HIV‐infected per‐sons related information during 2006-2013 were performed the collection and collation ,including the epidemiological survey data of HIV‐infected persons ,their characteristics of gender ,age ,crowd categories and infection route ,etc . were analyzed .Results The HIV infection rate among voluntary blood donors averaged 21 .57/100 000 in Wanzhou district during 2006-2013 ,which overall showed a trend of slow growth .HIV infection in voluntary blood donation was dominated by male infection ;20 -29 years age group had the highest infection rate ,reaching 30 .13/100 000 (26/86 292);the HIV infection rate in the crowd with the primary school cultural level was highest , reaching 134 .63/100 000(4/2 973) ,followed by the crowds with high school and junior high school cultural levels ,which were 31 .55/100 000(18/57 047) and 20 .77/100 000(12/57 768) respectively ;excluding the commercial service crowd ,the HIV infection rate in farmers was highest ,reaching 259 .16/100 000(14/5 402) ,followed by workers (57 .74/100 000 ,11/19 051 );the infection route was dominated by heterosexual transmission , accounting for 70 .59% (48/68) ,the second was the MSM gay spread (27 .94% ,19/68) ,no infected persons with other routes were found .Conclusion Combining with the characteristics of gender ,age ,educationand occupation ,etc .in HIV‐infected persons among volunteer blood donors in local area ,strengtnening the AIDS prevention knowledge in the low cultural level crowds such as farmers and workers ,pertinently strengthening the consulting and screening before donation in partial blood donors can isolate the HIV‐infected persons before donation and increase the

  9. Saturated, omega-6 and omega-3 dietary fatty acid effects on the characteristics of fresh, frozen-thawed semen and blood parameters in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A H; Alizadeh, A R; Alipour, H; Chehrazi, M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several dietary fatty acids (FAs) on semen quality and blood parameters in rams. We gave diet-supplemented treatments (35 g day(-1) ram(-1)) by C16:0 (palm oil), C18:2 [sunflower oil (SO)] and an n-3 source [fish oil (FO)] to 12 rams, who were fed for 15 weeks during their breeding season. Semen was collected once per week. Semen samples were extended with Tris-based cryoprotective diluents, then cooled to 5 °C and stored in liquid nitrogen. Positive responses were seen with FO after 4 weeks. The mean prefreezing semen characteristics improved with the intake of FO (P oil 5.3 × 10(9). Rams that received FO had the highest total testosterone concentrations (11.3 ng ml(-1) for FO, 10.8 ng ml(-1) for SO and 10.2 ng ml(-1) for palm oil) during the experiment (P characteristics after thawing (P oils.

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e parâmetros sanguíneos de cabras mestiças moxotó suplementadas com óleos de licuri ou mamona Intake, digestibility of nutrients and blood parameters of crossbred moxotó goats suplemented with licuri or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a possibilidade da inclusão dos óleos de Licuri ou Mamona, em dois níveis, na dieta de cabras mestiças Moxotó, por meio do estudo do consumo de matéria seca, da digestibilidade e dos níveis de ureia, glicose e ácidos graxos não esterificados (AGNE no sangue. Os tratamentos consistiam em um grupo controle sem óleo (SO e adição de 3 ou 5% de óleo de Licuri (OL-3 ou OL-5 ou Mamona (OM-3 ou OM-5, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizadas 10 cabras mestiças Moxotó em lactação, confinadas, distribuídas em um quadrado latino duplo (5 x 5, no qual cada período consistia em 12 dias de adaptação e três dias de coleta. A inclusão de óleo na dieta reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, com exceção do consumo dos animais suplementados com OM-3. No entanto, a adição de 3% de óleo não alterou o consumo de energia metabolizável e proteína bruta. Já a suplementação com OL-5 reduziu o consumo dos nutrientes, com exceção do consumo de extrato etéreo. A suplementação lipídica não alterou a digestibilidade da matéria seca, entretanto aumentou a digestibilidade da FDN e a digestibilidade aparente da PB e EE. Os níveis de glicose, ureia e AGNE sanguíneos não diferiram entre os tratamentos. É possível utilizar 3% de óleo de Mamona na dieta de cabras em lactação.The objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of including Castor or Licuri oil at two levels in the diets of crossbred Moxotó goat's through dry matter intake, digestibility and levels of urea, glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood. The treatments consisted of control groups without oil, 3% or 5% of Licuri (LO-3 or LO-5 or Castor (CO-3 or CO-5 oil, based on dry matter supplementation. Ten Moxotó lactating goats were used according to a double Latin Square (5 x 5 experiment design. The addition of oil to the diet reduced the dry matter intake, except for animals that were supplemented

  11. Development of an in vitro system simulating bucco-gastric digestion to assess the physical and chemical changes of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebler, C; Lecannu, G; Belleville, C; Devaux, M-F; Popineau, Y; Barry, J-L

    2002-09-01

    The release of nutrients from solid food depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, and on dynamic physiological events including pH, gastric emptying and enzymatic secretion. Our laboratory has developed an in vitro digestive system mimicking mouth and stomach processes to determine physical and chemical changes of bread during digestion. To simulate oral-phase digestion, bread was minced and subjected to in vitro amylase digestion, releasing 219 +/- 11 g oligosaccharides/kg total carbohydrate. During the gastric phase, bread proteins, which are converted into insoluble aggregated proteins during breadmaking, were emptied in various states of peptic digestion: undigested aggregated proteins and degraded proteins of intermediate and low molecular weight. The mean particle size of ground bread decreased progressively to the end of the gastric digestion (from 292 to 109 microm). The in vitro digestive system proved to be a useful tool for understanding the dynamic digestion of various food components held within the structure of a food matrix.

  12. Testing in Literature. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Pointing out that student testing in literature should take into account each school's philosophy concerning the literature curriculum, this digest explores the broad domain of literature study and looks at specific objectives and outcomes in literature testing. The digest discusses answers to the following questions: (1) Where are the broad…

  13. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulate...

  14. 适宜原料压实度改善玉米秸秆厌氧干发酵特性%Suitable compactness of corn stover improving characteristics of solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟慧; 丑三涛; 朱继英

    2016-01-01

    干发酵原料中固形物含量高,结构疏松,原料的压实度直接关系到发酵罐的利用率和生产成本。为了探讨原料压实度对厌氧干发酵过程的影响,该文以玉米秸秆粉为试验材料,研究了不同固形物含量(TS)条件下原料压实度对厌氧干发酵产气特性及物料特性变化的影响,结果表明:相同TS下,随着压实度的增加,日产气量(基于可挥发性固形物, VS)峰值降低且出峰时间略有滞后;原料压实度对累积产气量、日产气量变化趋势以及甲烷体积分数的影响不明显。基于发酵罐容积计算产气量时,原料压实度与日产气量峰值、累积产气总量以及累积甲烷产量均呈显著正相关。不同 TS条件下的原料压实度对厌氧干发酵过程的影响程度不同,TS 含量越高原料压实度对产气量的影响越明显。TS 为20%和25%时,逐层压实发酵罐的单位容积累积产气量比自然填料罐分别提高了37.1%和60.2%。当发酵料初始TS为20%时,原料压实度的增加可促使物料中形成连续的液相,改善物料层间的传质,从而使发酵料上下层间的差异减小。当发酵料初始 TS 提高到25%时,原料压实度增加对传质特性无明显影响。综上所述,在该试验研究范围内,提高原料压实度可以保证玉米秸秆厌氧干发酵产气过程的正常进行,且可以显著提高发酵罐的容积利用率。该研究对厌氧干发酵原料压实度与发酵特性之间的关系进行了初步探讨,以期为有效提高厌氧干发酵罐的产能能力提供参考。%To study the effects of compactness on the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), the SS-AD of corn stove was conducted with different total solid (TS) contents. The digestion material with the TS content of 20% was loaded into the reactors at the compactness of 0.56, 0.71 and 0.79 kg/L, and the compactness of the digestion material

  15. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  16. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into tiny absorbable nutrients. During the process of absorption, nutrients that come from the food (including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) pass through channels in the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream. The blood works ...

  17. Efficient Web Change Monitoring with Page Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D J; Rocco, D; Liu, L

    2004-02-20

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have enabled a publishing explosion of useful online information, which has produced the unfortunate side effect of information overload: it is increasingly difficult for individuals to keep abreast of fresh information. In this paper we describe an approach for building a system for efficiently monitoring changes to Web documents. This paper has three main contributions. First, we present a coherent framework that captures different characteristics of Web documents. The system uses the Page Digest encoding to provide a comprehensive monitoring system for content, structure, and other interesting properties of Web documents. Second, the Page Digest encoding enables improved performance for individual page monitors through mechanisms such as short-circuit evaluation, linear time algorithms for document and structure similarity, and data size reduction. Finally, we develop a collection of sentinel grouping techniques based on the Page Digest encoding to reduce redundant processing in large-scale monitoring systems by grouping similar monitoring requests together. We examine how effective these techniques are over a wide range of parameters and have seen an order of magnitude speed up over existing Web-based information monitoring systems.

  18. Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Hagedoorn, RE; de Graaff, R; Elzinga, H; Tabak, S; Yang, YX; Stellaard, F

    2000-01-01

    Background: Resistant starch sources, which are only partially digested in the small intestine, can be used to increase colonic availability of short-chain fatty acids. Objective: To study the characteristics of the fermentation of resistant starch, the digestion of resistant starch in the small int

  19. Characteristic of gas production of over-ground household thermostatic biogas digester heated by solar energy%地上式户用太阳能恒温沼气池产气性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金平; 单少雄; 董缇

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of unstable gas production, the low biogas production rate, and the zero-gas production in winter existing in the traditional biogas digester with a brick-concrete structure, an over-ground household thermostatic biogas digester heated by solar energy was developed and constructed. The system consists of a glass evacuated tube collector with the collector area of 2.96 m2, a 2 m×2 m×3.2 m insulating chamber, a 3 m3 plastic biogas digester, a 3 m3 reservoir bag, an automatic temperature controller, a heating coil, and some other small parts. The energy collected by the solar collector is stored in water and the hot water is circulated in the heating coil by the circulating pump. The pump is directly controlled by the automatic temperature controller. The automatic temperature controller can be set an initial value. If the fermentation temperature is below the set point, the automatic control system will work to let the circulating pump start, and then the hot water will transfer heat to the biogas digester through the heating coil to keep the fermentation temperature at the set point. And similarly, the circulating pump will be shut down, controlled by the automatic control system, if the fermentation temperature reaches or exceeds the set value. Experimental study on the gas production of the system in winter was carried out. The fermentation material consisted of 0.5 m3 pig manure, 0.5 m3 inoculum, and 1 m3 water. During the experiment, the temperature data was recorded by the Agilent data acquisition instrument, the daily gas yield was measured by the gas meter, the gas content is measured by the portable gas analyzer, and the pH value was recorded by the portable pH meter, which was done at 17:00 every day. In order to ensure the uniformity of heat transfer and material liquid in the digester, stirring work was done daily. By analyzing the data collected, we could conclude that the solar collector can ensure the digester

  20. Assessing the agricultural reuse of the digestate from microalgae anaerobic digestion and co-digestion with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Cucina, Mirko; Folch, Montserrat; Tàpias, Josefina; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-05-15

    Microalgae anaerobic digestion produces biogas along with a digestate that may be reused in agriculture. However, the properties of this digestate for agricultural reuse have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to characterise digestates from different microalgae anaerobic digestion processes (i.e. digestion of untreated microalgae, thermally pretreated microalgae and thermally pretreated microalgae in co-digestion with primary sludge). The main parameters evaluated were organic matter, macronutrients and heavy metals content, hygenisation, potential phytotoxicity and organic matter stabilisation. According to the results, all microalgae digestates presented suitable organic matter and macronutrients, especially organic and ammonium nitrogen, for agricultural soils amendment. However, the thermally pretreated microalgae digestate was the least stabilised digestate in comparison with untreated microalgae and co-digestion digestates. In vivo bioassays demonstrated that the digestates did not show residual phytotoxicity when properly diluted, being the co-digestion digestate the one which presented less phytotoxicity. Heavy metals contents resulted far below the threshold established by the European legislation on sludge spreading. Moreover, low presence of E. coli was observed in all digestates. Therefore, agricultural reuse of thermally pretreated microalgae and primary sludge co-digestate through irrigation emerges a suitable strategy to recycle nutrients from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 轻中度高血压患者血压达标后动态血压及血压节律的变化特点%Change characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure rhythm after blood pressure reaching standard in patients with mild or moderate hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩楠楠; 王其新

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨轻中度高血压患者血压达标后动态血压及血压节律的变化特点.方法 选择124名轻中度高血压患者,给予口服厄贝沙坦/氢氯噻嗪复方制剂(每片含厄贝沙坦150 mg及氢氯噻嗪12.5 mg)控制血压,目标血压值为<130/85 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa),根据血压达标情况增加药物剂量,观察时间为14~16 d.记录血压达标患者治疗前后动态血压参数及血压达标所需时间.结果 治疗后共70例患者血压达标,血压达标患者24 h收缩压(SBP),24 h舒张压(DBP),昼间平均SBP,昼间平均DBP,夜间平均SBP,夜间平均DBP及脉压在治疗前后差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).治疗后血压达标患者的血压节律构成比发生变化,正常血压节律患者的比例由治疗前52.8%增加至治疗后的81.4%,治疗前后血压节律构成比的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血压达标患者中血压节律正常者与血压节律异常者血压达标所需天数分别为[(7.70±2.20)d vs.(9.21±2.63)d],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 厄贝沙坦/氢氯噻嗪复方制剂降低轻中度高血压患者血压的同时,改善了血压达标患者的昼夜血压节律.%Objective To explore the change characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure rhythm after blood pressure reaching standard in patients with mild or moderate hypertension. Methods The patients with mild or moderate hypertension ( n = 124 ) were selected and orally given the compound preparation of irbesartan-hydrochlorothiazide ( 150 mg irbesartan and 12. 5 mg hydrochlorothiazide in one table ) for controling blood pressure. The target blood pressure was lower than 130/85 mm Hg ( 1 mm Hg =0. 133 kPa ). The dose of medicinal was increased according to the targeting state of blood pressure. The observation was kept on for 14-16 days. The parameters of ambulatory blood pressure and required time for blood pressure reaching standard were recorded in the patients after blood

  2. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  3. Distribution and morphological characteristics of argyrophilic cells in digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus%版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家洲; 李桂芬; 苏福来; 蒙绍权; 贝永建; 谢文海

    2011-01-01

    目的:对我国特有的濒危珍稀两栖动物版纳鱼螈(Ichthyophis bannanicus)消化道嗜银细胞的分布及形态进行研究.方法:取各消化管段,除十二指肠和直肠由于很短全取外,其余的食管、胃、空肠和大肠均分别取始段、中段和末段,应用龙桂开浸银法染色处理,观察嗜银细胞的形态、分布,并测量各消化管段嗜银细胞的分布密度.结果:版纳鱼螈消化道除食管和大肠未见嗜银细胞外,其他部位均有嗜银细胞分布.在胃体和空肠中段有明显的分布密度高峰,其中空肠中段分布密度最高;十二指肠和直肠分布密度较低,以十二指肠分布密度最低;嗜银细胞形态多样,有圆形、锥体形、梭形、椭圆形、柱形和梨形等.结论:版纳鱼螈消化道嗜银细胞的分布特征与中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)的相似.%Objective: To determine the distribution and morphology of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of Ichthyophis bannanicus, which is an endangered Amphibia species in China.Methods: Every segment of the digestive tract was taken.The beginning, middle and end segments of the esophagus, stomach, jejunum and large intestine were taken, except the duodenum and rectum which are too short.Guikai Long silver impregnation method was used to observe the distribution and morphology of the argyrophilic cells, and then the distribution density of the argyrophilic cells in each digestive tract segment was determined.Results: Excluding the esophagus and large intestine, the argyrophil cells were found within the gastrointestinal tract.Among these parts, the argyrophilic cells exhibited its peak distribution within the middle segment of the jejunum, and followed by body of the stomach.Additionally, the argyrophilic cells distributed lower within the rectum and lowest in the duodenum.The appearances of argyrophilic cells varied, including round, cone, spindle, ellipse, column and pear.Conclusion: The distributed feature of

  4. [The influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes during the contest season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, A A; Barabash, L V; Smirnova, I N; Abdulkina, N G; Kremeno, S V; Naumov, A O; Vereshchagina, S V; Shteĭnerdt, S V

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the products prepared from young not ossified antlers marals of Siberian red deer on the characteristics of the blood oxygen-supplying system in the athletes undergoing heavy physical loads during the contest season. It was shown that the use of such preparations promotes correction of humoral characteristics reflecting the development of iron-deficient conditions.

  5. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  6. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  7. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J Fuzita

    Full Text Available Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability, zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also

  8. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  9. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    . This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition...... and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion...

  10. Digestive challenges for vertebrate animals: Microbial diversity, cardiorespiratory coupling, and dietary specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barboza, P.S.; Bennett, A.; Lignot, H.-H.;

    2010-01-01

    and digestive functions, and (3) the evolution of dietary specialization. Herbivores consume, digest, and detoxify complex diets by using a wide variety of enzymes expressed by bacteria, predominantly in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Carnivores, such as snakes that feed intermittently, sometimes......The digestive system is the interface between the supply of food for an animal and the demand for energy and nutrients to maintain the body, to grow, and to reproduce. Digestive systems are not morphologically static but rather dynamically respond to changes in the physical and chemical...... characteristics of the diet and the level of food intake. In this article, we discuss three themes that affect the ability of an animal to alter digestive function in relation to novel substrates and changing food supply: (1) the fermentative digestion in herbivores, (2) the integration of cardiopulmonary...

  11. [Research advances in anaerobic co-digestion of biogas fermentation substrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fei-Qing; Li, Xia; Lu, Jian-Bo

    2012-07-01

    With global climate change, more and more attention has been paid to the development of bio-energy. Biogas fermentation, as a fairly mature technology of bio-matter energy transformation, has received considerable attention and experienced much development. How to improve the efficiency of biogas fermentation and promote its industrialization is a pressing issue. Anaerobic co-digestion is a simple, low-cost, and high-efficiency method for enhancing the efficiency of biogas fermentation, and received increasing attention from related researchers. This paper summarized the characteristics of various fermentation substrates, reviewed the research advances in the co-digestion of animal manure, sewage sludge, and industrial waste, with the focus on the advantages of co-digestion and the factors affecting the rate and efficiency of co-digestion, and prospected the future research of co-digestion and its application, aimed to provide theoretical guidance for the promotion and application of co-digestion techniques.

  12. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  13. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a prosthetic mitral heart valve-bearing patient´s blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Cintra Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Brazil, listeriosis is not a notifiable disease; thus, the incidence of Brazilian cases remains unknown. Listeria monocytogenes is not always included in automated systems, and its detection depends on the high skill level of microbiology laboratory professionals. This paper describes the characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolates fortuitously obtained from an endocarditis case in Recife, PE, Brazil. Methods: Six bacterial isolates obtained from six blood cultures from a 28-year-old male bearing a prosthetic mitral heart valve were analyzed by PCR using primers specific of L. monocytogenes to confirm a presumptive identification, determine the serotype and presence of the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, hly, plcA, actA, prfA in an attempt to determine the Listeria genotype by PCR-ribotyping. Results: The samples were identified as L. monocytogenes 4b. All investigated virulence genes were amplified by PCR, and the identity of the amplified segments was confirmed by sequencing. A deletion of 105 base pairs was detected in the actA gene. All of the samples generated the same PCR-ribotype pattern, clustered into a single ribotype, and were considered a single strain. Conclusion: L. monocytogenes infection should be considered in endocarditis differential diagnoses, especially among high-risk groups, due to its high pathogenicity and the environmental ubiquity.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ISOLATES FROM A PROSTHETIC MITRAL HEART VALVE-BEARING PATIENT´S BLOOD CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Cintra Lea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Brazil, listeriosis is not a notifiable disease; thus, the incidence of Brazilian cases remains unknown. Listeria monocytogenes is not always included in automated systems, and its detection depends on the high skill level of microbiology laboratory professionals. This paper describes the characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolates fortuitously obtained from an endocarditis case in Recife, PE, Brazil. Methods: Six bacterial isolates obtained from six blood cultures from a 28-year-old male bearing a prosthetic mitral heart valve were analyzed by PCR using primers specific of L. monocytogenes to confirm a presumptive identification, determine the serotype and presence of the virulence genes (inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, hly, plcA, actA, prfA in an attempt to determine the Listeria genotype by PCR-ribotyping. Results: The samples were identified as L. monocytogenes 4b. All investigated virulence genes were amplified by PCR, and the identity of the amplified segments was confirmed by sequencing. A deletion of 105 base pairs was detected in the actA gene. All of the samples generated the same PCR-ribotype pattern, clustered into a single ribotype, and were considered a single strain. Conclusion: L. monocytogenes infection should be considered in endocarditis differential diagnoses, especially among high-risk groups, due to its high pathogenicity and the environmental ubiquity.

  15. Effects of two probiotic additives containing Bacillus spores on carcass characteristics, blood lipids and cecal volatile fatty acids in meat type chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, R; Bogovič Matijašić, B; Terčič, D; Cervek, M; Gorjanc, G; Holcman, A; Levart, A; Rogelj, I

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two commercially available probiotic additives, containing Bacillus spores, on carcass and meat characteristics, serum lipids and concentration of cecal volatile fatty acids of meat type chickens. Birds were fed regular corn-soy meal based feed (control), supplemented with additive A, containing 1.6 × 10(6) spores per gram of feed of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis (group A) or additive B, containing the same concentration of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi spores (group B). One hundred and twenty birds (20 per replicate) were slaughtered at the age of 55 days. Results showed that birds in group B had higher (p blood serum cholesterol profile. Both probiotics influenced the cecal fermentation, which was observed as decrease in cecal concentrations of propionic, butyric, n-butyric and n-valeric acids, but the differences compared to control group were statistically significant for group A only. It was established that probiotic additive B was more effective regarding carcass and meat part weights than additive A, however the animals from group B also had more abdominal fat and their meat had significantly higher conductivity than control group, which is not considered as beneficial.

  16. The effect of dietary protein levels and synbiotic on performance parameters, blood characteristics and carcass yields of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hassani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of synbiotic on performance parameters, blood characteristics and carcass yields of Japanese quails fed diets containing different levels of protein. In a completely randomized design with 3 x 3 factorial arrangements, 720-day-old healthy Japanese quails were randomly allocated into 9 groups with 4 replicates of 20 chicks. Treatments consisted of combination of 3 levels of crude protein (CP: A sufficient protein diet (24%, high CP from 0 to 42 days of age; B low protein diet (22.08%, low CP from 0 to 42 days of age; C sufficient protein diet from 0 to 21 days-low protein diet from 21 to 42 (medium CP days of age and three levels of synbiotic, without, recommended and 150% of recommended levels, respectively. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed conversation ratio, feed intake and body weight among treatments due to the interaction of CP and synbiotic levels. However, body weight and daily weight gain and feed conversation ratio improved (P0.05. The effect of CP and synbiotic levels on the carcass yields of quail were not statistically significant (P>0.05.

  17. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  18. Restructuring the Schools. ERIC Digest Series Number EA 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This ERIC digest focuses on school restructuring as the central issue in the school reform movement by answering five questions: (1) What is "restructuring?" (2) What characteristics of the current educational system are the objects of reform? (3) How can restructuring attend to new skills students will need? (4) How can individual schools…

  19. Níveis de lisina digestível para frangos de corte machos no período de 37 a 49 dias de idade Digestible lysine levels for male broilers in the period from 37 to 49 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2009-03-01

    rations. Weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio, carcass characteristics and cuts, body composition and nutrient deposition were measured. Digestible lysine levels influenced the feed:gain ratio, with decreasing linear effect. Quadratic effect was observed due to lysine levels used on carcass characteristics, cuts and abdominal fat deposition. The variable chemical composition of the carcass, empty body and mineral matter showed quadratic effect on the digestible lysine levels. The digestible lysine levels had no effect on the chemical composition of blood and offal fractions. However, evidences of linear increase in the protein deposition of carcass and empty body due to the increase in the digestible lysine level were observed. Considering performance, the digestible lysine level should be 1.10% or higher.

  20. Influence of supplemental dietary poultry fat, phytase, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated before or at the onset of lay with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of 2 supplemental levels of dietary poultry fat (PF) and the combination of PF, phytase (PHY) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] on the blood characteristics of commercial layers inoculated with F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) were investigated in 2 trials. Sham and FMG ino...

  1. Digestibilidade aparente, crescimento folicular e concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos de éguas recebendo concentrado com semente de linhaça integral (Linum usitatissimum L. = Apparent digestibility, follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites of mares receiving concentrate with whole linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Schimmack Pedro Soncin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para se avaliar a inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de éguas por meio da avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e seuefeito no crescimento folicular e na concentração de metabólitos sanguíneos. Foram utilizadas 16 éguas, alimentadas com dois concentrados, sendo um sem semente de linhaça integral e outro com10% de semente de linhaça integral, utilizando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDa para a MS, MM, PB, FB, FDN, FDA eEE. Para determinação dos parâmetros reprodutivos (duração do estro, intervalo entre aplicação da prostaglandina F2 alfa e o estro e tamanho do folículo ovulatório e sanguíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos, progesterona, colesterol total, HDL, LDL e VLDL, os animais receberam prostaglandina F2 alfa na dose de 1 mL animal-1 intramuscular-1 e no décimo dia, após ovulação, foi realizada a coleta de sangue. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral aumentou (p 0,05 entre os dois tratamentos para os CDa da PB e EE. A inclusão da semente de linhaça integral na dieta de equinosmelhorou a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, em especial da fração fibrosa da dieta e não apresentou alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos e sanguíneos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the inclusion of whole linseed in the diet of mares through the evaluation of the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and their effect inthe follicular growth and concentration of blood metabolites. Sixteen mares were used, fed with two concentrates – one without whole linseed and the other with 10% whole linseed, using a randomized experimental design. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were measured for DM, MM, CP, CF, NDF, ADF and EE. In order to determine the reproductive parameters (duration of the estrus, interval between application of the prostaglandin F2

  2. Virotherapy of digestive tumors with rodent parvovirus: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Aprahamian, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Toolan's H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) exerts a cytotoxic/oncolytic effect, predominantly mediated by its non-structural protein (NS1). This rat parvovirus is harmless, unlike other parvoviruses, and its antitumor potential may be useful to clinicians as its oncolytic action appears to be true in numerous non-digestive and digestive cancers. After a brief review of parvovirus genus and biology, we summarize the proposed mechanisms to explain the cytotoxicity of H-1PV to tumors which results in dysregulation of cell transcription, cell-cycle arrest, termination of cell replication, activation of cellular stress response and induction of cell death. Viral oncolysis induces a strong tumor-specific immune response leading to the recognition and elimination of minimal residual disease. As the action of H-1PV is not limited to the digestive tract, we initially analyse studies performed in non-digestive cancers such as glioma (as the virus is able to cross the blood brain barrier), and then focused more particularly on the results in digestive cancers. Based on the results of studies showing little H-1PV toxicity to living bodies, we advocate for the use of the parvovirus in cancers such as melanoma, glioma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in addition to conventional chemotherapy.

  3. Effect of biochar pyrolyzed from wheat straws at different temperatures on biogas production characteristics of pig manure during mesophilic digestion%麦秸生物炭添加对猪粪中温厌氧发酵产气特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彩云; 靳红梅; 常志州; 杜静; 黄红英; 艾玉春; 周立祥

    2016-01-01

    During anaerobic digestion(AD), microbial intermediate metabolites often inhabit biogas production. Biochars may adsorb these metabolites and improve biogas production when co-existing with manure during anaerobic digestion because of their large surface. In this study, the effects of different biochars on biogas production cha