WorldWideScience

Sample records for digested high protein

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  2. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  3. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  4. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus ( P proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  5. Highly Stable Trypsin-Aggregate Coatings on Polymer Nanofibers for Repeated Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Chan; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Lee, Sang-mok; Ahn, Hye-kyung; Nair, Sujith; Kim, Seong H.; Kim, Beom S.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Camp, David G.; Grate, Jay W.; Smith, Richard D.; Koo, Yoon-mo; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-04-01

    A stable and robust trypsin-based biocatalytic system was developed and demonstrated for proteomic applications. The system utilizes polymer nanofibers coated with trypsin aggregates for immobilized protease digestions. After covalently attaching an initial layer of trypsin to the polymer nanofibers, highly concentrated trypsin molecules are crosslinked to the layered trypsin by way of a glutaraldehyde treatment. This new process produced a 300-fold increase in trypsin activity compared with a conventional method for covalent trypsin immobilization and proved to be robust in that it still maintained a high level of activity after a year of repeated recycling. This highly stable form of immobilized trypsin was also resistant to autolysis, enabling repeated digestions of bovine serum albumin over 40 days and successful peptide identification by LC-MS/MS. Finally, the immobilized trypsin was resistant to proteolysis when exposed to other enzymes (i.e. chymotrypsin), which makes it suitable for use in “real-world” proteomic applications. Overall, the biocatalytic nanofibers with enzyme aggregate coatings proved to be an effective approach for repeated and automated protein digestion in proteomic analyses.

  6. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  7. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high...... estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate...

  8. High-throughput oxidation screen of antibody-drug conjugates by analytical protein A chromatography following IdeS digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecheler, Jakob W; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of protein therapeutics is a major chemical degradation pathway which may impact bioactivity, serum half-life and stability. Therefore, oxidation is a relevant parameter which has to be monitored throughout formulation development. Methods such as HIC, RPLC and LC/MS achieve a separation of oxidized and non-oxidized species by differences in hydrophobicity. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) although are highly more complex due to the heterogeneity in linker, drug, drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) and conjugation site. The analytical protein A chromatography can provide a simple and fast alternative to these common methods. A miniature analytical protein A chromatography method in combination with an IdeS digest was developed to analyse ADCs. The IdeS digest efficiency of an IgG1 was monitored using SEC-HPLC and non-reducing SDS-PAGE. An antibody-fluorescent dye conjugate was conjugated at different dye-to-antibody ratios as model construct to mimic an ADC. With IdeS, an almost complete digest of a model IgG1 can be achieved (digested protein amount >98%). This enables subsequent analytical protein A chromatography, which consequently eliminates any interference of payload with the stationary phase. A novel high-throughput method for an interchain cysteine-linked ADC oxidation screens during formulation development was developed. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Protein enriched pasta: structure and digestibility of its protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleg, Karima; Barron, Cécile; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walrand, Stéphane; Micard, Valérie

    2016-02-01

    Wheat (W) pasta was enriched in 6% gluten (G), 35% faba (F) or 5% egg (E) to increase its protein content (13% to 17%). The impact of the enrichment on the multiscale structure of the pasta and on in vitro protein digestibility was studied. Increasing the protein content (W- vs. G-pasta) strengthened pasta structure at molecular and macroscopic scales but reduced its protein digestibility by 3% by forming a higher covalently linked protein network. Greater changes in the macroscopic and molecular structure of the pasta were obtained by varying the nature of protein used for enrichment. Proteins in G- and E-pasta were highly covalently linked (28-32%) resulting in a strong pasta structure. Conversely, F-protein (98% SDS-soluble) altered the pasta structure by diluting gluten and formed a weak protein network (18% covalent link). As a result, protein digestibility in F-pasta was significantly higher (46%) than in E- (44%) and G-pasta (39%). The effect of low (55 °C, LT) vs. very high temperature (90 °C, VHT) drying on the protein network structure and digestibility was shown to cause greater molecular changes than pasta formulation. Whatever the pasta, a general strengthening of its structure, a 33% to 47% increase in covalently linked proteins and a higher β-sheet structure were observed. However, these structural differences were evened out after the pasta was cooked, resulting in identical protein digestibility in LT and VHT pasta. Even after VHT drying, F-pasta had the best amino acid profile with the highest protein digestibility, proof of its nutritional interest.

  10. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  11. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  12. Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in high-protein feedstuffs commonly used in dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, H A; Klopfenstein, T J; Hostetler, D; Fernando, S C; Castillo-Lopez, E; Kononoff, P J

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and AA, and AA composition of the rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) from 3 sources of blood meal (BM1, BM2, and BM3), canola meal (CM), low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LFDG), soybean meal (SBM), and expeller soybean meal (ESBM). Two Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and proximal duodenal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of 16h and for the mobile bag technique. To correct for bacterial contamination of the RUP, 2 methods were used: purines and DNA as bacterial markers. Ruminal degradations of CP were 85.3, 29.8, 40.7, 75.7, 76.9, 68.8, and 37.0 ± 3.93% for BM1, BM2, BM3, CM, LFDG, SBM, and ESBM, respectively. Ruminal degradation of both total essential AA and nonessential AA followed a similar pattern to that of CP across feedstuffs. Based on the ratio of AA concentration in the RUP to AA concentration in the original feedstuff, ruminal incubation decreased (ratio 1) the concentrations of Ile and Met across feedstuffs. Compared with purines, the use of DNA as bacterial marker resulted in a higher estimate of bacterial CP contamination for CM and lower estimates for LFDG and ESBM. Intestinal digestibility of RUP could not be estimated for BM1, BM3, and SBM due to insufficient recovery of residue. For the remaining feedstuffs, intestinal digestibility of RUP was highest for ESBM, followed by BM2 and LFDG, and lowest for CM: 98.8, 87.9, 89.7, and 72.4 ± 1.40%, respectively. Intestinal absorbable dietary protein was higher for BM2 compared with CM and LFDG, at 61.7, 17.9, and 20.7 ± 2.73% CP, respectively. As prices fluctuate, intestinal absorbable protein or AA may be used as a tool to aid in the selection among feedstuffs with different protein quality. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative in vitro study of the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels prepared from industrial milk whey proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Song; Mu, Tai-Hua; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    We undertook this study to compare the digestibility of heat- and high pressure-induced gels produced from whey protein isolate (WPI). To simulate in vivo gastrointestinal digestion of WPI gels, a pepsin-trypsin digestion system was used. The in vitro protein digestibility of WPI gels induced by high pressure (400 MPa and 30 min; P-gel) and those induced by heat (80°C and 30 min; H-gel) was compared using a protein concentration of 0.14 g mL-1. The in vitro protein digestibility of P-gels was significantly greater than that of H-gels (p<0.05). The size-exclusion chromatography profiles of the hydrolysates showed that the P-gel generated more and smaller peptides than natural WPI and H-gels. Furthermore, Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed some soluble disulfide-mediated aggregation in the P-gel, while there was more insoluble aggregation in the H-gel than the P-gel. The P-gel was more sensitive to proteinase than the H-gel, which was related to the content of S-S bonds, and this in turn could be attributed to the differences in the gelation mechanism between the H-gel and P-gel.

  14. Effect of constant digestible protein intake and varying digestible energy levels on energy and protein utilization in Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, M.N.; Bleeker, S.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2018-01-01

    In literature, the variability in the estimated optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) is high. The present study aimed to estimate the optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different criteria (performance, energy and nitrogen balances parameters).

  15. Thermostable trypsin conjugates immobilized to biogenic magnetite show a high operational stability and remarkable reusability for protein digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečová, M.; Šebela, M.; Marková, Z.; Poláková, K.; Čuda, J.; Šafářová, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, magnetosomes produced by microorganisms were chosen as a suitable magnetic carrier for covalent immobilization of thermostable trypsin conjugates with an expected applicability for efficient and rapid digestion of proteins at elevated temperatures. First, a biogenic magnetite was isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and its free surface was coated with the natural polysaccharide chitosan containing free amino and hydroxy groups. Prior to covalent immobilization, bovine trypsin was modified by conjugating with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin. Modified trypsin was bound to the magnetic carriers via amino groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide as coupling reagents. The magnetic biomaterial was characterized by magnetometric analysis and electron microscopy. With regard to their biochemical properties, the immobilized trypsin conjugates showed an increased resistance to elevated temperatures, eliminated autolysis, had an unchanged pH optimum and a significant storage stability and reusability. Considering these parameters, the presented enzymatic system exhibits properties that are superior to those of trypsin forms obtained by other frequently used approaches. The proteolytic performance was demonstrated during in-solution digestion of model proteins (horseradish peroxidase, bovine serum albumin and hen egg white lysozyme) followed by mass spectrometry. It is shown that both magnetic immobilization and chemical modification enhance the characteristics of trypsin making it a promising tool for protein digestion.

  16. Effect of the presence of protein on lipolysis and lipid oxidation occurring during in vitro digestion of highly unsaturated oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-11-15

    The effect of the presence of ovalbumin and soy protein isolate on lipolysis and oxidation taking place during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of slightly oxidized sunflower and flaxseed oils was addressed. The extent of lipolysis, the molar proportions of acyl groups/fatty acids after digestion, and the oxidation products formed were studied by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The presence of proteins provoked a higher hydrolysis in triglycerides, a lower decrease of polyunsaturated chains, and a lower generation of oxidation compounds (conjugated dienes in chains having also hydroperoxy/hydroxy groups, epoxides and aldehydes); the formation of hydroxides was clearly favoured over that of hydroperoxides. Study of headspace composition by Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry confirmed that oxidation advanced to a lesser extent in the presence of protein. Thus, amino acids/peptides released during digestion may show antioxidant properties, affecting not only the extent of lipid oxidation, but also reactions pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation of protein families in spider digestive fluids and their role in extra-oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, André; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Scavenius, Carsten; Dyrlund, Thomas S; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J; Bilde, Trine

    2017-08-10

    Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap. As venom injection and EOD succeed each other, we further infer functional explanations, and, by comparing two spider species belonging to different clades, assess its adaptive significance for spider EOD in general. We describe the protein composition of the digestive fluids of the mygalomorph Acanthoscurria geniculata and the araneomorph Stegodyphus mimosarum, in comparison with previously published data on a third spider species. We found a number of similar hydrolases being highly abundant in all three species. Among them, members of the family of astacin-like metalloproteases were particularly abundant. While the importance of these proteases in spider venom and digestive fluid was previously noted, we now highlight their widespread use across different spider taxa. Finally, we found species specific differences in the protein overlap between venom and digestive fluid, with the difference being significantly greater in S. mimosarum compared to A. geniculata. The injection of venom precedes the injection with digestive fluid, and the overlap of proteins between venom and digestive fluid suggests an early involvement in EOD. Species specific differences in the overlap may reflect differences in ecology between our two study species. The protein composition of the digestive fluid of all the three species we compared is highly similar, suggesting that the cocktail of enzymes is highly conserved and adapted to spider EOD.

  18. Dynamic gastric digestion of a commercial whey protein concentrate†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Beatriz; Del Barrio, Roberto; Cueva, Carolina; Recio, Isidra; Amigo, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    A dynamic gastrointestinal simulator, simgi ® , has been applied to assess the gastric digestion of a whey protein concentrate. Samples collected from the outlet of the stomach have been compared to those resulting from the static digestion protocol INFOGEST developed on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. Progress of digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS. By SDS-PAGE, serum albumin and α-lactalbumin were no longer detectable at 30 and 60 min, respectively. On the contrary, β-lactoglobulin was visible up to 120 min, although in decreasing concentrations in the dynamic model due to the gastric emptying and the addition of gastric fluids. Moreover, β-lactoglobulin was partly hydrolysed by pepsin probably due to the presence of heat-denatured forms and the peptides released using both digestion models were similar. Under dynamic conditions, a stepwise increase in number of peptides over time was observed, while the static protocol generated a high number of peptides from the beginning of digestion. Whey protein digestion products using a dynamic stomach are consistent with those generated with the static protocol but the kinetic behaviour of the peptide profile emphasises the effect of the sequential pepsin addition, peristaltic shaking, and gastric emptying on protein digestibility. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; de Vries, S. C.; Gautier, M. F.; Ciurana, C. L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J. H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R. C.; van Ree, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are stable and highly conserved proteins of around 10 kD. They have recently been identified as allergens in fruits of the Rosaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the highly conserved structure of LTPs justifies a designation as a true

  1. Lipid transfer protein: A pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, de S.C.; Gautier, M.F.; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R.C.; Ree, van R.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are stable and highly conserved proteins of around 10 kD. They have recently been identified as allergens in fruits of the Rosaceae family. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the highly conserved structure of LTPs justifies a

  2. Functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate: Effect of high-pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Li, Lin

    2008-10-15

    The effects of high-pressure (HP) treatment at 200-600MPa, prior to freeze-drying, on some functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of vicilin-rich red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. Surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond (SS) contents were also evaluated. HP treatment resulted in gradual unfolding of protein structure, as evidenced by gradual increases in fluorescence strength and SS formation from SH groups, and decrease in denaturation enthalpy change. The protein solubility of KPI was significantly improved at pressures of 400MPa or higher, possibly due to formation of soluble aggregate from insoluble precipitate. HP treatment at 200 and 400MPa significantly increased emulsifying activity index (EAI) and emulsion stability index (ESI); however, EAI was significantly decreased at 600MPa (relative to untreated KPI). The thermal stability of the vicilin component was not affected by HP treatment. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility of KPI was decreased only at a pressure above 200MPa and for long incubation time (e.g., 120min). The data suggest that some physiochemical and functional properties of vicilin-rich kidney proteins can be improved by means of high-pressure treatment. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of N,N-dimethylglycine sodium salt on apparent digestibility, vitamin E absorption, and serum proteins in broiler chickens fed a high- or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prola, L; Nery, J; Lauwaerts, A; Bianchi, C; Sterpone, L; De Marco, M; Pozzo, L; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of supplementation with sodium salt of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG-Na) on apparent digestibility (AD) in broiler chickens fed low- and high-fat diets. Twenty-eight 1-d-old broiler chickens were fed one of the dietary treatments: a low-fat diet (LF) or a high-fat diet (HF) supplemented with or without 1,000 mg/kg of DMG-Na. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded at 14 and 35 d of age. Average daily growth, daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The AD of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, total fat (TF), and α-tocopheryl-acetate were assessed by 2 digestibility trials (at 18-21 and 32-35 d, respectively). Serum protein and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were assessed at 35 d of age. Final BW, feed intake, carcass, breast, and spleen weight were higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P = 0.048, P = 0.002, P = 0.039, P DMG-Na-unsupplemented groups (P = 0.011) for both fat levels. During the first digestibility trial (18-21 d), the AD of DM (P = 0.023), OM (P = 0.033), CP (P = 0.030), and α-tocopheryl-acetate (P = 0.036) was higher in the DMG-Na-supplemented group than control. Digestibility of total fat was increased by DMG-Na supplementation in the LF groups (P = 0.038). A trend for improvement of digestibility was observed during the second digestibility trial (32-35 d) for DM (P = 0.089), OM (P = 0.051), and CP (P = 0.063) in DMG-Na groups. Total serum proteins (and relative fractions) were positively influenced by DMG-Na supplementation both in LF and HF diets (P = 0.029). Plasma α-tocopherol concentration was higher in groups fed LF than HF diets (P < 0.001).

  4. In Vitro Digestibility of Rapeseed and Bovine Whey Protein Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnke, Marcel Skejovic; Rehder, Alina; Sørensen, Susanne; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup

    2018-01-24

    Partial replacement of animal protein sources with plant proteins is highly relevant for the food industry, but potential effects on protein digestibility need to be established. In this study, the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of four protein sources and their mixtures (50:50 w/w ratio) was investigated using a transient pepsin hydrolysis (1 h) followed by pancreatin (1 h). The protein sources consisted of napin-rich rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) protein concentrates (RPCs; RP1, RP2) prepared in pilot scale and major bovine whey proteins (WPs; α-LA, alpha-lactalbumin; β-LG, beta-lactoglobulin). IVPD of individual protein sources was higher for WPs compared to RPCs. The RP2/β-LG mixture resulted in an unexpected high IVPD equivalent to β-LG protein alone. Protein mixtures containing RP1 showed a new IVPD response type due to the negative influence of a high trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) level. Improved IVPD of RP1 alone and in protein mixtures was obtained by lowering the TIA level using dithiothreitol (DTT). These results showed that napin-rich protein products prepared by appropriate processing can be combined with specific WPs in mixtures to improve the IVPD.

  5. Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; de Vries, S. C.; Gautier, M. F.; Ciurana, C. L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J. H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R. C.; van Ree, R.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly

  6. Lipid transfer protein : a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asero, R.; Mistrello, G.; Roncarolo, D.; Vries, de S.C.; Gautier, M.F.; Ciurana, C.L.; Verbeek, E.; Mohammadi, T.; Knul-Brettlova, V.; Akkerdaas, J.H.; Bulder, I.; Aalberse, R.C.; Ree, van R.

    2000-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small molecules of approximately 10 kD that demonstrate high stability. They have recently been identified as allergens in the Rosaceae subfamilies of the Prunoideae (peach, apricot, plum) and of the Pomoideae (apple). They belong to a family of structurally highly

  7. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  8. Effect of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis supplementation in diets with low- and high-protein content on ileal crude protein and amino acid digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewtapee, Chanwit; Burbach, Katharina; Tomforde, Georgina; Hartinger, Thomas; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Heinritz, Sonja; Seifert, Jana; Wiltafsky, Markus; Mosenthin, Rainer; Rosenfelder-Kuon, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus spp. seem to be an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters for improving animals' health and performance. However, there is little information on the effect of Bacillus spp. in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on the ileal digestibility and microbiota composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus spp. supplementation to low- (LP) and high-protein diets (HP) on ileal CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition. Eight ileally cannulated pigs with an initial body weight of 28.5 kg were randomly allocated to a row-column design with 8 pigs and 3 periods of 16 d each. The assay diets were based on wheat-barley-soybean meal with two protein levels: LP (14% CP, as-fed) and HP diet (18% CP, as-fed). The LP and HP diets were supplemented with or without Bacillus spp. at a level of 0.04% (as-fed). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was determined. Bacterial community composition from ileal digesta was analyzed by Illumina amplicon sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 2 factorial design using the GLIMMIX procedures of SAS. The supplementation with Bacillus spp. did not affect both AID and SID of CP and AA in growing pigs. Moreover, there was no difference in AID of CP and AA between HP and LP diets, but SID of cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, and proline was lower ( P  digestibility, whereas LP diet may reduce the flow of undigested protein to the large intestine of pigs.

  9. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  10. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated...

  11. EFFECT OF MALTING ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein digestibility of sorghum is generally low. Malting is one of the processing methods which can be applied to improve this digestibility. It is a method whose technology is well known by local communities in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of malting on the digestibility of some varieties of ...

  12. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry; Laerke, Helle N; Jensen, Søren K

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg -1 and 530 g kg -1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg -1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used. A high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  14. Identification of protein binders in works of art by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector analysis of their tryptic digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremout, Wim; Sanyova, Jana; Saverwyns, Steven; Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2009-04-01

    Proteins in works of art are generally determined by the relative amounts of amino acids. This method, however, implies a loss of information on the protein structure and its modifications. Consequently, we propose a method based on the analysis of trypsin digests using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) UV diode array detection (DAD) for painting binder studies. All reaction steps are done in the same vial; no extraction methods or sample transfer is needed, reducing the risk of sample losses. A collection of pure binders (collagen, ovalbumin, yolk and casein) as well as homemade and historical paint samples have been investigated with this method. Chromatograms of unknowns at 214 nm and 280 nm are compared with those of the reference samples as a fingerprint. There is a good agreement between many peptides, but others seem to have been lost or their retention time shifted due to small compositional changes because of ageing and degradation of the paint. The results are comparable with the results of other techniques used for binder identification on the same samples, with the additional advantage of differentiation between egg yolk and glair.

  15. Less is More: Membrane Protein Digestion Beyond Urea–Trypsin Solution for Next-level Proteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The goal of next-level bottom-up membrane proteomics is protein function investigation, via high-coverage high-throughput peptide-centric quantitation of expression, modifications and dynamic structures at systems scale. Yet efficient digestion of mammalian membrane proteins presents a daunting barrier, and prevalent day-long urea–trypsin in-solution digestion proved insufficient to reach this goal. Many efforts contributed incremental advances over past years, but involved protein denaturation that disconnected measurement from functional states. Beyond denaturation, the recent discovery of structure/proteomics omni-compatible detergent n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside, combined with pepsin and PNGase F columns, enabled breakthroughs in membrane protein digestion: a 2010 DDM-low-TCEP (DLT) method for H/D-exchange (HDX) using human G protein-coupled receptor, and a 2015 flow/detergent-facilitated protease and de-PTM digestions (FDD) for integrative deep sequencing and quantitation using full-length human ion channel complex. Distinguishing protein solubilization from denaturation, protease digestion reliability from theoretical specificity, and reduction from alkylation, these methods shifted day(s)-long paradigms into minutes, and afforded fully automatable (HDX)-protein-peptide-(tandem mass tag)-HPLC pipelines to instantly measure functional proteins at deep coverage, high peptide reproducibility, low artifacts and minimal leakage. Promoting—not destroying—structures and activities harnessed membrane proteins for the next-level streamlined functional proteomics. This review analyzes recent advances in membrane protein digestion methods and highlights critical discoveries for future proteomics. PMID:26081834

  16. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled ... determine the EFE effect on the DM, CP and NDF digestion of a mixture of lucerne hay and wheat straw .... and the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) measured as purine derivates (RNA equivalent in µg/DM g) on.

  17. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio....

  18. In Vitro Digestibilities of Six Rumen Protected Fat-Protein Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Hartati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research was to evaluate the efficacy of protection method of rumen protected fat-protein supplements. In vitro digestibility test was carried out to examine nutrients digestibility of different supplement formula based on the sources of protein and oil. The research used two sources of fat namely crude palm oil (CPO and fish oil (FO and three sources of protein namely milk skim, soy flour, and soybean meal. Thus there were 6 combinations that subjected in the in vitro digestibility test. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude fat (CF, and crude protein (CP. Results indicated that the method for protecting protein and fat was effective. This was showed by low nutrients digestibility in the rumen and high nutrients digestibility in the post rumen. In conclusion the combination between skim milk and CPO gave the best results among the other supplement formula. Keywords: rumen protected nutrient, fat-protein supplement, rumen digestibility, in vitro Animal Production 14(1:1-5, January 2012

  19. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  20. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-02-15

    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soluble arabinoxylan alters digesta flow and protein digestion of red meat-containing diets in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagong; Williams, Barbara A; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Li, Xiuhua; Keates, Helen L; Lisle, Allan T; Collins, Helen M; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Gidley, Michael J; Bryden, Wayne L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how a moderate increase in dietary meat content combined (or not) with soluble fibre would influence protein digestion as well as digesta characteristics and flow. Four groups of pigs were fed Western-style diets (high-protein/high-fat) containing two types of barbecued red meat, one with and one without a wheat arabinoxylan-rich fraction. After 4 wk, digesta samples were collected from small and large intestinal sites and analyzed for protein, amino acids, dry matter, and acid-insoluble ash. Tissue samples were also collected from each site. Arabinoxylan consumption led to somewhat lower apparent protein digestibility within the small and large intestines as well as shorter mean retention times. This suggests that the lowered protein digestibility is due, at least partly, to shorter access time to digestive proteases and absorptive surfaces. Additionally, digesta mass was higher in pigs fed arabinoxylan while dry matter (%) was lower, indicating an increased digesta water-holding capacity due to the presence of a soluble dietary fiber. Data showed that solubilized wheat arabinoxylan provides potential health benefits through decreased protein digestibility, increased digesta mass, and reduced mean retention time, even for diets with a moderately higher protein content. These factors are associated with efficiency of digestion and satiety, both of which have implications for prevention of obesity and other health disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid microscale in-gel processing and digestion of proteins using surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ketav P; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Purcell, Anthony W; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2010-06-21

    A new method for in-gel sample processing and tryptic digestion of proteins is described. Sample preparation, rehydration, in situ digestion and peptide extraction from gel slices are dramatically accelerated by treating the gel slice with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Only 30 minutes total workflow time is required for this new method to produce base peak chromatograms (BPCs) of similar coverage and intensity to those observed for traditional processing and overnight digestion. Simple set up, good reproducibility, excellent peptide recoveries, rapid turnover of samples and high confidence protein identifications put this technology at the fore-front of the next generation of proteomics sample processing tools.

  3. Roles of F-box proteins in human digestive system tumors (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Lv, Liang; Huo, Jirong

    2014-12-01

    F-box proteins (FBPs), the substrate-recognition subunit of E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase, are the important components of Ub proteasome system (UPS). FBPs are involved in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of their target proteins. Many studies have described the roles of FBPs in human cancers. Digestive system tumors account for a large proportion of all the tumors, and their mortality is very high. This review summarizes for the first time the roles of FBPs in digestive system tumorige-nesis and tumor progression, aiming at finding new routes for the rational design of targeted anticancer therapies in digestive system tumors.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of translationally controlled tumor protein in the mouse digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheverdin, Vadim; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Kyunglim

    2013-09-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein, highly conserved among various species. It plays a major role in cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Studies reported so far on TCTP expression in different digestive organs have not led to any understanding of the role of TCTP in digestion, so we localized TCTP in organs of the mouse digestive system employing immunohistochemical techniques. Translationally controlled tumor protein was found expressed in all organs studied: tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and pancreas. The expression of TCTP was found to be predominant in epithelia and neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia; high in serous glands (parotid, submandibular, gastric, intestinal crypts, pancreatic acini) and in neurons of myenteric nerve ganglia, and moderate to low in epithelia. In epithelia, expression of TCTP varied depending on its type and location. In enteric neurons, TCTP was predominantly expressed in the processes. Translationally controlled tumor protein expression in the liver followed porto-central gradient with higher expression in pericentral hepatocytes. In the pancreas, TCTP was expressed in both acini and islet cells. Our finding of nearly universal localization and expression of TCTP in mouse digestive organs points to the hitherto unrecognized functional importance of TCTP in the digestive system and suggests the need for further studies of the possible role of TCTP in the proliferation, secretion, absorption and neural regulation of the digestive process and its importance in the physiology and pathology of digestive process. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  5. The Protein Composition of the Digestive Fluid from the Venus Flytrap Sheds Light on Prey Digestion Mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Waltraud X.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Kreuzer, Ines; Knudsen, Anders D.; Bemm, Felix; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Thomsen, Line R.; Schliesky, Simon; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Becker, Dirk; Schultz, Jörg; Karring, Henrik; Weber, Andreas; Højrup, Peter; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep sequenced the cDNA from Dionaea traps to obtain transcript libraries, which were used in the mass spectrometry-based identification of the proteins secreted during digestion. The identified proteins consisted of peroxidases, nucleases, phosphatases, phospholipases, a glucanase, chitinases, and proteolytic enzymes, including four cysteine proteases, two aspartic proteases, and a serine carboxypeptidase. The majority of the most abundant proteins were categorized as pathogenesis-related proteins, suggesting that the plant's digestive system evolved from defense-related processes. This in-depth characterization of a highly specialized secreted fluid from a carnivorous plant provides new information about the plant's prey digestion mechanism and the evolutionary processes driving its defense pathways and nutrient acquisition. PMID:22891002

  6. Proteins of Bacuri almonds: nutritional value and in vivo digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalli Costa Barbosa Lima e Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacuri (Scheelea phalerata Mart. is a type of palm fruit tree widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado. The objective of this paper was to study the almonds of bacuri, in their form in natura and processed, focusing on their nutritional value through the profile of amino acids, anti-nutritional factors and in vivo digestibility. Raw and toasted samples of the almond presented a high level of proteins and fiber. Proteins of raw bacuri almond showed no limiting amino acid when compared to the ones recommended by FAO/WHO, and histidine was the most limiting essential amino acid in the toasted almonds. The almond of bacuri does not present anti- nutritional factors. In an assay with rats fed with control (casein, tests (bacuri almond flours and aproteic diets, we verified the quantity of ration ingested and body weight gain, determining the urinary and metabolic nitrogen. Rats treated with the test diets presented inferior values of True Digestibility (DV, (82.9 and 72.3%, respectively for the raw and toasted almonds when compared to the control group (92.3%. The raw bacuri almond presented a superior nutritional value to the one found in the toasted almond.

  7. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  8. Less is More: Membrane Protein Digestion Beyond Urea-Trypsin Solution for Next-level Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi

    2015-09-01

    The goal of next-level bottom-up membrane proteomics is protein function investigation, via high-coverage high-throughput peptide-centric quantitation of expression, modifications and dynamic structures at systems scale. Yet efficient digestion of mammalian membrane proteins presents a daunting barrier, and prevalent day-long urea-trypsin in-solution digestion proved insufficient to reach this goal. Many efforts contributed incremental advances over past years, but involved protein denaturation that disconnected measurement from functional states. Beyond denaturation, the recent discovery of structure/proteomics omni-compatible detergent n-dodecyl-β-d-maltopyranoside, combined with pepsin and PNGase F columns, enabled breakthroughs in membrane protein digestion: a 2010 DDM-low-TCEP (DLT) method for H/D-exchange (HDX) using human G protein-coupled receptor, and a 2015 flow/detergent-facilitated protease and de-PTM digestions (FDD) for integrative deep sequencing and quantitation using full-length human ion channel complex. Distinguishing protein solubilization from denaturation, protease digestion reliability from theoretical specificity, and reduction from alkylation, these methods shifted day(s)-long paradigms into minutes, and afforded fully automatable (HDX)-protein-peptide-(tandem mass tag)-HPLC pipelines to instantly measure functional proteins at deep coverage, high peptide reproducibility, low artifacts and minimal leakage. Promoting-not destroying-structures and activities harnessed membrane proteins for the next-level streamlined functional proteomics. This review analyzes recent advances in membrane protein digestion methods and highlights critical discoveries for future proteomics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Digestion of crude protein and organic matter of leaves by rumen microbes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciszuk, A.; Murphy, M.

    1982-01-01

    22 leaf specimens, of which 6 were from an energy-woods project, were studied by incubation in vitro with rumen microbes or pepsin-hydrochloric acid. Several were also examined in situ using the nylon-bag technique. Many leaves, despite their low fiber and high crude protein content, gave low values for organic matter digestibility. The crude protein degradation by rumen microbes or pepsin-hydrochloric acid was low, on average, compared with hay. There was a wide variation among leaf specimens. Variation was also found as regards ammonia production in short-term (4 hours) incubation. No close correlation was found between crude protein content and crude protein degradation, or between the estimates of ruminal degradation and of pepsin-hydrochloric acid digestibility. This suggest that there are leaves that gives ruminants substantial amounts of digestible protein yet escape ruminal fermentation. (Refs. 12).

  10. The impact of tannins on protein, dry matter, and energy digestion in moose (Alces alces)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Spalinger; W.B. Collins; Thomas A. Hanley; N.E. Cassara; A.M. Carnahan

    2010-01-01

    Recent work suggests that moose (Alces alces [L., 1758]) in the boreal ecoregion may be nutritionally limited by the availability of protein as a consequence of both low nitrogen (N) concentrations and high tannin levels in their principal foods. However, the ability of moose to digest protein in the presence of tannins is unknown. We undertook a...

  11. High speed capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry via an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow interface for rapid analysis of amino acids and a protein digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole M; Sarver, Scott A; Sun, Liangliang; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    While capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been used to produce very rapid and efficient separations, coupling these high-speed separations with mass spectrometry (MS) has been challenging. Now, with much faster and sensitive mass spectrometers, it is possible to take full advantage of the CZE speed and reconstruct the fast migrating peaks. Here are three high-speed CZE-MS analyses via an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow interface. The first separation demonstrates CZE-ESI-MS of an amino acid mixture with a 2-min separation, >50,000 theoretical plates, low micromolar concentration detection limits, and subfemtomole mass detection limits (LTQ XL mass spectrometer). The second separation with our recently improved third-generation CE-MS interface illustrates a 20 amino acid separation in ∼7min with an average over 200,000 plate counts, and results in almost-baseline resolution of structural isomers, leucine and isoleucine. The third separation is of a BSA digest with a reproducible CZE separation and mass spectrometry detection in 2min. CZE-MS/MS analysis of the BSA digest identified 31 peptides, produced 52% sequence coverage, and generated a peak capacity of ∼40 across the 1-min separation window (Q-Exactive mass spectrometer). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tracking the fate of pasta (T. Durum semolina) immunogenic proteins by in vitro simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mackie, Alan

    2015-03-18

    The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize the celiacogenic/immunogenic proteins and peptides released during digestion of pasta (Triticum durum semolina). Cooked pasta was digested using a harmonized in vitro static model of oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. The course of pasta protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE, and gluten proteins were specifically analyzed by Western blot using sera of celiac patients. Among the allergens, nonspecific lipid-transfer protein was highly resistant to gastro-duodenal hydrolysis, while other digestion-stable allergens such as α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were not detected being totally released in the pasta cooking water. To simulate the final stage of intestinal degradation, the gastro-duodenal digesta were incubated with porcine jejunal brush-border membrane hydrolases. Sixty-one peptides surviving the brush-border membrane peptidases were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, including several gluten-derived sequences encrypting different motifs responsible for the induction of celiac disease. These results provide new insights into the persistence of wheat-derived peptides during digestion of cooked pasta samples.

  13. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  14. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) fodders were measured in this study, using nylon bag and mobile bag techniques. Three cattle were fitted with permanent ...

  15. Protein digestion kinetics in pigs and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the protein efficiency is considered a main strategy for sustainable feeding of pigs and poultry. In practice, protein in pig and poultry diets originates from different ingredients, selected in diet formulation based on their nutritional value and cost. Currently, the nutritional

  16. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  17. High throughput techniques to reveal the molecular physiology and evolution of digestion in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2016-09-07

    Spiders are known for their predatory efficiency and for their high capacity of digesting relatively large prey. They do this by combining both extracorporeal and intracellular digestion. Whereas many high throughput ("-omics") techniques focus on biomolecules in spider venom, so far this approach has not yet been applied to investigate the protein composition of spider midgut diverticula (MD) and digestive fluid (DF). We here report on our investigations of both MD and DF of the spider Nephilingis (Nephilengys) cruentata through the use of next generation sequencing and shotgun proteomics. This shows that the DF is composed of a variety of hydrolases including peptidases, carbohydrases, lipases and nuclease, as well as of toxins and regulatory proteins. We detect 25 astacins in the DF. Phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding transcript(s) in Arachnida suggests that astacins have acquired an unprecedented role for extracorporeal digestion in Araneae, with different orthologs used by each family. The results of a comparative study of spiders in distinct physiological conditions allow us to propose some digestion mechanisms in this interesting animal taxon. All the high throughput data allowed the demonstration that DF is a secretion originating from the MD. We identified enzymes involved in the extracellular and intracellular phases of digestion. Besides that, data analyses show a large gene duplication event in Araneae digestive process evolution, mainly of astacin genes. We were also able to identify proteins expressed and translated in the digestive system, which until now had been exclusively associated to venom glands.

  18. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein In vitro Digestibility and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingmei; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Long, Guohui

    2016-08-01

    The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller's dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area) of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003); moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004). On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (pdigestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  19. Processed Meat Protein and Heat-Stable Peptide Marker Identification Using Microwave-Assisted Tryptic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Montowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to rapid examination of proteins and peptides in complex food matrices are of great interest to the community of food scientists. The aim of the study is to examine the influence of microwave irradiation on the acceleration of enzymatic cleavage and enzymatic digestion of denatured proteins in cooked meat of five species (cattle, horse, pig, chicken and turkey and processed meat products (coarsely minced, smoked, cooked and semi-dried sausages. Severe protein aggregation occurred not only in heated meat under harsh treatment at 190 °C but also in processed meat products. All the protein aggregates were thoroughly hydrolyzed aft er 1 h of trypsin treatment with short exposure times of 40 and 20 s to microwave irradiation at 138 and 303 W. There were much more missed cleavage sites observed in all microwave-assisted digestions. Despite the incompleteness of microwave-assisted digestion, six unique peptide markers were detected, which allowed unambiguous identification of processed meat derived from the examined species. Although the microwave-assisted tryptic digestion can serve as a tool for rapid and high-throughput protein identification, great caution and pre-evaluation of individual samples is recommended in protein quantitation.

  20. The digestive system of 1-week old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the digestibilities of nutrients as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigne...

  1. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético dos 15 aos 30 kg Dietary digestible lysine levels, using the ideal protein concept, for barrows with high genetic potential from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márvio Lobão Teixeira de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    , were used to evaluate the effect of digestible lysine levels, using the ideal protein concept, on the performance and carcass composition. The treatments were composed of a basal diet containing 19.46% crude protein and 3,280 kcal of ME/kg, that were supplemented with different levels of HCl-L-Lysine, resulting in diets with 0.90, 1.00, 1,10, and 1.20% of digestible lysine. The diets were supplemented with increasing levels of synthetic amino acids, resulting in diets with ratios of methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and valine:lysine constant in 60, 60, 19 e 69%, respectively, based on the true digestibility. No treatment effects on feed intake, concentration of plasma urea and percentages of water, protein and fat in the carcass were observed in this trial. However, significant quadratic effects on weight gain and feed:gain ratio with quadractic maximum and minimum of 1.10 and 1.12% of lysine, respectively, were detected. Intake of digestible lysine increased linearly among treatments. The depositions of protein and fat in the carcass answered quadractily with quadratic maxima at 1.12 and 1.08%, respectively. The level of digestible lysine that provided the best results of performance and carcass characteristics of barrows with high genetic potential from 15 to 30 kg was of 1.12% of true digestible lysine, corresponding to a digestible lysine intake of 12.03 g/day (3.42 g of Lys/Mcal of ME.

  2. Rapid and efficient protein enzymatic digestion: An experimental comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Mazanec, Karel; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2012), s. 288-295 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in-gel digestion * MALDI - TOF MS * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  3. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed.

  4. An attempt to predict protein digestibility of feedstuffs in pigs by using the values for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosenstein, A.M.; Cone, J.W.; Beynen, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The protein value of feedstuffs for pigs depends on the ileal digestibility of amino acids. The measurement of ileal digestibility requires cannulated pigs, which is time consuming and causes discomfort in the animals. We have tested the hypothesis that faecal digestibility of crude protein and

  5. Relationship between Molecular Structure Characteristics of Feed Proteins and Protein Digestibility and Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingmei Bai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of feed proteins and their utilization by livestock are related not only to the chemical composition but also to the structure of feed proteins, but few studies thus far have investigated the relationship between the structure of feed proteins and their solubility as well as digestibility in monogastric animals. To address this question we analyzed soybean meal, fish meal, corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles, corn gluten meal, and feather meal by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy to determine the protein molecular spectral band characteristics for amides I and II as well as α-helices and β-sheets and their ratios. Protein solubility and in vitro digestibility were measured with the Kjeldahl method using 0.2% KOH solution and the pepsin-pancreatin two-step enzymatic method, respectively. We found that all measured spectral band intensities (height and area of feed proteins were correlated with their the in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.003; moreover, the relatively quantitative amounts of α-helices, random coils, and α-helix to β-sheet ratio in protein secondary structures were positively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility and solubility (p≤0.004. On the other hand, the percentage of β-sheet structures was negatively correlated with protein in vitro digestibility (p<0.001 and solubility (p = 0.002. These results demonstrate that the molecular structure characteristics of feed proteins are closely related to their in vitro digestibility at 28 h and solubility. Furthermore, the α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio can be used to predict the nutritional value of feed proteins.

  6. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania, E-mail: rania.bakry@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84–106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling.

  7. Enrichment and desalting of tryptic protein digests and the protein depletion using boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischnaller, Martin; Köck, Rainer; Bakry, Rania; Bonn, Günther K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Protein tryptic digests were desalted and enriched utilizing hexagonal boron nitride. • Phosphopeptides were desalted with high recovery rates. • Boron nitride exhibits high wettability allowing fast sample preparation. • Boron nitride shows protein depletion capability applied for peptide purification. - Abstract: Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in modern bioanalysis and the interest in new efficient solid phase extraction (SPE) materials still remains high. In this work, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is introduced as a new SPE material for the isolation and enrichment of peptides. The h-BN is isoelectronic and structurally similar to graphite. It has remarkable properties including good thermal conductivity, excellent thermal and chemical stability and a better oxidation resistance than graphite. BN attracts increasing interest because of its wide range of applicability. In the present work, the great potential of h-BN, as a new SPE-material, on the enrichment, preconcentration and desalting of tryptic digest of model proteins is demonstrated. A special attention was dedicated to the efficient enrichment of hydrophilic phosphopeptides. Two elution protocols were developed for the enrichment of peptides compatible for subsequent MALDI-MS and ESI-MS analysis. In addition, the recoveries of 5 peptides and 3 phosphopeptides with wide range of pI values utilizing h-BN materials with different surface areas were investigated. 84–106% recovery rate could be achieved using h-BN materials. The results were compared with those obtained using graphite and silica C18 under the same elution conditions, and lower recoveries were obtained. In addition, h-BN was found to have a capability of protein depletion, which is requisite for the peptide profiling

  8. Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, María Yanina; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Mu, Huawei; Heras, Horacio

    2017-11-20

    Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.

  9. Effect of extrusion conditions on the physico-chemical properties and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo; Ying, Danyang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2017-10-01

    Canola meal has potential as a high protein food ingredient. The extrusion-induced changes in color, pH, extractable protein and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal under different extrusion conditions was assessed. The extrusion barrel moisture (24%, 30% or 36%) and screw kneading block length (0, 30 or 60mm) were used as independent process parameters. Extrusion at high barrel moisture (36%) favored protein aggregation resulting in lower extractable protein compared to extrusion at the lowest barrel moisture (24%). At lower barrel moisture contents (24% and 30%), a longer kneading block length increased extractable protein but this was not the case at 36% barrel moisture. Canola protein digestibility was improved upon extrusion at 30% barrel moisture but there was no significant change at lower (24%) or higher (36%) barrel moisture. The kneading block length of the screw had no significant effect on the canola protein digestibility within the same barrel moisture level. The relationship between the physico-chemical parameters and in vitro digestibility was examined. This study highlighted the complex interplay of extrusion processing variables that affect protein degradation and the interaction of components, with consequent effects on protein digestibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of sources of protein and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B; Lee, T T T; Chiou, P W S

    2002-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein source and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers. 2. One hundred and twenty growing (13 d old) and 60 finishing (34 d old) Arbor Acre strain commercial male broilers were selected and placed into individual metabolic cages. 3. The experiment was a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 different sources of protein: casein, fish meal, soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC), maize gluten meal (MGM) and two levels of protease (bromelain), 0 and 65 CDU/kg diets. 4. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and semi-purified, with Cr2O3 as an indicator for determination of ileal digestibility and chyme characteristics. 5. Apparent ileal protein digestibility (AIPD) in both growing and finishing chickens was highest on the casein diet, followed by fish meal, SBM, SPC and MGM. 6. Enzyme inclusion did not improve protein digestibility, but significantly decreased the digesta pH value in the gizzard and increased pH in the ileum in the 3-week-old broilers. 7. The digesta pH values in the gizzard and duodenum were significantly lower in the SBM and fish meal groups compared with the other protein groups. The molecular weight distribution pattern of the soluble protein in the chyme of the gastrointestinal (GI) segments showed a similar trend, regardless of the enzyme inclusion or the stage of growth. 8. The molecular weight profile of soluble protein changed dynamically in the casein fed broilers from the gizzard to ileum and the low molecular weight proteins, < 7 kDa, reached maximum levels at the ileum. The molecular weight profile of the soluble protein in the SBM and SPC changed between the jejunum and the ileum and in the intermediate molecular soluble protein weight (7 to 10 kDa) was significantly decreased. This indicated that the hydrolysis process began from the middle to the posterior end of the small intestine. 9. Similar profiles were also shown with

  11. High digestive hemorrhage in Maciel Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostchansky, J.; Cardozo, S.; Laurini, M.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective descriptive study of patients hospitalized with high digestive haemorrhage (HDH) in the Emergency Unit of Maciel Hospital between April 2000 and October 2001.The most frequent cause of HDH was the existence of peptic gastroduodenal lesions and this population is taken as the center for statistical analysis.Mortality was 12.1% for patients who had a peptic lesion as the cause for bleeding.Operative mortality was 43%.It should be highlighted that a considerable percentage of patients consumed non steroid anti inflamatories (NEAI) and alcohol.The presence of serius clinical and endoscopic criteria was common to the patients who presented renewed bleeding during evolution and which had to be subject to surgery.There follows a discussion as to the cause linked to the hight operative mortality.The authors question the relevance and aptness of early surgery.Finally basis for future studies are set for the purpose of finding answer to the questions arising herein

  12. Dry anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic and protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam M Kabir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of wheat straw and wool textile waste in dry anaerobic digestion (AD process was investigated. Dry-AD of the individual substrates as well as co-digestion of those were evaluated using different total solid (TS contents ranging between 6 to 30%. Additionally, the effects of the addition of nutrients and cellulose- or protein-degrading enzymes on the performance of the AD process were also investigated. Dry-AD of the wheat straw resulted in methane yields of 0.081 – 0.200 Nm3CH4/kgVS with the lowest and highest values obtained at 30 and 21% TS, respectively. The addition of the cellulolytic enzymes could significantly increase the yield in the reactor containing 13% TS (0.231 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Likewise, degradation of wool textile waste was enhanced significantly at TS of 13% with the addition of the protein-degrading enzyme (0.131 Nm3CH4/kg VS. Furthermore, the co-digestion of these two substrates showed higher methane yields compared with the methane potentials calculated for the individual fractions at all the investigated TS contents due to synergetic effects and better nutritional balance.

  13. Robust Trypsin Coating on Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers in Rigorous Conditions and Its Uses for Protein Digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Byoung Chan; Jun, Seung-Hyun; Chang, Mun Seock; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Smith, Richard D.; Gu, Man Bock; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Beom S.; Kim, Jungbae

    2010-12-15

    An efficient protein digestion in proteomic analysis requires the stabilization of proteases such as trypsin. In the present work, trypsin was stabilized in the form of enzyme coating on electrospun polymer nanofibers (EC-TR), which crosslinks additional trypsin molecules onto covalently-attached trypsin (CA-TR). EC-TR showed better stability than CA-TR in rigorous conditions, such as at high temperatures of 40 °C and 50 °C, in the presence of organic co-solvents, and at various pH's. For example, the half-lives of CA-TR and EC-TR were 0.24 and 163.20 hours at 40 ºC, respectively. The improved stability of EC-TR can be explained by covalent-linkages on the surface of trypsin molecules, which effectively inhibits the denaturation, autolysis, and leaching of trypsin. The protein digestion was performed at 40 °C by using both CA-TR and EC-TR in digesting a model protein, enolase. EC-TR showed better performance and stability than CA-TR by maintaining good performance of enolase digestion under recycled uses for a period of one week. In the same condition, CA-TR showed poor performance from the beginning, and could not be used for digestion at all after a few usages. The enzyme coating approach is anticipated to be successfully employed not only for protein digestion in proteomic analysis, but also for various other fields where the poor enzyme stability presently hampers the practical applications of enzymes.

  14. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

    2011-05-01

    Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (Pprotein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic Stability of Proteins in Beans and Peas: Implications for Protein Digestibility, Seed Germination, and Plant Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Pittelli, Sandy; Church, Jennifer; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-10-12

    Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are resistant to the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Such resilience makes KSPs resistant to proteolytic degradation and may have arisen in nature as a mechanism for organismal adaptation and survival against harsh conditions. Legumes are well-known for possessing degradation-resistant proteins that often diminish their nutritional value. Here we applied diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method that allows for the proteomics-level identification of KSPs, to a group of 12 legumes (mostly beans and peas) of agricultural and nutritional importance. Our proteomics results show beans that are more difficult to digest, such as soybean, lima beans, and various common beans, have high contents of KSPs. In contrast, mung bean, red lentil, and various peas that are highly digestible contain low amounts of KSPs. Identified proteins with high kinetic stability are associated with warm-season beans, which germinate at higher temperatures. In contrast, peas and red lentil, which are cool-season legumes, contain low levels of KSPs. Thus, our results show protein kinetic stability is an important factor in the digestibility of legume proteins and may relate to nutrition efficiency, timing of seed germination, and legume resistance to biotic stressors. Furthermore, we show D2D SDS-PAGE is a powerful method that could be applied for determining the abundance and identity of KSPs in engineered and wild legumes and for advancing basic research and associated applications.

  17. In vitro digestibility of individual amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein: the modified three-step procedure and the immobilized digestive enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stern, M D; Moreno, M Ruiz; Vázquez-Añón, M; Schwab, C G

    2009-08-01

    Three soybean meal, 3 SoyPlus (West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA), 5 distillers dried grains with solubles, and 5 fish meal samples were used to evaluate the modified 3-step in vitro procedure (TSP) and the in vitro immobilized digestive enzyme assay (IDEA; Novus International Inc., St. Louis, MO) for estimating digestibility of AA in rumen-undegraded protein (RUP-AA). In a previous experiment, each sample was ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h, and in vivo digestibility of AA in the intact samples and in the rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) was obtained for all samples using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. For the modified TSP, 5 g of RUR was weighed into polyester bags, which were then heat-sealed and placed into Daisy(II) incubator bottles. Samples were incubated in a pepsin/HCl solution followed by incubation in a pancreatin solution. After this incubation, residues remaining in the bags were analyzed for AA, and digestibility of RUP-AA was calculated based on disappearance from the bags. In vitro RUP-AA digestibility estimates obtained with this procedure were highly correlated to in vivo estimates. Corresponding intact feeds were also analyzed via the pepsin/pancreatin steps of the modified TSP. In vitro estimates of AA digestibility of the feeds were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility, which suggests that the feeds may not need to be ruminally incubated before determining RUP-AA digestibility in vitro. The RUR were also analyzed via the IDEA kits. The IDEA values of the RUR were good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in soybean meal, SoyPlus, and distillers dried grains with solubles, but the IDEA values were not as good predictors of RUP-AA digestibility in fish meal. However, the IDEA values of intact feed samples were also determined and were highly correlated to in vivo RUP-AA digestibility for all feed types, suggesting that the IDEA value of intact feeds may be a better predictor of RUP-AA digestibility than the IDEA

  18. Thesis Abstract Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines: chemical composition and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Corrêa, A D

    2016-05-09

    The bean represents the main source of proteins for the low income populations, although the digestibility of those proteins is relatively low. Consequently, the programs of plant genetic breeding have been working on the search for new lines with higher protein levels. Thus, with the purpose of supplying information to the researchers, in this study, 21 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines were analyzed for the centesimal and mineral composition, protein digestibility, phenolic compounds, and trypsin inhibitor. The entirely randomized experimental design was used with 21 treatments (lines) and three repetitions. All values were within the following ranges: 22.34 to 36.28 g crude protein/100 g dry matter (DM); 7.56 to 20.91 g neutral detergent fiber/100 g DM; 0.53 to 2.55 g fat/100 g DM and 2.97 to 4.87 g ashes/100 g DM. The levels of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in g/100 g DM, varied from 0.45 to 0.72; 1.51 to 2.48; 0.03 to 0.28; 0.18 to 0.34 and 0.28 to 0.45, respectively. Regarding copper, manganese, zinc and iron, the levels, in mg/kg DM, varied from 11.37 to 17.73; 14.93 to 28.90; 36.67 to 69.90 and 71.37 to 126.90, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility varied from 18.03 to 48.32%. The levels of phenolic compounds varied from 0.28 to 1.08 mg acid tanic/100 g DM and the one of trypsin inhibitor from 59.93 to 151.07 trypsin inhibited units/mg DM. Among the lines with higher protein contents, "ESAL 569" (beige with brown stripe) presented the largest protein digestibility and considerable levels of minerals. "P-180" (beige with brown stripe) was one of the lines with higher crude protein contents and digestibilities, and also presented high levels for most of the minerals. No relation between protein digestibility and the contents of phenolic compounds or trypsin inhibitor was observed.

  19. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  20. Nitrogen utilization, preweaning nutrient digestibility, and growth effects of Holstein dairy calves fed 2 amounts of a moderately high protein or conventional milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Hill, T M; Elder, D R; Erickson, P S

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that calves fed milk replacers (MR) with crude protein (CP) concentrations greater than 20%, as typically found in conventional MR, have higher dry matter intakes (DMI) and greater average daily gains (ADG) but consume less starter, which can lead to stress during weaning and reduced rumen development. The greater amount of CP being fed to preweaned calves may alter their nitrogen (N) balance, and excess N may be excreted in the urine. The objective of this study was to determine N utilization in preweaned calves fed diets varying in the amount of CP and MR fed. This study used 24 newborn dairy heifer calves blocked by birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) 446g dry matter (DM) of a conventional MR (CON; 20% CP, 20% fat), (2) 669g DM of a moderately high protein MR (moderate; MOD; 26% CP, 18% fat), or (3) 892g DM of a moderately high protein MR (aggressive; AGG; 26% CP, 18% fat). All calves had ad libitum access to starter and water. Both MR and starter were medicated with decoquinate. During weaning (d 43-49), the morning MR feeding ceased. On d 50, all MR feedings ended; however, starter and water intakes were continuously recorded until d 56. At 5wk of age, urine was collected using urinary catheters for 3d and chromium oxide was administered by bolus at 2g/d for 7d to estimate N efficiency. Calves fed MOD and AGG had similar starter intakes, feed efficiencies, and ADG, with the combined treatments having reduced starter intakes (258 vs. 537g/d), greater ADG (674 vs. 422g/d), and improved feed efficiency (0.57 vs. 0.45 gain:feed) compared with CON calves preweaning. However, DMI and water intake were similar across all treatments. Results from the N utilization phase showed that MOD and AGG treatments had similar but lower N efficiency compared with CON calves (45.5 vs. 52.7%). This could be due to MOD- and AGG-fed calves having greater urine volume and thereby, greater combined urine N output compared with CON calves (17.6 vs

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and digestible crude protein of poultry excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1994-06-01

    The changes in the chemical composition, digestible crude protein and cell-wall constituents for two types of excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that here was significant decrease in the crude fibre (CF), NDF and ADF between the samples and the control, for the types I and II where CF, NDF and ADF values, before and after storage, decreased by 12%, 5% and 6%, respectively, ADL values decreased by 8% (I) and 3%(II). Hemicellulose and soluble carbohydrate (NFE) values increased by 5% and 7% for types I and II respectively as a result of irradiation in comparison to the control before and after storage. Gamma irradiation had no effect on crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and digested crude protein for types I and II before and after storage. Drying type I at high temperature in comparison to type II, before and after storage, decreased the crude protein values by 16%. Digested crude protein and CF, decreased 12% and NDF by 7%. Storage of excreta after drying had no effect on the chemical changes due to irradiation for types I and II. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Aubry, Laurent; Ferreira, Claude; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Gatellier, Philippe; Rémond, Didier; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2012-03-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo.

  3. Digestion of cooked meat proteins is slightly affected by age as assessed using the dynamic gastrointestinal TIM model and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, S; Sayd, T; Georges, A; Chambon, C; Chalancon, S; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Blanquet-Diot, S

    2016-06-15

    In humans, meat ensures the supply of proteins with high nutritional value and indispensable amino acids. The main goal of the present study was to compare the degradation of meat proteins in adult and elderly digestive conditions. Cooked meat was subjected to in vitro digestion in the dynamic multi-compartmental TIM (TNO gastroIntestinal Model) system. Digestibility and bioaccessibility were determined using nitrogen balance and digestion products were identified using mass spectrometry. The TIM model was adapted according to in vivo data to mimic the specific digestive conditions of elderly people. Meat protein digestibility and bioaccessibility were around 96 and 60% respectively and were not influenced by age (P > 0.05). As much as 800 peptides were identified in the duodenal and jejunal compartments issued from 50 meat proteins with a percentage of coverage varying from 13 to 69%. Six proteins, mainly from the cytosol, were differentially hydrolyzed under the adult and elderly digestive conditions. Pyruvate kinase was the only protein clearly showing a delay in its degradation under elderly digestive conditions. This study provides significant insights into the understanding of meat protein dynamic digestion. Such data will be helpful to design in vivo studies aiming to evaluate dietary strategies that can attenuate muscle mass loss and more generally maintain a better quality of life in the elderly population.

  4. Nutrient digestibility and evaluation of protein and carbohydrate fractionation of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    The protein and carbohydrate fractionation and nutrient digestibility of citrus by‐products were determined. Ruminal, intestinal and total tract CP disappearance values were measured by a modified three‐step (MTSP) method and in vitro CP disappearance method (IVCP). Test feeds were orange pulp (OP...... to the results, it could be concluded that citrus by‐products have high nutritive value and also, the in vitro techniques can be easily used to determine of the nutritive value of citrus by‐products....

  5. Growth of Nile tilapia post-larvae from broodstock fed diet with different levels of digestible protein and digestible energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silia Maria de Negreiros Sousa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of different levels of digestible energy and digestible protein in diets of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus broodstock on offspring growth during sex reversal stage. A total of 2,700 post-larvae (8.2±0.001 mg derived from breeders fed nine diets with distinct levels of digestible protein (28, 34 and 40% DP and digestible energy (2,800; 3,400; and 4,000 kcal DE.kg-1 were stored in twenty-seven 70 L tanks. After 30 days of growth, their average final weight (AFW, g, average weight gain (AWG, g, final standard length (SL, cm, condition factor (CF, specific growth rate (SGR, %/day, stock uniformity (UNI, %, survival (SUR, % and sex reversal rate (SRR, % were measured. Although female nutrition is thought to influence the performance or quality of progeny during early life stages, no influence of diets supplied to broodstock was detected on any parameter. Nonetheless, the offspring presented commercially satisfactory growth rates. Thus, diets containing 28% of digestible protein and 2,800 kcal of digestible energy.kg of diet-1 can be used to feed Nile tilapia broodstock without jeopardizing offspring performance during the sex reversal phase.

  6. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, E C A; de Jong, G J; van Bennekom, W P

    2008-07-07

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin beta- and alpha-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

  7. Pepsin immobilized in dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries for on-line protein digestion and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigter, E.C.A. [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.c.a.stigter@uu.nl; Jong, G.J. de; Bennekom, W.P. van [Division of Biomedical Analysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-07-07

    On-line digestion of proteins under acidic conditions was studied using micro-reactors consisting of dextran-modified fused-silica capillaries with covalently immobilized pepsin. The proteins used in this study differed in molecular weight, isoelectric point and sample composition. The injected protein samples were completely digested in 3 min and the digest was analyzed with micro-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The different proteins present in the samples could be identified with a Mascot database search on the basis of auto-MS/MS data. It proved also to be possible to digest and analyze protein mixtures with a sequence coverage of 55% and 97% for the haemoglobin {beta}- and {alpha}-chain, respectively, and 35-55% for the various casein variants. Protease auto-digestion, sample carry-over and loss of signal due to adsorption of the injected proteins were not observed. The backpressure of the reactor is low which makes coupling to systems such as Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensors, which do not tolerate too high pressure, possible. The reactor was stable for at least 40 days when used continuously.

  8. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  9. Measurement of protein digestibility in humans by a dual-tracer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Sarita; Varkey, Aneesia; Sheshshayee, M S; Preston, Thomas; Kurpad, Anura V

    2018-06-01

    Recent evaluations of the risk of dietary protein deficiency have indicated that protein digestibility may be a key limiting factor in the provision of indispensable amino acids (IAAs), particularly for vulnerable populations living in challenging environments where intestinal dysfunction may exist. Since the digestion of protein occurs only in the small intestine, and the metabolic activity of colonic bacteria confounds measurements at the fecal level, there is a need to develop noninvasive protein digestibility measurements at the ileal level. We used a dual-tracer method with stable isotopes to characterize the digestibility of uniformly labeled [13C]-spirulina protein as a standard protein, in comparison to a mixture of 2H-labeled crystalline amino acids, and then demonstrated the use of this standard protein to measure the digestibility of selected legumes (chick pea and mung bean) through the use of proteins that were intrinsically labeled with 2H. The digestibility of uniformly labeled [13C]-spirulina was first measured in 6 healthy volunteers (3 males and 3 females) by feeding it along with a standard mixture of 2H-labeled amino acids, in a dual-tracer, plateau-fed test meal approach. Next, intrinsically labeled legume protein digestibility was studied with a similar dual-tracer approach, with uniformly labeled [13C]-spirulina as the standard, when processed differently before consumption. The average digestibility of IAA in spirulina protein was 85.2%. The average IAA digestibility of intrinsically 2H-labeled chick pea and mung bean protein was 56.6% and 57.7%, respectively. Dehulling of mung bean before ingestion increased the average IAA digestibility by 9.9% in comparison to whole mung bean digestibility. An innovative, minimally invasive "dual-stable-isotope" method was developed to measure protein digestibility, in which the ingestion of an intrinsically 2H-labeled test protein along with a 13C-labeled standard protein of known digestibility allows

  10. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, R; Barrio, D; Carpio, C; García-Ruiz, A; Rúales, J; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Carrillo, W

    2017-09-01

    Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Gastric digestion at pH 1.2 showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition percentage (75.15%). The lipid peroxidation activity increased after the duodenal phase. The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%).

  11. Protein identification and in vitro digestion of fractions from Tenebrio molitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Liya; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Boeren, Sjef; Lakemond, Catriona M.M.

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional value of insect protein is evaluated not only in amino acid composition, but also in protein digestibility. The general amino acid composition of Tenebrio molitor has been reported before, but limited knowledge is available on its digestibility. The objective of this study was to

  12. Nutrient digestibility response to sugarcane bagasse addition and corn particle size in normal and high Na diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheravii, S K; Swick, R A; Choct, M; Wu, S-B

    2018-04-01

    Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0.16 or 0.4%). Protein digestibility coefficient was measured using pooled distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Meanwhile, starch and gross energy digestibility coefficients were measured using pooled duodenal, distal jejunal, and distal ileal digesta of 3 birds per pen on d 24. Coarsely ground corn (CC) resulted in improved ileal protein digestibility (P digestibility in the duodenum (P digestibility in distal ileum (P digestibility (P digestibility only in birds fed the diet with finely ground corn (FC) and 0.16% Na. These findings demonstrate that SB and CC are able to improve nutrient digestibility. It can be recommended for the poultry industry to use SB and coarsely ground corn in feed to improve the utilization of nutrients.

  13. Analysis of Protein Amino Acids in Tobacco Using Microwave Digestion of Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a technique using microwave digestion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, which makes possible the analysis of protein amino acids in tobacco. The technique involves first the measurement of free amino acids, a hydrolysis using microwave digestion, and a measurement of total resulting amino acids. The content of protein amino acids is determined from the difference of total and free amino acids. The digestion is performed with aqueous 6 N HCl (with 1% phenol for two hours in a microwave at 120°C in sealed vials. The GC-MS analysis is performed after the amino acids are derivatized with N-methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA. The technique provides reliable results with less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for most amino acids. Only the determination of very low level amino acids is affected by larger errors. The method provides results for free amino acids that are in very good agreement with those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and also results for protein levels in tobacco in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Results are given for several single grade tobaccos and for tobacco blends from four Kentucky reference cigarettes.

  14. Pepsin Digested Oat Bran Proteins: Separation, Antioxidant Activity, and Identification of New Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Vanvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine pepsin hydrolysis conditions to produce digested oat bran proteins with higher radical scavenging activities and separate and identify peptides. Isolated proteins were then digested with different concentrations of pepsin and incubation times. Hydrolysates produced with 1 : 30 enzyme substrate (E/S ratio and 2 h possessed the highest peroxyl radical scavenging activity, 608 ± 17 µM TE/g (compared to 456–474 µM TE/g for other digests, and was therefore subsequently fractionated into eight fractions (F1–F8 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. F1 and F2 had little activity because of their low protein contents. Activities of F3–F8 were 447–874 µM TE/g, 20–36%, and 10–14% in the peroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical tests, respectively. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to identify a total of fifty peptides that may have contributed to the activity of F3, a fraction that better scavenged radicals.

  15. Effect of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiangping; Hu, Xiuting; Luo, Shunjing; McClements, David Julian; Liang, Lu; Liu, Chengmei

    2018-04-01

    The composition and structure of the food matrix can have a major impact on the digestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour, with an emphasis on establishing the underlying physicochemical mechanisms involved. Native long-grain indica rice flour and rice flour with the lipids and/or proteins removed were subjected to a simulated digestion in vitro. A significant increase in starch digestibility was observed after removal of proteins, lipids, or both. The starch digestibility of the rice flour without lipids was slightly lower than that without proteins, even though the proteins content was about 10-fold higher than the lipids content. Microstructural analysis suggested that the proteins and lipids were normally attached to the surfaces of the starch granules in the native rice flour, thus inhibiting their contact with digestive enzymes. Moreover, the proteins and lipids restricted the swelling of the starch granules, which may have decreased their digestion by reducing their surface areas. In addition, amylose-lipid complex was detected in the rice flour, which is also known to slow down starch digestion. These results have important implications for the design of foods with improved nutritional profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gut luminal endogenous protein: implications for the determination of ileal amino acid digestibility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2012-08-01

    The true ileal digestibility assay provides the most informative measure of digestibility to assess bioavailability of amino acids in foods for humans. To determine 'true' estimates of ileal amino acid digestibility, requires that endogenous amino acids present in digesta at the terminal ileum be quantified. The amounts of endogenous amino acids in ileal digesta can be determined after feeding an animal or human a protein-free diet (traditional approach) or by various methods after giving a protein-containing diet. When the protein-free method has been applied with adult human subjects an overall mean value (three separate studies) for endogenous ileal nitrogen flow of 800 mg N/d has been reported. This value is considerably lower than a comparable value obtained after feeding protein of 1852 mg N/d (mean of four separate studies), and thus endogenous ileal N and amino acids should be measured under conditions of protein alimentation. There is some confusion concerning the terminology used to define digestibility, with the term "true" digestibility having different adopted meanings. Here, true amino acid digestibility is defined as apparent amino acid digestibility corrected for the basal amino acid losses determined after giving either a protein-free or a protein-containing diet. Basal losses should be determined at a defined dry-matter and protein intake. The protein-free diet approach to determining endogenous amino acids is considered unphysiological and basal losses refer to ileal endogenous amino acid flows associated with digesta dry-matter flow, and not including "specific" effects of dietary factors such as non starch polysaccharides and anti nutritional factors. Arguments are advanced that the enzyme hydrolysed protein/ultra filtration method may be suitable for routine application with a cannulated pig model, to obtain physiologically-valid basal estimates of ileal endogenous amino acids to allow calculation of true ileal amino acid digestibility in the

  18. Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Pakkong, Pannee; Thiengtham, Jamroen; Chandang, Pipatpong

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

  19. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square...... design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...

  20. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil S; Brennan, Margaret A; Mason, Susan L; Brennan, Charles S

    2016-04-06

    Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%-1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%-62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  1. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  2. Trypsin immobilization in ordered porous polymer membranes for effective protein digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Juan; Kim, Jin Yong; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Qi, Li; Wang, Fu Yi; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Fast and effective protein digestion is a vital process for mass spectrometry (MS) based protein analysis. This study introduces a porous polymer membrane enzyme reactor (PPMER) coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) for on-line digestion and analysis of proteins. Poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-co-MAn) was fabricated by the breath figure method to make a porous polymer membrane in which the MAn group was covalently bound to enzyme. Based on this strategy, microscale PPMER (μPPMER) was constructed for on-line connection with the nLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Its capability for enzymatic digestion with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated with varied digestion periods. The on-line proteolysis of BSA and subsequent analysis with μPPMER-nLC-ESI-MS/MS revealed that peptide sequence coverage increased from 10.3% (digestion time 10 min) to 89.1% (digestion time 30 min). μPPMER can efficiently digest proteins due to the microscopic confinement effect, showing its potential application in fast protein identification and protease immobilization. Applications of on-line digestion using μPPMER with human plasma and urinary proteome samples showed that the developed on-line method yielded equivalent or better performance in protein coverage and identified more membrane proteins than the in-solution method. This may be due to easy accommodation of hydrophobic membrane proteins within membrane pores. - Highlights: • A porous polymer membrane enzyme reactor was developed. • Breath figure method was used for the fabrication of porous polymer membrane. • The enzyme reactor was coupled to nLC-ESI-MS/MS for proteins on-line digestion.

  3. Trypsin immobilization in ordered porous polymer membranes for effective protein digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Juan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Zhongguancun Beiyijie, Beijing 100190 (China); Kim, Jin Yong [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Yuan Yuan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Zhongguancun Beiyijie, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Li, E-mail: qili@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Zhongguancun Beiyijie, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Fu Yi [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Zhongguancun Beiyijie, Beijing 100190 (China); Moon, Myeong Hee, E-mail: mhmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-04

    Fast and effective protein digestion is a vital process for mass spectrometry (MS) based protein analysis. This study introduces a porous polymer membrane enzyme reactor (PPMER) coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem MS (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) for on-line digestion and analysis of proteins. Poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-co-MAn) was fabricated by the breath figure method to make a porous polymer membrane in which the MAn group was covalently bound to enzyme. Based on this strategy, microscale PPMER (μPPMER) was constructed for on-line connection with the nLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Its capability for enzymatic digestion with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated with varied digestion periods. The on-line proteolysis of BSA and subsequent analysis with μPPMER-nLC-ESI-MS/MS revealed that peptide sequence coverage increased from 10.3% (digestion time 10 min) to 89.1% (digestion time 30 min). μPPMER can efficiently digest proteins due to the microscopic confinement effect, showing its potential application in fast protein identification and protease immobilization. Applications of on-line digestion using μPPMER with human plasma and urinary proteome samples showed that the developed on-line method yielded equivalent or better performance in protein coverage and identified more membrane proteins than the in-solution method. This may be due to easy accommodation of hydrophobic membrane proteins within membrane pores. - Highlights: • A porous polymer membrane enzyme reactor was developed. • Breath figure method was used for the fabrication of porous polymer membrane. • The enzyme reactor was coupled to nLC-ESI-MS/MS for proteins on-line digestion.

  4. The foodomics approach for the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Laghi, Luca; Babini, Elena; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Picone, Gianfranco; Ciampa, Alessandra; Valli, Veronica; Danesi, Francesca; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a foodomics protocol coupling an in vitro static simulation of digestion to a combination of omics techniques, to grant an overview of the protein digestibility of a meat-based food, namely Bresaola. The proteolytic activity mediated by the digestive enzymes is evaluated through Bradford and SDS-PAGE assays, combined to NMR relaxometry and spectroscopy, to obtain information ranging from the microscopic to the molecular level, respectively. The simple proteomics tool adopted here points out that a clear increase of bioaccessible proteins occurs in the gastric phase, rapidly disappearing during the following duodenal digestion. However, SDS-PAGE and the Bradford assay cannot follow the fate of the digested proteins when the products are sized meat matrix. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products.

  6. Effect of in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion on the allergenicity of grape lipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Rigby, Neil; Moreno, F. Javier; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; van Ree, Ronald; Mills, Clare

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe grape allergy has been linked to lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitization. LTPs are known to be resistant to pepsin digestion, although the effect of gastroduodenal digestion on its allergenicity has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of gastric

  7. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  8. Decreasing the amount of trypsin in in-gel digestion leads to diminished chemical noise and improved protein identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mo; Liu, Yanhua; Yu, Kaiwen; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2014-09-23

    Pre-fractionation by gel electrophoresis is often combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for large-scale profiling of complex protein samples. An essential component of this widely applied proteomic platform is in-gel protein digestion. In nearly two decades of practicing this approach, an extremely high level of trypsin has been utilized due to the consideration of slow enzyme diffusion into the gel matrix. Here we report that trypsin autolysis products contribute to the bulk of chemical noise in in-gel digestion and remarkably we found evidence that the amount of trypsin can be slashed by an order of magnitude with comparable digestion performance. By revising perhaps the most critical element of this decade-old digestion protocol, the proteomics community relying on gel separation prior to LC-MS analysis will benefit instantly from much lowered cost due to enzyme expenditure. More importantly, substantially reduced chemical noise (i.e., trypsin self-cleavage products) as a result of less enzyme usage translates into more protein identifications when limited amounts of samples are the interest of interrogation. In-gel digestion is one of the most widely used methods in proteomics. An exceedingly high level of trypsin has been utilized due to the consideration of slow enzyme diffusion into the gel matrix. This requirement has been faithfully kept in nearly two decades of practicing this approach. Here we report that trypsin concentration can be slashed by at least an order of magnitude while still providing comparable digestion performance. Thus the proteomics community relying on gel separation prior to LC-MS analysis will benefit instantly from much lowered enzyme cost. More importantly, substantially reduced chemical noise (i.e., trypsin autolysis products) due to less enzyme usage translates into ~30% more protein identifications when limited amounts of protein samples are analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in protein and starch digestibility in sorghum flour during heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Standards for the High School Psychology Course. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganett, L. Lee

    The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…

  11. [Evaluation of the adjusted amino acid score by digestibility for estimating the protein quality and protein available in food and diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility to estimate protein quality and utilizable protein in foods and diets, considering net protein utilization (NPU) as a biological reference method. Ten foods of vegetable origin and ten of animal origin, as well as eight mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin were studied. When all the foods were considered, a positive (r = 0.83) and highly significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between NPU and the amino acid score adjusted by digestibility was found. When the foods were separated according to their origin, this correlation was positive only for the foods of vegetable origin (r = 0.93) and statistically significant (p less than 0.001). Also, only in those foods were similar values found between NPU and amino acid score adjusted by digestibility, as well as in utilizable protein estimated considering both methods. Caution is required to interpret protein quality and utilizable protein values of foods of animal origin and mixtures of foods of vegetable and animal origin when the amino acid score method adjusted by digestibility, or NPU, are utilized.

  12. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of antioxidant and chelating activity of protein hydrolysates from spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) obtained by simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Palma, N.; Martínez-Ayala, A.; Dávila-Ortíz, G.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a cyanobacteria that has been used as food since ancient times, for example in Mexico it was consumed by the Aztecs. Its high protein content, distribution and amino acid composition suggests the presence of important peptides encrypted within the sequences of parent proteins, that after been released by digestive process they could show an antioxidant effect. Our present study examined the above hypothesis through the determination of the antioxidant and chelating activity of tw...

  14. Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

    2014-11-01

    Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically

  15. Feeding Value of Silybum marianum for Sheep and its Effect on Fiber and Protein Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mojadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Due to scarcity of forage and water resources and high feed prices in Iran, it seems that the utilization of native and cheap forage resources for ruminants is important. The Milk thistle (Silybum marianum is distributed in different regions of Iran included: Gonbad Kavoos, Gorgan, Nodeh Kalardasht, Dareh Hezareh, Dasht Mugan, Poshtkoh, Mollassani, Shush, Hamidieh, Ramhormuz, Izeh and Kazeroon. The Silybum marianum seed extract and whole plant contain many compounds including Silybin A and B, Silychristin, Apigenin, deoxy silydianin (flavonolignans. Seeds of this plant has about 20 to 25 percent oil, which oleic acids (31.85 %, linoleic acid (45.36 % percent and palmitic acid (8.25 % are the major fatty acids of Silybum marianum seed. Also, the Silybum marianum contains flavonoids and anti-nutritional compounds such as tannins and nitrates. Tannins, unsaturated oils and other anti-nutritional compounds may have negative effects on the digestion of fiber and protein fractions. Tannins can make complexes with large number of nutrients, such as carbohydrates, proteins, bacterial cell membrane protein and carbohydrates, and even digestive enzymes. The Silybum marianum plants are native to northern areas of Ahvaz and abundantly growth as self-propelled. The farm animals in these area (sheep, goats, camels, water buffalo and native cows, etc. graze this plant as well as the manual feeding, but there is little known about its effects on the health, performance and digestibility of nutrients (in particular on the fiber and protein, due to existing the tannin and unsaturated oils in it in those animals, and no research work has been done about Silybum marianum. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of Silybum marianum and to measure its effects on rumen fermentation and digestion of fiber (straw and protein constituents (soybean meal feedstuff in Arabi sheep. Materials and Methods Twelve male Arabi sheep

  16. In vitro versus in vivo protein digestibility techniques for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score) applied to chickpea fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Olga Luisa; Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva Júnior, Sinézio Inácio

    2016-11-01

    Seven different in vitro methods to determine the protein digestibility for chickpea proteins were considered and also the application of these methodologies for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), seeking their correlations with the in vivo methodology. In vitro digestibility of raw and heated samples were determined using pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, considering soluble nitrogen via Kjeldahl (ppKJ) and hydrolysed peptide linkages using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and o-phthaldialdehyde. In vitro digestibility was also determined using trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase (3-Enz) or trypsin, chymotrypsin, peptidase and pronase solution (4-Enz). None of the correlations between in vitro and in vivo digestibilities were significant (at p<0.0500), but, strong correlations were observed between PDCAAS calculated by in vitro and in vivo results. PDCAAS-ppKJ, PDCAAS-3-Enz and PDCAAS-4-Enz presented the highest correlations with in vivo method, r=0.9316, 0.9442 and 0.9649 (p<0.0500), respectively. The use of in vitro methods for calculating PDCAAS may be promising and deserves more discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético, dos 30 aos 60 kg Dietary digestible lysine requirements, based on the ideal protein concept, for barrows with high genetic potential from 30 to 60 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márvio Lobão Teixeira de Abreu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o efeito de níveis de lisina digestível, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de 40 leitões machos castrados (peso inicial de 30,02 ± 1,38 kg e peso final 60,44 ± 1,81 kg de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne magra. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal (18,08% de PB e 3.250 kcal de EM/kg suplementada com L-lisina HCL, resultando em rações com 0,80; 0,90; 1,00 e 1,10% de lisina digestível. As rações foram suplementadas com níveis crescentes de aminoácidos sintéticos, mantendo-se constantes as relações entre os níveis desses aminoácidos essenciais e os de lisina, com base na digestibilidade verdadeira. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso diário e a concentração de uréia no plasma dos animais. Observou-se comportamento linear da conversão alimentar, que melhorou, e do consumo de lisina digestível diário, que aumentou em função dos níveis de lisina digestível da ração. Os tratamentos não influenciaram as porcentagens de água, proteína e gordura e a deposição de gordura na carcaça dos animais. Os níveis de lisina digestível afetaram de forma linear crescente a deposição de proteína na carcaça. O nível de 1,10% de lisina digestível, correspondente a um consumo de lisina digestível de 21,94 g/dia (3,43 g de Lis/Mcal de EM proporcionou os melhores resultados de desempenho e características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético dos 30 aos 60 kg.The effect of increasing dietary digestible lysine levels, based on the ideal protein concept, on performance and carcass characteristics of forty barrows with high genetic potential for lean gain averaging initial and final body weights of

  18. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Anna Kirstine; Jacobsen, Siv H; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) involves exclusion of major parts of the stomach and changes in admixture of gastro-pancreatic enzymes, which could have a major impact on protein digestion and amino acid absorption. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of RYGB on amino acid appearance......: RYGB accelerates caseinate digestion and amino acid absorption, resulting in faster and higher but more transient postprandial elevation of plasma amino acids. Changes are likely mediated by accelerated intestinal nutrient entry and clearly demonstrate that protein digestion is not impaired after RYGB...

  19. The Effect of Gel Microstructure on Simulated Gastric Digestion of Protein Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Altenburg, Marte D.; Boom, Remko M.; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the impact of the gel structure obtained by different heat-induced temperatures on the in vitro gastric digestibility at pH 2. To achieve this, gels were prepared from soy protein, pea protein, albumin from chicken egg white and whey protein isolate at

  20. In vivo assessment of the ability of condensed tannins to interfere with the digestibility of plant protein in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrabi, S.M.; Ritchie, M.M.; Stimson, C.; Horadagoda, A.; Hyde, M.; McNeill, D.M. [MC Franklin Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: karalue@bigpond.net.au

    2005-08-19

    To assess the effect of condensed tannin (CT) astringency on the digestibility of protein post-ruminally, CT were purified from four types (accessions) of Mulga (Acacia aneura), and a Leucaena pallida and dosed into sheep as complexes with {sup 15}N-plant protein (tannin-protein complexes, TPC), together with an indigestible marker, chromium-EDTA (Cr-EDTA). Each CT treatment dose comprised 12 mg CT, 10 mg {sup 15}N-protein, and 2.77 mg of Cr. A protein-only control (same as the other TPC solutions but without any CT) treatment was also included to make a total of six treatments. Treatments were applied in two 6 x 6 Latin Square designs with 72 h between each infusion for each sheep. In the first, the solutions were infused post-ruminally via an abomasal cannula. In the second they were dosed directly into the mouth following an intra-nasal dose of an analogue of vasopressin in an attempt to stimulate the oesophageal groove reflex to direct the solutions more efficiently toward the small intestine. Results showed no detectable effect of CT type on the in vivo digestibility of the {sup 15}N-protein. Protein digestibilities were uniformly high, indicative of complete dissociation of the TPC. There was no correlation between protein digestibility, mouth to faeces, and protein digestibility, abomasum to faeces (P > 0.05). In vivo digestibility was also uncorrelated with CT astringencies defined in vitro (P > 0.05). Astringency in vitro was defined as the mg of CT required to achieve half-maximal precipitation of 0.5 mg of protein (bovine serum albumin). In vitro, the most astringent CT (A. aneura 883558), had at least 1.6 times the astringency of the weakest CT (A. aneura 842394). The A. aneura with the weakest CT also contained less than 1/3 the total amount of CT/g leaf dry matter than that with the strongest, highlighting the scope for selection of more nutritionally useful types of A. aneura. Limitations of the in vivo protocol used are discussed and it is concluded

  1. Fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechler, S R; Mullenix, M K; Holland, C M; Muntifering, R B

    2017-09-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine effects of N fertilization level on fiber digestion kinetics and protein degradability characteristics of stockpiled Tifton 85 bermudagrass (T85). Six 0.76-ha pastures of stockpiled T85 were cut to a 10-cm stubble height on August 1 of each yr and fertilized with 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 pastures/treatment). Fiber digestion kinetics included the 72-hr potential extent of NDF digestion (PED), rate of NDF digestion, and lag time. In yr 1 and 2, PED decreased over the stockpile season. Rates of NDF digestion did not differ ( > 0.05) among N fertilization treatments in either yr. In yr 1, rate of NDF digestion was greatest ( digestion decreased ( digestion rates were similar for November and January 21 sampling dates. Lag time was greater ( digestion ( = -0.60 and -0.25 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) was observed. There was a trend ( = 0.06) for lignin concentration to be positively correlated with lag time ( = 0.39) in yr 1, and a strong relationship was observed in yr 2 ( = 0.91; digestion in stockpiled T85 were influenced more by temporal changes over the stockpile season than by N fertilization level. Supplement formulations based on kinetic parameters of fiber digestion may require periodic adjustment to insure that energy-yielding components of NDF are sufficient to meet animal requirements throughout the stockpile season. The CP fraction in stockpiled T85 contains sufficient RDP to support fibrolytic activity and growth of ruminal microorganisms throughout the stockpile season. Toward the latter end of the season, supplementation with sources of digestible fiber and RDP could be expected to increase MP supply to the host animal.

  2. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.

  3. Proteolytic Digestion and TiO2 Phosphopeptide Enrichment Microreactor for Fast MS Identification of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingren; Lazar, Iulia M.

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of phosphorylation state(s) of a protein is best accomplished by using isolated or enriched phosphoprotein samples or their corresponding phosphopeptides. The process is typically time-consuming as, often, a combination of analytical approaches must be used. To facilitate throughput in the study of phosphoproteins, a microreactor that enables a novel strategy for performing fast proteolytic digestion and selective phosphopeptide enrichment was developed. The microreactor was fabricated using 100 μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries packed with 1-2 mm beds of C18 and/or TiO2 particles. Proteolytic digestion-only, phosphopeptide enrichment-only, and sequential proteolytic digestion/phosphopeptide enrichment microreactors were developed and tested with standard protein mixtures. The protein samples were adsorbed on the C18 particles, quickly digested with a proteolytic enzyme infused over the adsorbed proteins, and further eluted onto the TiO2 microreactor for enrichment in phosphopeptides. A number of parameters were optimized to speed up the digestion and enrichments processes, including microreactor dimensions, sample concentrations, digestion time, flow rates, buffer compositions, and pH. The effective time for the steps of proteolytic digestion and enrichment was less than 5 min. For simple samples, such as standard protein mixtures, this approach provided equivalent or better results than conventional bench-top methods, in terms of both enzymatic digestion and selectivity. Analysis times and reagent costs were reduced ~10- to 15-fold. Preliminary analysis of cell extracts and recombinant proteins indicated the feasibility of integration of these microreactors in more advanced workflows amenable for handling real-world biological samples.

  4. Role of intestinal brush border peptidases in the simulated digestion of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Miralles, Beatriz; Mamone, Gianfranco; Sánchez-Rivera, Laura; Recio, Isidra; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the "often neglected" intestinal brush border membranes (BBMs) hydrolases on dietary peptides, exploring the possibility that the disintegration of proteins progressed in the small intestine up to a "core" of intrinsically stable oligopeptides, persisting independently on the up-stream breakdown. Samples of sodium caseinate, skim milk powder, and whey protein isolate were submitted to in vitro simulated gastropancreatic digestion using two different procedures: (i) a simplified model involving the main compartmental specific proteases; (ii) a static digestion method based on a frameset of parameters inferred from in vivo. The gastroduodenal digesta were further hydrolyzed with peptidases from porcine jejunal BBM. The peptidomes arising from the two digestion models, characterized by combined HPLC and MS techniques, differed to some extent. However, only specific protein domains survived digestion, among which are potential bioactive or immunogenic (food allergy) peptides. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) after BBM digestion (70-77%) practically did not differ between the digestion models and significantly increased the DH after duodenal steps. Any in vitro digestion model should be supplemented with a jejunal phase to realistically determine the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of dietary peptides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mass spectrometry compatible surfactant for optimized in-gel protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Sergei V; Woodroofe, Carolyn C; Sabat, Grzegorz; Adams, Christopher M; Klaubert, Dieter; Wood, Keith; Urh, Marjeta

    2013-01-15

    Identification of proteins resolved by SDS-PAGE depends on robust in-gel protein digestion and efficient peptide extraction, requirements that are often difficult to achieve. A lengthy and laborious procedure is an additional challenge of protein identification in gel. We show here that with the use of the mass spectrometry compatible surfactant sodium 3-((1-(furan-2-yl)undecyloxy)carbonylamino)propane-1-sulfonate, the challenges of in-gel protein digestion are effectively addressed. Peptide quantitation based on stable isotope labeling showed that the surfactant induced 1.5-2 fold increase in peptide recovery. Consequently, protein sequence coverage was increased by 20-30%, on average, and the number of identified proteins saw a substantial boost. The surfactant also accelerated the digestion process. Maximal in-gel digestion was achieved in as little as one hour, depending on incubation temperature, and peptides were readily recovered from gel eliminating the need for postdigestion extraction. This study shows that the surfactant provides an efficient means of improving protein identification in gel and streamlining the in-gel digestion procedure requiring no extra handling steps or special equipment.

  6. Direct digestion of proteins in living cells into peptides for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the proteome of an extremely low number of cells or even a single cell, we established a new method of digesting whole cells into mass-spectrometry-identifiable peptides in a single step within 2 h. Our sampling method greatly simplified the processes of cell lysis, protein extraction, protein purification, and overnight digestion, without compromising efficiency. We used our method to digest hundred-scale cells. As far as we know, there is no report of proteome analysis starting directly with as few as 100 cells. We identified an average of 109 proteins from 100 cells, and with three replicates, the number of proteins rose to 204. Good reproducibility was achieved, showing stability and reliability of the method. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that proteins in different cellular compartments were well represented.

  7. Effect of Different Heat Treatments on In Vitro Digestion of Egg White Proteins and Identification of Bioactive Peptides in Digested Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping

    2018-04-01

    Chicken eggs are ingested by people after a series of processes, but to date, only a few studies have explored the nutrient variations caused by different heat treatments. In this work, the impacts of different heat treatments (4, 56, 65, and 100 °C on the in vitro digestibility of egg white proteins were investigated by hydrolysis with pepsin or pepsin + pancreatin to simulate human gastrointestinal digestion, and the digested products were identified using Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. Egg white proteins treated at 65 °C had the highest in vitro pepsin digestibility value whereas the pepsin + pancreatin digestibility increased significantly (P cooking temperature was raised. The molecular weight distribution of the digested products indicated that, when compared to pepsin-treated samples, pepsin + pancreatin-treated samples contained more low-molecular-weight peptides (m/z egg white digested products, especially in samples treated at 4 and 100 °C. These findings may facilitate a better understanding of nutritive values of egg white proteins and their digested products under different cooking temperatures, such as antibacterial and antioxidant peptides identified in the digestion samples treated, respectively at 4 and 100 °C. This study also provided information for improving the applications of eggs in the food industry as well as a theoretical basis for egg consumption. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Stability of milk fat globule membrane proteins toward human enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Van de Wiele, T; Do, T N H; Debyser, G; Struijs, K; Devreese, B; Dewettinck, K; Van Camp, J

    2012-05-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction refers to the thin film of polar lipids and membrane proteins that surrounds fat globules in milk. It is its unique biochemical composition that renders MFGM with some beneficial biological activities, such as anti-adhesive effects toward pathogens. However, a prerequisite for the putative bioactivity of MFGM is its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. We, therefore, subjected MFGM material, isolated from raw milk, to an in vitro enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, in combination with 2 staining methods, Coomassie Blue and periodic acid Schiff staining, was used to evaluate polypeptide patterns of the digest, whereas mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of specific MFGM proteins. Generally, it was observed that glycoproteins showed higher resistance to endogenous proteases compared with non-glycosylated proteins. Mucin 1 displayed the highest resistance to digestion and a considerable part of this protein was still detected at its original molecular weight after gastric and small intestine digestion. Cluster of differentiation 36 was also quite resistant to pepsin. A significant part of periodic acid Schiff 6/7 survived the gastric digestion, provided that the lipid moiety was not removed from the MFGM material. Overall, MFGM glycoproteins are generally more resistant to gastrointestinal digestion than serum milk proteins and the presence of lipids, besides glycosylation, may protect MFGM glycoproteins from gastrointestinal digestion. This gastrointestinal stability makes MFGM glycoproteins amenable to further studies in which their putative health-promoting effects can be explored. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 152/2009. A modified version of Holt’s Method was used for phytic acid (phytate determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The content of crude protein in buckwheat flours was about 14%. The highest amount of phytate was found in common beans and soybeans-about 2 g/100 g of dry matter. On the other hand, the lowest phytate content was observed in buckwheat pasta (F. esculentum groats was 1.9 g per 100 g of dry matter. In vitro digestibility was determined using an incubator Daisy and pepsin enzymes and the combination of pepsin and pancreatin. The highest coefficient of crude protein digestibility was discovered to be in peels and wholemeal flour. The greatest fibre digestibility coefficients were obtained for peels, which contain about 65% of fibre in their dry matter. When pepsin was used, a higher phytic acid digestibility coefficient for G. max, Ph. vulgaris, peels, flour, groats and broken groats was observed; while when the combination of pepsin and pancreatin was used, higher phytic acid digestibility coefficients for peas, lentil and wholemeal flour were observed.

  10. Quantitative proteomics reveals the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanbo; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Liu, Fangjie; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin is the popular protease to digest proteins into peptides in shotgun proteomics, but few studies have attempted to systematically investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion in proteome samples. In this study, we applied quantitative proteomics via triplex stable isotope dimethyl labeling to investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed cleavage. It was found that trypsin cleaves the C-terminal to lysine (K) and arginine (R) residues with higher rates for R. And the cleavage sites surrounded by neutral residues could be quickly cut, while those with neighboring charged residues (D/E/K/R) or proline residue (P) could be slowly cut. In a proteome sample, a huge number of proteins with different physical chemical properties coexists. If any type of protein could be preferably digested, then limited digestion could be applied to reduce the sample complexity. However, we found that protein abundance and other physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (Mw), grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), aliphatic index, and isoelectric point (pI) have no notable correlation with digestion priority of proteins.

  11. Metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance, and ileal digestibility of amino acids in quality protein maize for pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare the nutritional value and digestibility of five quality protein maize (QPM) hybrids to that of white and yellow maize, two experiments were carried out in growing pigs. In experiment 1, the energy metabolizability and the nitrogen balance of growing pigs fed one of five QPM hybrid diets were compared against those of pigs fed white or yellow maize. In experiment 2, the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility (AID and SID, respectively) of proteins and amino acids from the five QPM hybrids were compared against those obtained from pigs fed white and yellow maize. In both experiments, the comparisons were conducted using contrasts. Results The dry matter and nitrogen intakes were higher in the pigs fed the QPM hybrids (P digestibility (P digestible lysine than normal maize. PMID:25045520

  12. Cooking Chicken Breast Reduces Dialyzable Iron Resulting from Digestion of Muscle Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya S. Gokhale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of cooking chicken breast on the production of dialyzable iron (an in vitro indicator of bioavailable iron from added ferric iron. Chicken breast muscle was cooked by boiling, baking, sautéing, or deep-frying. Cooked samples were mixed with ferric iron and either extracted with acid or digested with pepsin and pancreatin. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron was measured after extraction or digestion and compared to raw chicken samples. For uncooked samples, dialyzable iron was significantly enhanced after both extraction and digestion. All cooking methods led to markedly reduced levels of dialyzable iron both by extraction and digestion. In most cooked, digested samples dialyzable iron was no greater than the iron-only (no sample control. Cooked samples showed lower levels of histidine and sulfhydryls but protein digestibility was not reduced, except for the sautéed sample. The results showed that, after cooking, little if any dialyzable iron results from digestion of muscle proteins. Our research indicates that, in cooked chicken, residual acid-extractable components are the most important source of dialyzable iron.

  13. Cooking Chicken Breast Reduces Dialyzable Iron Resulting from Digestion of Muscle Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Aditya S; Mahoney, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of cooking chicken breast on the production of dialyzable iron (an in vitro indicator of bioavailable iron) from added ferric iron. Chicken breast muscle was cooked by boiling, baking, sautéing, or deep-frying. Cooked samples were mixed with ferric iron and either extracted with acid or digested with pepsin and pancreatin. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron was measured after extraction or digestion and compared to raw chicken samples. For uncooked samples, dialyzable iron was significantly enhanced after both extraction and digestion. All cooking methods led to markedly reduced levels of dialyzable iron both by extraction and digestion. In most cooked, digested samples dialyzable iron was no greater than the iron-only (no sample) control. Cooked samples showed lower levels of histidine and sulfhydryls but protein digestibility was not reduced, except for the sautéed sample. The results showed that, after cooking, little if any dialyzable iron results from digestion of muscle proteins. Our research indicates that, in cooked chicken, residual acid-extractable components are the most important source of dialyzable iron.

  14. Bioactivity of Cod and Chicken Protein Hydrolysates before and after in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamnik, Polona; Istenič, Katja; Wulff, Tune

    2017-01-01

    , where values of cod and chicken were (95.5±1.2) and (90.5±0.7) %, respectively. Neither species nor digestion had any effect on cellular metabolic energy. At proteome level, digested hydrolysates gave again significantly stronger responses than undigested counterparts; cod peptides here also gave...... somewhat stronger response than chicken peptides. The knowledge of the action of food protein hydrolysates and their digests within live cells, also at proteome level, is important for further validation of their activity in higher eukaryotes to develop new products, such as in this case chicken and cod...... muscle-derived peptides as functional ingredients....

  15. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow ...

  16. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  17. Simplified sample preparation method for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: in-gel digestion on the probe surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, A; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2001-01-01

    /ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is used as the first protein screening method in many laboratories because of its inherent simplicity, mass accuracy, sensitivity and relatively high sample throughput. We present a simplified sample preparation method for MALDI-MS that enables in-gel digestion...... for protein identification similar to that obtained by the traditional protocols for in-gel digestion and MALDI peptide mass mapping of human proteins, i.e. approximately 60%. The overall performance of the novel on-probe digestion method is comparable with that of the standard in-gel sample preparation...... protocol while being less labour intensive and more cost-effective due to minimal consumption of reagents, enzymes and consumables. Preliminary data obtained on a MALDI quadrupole-TOF tandem mass spectrometer demonstrated the utility of the on-probe digestion protocol for peptide mass mapping and peptide...

  18. Protein digestion: An overview of the available techniques and recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Switzar, L.; Giera, M.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Several proteomics approaches are available that are defined by the level (protein or peptide) at which analysis takes place. The most widely applied method still is bottom-up proteomics where the protein is digested into peptides that can be efficiently analyzed with a wide range of LC-MS or

  19. Super-atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry and its application to ultrafast online protein digestion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2016-06-01

    Ion source pressure plays a significant role in the process of ionization and the subsequent ion transmission inside a mass spectrometer. Pressurizing the ion source to a gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a relatively new approach that aims to further improve the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization sources. For example, under a super-atmospheric pressure environment, a stable electrospray can be sustained for liquid with high surface tension such as pure water, because of the suppression of electric discharge. Even for nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI), which is known to work with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity can also be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source is pressurized. A brief review on the development of super-atmospheric pressure ion sources, including high-pressure electrospray, field desorption and superheated ESI, and the strategies to interface these ion sources to a mass spectrometer will be given. Using a recent ESI prototype with an operating temperature at 220 °C under 27 atm, we also demonstrate that it is possible to achieve an online Asp-specific protein digestion analysis in which the whole processes of digestion, ionization and MS acquisition could be completed on the order of a few seconds. This method is fast, and the reaction can even be monitored on a near-real-time basis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Digestibility of animal and vegetable protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles, Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe dos Santos Cipriano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the apparent digestibility coefficients of energy, protein, and amino acids in protein ingredients by pirarucu juveniles. A test was conducted with six protein ingredients: meat and bone meal, fish meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry by-product meal, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal. Three repetitions were used for each tested ingredient. A reference feed was used with 430 g kg−1 crude protein and 19.63 kJ g−1 gross energy. The test feeds consisted of the replacement of 30% of the reference feeds with the test ingredients. Chromium oxide was added to the feeds at 1 g kg−1 as an external marker. Eighteen juveniles with an average weight of 235±36 g were used. The best apparent digestibility coefficients of protein were found for fish meal, followed by the poultry by-product meal and meat and bone meal. However, except for gluten, all the tested ingredients presented protein digestibilities above 0.70. The crude energy apparent digestibility coefficient was higher for animal ingredients, above 0.75, than for vegetable ingredients, which presented values below 0.60. Pirarucu efficiently uses the protein from the tested ingredients, regardless of origin. However, it has a preferential ability to use the energy from animal ingredients.

  1. Determination of denaturated proteins and biotoxins by on-line size-exclusion chromatography-digestion-liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol, J.; Gorseling, M.C.J.K.; Jong, C.F. de; Lingeman, H.; Kientz, C.E.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    A multidimensional analytical method for the rapid determination and identification of proteins has been developed. The method is based on the size-exclusion fractionation of protein-containing samples, subsequent on-line trypsin digestion and desalination, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid

  2. Microbial and nutritional regulation of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.

  3. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  4. Lipo-Protein Emulsion Structure in the Diet Affects Protein Digestion Kinetics, Intestinal Mucosa Parameters and Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion; Gaudichon, Claire; Blachier, François

    2018-01-01

    Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We test the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. Rats (n = 40) are fed for 3 weeks with two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and microstructure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingest a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE test meal and are euthanized 0, 15 min, 1 h, and 5 h later. 15 N enrichment in intestinal contents and blood are measured. Gastric emptying, protein digestion kinetics, 15 N absorption, and incorporation in blood protein and urea are faster with LFE than GCE. At 15 min time point, LFE group shows higher increase in GIP portal levels than GCE. Three weeks of dietary adaptation leads to higher expression of cationic amino acid transporters in ileum of LFE compared to GCE. LFE diet raises cecal butyrate and isovalerate proportion relative to GCE, suggesting increased protein fermentation. LFE diet increases fecal Parabacteroides relative abundance but decreases Bifidobacterium, Sutterella, Parasutterella genera, and Clostridium cluster XIV abundance. Protein emulsion structure regulates digestion kinetics and gastrointestinal physiology, and could be targeted to improve food health value. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Lipo-protein emulsion structure in the diet affects protein digestion kinetics, intestinal mucosa parameters and microbiota composition

    OpenAIRE

    Oberli, Marion; Douard, Véronique; Beaumont, Martin; Jaoui, Daphné; Devime, Fabienne; Laurent, Sandy; Chaumontet, Catherine; Mat, Damien; Le Feunteun, Steven; Michon, Camille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Souchon, Isabelle; Leclerc, Marion

    2017-01-01

    SCOPE: Food structure is a key factor controlling digestion and nutrient absorption. We tested the hypothesis that protein emulsion structure in the diet may affect digestive and absorptive processes. METHODS & RESULTS: Rats (n = 40) were fed for 3 weeks two diets chemically identical but based on lipid-protein liquid-fine (LFE) or gelled-coarse (GCE) emulsions that differ at the macro- and micro-structure levels. After an overnight fasting, they ingested a 15 N-labeled LFE or GCE te...

  6. Phosphopeptide Enrichment by Covalent Chromatography after Derivatization of Protein Digests Immobilized on Reversed-Phase Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    A rugged sample-preparation method for comprehensive affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests has been developed. The method uses a series of chemical reactions to incorporate efficiently and specifically a thiol-functionalized affinity tag into the analyte by barium hydroxide catalyzed β-elimination with Michael addition using 2-aminoethanethiol as nucleophile and subsequent thiolation of the resulting amino group with sulfosuccinimidyl-2-(biotinamido) ethyl-1,3-dithiopropionate. Gentle oxidation of cysteine residues, followed by acetylation of α- and ε-amino groups before these reactions, ensured selectivity of reversible capture of the modified phosphopeptides by covalent chromatography on activated thiol sepharose. The use of C18 reversed-phase supports as a miniaturized reaction bed facilitated optimization of the individual modification steps for throughput and completeness of derivatization. Reagents were exchanged directly on the supports, eliminating sample transfer between the reaction steps and thus, allowing the immobilized analyte to be carried through the multistep reaction scheme with minimal sample loss. The use of this sample-preparation method for phosphopeptide enrichment was demonstrated with low-level amounts of in-gel-digested protein. As applied to tryptic digests of α-S1- and β-casein, the method enabled the enrichment and detection of the phosphorylated peptides contained in the mixture, including the tetraphosphorylated species of β-casein, which has escaped chemical procedures reported previously. The isolates proved highly suitable for mapping the sites of phosphorylation by collisionally induced dissociation. β-Elimination, with consecutive Michael addition, expanded the use of the solid-phase-based enrichment strategy to phosphothreonyl peptides and to phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides derived from proline-directed kinase substrates and to their O-sulfono- and O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O

  7. Investigation of protein digestibility and amino acid absorption in different segments of porcine digestive tract. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Voelker, T.; Hennig, U.; Wuensche, J.; Bock, H.D.; Zebrowska, T.; Buraczewska, L.

    1979-01-01

    In 4 pigs (live weight 63 kg) with re-entrance cannulae in the duodenum as well as in the ileocecal region intake, excretion and flow rate of protein, methionine and 35 S were measured after supplementary oral application of 35 S-methionine to a wheat-wheat gluten-lysine diet and a protein-free diet, respectively, over a period of 7 days. For both the N and the methionine metabolism patterns were outlined according to the measured values and with the aid of a compartment model. The endogenous and exogenous levels of proteins and methionine in the duodenum, ileum and feces were estimated

  8. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, K.M.; Christensen, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125 I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  9. Levels of digestible protein to surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudoplatystoma sp. is species of carnivorous fish that require special attention in the diet offered. This work had the objective to determine the digestible protein requirement of juvenile the Pseudoplatystoma sp. reared in net cages. The test consisted of four isoenergetic diets (2606.69 ± 39.16 kcal kg-1 of digestible energy containing increasing levels of digestible protein (23, 24, 26 and 28%PD provided to juveniles of surubim (157.35±11.23g for five months. The parameters of growth, fillet composition, metabolic liver enzymes and morphometry of the intestine and liver were analyzed in completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates. An increase of protein in the diet provided better weight gain. The metabolic liver enzymes increased in fish fed 24PD. The histopathological changes were not observed in the liver of the fish. The bowel histology showed adaptation to increased protein in the diet until the 26 level PD. juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma sp. Were demanding in digestible protein, showing the best results of production performance and nutrient use efficiency with the diet containing 28%PD.

  10. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  11. Silicate minerals for CO2 scavenging from biogas in Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) is a novel concept that integrates gas upgrading with anaerobic digestion by selective dissolution of CO2 at elevated biogas pressure. However, accumulation of CO2 and fatty acids after anaerobic digestion of glucose resulted in pH 3–5, which is

  12. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  13. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  14. Down scaled Kjeldahl digestion and flow injection conductometric system for determination of protein content in some traditional northern Thai foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2017-09-01

    A flow injection conductometric (FIC) system for determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was developed for estimating total protein content in food. A small scale Kjeldahl digestion was performed with a short digestion time of only 20min. The digested solution was injected into the FIC system, and TKN was converted to ammonia gas in an alkaline donor stream of the system. The gas diffused through a membrane and dissolved into an acceptor stream causing an increase in conductivity as detected by a detector and recorded as a peak. Under the optimum condition, a linear calibration graph in the range of 4.00-100.00mgL -1 was obtained with LOD of 0.05mgL -1 . A good precision (0.04% RSD, n=11, 30.00mgNL -1 ) and high sample throughput of 72h -1 was achieved. The method was applied for determination of protein in some traditional northern Thai foods, revealing that they are good sources of proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a concentrate of pea antinutritional factors on pea protein digestibility in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guen, M.P. Le; Huisman, J.; Guéguen, J.; Beelen, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to investigate the apparent ileal digestibility of raw pea (Pisum sativum) and two of its components - an isolate of its proteins and a concentrate of its proteinaceous antinutritional factors (ANFs). Three varieties of peas were used: spring varieties Finale and

  16. Phytase studies in pigs and poultry: effect on protein digestion and energy utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kies, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Phytase is applied for improving digestibility of phosphorus in pig and poultry diets. Indepen-dently, phytase also improves animal performance. The mechanisms to explain this effect were investigated and quantified. Protein can be complexed with phytate, especially under the acid conditions that

  17. Thermoresponsive Arrays Patterned via Photoclick Chemistry: Smart MALDI Plate for Protein Digest Enrichment, Desalting, and Direct MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao; Hu, Junjie; Chao, Zhicong; Liu, Ying; Ju, Huangxian; Cheng, Quan

    2018-01-10

    Sample desalting and concentration are crucial steps before matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis. Current sample pretreatment approaches require tedious fabrication and operation procedures, which are unamenable to high-throughput analysis and also result in sample loss. Here, we report the development of a smart MALDI substrate for on-plate desalting, enrichment, and direct MS analysis of protein digests based on thermoresponsive, hydrophilic/hydrophobic transition of surface-grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microarrays. Superhydrophilic 1-thioglycerol microwells are first constructed on alkyne-silane-functionalized rough indium tin oxide substrates based on two sequential thiol-yne photoclick reactions, whereas the surrounding regions are modified with hydrophobic 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol. Surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization is then triggered in microwells to form PNIPAM arrays, which facilitate sample loading and enrichment of protein digests by concentrating large-volume samples into small dots and achieving on-plate desalting through PNIPAM configuration change at elevated temperature. The smart MALDI plate shows high performance for mass spectrometric analysis of cytochrome c and neurotensin in the presence of 1 M urea and 100 mM NaHCO 3 , as well as improved detection sensitivity and high sequence coverage for α-casein and cytochrome c digests in femtomole range. The work presents a versatile sample pretreatment platform with great potential for proteomic research.

  18. Label-Free Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteomes Using the Multienzyme Digestion-Filter Aided Sample Preparation (MED-FASP) and "Total Protein Approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R

    2017-01-01

    Determination of proteome composition and measuring of changes in protein titers provide important information with a substantial value for studying mitochondria.This chapter describes a workflow for the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial proteome with a focus on sample preparation and quantitative analysis of the data. The workflow involves the multienzyme digestion-filter aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) protocol enabling efficient extraction of proteins and high rate of protein-to-peptide conversion. Consecutive protein digestion with Lys C and trypsin enables generation of peptide fractions with minimal overlap, largely increases the number of identified proteins, and extends their sequence coverage. Abundances of proteins identified by multiple peptides can be assessed by the "Total Protein Approach."

  19. Diurnal variation in ruminal pH on the digestibility of highly digestible perennial ryegrass during continuous culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Thorne, P L; Egan, A R

    2004-06-01

    Dairy cows grazing high-digestibility pastures exhibit pronounced diurnal variation in ruminal pH, with pH being below values considered optimal for digestion. Using a dual-flow continuous culture system, the hypothesis that minimizing diurnal variation in pH would improve digestion of pasture when pH was low, but not at a higher pH, was tested. Four treatments were imposed, with pH either allowed to exhibit normal diurnal variation around an average pH of 6.1 or 5.6, or maintained at constant pH. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four, 9-d experimental periods. A constant pH at 5.6 compared with a constant pH of 6.1 reduced the digestibility of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 7, 14, and 21%, respectively. When pH was allowed to vary (averaging 5.6), digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF were reduced by 15,30, and 36%, respectively, compared with pH varying at 6.1. There was little difference in digestion parameters when pH was either constant or varied with an average pH of 6.1. However, when average pH was 5.6, maintaining a constant pH significantly increased digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF by 5, 25, and 24% compared with a pH that exhibited normal diurnal variation. These in vitro results show that gains in digestibility and potential milk production can be made by minimizing diurnal variation in ruminal pH, but only when ruminal pH is low (5.6). However, larger gains in productivity can be achieved by increasing average daily ruminal pH from 5.6 to 6.1.

  20. New stable isotope method to measure protein digestibility and response to pancreatic enzyme intake in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, M P K J; Com, G; Anderson, P J; Deutz, N E P

    2014-12-01

    Adequate protein intake and digestion are necessary to prevent muscle wasting in cystic fibrosis (CF). Accurate and easy-to-use methodology to quantify protein maldigestion is lacking in CF. To measure protein digestibility and the response to pancreatic enzyme intake in CF by using a new stable isotope methodology. In 19 CF and 8 healthy subjects, protein digestibility was quantified during continuous (sip) feeding for 6 h by adding (15)N-labeled spirulina protein and L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (PHE) to the nutrition and measuring plasma ratio [(15)N]PHE to [(2)H5]PHE. Pancreatic enzymes were ingested after 2 h in CF and the response in protein digestibility was assessed. To exclude difference in mucosal function, postabsorptive whole-body citrulline (CIT) production rate was measured by L-[5-(13)C-5,5-(2)H2]-CIT pulse and blood samples were taken to analyze tracer-tracee ratios. Protein digestibility was severely reduced in the CF group (47% of healthy subjects; P digestibility in CF until 90% of values obtained by healthy subjects. Maximal digestibility was reached at 100 min and maintained for 80 min. Stratification into CF children (n = 10) and adults showed comparable values for protein digestibility and similar kinetic responses to pancreatic enzyme intake. Whole-body citrulline production was elevated in CF indicating preserved mucosal function. Protein digestibility is severely compromised in patients with CF as measured by this novel and easy-to-use stable isotope approach. Pancreatic enzymes are able to normalize protein digestibility in CF, albeit with a severe delay. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov = NCT01494909. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of meat cooking on physicochemical state and in vitro digestibility of myofibrillar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santé-Lhoutellier, Veronique; Astruc, Thierry; Marinova, Penka; Greve, Eleonore; Gatellier, Philippe

    2008-02-27

    The effect of meat cooking was measured on myofibrillar proteins from bovine M. Rectus abdominis. The heating treatment involved two temperatures (100 degrees C during 5, 15, 30, and 45 min and 270 degrees C during 1 min). Protein oxidation induced by cooking was evaluated by the level of carbonyl and free thiol groups. Structural modifications of proteins were assessed by the measurement of their surface hydrophobicity and by their aggregation state. With the aim of evaluating the impact of heat treatment on the digestive process, myofibrillar proteins were then exposed to proteases of the digestive tract (pepsin, trypsin, and alpha-chymotrypsin) in conditions of pH and temperature that simulate stomach and duodenal digestion. Meat cooking affected myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases, with increased or decreased rates, depending on the nature of the protease and the time/temperature parameters. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein carbonylation (p<0.01) and aggregation (p<0.05) induced by cooking and proteolytic susceptibility to pepsin. However, no such correlations have been observed with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin.

  2. Efficient Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgae Biomass: Proteins as a Key Macromolecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena, Jose Antonio; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-06

    Biogas generation is the least complex technology to transform microalgae biomass into bioenergy. Since hydrolysis has been pointed out as the rate limiting stage of anaerobic digestion, the main challenge for an efficient biogas production is the optimization of cell wall disruption/hydrolysis. Among all tested pretreatments, enzymatic treatments were demonstrated not only very effective in disruption/hydrolysis but they also revealed the impact of microalgae macromolecular composition in the anaerobic process. Although carbohydrates have been traditionally recognized as the polymers responsible for the low microalgae digestibility, protease addition resulted in the highest organic matter solubilization and the highest methane production. However, protein solubilization during the pretreatment can result in anaerobic digestion inhibition due to the release of large amounts of ammonium nitrogen. The possible solutions to overcome these negative effects include the reduction of protein biomass levels by culturing the microalgae in low nitrogen media and the use of ammonia tolerant anaerobic inocula. Overall, this review is intended to evidence the relevance of microalgae proteins in different stages of anaerobic digestion, namely hydrolysis and methanogenesis.

  3. Anti-nutritional factors and digestibility of protein in Cayocar brasiliense seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Campos SILVESTRINI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian Cerrado presents a wide variety of natural products, including the Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. The important factor that determines the dietary and nutritional ideality of protein is degestitibility. This work aims to evaluate the protein digestibility of Pequi seeds and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The protein Pequi almonds were extracted, toasted and untoasted. Evaluation digestibility was structurally characterized by SDS-PAGE 15%, which can be used to analyze simulated gastric fluid (SFG and digestion in intestinal fluid (SFI in the presence of pepsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin. The extract from Pequi almonds showed inhibitory activity and was not detected hemagglutination. The intensity of the bands according to 2S albumins, after heat treatment, did not decrease in comparison to the condition native, significantly. In the crisp crude extract, which was incubated under SGF and SIF, the intensity of the corresponding bands at 8 and 3 kDa was resistant to SGF and indigestible after 4 hours under SIF. The characterization of Pequi almonds demonstrated that the product of the crude extract has anti-nutritional factors, which were confirmed by evaluating digestibility.

  4. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  5. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, John K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for four animal proteins and four plant proteins with values calculated as recommended for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), but determined in pigs instead of in rats. Values for standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of crude protein (CP) and standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) were calculated for whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC), milk protein concentrate (MPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), pea protein concentrate (PPC), soya protein isolate (SPI), soya flour and whole-grain wheat. The PDCAAS-like values were calculated using the STTD of CP to estimate AA digestibility and values for DIAAS were calculated from values for SID of AA. Results indicated that values for SID of most indispensable AA in WPI, WPC and MPC were greater (P<0·05) than for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat. With the exception of arginine and tryptophan, the SID of all indispensable AA in SPI was greater (P<0·05) than in soya flour, and with the exception of threonine, the SID of all indispensable AA in wheat was less (P<0·05) than in all other ingredients. If the same scoring pattern for children between 6 and 36 months was used to calculate PDCAAS-like values and DIAAS, PDCAAS-like values were greater (P<0·05) than DIAAS values for SMP, PPC, SPI, soya flour and wheat indicating that PDCAAS-like values estimated in pigs may overestimate the quality of these proteins.

  7. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  8. In vitro relative protein digestibility and lipoxygenase activity used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... An intervarietal similarity was also shown in dehulled seeds with coefficients of variation at 11.9%, 3.49%, 2.3%, 4.0% for moisture, crude protein, ether extract and ash respectively, except for the fibre content which had a higher coefficient of variation of 31.62%. Significant differences ...

  9. Functional and anti-nutritional properties, in-vitro protein digestibility and amino acid composition of dehulled afzelia africana seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogungbenle, H.N.; Omaejalile, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of Afzelia africana seed flour showed that the seeds possessed high water absorption capacity (128.31%), good oil absorption capacity (588.49%) and fairly good emulsion property (35.25%). However, it had the Least gelation concentration (6 .00% w/v) and foaming properties ( 8.00%,3 .00%). Anti-nutritional factors were very low, with the highest being phytate (13.59/o) and tannin the least (0.43%). Total amino acid composition was 796.6 mg/g protein. Essentiaal amino acids (48.5%)w ere in high proportion with in-vitro digestibility of 71.5%. (author)

  10. Strategies in protein sequencing and characterization: Multi-enzyme digestion coupled with alternate CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardiello, Donatella; Palermo, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.palermo@unifg.it; Natale, Anna; Quinto, Maurizio; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Multi-enzyme digestion for protein sequencing and characterization by CID/ETD. • Simultaneous use of trypsin/chymotrypsin for the maximization of sequence. • Identification of PTMs, sequence variants and species-specific residues. • Increase of accuracy in sequence assignments by orthogonal fragmentation techniques. - Abstract: A strategy based on a simultaneous multi-enzyme digestion coupled with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) was developed for protein sequencing and characterization, as a valid alternative platform in ion-trap based proteomics. The effect of different proteolytic procedures using chymotrypsin, trypsin, a combination of both, and Lys-C, was carefully evaluated in terms of number of identified peptides, protein coverage, and score distribution. A systematic comparison between CID and ETD is shown for the analysis of peptides originating from the in-solution digestion of standard caseins. The best results were achieved with a trypsin/chymotrypsin mix combined with CID and ETD operating in alternating mode. A post-database search validation of MS/MS dataset was performed, then, the matched peptides were cross checked by the evaluation of ion scores, rank, number of experimental product ions, and their relative abundances in the MS/MS spectrum. By integrated CID/ETD experiments, high quality-spectra have been obtained, thus allowing a confirmation of spectral information and an increase of accuracy in peptide sequence assignments. Overlapping peptides, produced throughout the proteins, reduce the ambiguity in mapping modifications between natural variants and animal species, and allow the characterization of post translational modifications. The advantages of using the enzymatic mix trypsin/chymotrypsin were confirmed by the nanoLC and CID/ETD tandem mass spectrometry of goat milk proteins, previously separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

  11. Energy efficiency of digestible protein, fat and carbohydrate utilisation for growth in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Johan W; Haidar, Mahmoud N; Geurden, Inge; Heinsbroek, Leon T N; Kaushik, Sachi J

    2018-04-01

    Currently, energy evaluation of fish feeds is performed on a digestible energy basis. In contrast to net energy (NE) evaluation systems, digestible energy evaluation systems do not differentiate between the different types of digested nutrients regarding their potential for growth. The aim was to develop an NE evaluation for fish by estimating the energy efficiency of digestible nutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) and to assess whether these efficiencies differed between Nile tilapia and rainbow trout. Two data sets were constructed. The tilapia and rainbow data set contained, respectively, eight and nine experiments in which the digestibility of protein, fat and energy and the complete energy balances for twenty-three and forty-five diets was measured. The digestible protein (dCP), digestible fat (dFat) and digestible carbohydrate intakes (dCarb) were calculated. By multiple regression analysis, retained energy (RE) was related to dCP, dFat and dCarb. In tilapia, all digestible nutrients were linearly related to RE (Pefficiency of dCP, dFat and dCarb was 49, 91 and 66 %, respectively, showing large similarity with pigs. Tilapia and trout had similar energy efficiencies of dCP (49 v. 57 %) and dFat (91 v. 84 %), but differed regarding dCarb.

  12. Impact of Protein Gel Porosity on the Digestion of Lipid Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anwesha; Juan, Jean-Marc; Kolodziejczyk, Eric; Acquistapace, Simone; Donato-Capel, Laurence; Wooster, Tim J

    2015-10-14

    The present study sought to understand how the microstructure of protein gels impacts lipolysis of gelled emulsions. The selected system consisted of an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion embedded within gelatin gels. The gelatin-gelled emulsions consisted of a discontinuous network of aggregated emulsion droplets (mesoscale), dispersed within a continuous network of gelatin (microscale). The viscoelastic properties of the gelled emulsions were dominated by the rheological behavior of the gelatin, suggesting a gelatin continuous microstructure rather than a bicontinuous gel. A direct relationship between the speed of fat digestion and gel average mesh size was found, indicating that the digestion of fat within gelatin-gelled emulsions is controlled by the ability of the gel's microstructure to slow lipase diffusion to the interface of fat droplets. Digestion of fat was facilitated by gradual breakdown of the gelatin network, which mainly occurred via surface erosion catalyzed by proteases. Overall, this work has demonstrated that the lipolysis kinetics of gelled emulsions is driven by the microstructure of protein gels; this knowledge is key for the future development of microstructures to control fat digestion and/or the delivery of nutrients to different parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone

    2014-01-01

    rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage...... of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were...... taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg...

  14. Prediction of crude protein digestibility of animal by-product meals for dogs by the protein solubility in pepsin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Iris M; Sakomura, Nilva K; Pontieri, Cristiana F F; Rebelato, Aline; Putarov, Thaila C; Malheiros, Euclides B; Gomes, Márcia de O S; Castrillo, Carlos; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Animal by-product meals have large variability in crude protein (CP) content and digestibility. In vivo digestibility procedures are precise but laborious, and in vitro methods could be an alternative to evaluate and classify these ingredients. The present study reports prediction equations to estimate the CP digestibility of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PM) using the protein solubility in pepsin method (PSP). Total tract CP digestibility of eight MBM and eight PM samples was determined in dogs by the substitution method. A basal diet was formulated for dog maintenance, and sixteen diets were produced by mixing 70 % of the basal diet and 30 % of each tested meal. Six dogs per diet were used to determine ingredient digestibility. In addition, PSP of the MBM and PM samples was determined using three pepsin concentrations: 0·02, 0·002 and 0·0002 %. The CP content of MBM and PM ranged from 39 to 46 % and 57 to 69 %, respectively, and their mean CP digestibility by dogs was 76 (2·4) and 85 (2·6) %, respectively. The pepsin concentration with higher Pearson correlation coefficients with the in vivo results were 0·0002 % for MBM (r 0·380; P = 0·008) and 0·02 % for PM (r 0·482; P = 0·005). The relationship between the in vivo and in vitro results was better explained by the following equations: CP digestibility of MBM = 61·7 + 0·2644 × PSP at 0·0002 % (P = 0·008; R (2) 0·126); and CP digestibility of PM = 54·1 + 0·3833 × PSP at 0·02 % (P = 0·005; R (2) 0·216). Although significant, the coefficients of determination were low, indicating that the models were weak and need to be used with caution.

  15. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  16. Fecal collection methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Verardino De Stéfani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate methods for the determination of protein digestibility in bullfrogs are important for the understanding of nutrient utilization. Therefore, this study evaluated two methods of feces collection: intestinal dissection and fecal decantation, using cylindric-conical tanks. Frogs were fed with a commercial diet (45% crude protein which was ground and supplemented with 0.5% chromium oxide III. The frogs were fasted 48h before force-feeding (5% of the animal's live weight. For the decantation method, the animals were sacrificed 36 h after force-feeding and feces were collected directly from the large intestine. For the sedimentation method, feces were collected when they appeared in the tubes attached to the front end of the cylindric tanks. No significant difference (P>0.05 in the apparent digestibility coefficients of crude protein for dietary was observed between the methods tested (74.0% and 76.4% for the dissection and decantation methods, respectively. In conclusion, both methods can be used for the determination of protein digestibility of bullfrog feeds

  17. A capillary monolithic trypsin reactor for efficient protein digestion in online and offline coupling to ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    We describe the preparation of a capillary trypsin immobilized monolithic enzyme reactor (IMER) for a rapid and efficient digestion of proteins down to the femtomole level. Trypsin was immobilized on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol dimethycrylate) monolith using the glutaraldehyde technique. Digestion efficiencies of the IMER were evaluated using model proteins and protein mixtures as well as chemically cross-linked lysozyme regarding the addition of denaturants and increasing digestion temperature. The trypsin IMER described herein is applicable for the digestion of protein mixtures. Even at a 1000-fold molar excess of one protein, low-abundance proteins are readily identified, in combination with MS/MS analysis. An online setup of the IMER with reversed phase nano-HPLC separation and nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis was established. The great potential of the trypsin IMER for proteomics applications comprise short digestion times in the range of seconds to minutes, in addition to improved digestion efficiencies, compared to in-solution digestion.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  19. Studies on voltammetric determination of cadmium in samples containing native and digested proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@ch.pw.edu.pl; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Proteins exhibit diverse impact on the DPASV cadmium signals. • Proteins subjected to HNO{sub 3} introduce less interference, than the native ones. • Optimal amount of SDS depends on the kind of protein. • Presence of thiolated coating agents of QDs do not influence the analysis. - Abstract: This work focuses on determination of cadmium ions using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on thin film mercury electrode in conditions corresponding to those obtained after digestion of cadmium-based quantum dots and their conjugates. It presents the impact of selected proteins, including potential receptors and surface blocking agents on the voltammetric determination of cadmium. Experiments regarding elimination of interferences related to proteins presence using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are also shown. Effect of SDS on selected analytical parameters and simplicity of analyses carried out was investigated in the framework of current studies. The significant differences of influence among tested proteins on ASV cadmium determination, as well as the variability in SDS effectiveness as the antifouling agent were observed and explained. This work is especially important for those, who design new bioassays and biosensors with a use of quantum dots as electrochemical labels, as it shows what problems may arise from presence of native and digested proteins in tested samples.

  20. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  1. Reg proteins and their roles in inflammation and cancer of the human digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Hao; Lai, Maode

    2013-01-01

    The regenerating gene (Reg) family is a group of small molecules that includes four members found in various species, although only three are found in human tissues. Their expression is stimulated by certain growth factors or cytokines. The Reg family plays different roles in proliferation, migration, and anti-apoptosis through activating different signaling pathways. Their dysexpression is closely associated with a number of human conditions and diseases such as inflammation and cancer, especially in the human digestive system. Clinically, upregulation of Reg proteins is usually demonstrated in histological sections and sera from cancer patients. Therefore, Reg proteins can predict the progression and prognosis of cancers, especially those of the digestive tract, and can also act as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  2. Autogenerative high pressure digestion: anaerobic digestion and biogas upgrading in a single step reactor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Fermoso, F.G.; Weijma, J.; Zagt, K.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional anaerobic digestion is a widely applied technology to produce biogas from organic wastes and residues. The biogas calorific value depends on the CH4 content which generally ranges between 55 and 65%. Biogas upgrading to so-called ‘green gas’, with natural gas quality, generally proceeds

  3. NUTRALYS® pea protein: characterization of in vitro gastric digestion and in vivo gastrointestinal peptide responses relevant to satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Overduin

    2015-04-01

    Design: Under in vitro simulated gastric conditions, the digestion of NUTRALYS® pea protein was compared to that of two dairy proteins, slow-digestible casein and fast-digestible whey. In vivo, blood glucose and gastrointestinal hormonal (insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and peptide YY [PYY] responses were monitored in nine male Wistar rats following isocaloric (11 kcal meals containing 35 energy% of either NUTRALYS® pea protein, whey protein, or carbohydrate (non-protein. Results: In vitro, pea protein transiently aggregated into particles, whereas casein formed a more enduring protein network and whey protein remained dissolved. Pea-protein particle size ranged from 50 to 500 µm, well below the 2 mm threshold for gastric retention in humans. In vivo, pea-protein and whey-protein meals induced comparable responses for CCK, GLP-1, and PYY, that is, the anorexigenic hormones. Pea protein induced weaker initial, but equal 3-h integrated ghrelin and insulin responses than whey protein, possibly due to the slower gastric breakdown of pea protein observed in vitro. Two hours after meals, CCK levels were more elevated in the case of protein meals compared to that of non-protein meals. Conclusions: These results indicate that 1 pea protein transiently aggregates in the stomach and has an intermediately fast intestinal bioavailability in between that of whey and casein; 2 pea-protein- and dairy-protein-containing meals were comparably efficacious in triggering gastrointestinal satiety signals.

  4. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  5. Rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and its intestinal digestibility after steam flaking of cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrenková, M; Formelová, Z; Ceresnáková, Z

    2018-01-01

    While it is known that heat treatment of cereal grains generally improves the nutritional value for ruminants, simultaneous information on rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of the rumen by-pass is scarce, especially for non-starch constituents. The effect of steam flaking at 90°C...... flaking on chemical composition of cereal grains (crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and starch) were observed. The protein fractions that are relevant to rumen degradability were significantly influenced by the steam flaking: the non-protein nitrogen fraction (A) was reduced (P...... hand, steam flaking markedly increased buffer insoluble but neutral detergent soluble protein fraction (B2) by 15–25% for all three cereal grains, whereas effects on B3 fraction were not significant. Steam flaking was also associated with an increase of the rumen undegradable protein fraction (C...

  6. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  7. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  8. DIGESTIBLE VALINE REQUIREMENTS IN LOW-PROTEIN DIETS FOR BROILERS CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible valine in diets with reduced crude protein on the performance, carcass yield and muscle fiber diameter of male broilers during the pre-starter (1 to 8 d of age, starter (9 to 21 d of age and grower phases (21 to 42 d of age. A total of 1,080 chickens in the pre-starter phase, 900 in the starter phase and 864 in the grower phase were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, consisting of a control positive diet (C+ and diets with 2 percentage points (p.p. reduction of crude protein level and five graded levels of digestible valine (Val, with six replicates of 30, 25 and 24 birds per experimental unit, respectively. The recommended level of TID Val in the low-protein diets for broilers in the pre-starter, starter and grower stages were 1.028; 0.905 and 0.789%, respectively. The reduction of 2 percentage points of the crude protein level in diets based on corn and soybean meal impaired (p ≤0.05 the feed conversion ratio in the starter and grower stages. Likewise, the reduced-protein diets decreased (p ≤0.05 muscle fiber diameter, but did not affect (p> 0.05 carcass and parts yields, or abdominal fat percentage at 42 days.

  9. Protein enrichment, cellulase production and in vitro digestion improvement of pangolagrass with solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chan-Chin; Liu, Li-Yun; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2012-02-01

    Pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens Stent, is a major grass for cow feeding, and may be a good substrate for protein enrichment. To improve the quality of pangolagrass for animal feeding, cellulolytic microbes were isolated from various sources and cultivated with solid state fermentation to enhance the protein content, cellulase production and in vitro digestion. The microbes, culture conditions and culture media were studied. Cellulolytic microbes were isolated from pangolagrass and its extracts, and composts. Pangolagrass supplemented with nitrogen and minerals was used to cultivate the cellulolytic microbes with solid state fermentation. The optimal conditions for protein enrichment and cellulase activity were pangolagrass substrate at initial moisture 65-70%, initial pH 6.0-8.0, supplementation with 2.5% (NH(4))(2)SO(4), 2.5% KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) mixture (2:1, w/w) and 0.3% MgSO(4).7H(2)O and cultivated at 30(o)C for 6 days. The protein content of fermented pangolagrass increased from 5.97-6.28% to 7.09-16.96% and the in vitro digestion improved from 4.11-4.38% to 6.08-19.89% with the inoculation of cellulolytic microbes by solid state fermentation. Each 1 g of dried substrate yielded Avicelase 0.93-3.76 U, carboxymethylcellulase 1.39-4.98 U and β-glucosidase 1.20-6.01 U. The isolate Myceliophthora lutea CL3 was the strain found to be the best at improving the quality of pangolagrass for animal feeding with solid state fermentation. Solid state fermentation of pangolagrass inoculated with appropriate microbes is a feasible process to enrich protein content, increase in vitro digestibility and improve the quality for animal feeding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. In vitro chemopreventive properties of peptides released from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, Rubén; Miralles, Beatriz; Carrillo, Wilman; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2018-03-01

    Because of the continuous and direct interaction between the digestive tract and foods, dietary compounds represent an interesting source of chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal health. In this study, the influence of a standardized static in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model on the release of peptides with chemopreventive potential from quinoa protein was investigated. Gastroduodenal digests and fractions collected by ultrafiltration were evaluated for their in plate oxygen radical absorbance capacity and in vitro colon cancer cell viability inhibitory activity. Highest effects were observed in the digests obtained during the intestinal phase, with fraction containing peptides 5kDa showing the greatest anti-cancer effects. Seventeen potential bioactive peptides derived from quinoa proteins have been identified. These proteins might be utilized as new ingredients in the development of functional foods or nutraceuticals with the aim of reducing oxidative stress-associated diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ruminally undegradable protein content and digestibility for forages using the mobile bag in situ technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, C D; Klopfenstein, T J; Rolfe, K M; Griffin, W A; Lamothe, M J; Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Schacht, W H; Schroeder, P

    2013-06-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate RUP content and digestibility for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, upland native range, and warm-season grasses. Samples were collected from esophageally cannulated cows or ruminally cannulated steers. Forages were ruminally incubated in in situ bags for durations of time based on 75% of total mean retention time, which was based on IVDMD and rate of passage calculations. One-half of the bags were duodenally incubated and excreted in the feces, and NDIN was analyzed on all bags for RUP calculations. Crude protein was numerically greater early in the growing cycle for grasses compared with later as grasses matured (P ≤ 0.32). The RUP was 13.3%, 13.3%, and 19.7% of CP for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. These values tended to be lower early in the growth cycle and increased (linear P ≤ 0.13) as forages matured for warm-season grasses and subirrigated meadows. Because both CP and RUP content change throughout the growing season, expressing RUP as a percentage of DM gives more consistent averages compared with RUP as a percentage of CP. Coefficient of variation values for RUP as a percentage of DM averaged 0.21 over all 4 experiments compared with 0.26 for RUP as a percentage of CP. Average RUP as a percentage of DM was 2.03%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range, respectively. Total tract indigestible protein (TTIDP) linearly increased with maturity for subirrigated meadow samples (P RUP varied considerably, ranging from 25% to 60%. Subirrigated meadow, native range, and smooth bromegrass samples tended to have linear decreases (P ≤ 0.11) in RUP digestibility throughout the growing season. The amount of digested RUP was fairly consistent across experiments and averages for smooth bromegrass, subirrigated meadow, and upland native range were 0.92%, 0.64%, and 0.49% of DM, respectively. Warm-season grasses in Exp. 2 had

  12. Starch hydrolysis in autogenerative high pressure digestion: Gelatinisation and saccharification as rate limiting steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ding, L.; Weijma, J.; Plugge, C.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Autogenerative high pressure digestion (AHPD) provides an integrated biogas upgrading technology, capable of producing biogas with a CH4 content exceeding 95% at pressures up to 90 bar. Hydrolysis is generally regarded as the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of complex organic matter,

  13. Influence of different levels of concentrate and ruminally undegraded protein on digestive variables in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, D S; Valadares Filho, S C; Tedeschi, L O; Barbosa, A M; Valadares, R F D

    2009-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of 2 levels of diet concentrate (20 and 40% of DM) and 2 levels of ruminally undegraded protein (RUP: 25 and 40% of CP) on nutrient intake, total and partial apparent nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal and physiological variables. Eight Nellore heifers (233 +/- 14 kg of BW) fitted with ruminal, abomasal, and ileal cannulas were used. The animals were held in individual sheltered pens of approximately 15 m(2) and fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h for ad libitum intake. Heifers were allocated in two 4 x 4 Latin square designs, containing 8 heifers, 4 experimental periods, and 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. All statistical analyses were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and chromic oxide (Cr(2)O(3)) were used to estimate digesta fluxes and fecal excretion. Purine derivative (PD) excretion and abomasal purine bases were used to estimate the microbial N (MN) synthesis. No significant interaction (P > 0.10) between dietary levels of RUP and concentrate was observed. There was no effect of treatment (P = 0.24) on DMI. Both markers led to the same estimates of fecal, abomasal, and ileal DM fluxes, and digestibilities of DM and individual nutrients. Ruminal pH was affected by sampling time (P RUP, whereas a quadratic effect (P RUP. The higher level of dietary concentrate led to greater MN yield regardless of the level of RUP. The MN yield and the efficiency of microbial yield estimated from urinary PD excretion produced greater (P RUP and concentrate were observed for ruminal and digestive parameters. Neither RUP nor concentrate level affected DMI. Titanium dioxide showed to be similar to Cr(2)O(3) as an external marker to measure digestibility and nutrient fluxes in cattle.

  14. Processing traits and digestibility of extruded dog foods with soy protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, K S; Sarcinelli, M F; Baller, M A; Putarov, T C; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2018-04-11

    Soya bean protein concentrate (SPC) with two particle sizes were evaluated on extrusion parameters, kibble formation, digestibility and palatability of dog foods. Eight diets were extruded: PBM-control diet based on poultry by-product meal (PBM); GM-a diet in which corn gluten meal (GM) replaced 45% of the diet protein; cSPC15%, cSPC30% and cSPC45%-diets in which SPC of coarse particle size (600 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein; and sSPC15%, sSPC30% and sSPC45%-diets in which SPC of small particle size (200 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein. The digestibility of nutrients was evaluated for the PBM, GM, cSPC45% and sSPC45% diets, using six dogs per food. The PBM, GM and cSPC45% diets were compared for palatability. Data were submitted for analysis of variance, and the means were compared by polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p beans resulted in an ingredient with low fermentable fibre content, which did not alter faecal formation or characteristics. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Nutritive utilization of protein and digestive utilization of fat in two commercial diets designed for clinical enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Campos, M S; Barrionuevo, M; López-Aliaga, I

    1990-01-01

    The digestive and metabolic utilization of protein (50% lactoalbumin + 50% casein) and fat (43.0% butter, 29.5% olive oil, 14.7% soy oil, 9.8% MCT and 3.0% lecithin) provided by two commercial diets used in clinical enteral nutrition (normoproteic, 16.1% protein and 20.8% fat, and hyperproteic, 23.1% protein and 14.9% fat), was studied in adult rats (mean body weight 180 g). The diet containing the greater amount of protein improved the digestive utilization of nitrogen, and although nitrogen retention was optimal, it failed to rise further when the dietary protein supply was increased. The digestive utilization of fat in both diets was excellent.

  16. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Veldkamp, T; Binnendijk, G P; de Veer, R

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP). Two PAP (Daka-58 and Sonac-60) were classified as meat meals, and the remaining 2 (Daka-40 and Sonac-50) were classified as meat and bone meals. First, fecal digestibility of nutrients in the PAP was determined in Lohmann Brown layers. Hens (n = 132) were housed in 22 cages (6 hens/cage) and allotted to 5 dietary treatments. In the PAP diets (4 replicates/treatment), 100 g/kg of CP of animal origin was added, replacing soybean meal and corn (Zea mays) in the basal diet (6 replicates/treatment). The PAP sources differed largely in chemical composition and digestibility coefficients. Energy content (AME(n)) varied from 1,817 (Daka-40) to 3,107 kcal/kg (Sonac-60), and digestible lysine varied from 15.4 (Daka-40) to 28.3 g/kg (Sonac-50). Subsequently, the effect of a control diet (without PAP) vs. 4 PAP diets (50 g/kg of CP of animal origin from the same batches as used in the digestibility study) on performance was determined. All diets were isocaloric (AME(n) = 2,825 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (digestible lysine = 6.8 g/kg). Hens were housed in 40 floor pens (12 hens/pen, 8 pens/treatment) from 20 to 40 wk of age. Feed intake levels of the hens fed the meat and bone meal diets were reduced compared with those of hens fed the meat meal diets, whereas the feed intake level of hens fed the control diet was intermediate. Laying hen performance differed between treatments, being was most favorable for the Sonac-50 treatment and most adverse for the Daka-40 treatment. Differences in laying hen performance seemed to be related partly to differences in feed intake and corresponding amino acid intake.

  17. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  18. Digestibility, chemical compound and protein quality of amaranthus forage at two harvested cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pooria ehsani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amaranth, genus Amaranthus, belongs to the Amaranthaceae family and includes more than 60 species (28. Amaranth forage, is distinguished by high yield performance of up to 70 t/ha (30. Plant maturity was found to affect neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, CP and nitrate content of amaranth forage (27. Several studies (21, 27, 29 have shown that the nutritive value of amaranth as a ruminant feed is equal to, or better than, commonly used forages such as alfalfa. Its favorable chemical analysis (e.g., high crude protein (CP and low lignin ranges from 80 to 285 and from 17 to 73 g/kg DM, respectively and its high dry matter (DM digestibility (590–790 g/kg DM low nitrate and oxalic acid concentrations (below toxic levels suggest that it has potential value as a ruminant feedstuff (21, 23, 27. Materials and Methods The forage was planted in spring at one field (10 ha near Karaj city (Iran. The area is at an altitude of 1215 m above sea level, with a mean annual rainfall and temperature is 305.8 mm and 15C◦, respectively. In the early autumn, samples were harvested by hand from at least 10 locations within the field and pooled to five samples. The dry samples were analyzed for DM (method 930.15, ash (method 924.05 and CP (method 9 84.13 of AOAC (6. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF according to the method of Robertson and Van Soest (35 with NDF and ADF assayed sequentially without a heat stable amylase, and expressed inclusive of residual ash (25. Insoluble CP, soluble CP (SP, true protein (TP, AD insoluble CP (ADICP and ND insoluble CP (NDICP were determined according to Licitra method (15. Nitrate was determined by a colorimetric method (8, and oxalic acid was determined according to Abaza method (2. Ca and Mg were determined by atomic absorption, P was analyzed by spectrophotometer and K by flame emission spectrometer (6. DMD, OMD and DOMD were determined by a two stage

  19. High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste in comparison with mono digestions: stability and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaohu; Duan, Nina; Dong, Bin; Dai, Lingling

    2013-02-01

    System stability and performance of high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of dewatered sludge (DS) and food waste (FW) in comparison with mono digestions were investigated. System stability was improved in co-digestion systems with co-substrate acting as a diluting agent to toxic chemicals like ammonia or Na(+). For high-solids digestion of DS, the addition of FW not only improved system stability but also greatly enhanced volumetric biogas production. For high-solids digestion of FW, the addition of DS could reduce Na(+) concentration and help maintain satisfactory stability during the conversion of FW into biogas. System performances of co-digestion systems were mainly determined by the mixing ratios of DS and FW. Biogas production and volatile solids (VSs) reduction in digestion of the co-mixture of DS and FW increased linearly with higher ratios of FW. A kinetic model, which aimed to forecast the performance of co-digestion and to assist reactor design, was developed from long-term semi-continuous experiments. Maximum VS reduction for DS and FW was estimated to be 44.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and first order constant k was found to be 0.17d(-1) and 0.50 d(-1), respectively. Experimental data of co-digestion were in good conformity to the predictions of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  1. The Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) - A concept for describing protein quality in foods and food ingredients: A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2005-01-01

    Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Score (PDCAAS) is discussed. PDCAAS is now widely used as a routine assay for protein quality evaluation, replacing the more traditional biological methods [e.g., measurement of the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in rats]. PDCAAS is based on comparison of the

  2. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  3. Change of the structure and the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojing; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Wang, Ying; Ou, Changrong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (SS) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into SS group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions. Protein degradation occurred during dry-curing and drying-ripening stages. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and pancreatic proteases increased during the salt curing stage and decreased during the drying-ripening stage. The increase of digestibility could be attributed to the mild oxidation, degradation and unfolding of proteins while the decrease of digestibility was related to the intensive oxidation and aggregation of proteins. Protein degradation was not a main factor of digestibility during the drying-ripening stage. Results demonstrated that the bioavailability loss of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck occurred during the stage of drying-ripening instead of curing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  5. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require......Protein digestion is an integral part of the "shotgun" proteomics approach and commonly requires overnight incubation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. Quadruplicate "shotgun" proteomic analysis of whole yeast lysate demonstrated that Guanidine-Hydrochloride (Gnd-HCl) protein digestion can....... To validate the Gnd-HCl approach, label-free PPI analysis of several GFP-tagged yeast deubiquitinating enzymes was performed. The identification of known interaction partners demonstrates the utility of the optimized Gnd-HCl protocol that is also scalable to the 96 well-plate format....

  6. Antioxidant properties of salmon (Salmo salar L.) protein fraction hydrolysates revealed following their ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Pliszka, Monika; Vegarud, Gerd E

    2016-06-01

    Salmon (Salmo salar L.) myofibryllar protein (MP) and sarcoplasmic protein (SP) were digested with human gastric and duodenal juices and hydrolysed in vitro with commercial pepsin and Corolase PP. The digestion after duodenal juice/Corolase PP caused almost complete breakdown of peptide bonds in MP and SP. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of proteins decreased during both ex vivo digestion and in vitro hydrolysis. The highest value of DPPH(•) scavenging activity was shown for the gastric digest of SP (8.88 ± 0.87%). The ABTS(+•) scavenging activity of MP and SP increased during digestion/hydrolysis. The duodenal digest of SP was characterised by the highest value of ABTS(+•) scavenging activity (72.7 ± 1.2%). In turn, the highest value of ferric-reducing power was determined for the gastric digest of SP (84.8 ± 0.2%). Salmon antioxidant peptides Phe-Ile-Lys-Lys, His-Leu, Ile-Tyr, Pro-His-Leu, Pro-Trp, Val-Pro-Trp were identified in both ex vivo digested and in vitro hydrolysed MP and SP. An antioxidant peptide, Val-Tyr, was additionally detected in the in vitro hydrolysate of SP. The results indicate the salmon myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions as potential sources of antioxidant peptides that could be released in the gastrointestinal tract but their amino acid sequence and quantification vary. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. D-tagatose has low small intestinal digestibility but high large intestinal fermentability in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laerke, H N; Jensen, B B

    1999-05-01

    The digestibility of D-tagatose, its effect on the digestibility of macronutrients and the metabolic response of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract to the ingestion of this carbohydrate were studied in pigs. Eight pigs were fed a low fiber diet comprising 15% sucrose (control group). Another eight pigs were fed a similar diet except that 100 g sucrose per kg diet was replaced by D-tagatose (test group). After 18 d, the pigs were killed and the gastrointestinal contents removed for analysis. The digestibility of D-tagatose was 25.8 +/- 5.6% in the distal third of the small intestine. The small intestinal digestibilities of dry matter (86.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 92.9 +/- 0.9%), gross energy (74.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 80.7 +/- 1.8%) and sucrose (90.4 +/- 2.5 vs. 98.0 +/- 0.5%) were lower (P D-tagatose. Digestibilities of starch, protein and fat did not differ between groups. D-Tagatose, sucrose and starch were fully digested in the large intestine. The fecal digestibilities of energy, dry matter and fat did not differ between the two groups, whereas D-tagatose reduced the fecal digestibility of protein (91.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 93.5 +/- 0.7%, P D-Tagatose served as a substrate for the microbiota in the cecum and proximal colon as indicated by a reduced pH, and a greater ATP concentration, adenylate energy charge (AEC) ratio and concentration of short-chain fatty acids. In particular, the increase in the concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate suggests possible health benefits of this monosaccharide.

  8. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  9. In vitro crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens insect meals and its correlation with chemical composition traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Marono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between in vitro crude protein digestibility coefficients of insect meals from Tenebrio molitor (TI and Hermetia illucens (HI and their chemical composition traits as well as to develop regression equations able to estimate the in vitro crude protein digestibility (CPd from proximate analysis of insect meals. Twelve samples of insect meals (6 from TM larvae, TM 1-6 and 6 from HI larvae, HI 1-6 were obtained from different producers and analysed for chemical composition and in vitro crude protein digestibility by a two-step enzymatic method (digestion with pepsin and trypsin-enriched pancreatin. For both insect meal samples, CPd was negatively correlated to ADF and chitin contents, while just for HI there was a positive correlation (P<0.01 between CP percentage of the samples and CPd. For both insect meals the former variable chosen in the stepwise analysis was the chitin, explaining the 79.45% of CPd variability for Tenebrio molitor samples and the 98.30% for Hermetia illucens. In the second step, the amount of protein linked to ADF was added in the model for T. molitor and CP for H. illucens samples. The coefficients chitin is the main constituent of insect body able to affect the crude protein digestibility of Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens larvae meals estimated by an in vitro enzymatic method.

  10. A multi-laboratory evaluation of a common in vitro pepsin digestion assay protocol used in assessing the safety of novel proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.; Aalbers, M.; Bannon, G. A.; Bartels, M.; Dearman, R. J.; Esdaile, D. J.; Fu, T. J.; Glatt, C. M.; Hadfield, N.; Hatzos, C.; Hefle, S. L.; Heylings, J. R.; Goodman, R. E.; Henry, B.; Herouet, C.; Holsapple, M.; Ladics, G. S.; Landry, T. D.; MacIntosh, S. C.; Rice, E. A.; Privalle, L. S.; Steiner, H. Y.; Teshima, R.; van Ree, R.; Woolhiser, M.; Zawodny, J.

    2004-01-01

    Rationale. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of proteins derived from genetically modified foods has involved a weight of evidence approach that incorporates an evaluation of protein digestibility in pepsin. Currently, there is no standardized protocol to assess the digestibility of proteins

  11. Alligators and Crocodiles Have High Paracellular Absorption of Nutrients, But Differ in Digestive Morphology and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Christopher R; McWhorter, Todd J; Gienger, C M; Starck, J Matthias; Medley, Peter; Manolis, S Charlie; Webb, Grahame J W; Christian, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    Much of what is known about crocodilian nutrition and growth has come from animals propagated in captivity, but captive animals from the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae respond differently to similar diets. Since there are few comparative studies of crocodilian digestive physiology to help explain these differences, we investigated young Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus in terms of (1) gross and microscopic morphology of the intestine, (2) activity of the membrane-bound digestive enzymes aminopeptidase-N, maltase, and sucrase, and (3) nutrient absorption by carrier-mediated and paracellular pathways. We also measured gut morphology of animals over a larger range of body sizes. The two species showed different allometry of length and mass of the gut, with A. mississippiensis having a steeper increase in intestinal mass with body size, and C. porosus having a steeper increase in intestinal length with body size. Both species showed similar patterns of magnification of the intestinal surface area, with decreasing magnification from the proximal to distal ends of the intestine. Although A. mississippiensis had significantly greater surface-area magnification overall, a compensating significant difference in gut length between species meant that total surface area of the intestine was not significantly different from that of C. porosus. The species differed in enzyme activities, with A. mississippiensis having significantly greater ability to digest carbohydrates relative to protein than did C. porosus. These differences in enzyme activity may help explain the differences in performance between the crocodilian families when on artificial diets. Both A. mississippiensis and C. porosus showed high absorption of 3-O methyl d-glucose (absorbed via both carrier-mediated and paracellular transport), as expected. Both species also showed surprisingly high levels of l-glucose-uptake (absorbed paracellularly), with fractional absorptions as high as those

  12. Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tullberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE. We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0–90 μM. Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05. The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001. The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively, whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM, indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

  13. Digestible protein requirement for Nile tilapia fed with rations based on soybean meal and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Franco Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the requirement of digestible protein (DP for Nile tilapia fed with diets based on soybean meal and corn. Two hundred Nile tilapia juveniles, sexually reversed, were used for a trial period of 100 days. The animals were distributed in 20 boxes of 1000 L-1 in a random design with five treatments and four replications, the boxes were connected to a water recirculation system. Five isoenergetic diets were tested with different levels of digestible protein (DP: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40%. At the end of the experimental period were evaluated the zootechnical performance data. A quadratic effect (p < 0.05 was shown to parameters of final weight, weight gain, final length, fillet yield and visceral fat with the best points that ranged from 28.3 to 29.9% of DP. The largest area of hepatocytes was found to the lowest levels of DP in the diet (20 and 25% compared to the other levels, which were similar. Thus, Nile tilapia has adequate performance for the consumption of diets based on soybean and corn meal and the recommended level is 28.3% of PD in these conditions.

  14. Deep shaft high rate aerobic digestion: laboratory and pilot plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, F; Gannon, D

    1981-01-01

    The Deep Shaft is essentially an air-lift reactor, sunk deep in the ground (100-160 m); the resulting high hydrostatic pressure together with very efficient mixing in the shaft provide extremely high O transfer efficiencies (O.T.E.) of less than or equal to 90% vs. 4-20% in other aerators. This high O.T.E. suggests real potential for Deep-Shaft technology in the aerobic digestion of sludges and animal wastes: with conventional aerobic digesters an O.T.E. over 8% is extremely difficult to achieve. Laboratory and pilot plant Deep-Shaft aerobic digester studies carried out at Eco-Research's Pointe Claire, Quebec laboratories, and at the Paris, Ontario pilot Deep-Shaft digester are described.

  15. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  17. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  18. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  19. Combining protein extraction and anaerobic digestion to produce feed, fuel and fertilizer from green biomass – An organic biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Lübeck, Mette

    Organically grown green biomass (red clover, clover grass) was investigated as a resource for organic feed and organic fertilizer by combination of proteins extraction and anaerobic digestion of the residues. Extraction of proteins from both crops revealed very favourable amino acid composition...... for the use as animal feed. The residual 90% of organic matter, leaving the separation as solid press cake and brown juice was subjected to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and fertilizer. Methane yields of 220-310 and 430-540 ml CH4/g VS were obtained for press cake and brown juice, respectively...

  20. High throughput protein production screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  1. Effect of Addition of High Strength Food Wastes on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ramola Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and food wastes high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been an area of interest for waste water treatment facilities looking to increase methane production, and at the same time, dispose of the wastes and increase the revenue. However, addition of food wastes containing fats, oils and grease (FOG) to the conventional anaerobic digestion process can be difficult and pose challenges to utilities. Incorporating these wastes into the treatment plants c...

  2. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  3. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. © 2015 The Authors. PROTEOMICS Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  5. Effects of diets containing vegetable protein concentrates on performance and activity of digestive enzymes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglezi de Menezes Lovatto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to evaluate the effect of using protein concentrates crambe and sunflower meal in the diet of silver catfish juveniles, as substitute for animal protein source. A total of 300 silver catfish had been separate in 15 experimental units of 280 L, totaling five treatments with three replications. We evaluated two levels (25% and 50% replacement of the meat and bone meal by protein concentrates of crambe and sunflower meals. Evaluated growth parameters, biological index and digestive enzymes in fish. There was no statistical difference for mass (g and standard length (cm, but the fish diet CPFCr-25% had greater total length (cm. No difference in dry matter, crude protein and total protein deposited (calculated. However, there was a higher concentration of ash in the carcass of the animals fed the control diet and CPFCr-50% in relation to diet CPFG- 50%, in addition, higher levels of lipids in fish fed diet CPFG-50%. No significant differences for hepatosomatic index, digestive somatic index and intestinal quotient of animals subjected to different treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin did not change. There was increased activity of acid protease. The quantitative and qualitative increase in protein concentration from this fraction allows the use of bran protein concentrates crambe and sunflower as substitutes for animal protein source.

  6. High strength sewage treatment in a UASB reactor and an integrated UASB-digester system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Nidal

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of high strength sewage was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-digester system. The one-stage UASB reactor was operated in Palestine at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10h and at ambient air temperature for a period of more than a year in order to asses the system response to the Mediterranean climatic seasonal temperature fluctuation. Afterwards, the one-stage UASB reactor was modified to a UASB-digester system by incorporating a digester operated at 35 degrees C. The achieved removal efficiencies in the one-stage UASB reactor for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD were 54, 71, 34, 23%, and -7%, respectively during the first warm six months of the year, and achieved only 32% removal efficiency for COD total over the following cold six months of the year. The modification of the one-stage UASB reactor to a UASB-digester system had remarkably improved the UASB reactor performance as the UASB-digester achieved removal efficiencies for total, suspended, colloidal, dissolved and VFA COD of 72, 74, 74, 62 and 70%. Therefore, the anaerobic treatment of high strength sewage during the hot period in Palestine in a UASB-digester system is very promising.

  7. Extraction of intracellular protein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa using a combination of ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rigid cell wall of Chlorella species, it is still challenging to effectively extract significant amounts of protein. Mass methods were used for the extraction of intracellular protein from microalgae with biological, mechanical and chemical approaches. In this study, based on comparison of different extraction methods, a new protocol was established to maximize extract amounts of protein, which was involved in ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques. Under the optimized conditions, 72.4% of protein was extracted from the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which should contribute to the research and development of Chlorella protein in functional food and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  9. Digestion of polysaccharides, protein and lipids by adult cockerels fed on diets containing a pectic cell-wall material from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Leclercq, B

    1985-11-01

    1. The cell-wall material of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon is characterized by low contents of cellulose (47 g/kg) and lignin (17 g/kg) and a high content of pectic substances (710 g/kg). The digestion of lupin cell-wall material by adult cockerels was estimated using gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of alditol acetates derived from polysaccharide sugars. The analyses were performed in the destarched water-insoluble fractions of feed and excreta. Digestibility measurements were carried out using a 3 d balance period including a 2 d feeding period and a 24 h final starvation period. 2. In the first experiment, six animals were given a diet containing 510 g white lupin cotyledon flour/kg which was the only source of protein and cell walls in the diet. The apparent digestibility of cell-wall components was near zero. 3. In the second experiment, three diets were prepared by diluting a fibre-free basal diet (diet A) by a semi-purified cell-wall preparation introduced at two different levels: 100 g/kg (diet B) and 200 g/kg (diet C). The semi-purified cell walls were prepared from the white lupin cotyledon flour used in the first experiment. The true digestibilities of polysaccharides measured in birds given diets B and C were near zero. It is suggested that the measurement of the neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content according to Van Soest & Wine (1967) is not a suitable procedure for estimating the undigestible fibre content in poultry nutrition as the cell-wall pectic substances are not included in the NDF measurement. 4. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) resulted in a slight decrease in the apparent protein digestibility. This decrease might be explained by the addition of undigestible cell-wall protein. 5. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) had no effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. 6. The metabolizable energy values of the basal diet fraction of diets B and C were calculated assuming that

  10. Digestion of isolated legume cells in a stomach-duodenum model: three mechanisms limit starch and protein hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rewati R; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Chen, Xiao Dong; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-07-19

    Retention of intact plant cells to the end of the small intestine leads to transport of entrapped macronutrients such as starch and protein for colonic microbial fermentation, and is a promising mechanism to increase the content of resistant starch in diets. However, the effect of gastro-intestinal bio-mechanical processing on the intactness of plant cells and the subsequent resistance to enzymatic digestion of intracellular starch and protein are not well understood. In this study, intact cells isolated from legume cotyledons are digested in a laboratory model which mimics the mechanical and biochemical conditions of the rat stomach and duodenum. The resulting digesta are characterised in terms of cell (wall) integrity as well as intracellular starch and protein hydrolysis. The cells remained essentially intact in the model with negligible (ca. 2-3%) starch or protein digestion; however when the cells were mechanically broken and digested in the model, the hydrolysis was increased to 45-50% suggesting that intact cellular structures could survive the mixing regimes in the model stomach and duodenum sufficiently to prevent digestive enzyme access. Apart from intact cell walls providing effective barrier properties, they also limit digestibility by restricting starch gelatinisation during cooking, and significant non-specific binding of α-amylase is observed to both intact and broken cell wall components, providing a third mechanism hindering starch hydrolysis. The study suggests that the preservation of intactness of plant cells, such as from legumes, could be a viable approach to achieve the targeted delivery of resistant starch to the colon.

  11. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  12. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  13. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  14. Identification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic digesters by combined protein-based stable isotope probing and metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbæk, Freya; Kjeldal, Henrik; Mulat, Daniel G; Albertsen, Mads; Ward, Alastair J; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2016-10-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion through accumulation of volatile fatty acids occasionally occurs as the result of unbalanced growth between acidogenic bacteria and methanogens. A fast recovery is a prerequisite for establishing an economical production of biogas. However, very little is known about the microorganisms facilitating this recovery. In this study, we investigated the organisms involved by a novel approach of mapping protein-stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) onto a binned metagenome. Under simulation of acetate accumulation conditions, formations of (13)C-labeled CO2 and CH4 were detected immediately following incubation with [U-(13)C]acetate, indicating high turnover rate of acetate. The identified (13)C-labeled peptides were mapped onto a binned metagenome for improved identification of the organisms involved. The results revealed that Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus were actively involved in acetate turnover, as were five subspecies of Clostridia. The acetate-consuming organisms affiliating with Clostridia all contained the FTFHS gene for formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, a key enzyme for reductive acetogenesis, indicating that these organisms are possible syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) bacteria that can facilitate acetate consumption via SAO, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (SAO-HM). This study represents the first study applying protein-SIP for analysis of complex biogas samples, a promising method for identifying key microorganisms utilizing specific pathways.

  15. Identification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic digesters by combined protein-based stable isotope probing and metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbæk, Freya; Kjeldal, Henrik; Mulat, Daniel G; Albertsen, Mads; Ward, Alastair J; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion through accumulation of volatile fatty acids occasionally occurs as the result of unbalanced growth between acidogenic bacteria and methanogens. A fast recovery is a prerequisite for establishing an economical production of biogas. However, very little is known about the microorganisms facilitating this recovery. In this study, we investigated the organisms involved by a novel approach of mapping protein-stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) onto a binned metagenome. Under simulation of acetate accumulation conditions, formations of 13C-labeled CO2 and CH4 were detected immediately following incubation with [U-13C]acetate, indicating high turnover rate of acetate. The identified 13C-labeled peptides were mapped onto a binned metagenome for improved identification of the organisms involved. The results revealed that Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus were actively involved in acetate turnover, as were five subspecies of Clostridia. The acetate-consuming organisms affiliating with Clostridia all contained the FTFHS gene for formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, a key enzyme for reductive acetogenesis, indicating that these organisms are possible syntrophic acetate-oxidizing (SAO) bacteria that can facilitate acetate consumption via SAO, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (SAO-HM). This study represents the first study applying protein-SIP for analysis of complex biogas samples, a promising method for identifying key microorganisms utilizing specific pathways. PMID:27128991

  16. Influence of Non-fibrous Carbohydrate and Degradable Intake protein and Ruminal Fermentation ,Nutrien Digestion and performance of Local Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efka AR

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current study was to evaluate the impact dietary non-fibrous carbohydrate ( NFC and ruminally degradable intake protein (DIP concentration have on ruminal fermentation , nutrient digestion and performance of local sheep. The animal had a mean of  liveweight 19.80 ±1.55 kg. four diets ,arranged in a 2x2 factorial ,were formulated to contain either 40 or 50 % NFC and 50 or 60 % of dietary crude protein as DIP .dietary DM contained 25 % Indonesian field grass and 75 % concentrate. Solvent –extracted or formaldehyd  2 % -treated soybean meal were used to alter DIP and corn or soybean hulls to alter NFC level. Percentage of  energy and NDF digestion was similar ( p<0,01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. The soybean hulls was fermentable and total VFA concentration in the rumen increased ( p<0.01, but N-NH3 concentration was decreased ( p<0.01 as DIP level decreased in the diets. Daily live weight gain ( 146.29±25.84 g and body composition ( fat, water , protein and mineral was similar ( p<0.05 among diets. The preponderance ruminal fermentation ,nutrient digestion and performance of local sheeps did not be improved by sincronization of energy and nitrogen release but may more likely be limited by either energy or nitrogen alone. (Animal Production 3(2: 53-61 (2001 Key Word : Carbohydrate, protein, rumen fermentation, nutrients digestion and performance

  17. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluschke, A.M.; Gilbert, M.S.; Williams, B.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with

  18. Ileal and faecal protein digestibility measurement in humans and other non-ruminants - a comparative species view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Baal, van J.; Bosch, G.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative non-ruminant species view of the contribution of the large intestinal metabolism to inaccuracies in nitrogen and amino acid absorption measurements is provided to assess potential implications for the determination of crude protein/amino acid digestibility in adult humans consuming

  19. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M r 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32 P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  20. Protein Digestion and Quality of Goat and Cow Milk Infant Formula and Human Milk Under Simulated Infant Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maathuis, Annet; Havenaar, Robert; He, Tao; Bellmann, Susann

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of true ileal protein digestion and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) of a goat milk-based infant formula (GIF), a cow milk-based infant formula (CIF), and human milk (HM). The GIF, CIF, and HM were investigated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model simulating infant conditions. Digested compounds were dialyzed from the intestinal compartment as bioaccessible fraction. Dialysate was collected in 15 to 60-minute periods for 4 hours. True ileal protein digestibility and DIAAS were determined as bioaccessible nitrogen (N) and amino acids. N bioaccessibility from the GIF showed similar kinetics to that of HM. The CIF showed a delay in N bioaccessibility versus the GIF and HM. In the 1st hour of digestion, N bioaccessibility was 19.9% ± 3.5% and 23.3% ± 1.3% for the GIF and HM, respectively, and 11.2% ± 0.6% for CIF (P < 0.05 vs HM). In the 3rd hour of digestion, the N bioaccessibility was higher (P < 0.05) for the CIF (28.9% ± 1.2%) than for the GIF (22.5% ± 1.6%) and HM (20.6% ± 1.0%). After 4 hours, the true ileal protein digestibility of the GIF, CIF, and HM was 78.3% ± 3.7%, 73.4% ± 2.7%, and 77.9% ± 4.1%, respectively. The DIAAS for the GIF, CIF, and HM for 0- to 6-month-old infants was 83%, 75%, and 77% for aromatic AA. The protein quality is not different between the GIF, CIF, and HM, but the kinetics of protein digestion of the GIF is more comparable to that of HM than that of the CIF.

  1. Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) with a low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Huisman, J.; Berg, J.W.O. van den

    1995-01-01

    In three experiments (Exp. 1, 2, and 3) with young pigs (BW 10 to 26 kg), the effects of dietary inclusion of hulls of faba beans (Vicia faba L.) (200 g/kg) with a low (< .1% catechin equivalents; LT) or high tannin content (3.3% catechin equivalents; HT) on the apparent ileal (Exp. 1 and 2) and

  2. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β...

  3. Effect of Heating Method on Alteration of Protein Molecular Structure in Flaxseed: Relationship with Changes in Protein Subfraction Profile and Digestion in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Nazir; Booker, Helen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-02-04

    This study evaluated the effect of heating methods on alteration of protein molecular structure in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in relation to changes in protein subfraction profile and digestion in dairy cows. Seeds from two flaxseed varieties, sampled from two replicate plots at two locations, were evaluated. The seeds were either maintained in their raw state or heated in an air-draft oven (dry heating) or autoclave (moist heating) for 60 min at 120 °C or by microwave irradiation (MIR) for 5 min. Compared to raw seeds, moist heating decreased (P RUP) content (36.0 ± 5.19 to 46.9 ± 2.72% CP) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (61.0 ± 2.28 to 63.8 ± 2.67% RUP). Dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the protein subfraction profile and rumen degradation kinetics, whereas MIR increased (P RUP content from 36.0 ± 5.19 to 40.4 ± 4.67% CP. The MIR and dry heating did not alter (P > 0.05) the amide I to amide II ratio, but moist heating decreased (P RUP (R 2 = 0.71), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R 2 = 0.72). Overall, heat-induced changes in protein nutritive value and digestion were strongly associated with heat-induced alteration in protein molecular structures.

  4. Identification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic digesters by combined protein-based stable isotope probing and metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Mosbæk, Freya; Kjeldal, Henrik; Mulat, Daniel G; Albertsen, Mads; Ward, Alastair J; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion through accumulation of volatile fatty acids occasionally occurs as the result of unbalanced growth between acidogenic bacteria and methanogens. A fast recovery is a prerequisite for establishing an economical production of biogas. However, very little is known about the microorganisms facilitating this recovery. In this study, we investigated the organisms involved by a novel approach of mapping protein-stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) onto a binned meta...

  5. Effect of milk protein composition of a model infant formula on the physicochemical properties of in vivo gastric digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, N Rafiee; Fan, M Z; Archbold, T; Kristo, E; Guri, A; Arranz, E; Corredig, M

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of protein composition and, in particular, the presence of whey proteins or β-casein on the digestion behavior of a model infant formula using an in vivo piglet model. Three isocaloric diets optimized for piglets were prepared with the same concentrations of protein. For protein source, 1 diet contained only whey proteins and 2 contained a casein:whey protein ratio of 40:60 but differed in the amount of β-casein. To obtain the desired protein compositions, skim milk was microfiltered at 7 or 22°C, and retentates and permeates were combined with whey protein isolate. The diets were optimized to the nutritional needs of the piglets and fed to 24 newborn piglets for 18 d. Eight piglets were also fed ad libitum with sow milk and considered only as reference (not included in the statistical analysis). The study was carried out in 2 blocks, killing the animals 60 and 120 min after the last meal. All gastric contents, regardless of diet, showed a wide range of pH. Postprandial time did not affect the pH or physical properties of the gastric digesta. The digesta from whey protein-casein formulas showed significantly higher viscosity, a higher storage modulus, and a denser microstructure than digesta obtained from piglets fed whey protein formula. The β-casein:total casein ratio at the level used in this study did not significantly affect the physical and chemical properties of the stomach digestate. Although caseins showed extensive gastric hydrolysis, whey proteins remained largely intact at both postprandial times. The results indicate that the presence of different concentrations of milk proteins can be critical to the digestion properties of the food matrix and may affect the nutritional properties of the components. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermediate-Scale High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion System Operational Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Anaerobic bioconversion of solid organic wastes represents a disposal option in which two useful products may be produced, including a medium Btu fuel gas (biogas) and a compost-quality organic residue. The application of high-solids technology may offer several advantages over conventional low-solids digester technology. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a unique digester system capable of uniformly mixing high-solids materials at low cost. During the first 1.5 years of operation, a variety of modifications and improvements were instituted to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of the system. Those improvements, which may be critical in further scale-up efforts using ,the NREL high-solids digester design are detailed in this report.

  7. Digested sludge-derived three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Jia; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Dai, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, Shi-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Digested sludge, as the main by-product of the sewage sludge anaerobic digestion process, still contains considerable organic compounds. In this protocol, we report a facile method for preparing digested sludge-derived self-doped porous carbon material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes via a sustainable pyrolysis/activation process. The obtained digested sludge-derived carbon material (HPDSC) exhibits versatile O-, N-doped hierarchical porous framework, high specific surface area (2103.6 m 2  g -1 ) and partial graphitization phase, which can facilitate ion transport, provide more storage sites for electrolyte ions and enhance the conductivity of active electrode materials. The HPDSC-based supercapacitor electrodes show favourable energy storage performance, with a specific capacitance of 245 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 in 0.5 M Na 2 SO 4 ; outstanding cycling stability, with 98.4% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles; and good rate performance (211 F g -1 at 11 A g -1 ). This work provides a unique self-doped three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon material with a favourable charge storage capacity and at the same time finds a high value-added and environment-friendly strategy for disposal and recycling of digested sludge.

  8. Digested sludge-derived three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Jia; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Dai, Xiao-Hu; Yuan, Shi-Jie

    2018-04-01

    Digested sludge, as the main by-product of the sewage sludge anaerobic digestion process, still contains considerable organic compounds. In this protocol, we report a facile method for preparing digested sludge-derived self-doped porous carbon material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes via a sustainable pyrolysis/activation process. The obtained digested sludge-derived carbon material (HPDSC) exhibits versatile O-, N-doped hierarchical porous framework, high specific surface area (2103.6 m2 g-1) and partial graphitization phase, which can facilitate ion transport, provide more storage sites for electrolyte ions and enhance the conductivity of active electrode materials. The HPDSC-based supercapacitor electrodes show favourable energy storage performance, with a specific capacitance of 245 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 in 0.5 M Na2SO4; outstanding cycling stability, with 98.4% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles; and good rate performance (211 F g-1 at 11 A g-1). This work provides a unique self-doped three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon material with a favourable charge storage capacity and at the same time finds a high value-added and environment-friendly strategy for disposal and recycling of digested sludge.

  9. Unexpected High Digestion Rate of Cooked Starch by the Ct-Maltase-Glucoamylase Small Intestine Mucosal α-Glucosidase Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Avery, Stephen E.; Sim, Lyann; Rose, David R.; Naim, Hassan Y.; Hamaker, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    For starch digestion to glucose, two luminal α-amylases and four gut mucosal α-glucosidase subunits are employed. The aim of this research was to investigate, for the first time, direct digestion capability of individual mucosal α-glucosidases on cooked (gelatinized) starch. Gelatinized normal maize starch was digested with N- and C-terminal subunits of recombinant mammalian maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) of varying amounts and digestion periods. Without the aid of α-amylase, Ct-MGAM demonstrated an unexpected rapid and high digestion degree near 80%, while other subunits showed 20 to 30% digestion. These findings suggest that Ct-MGAM assists α-amylase in digesting starch molecules and potentially may compensate for developmental or pathological amylase deficiencies. PMID:22563462

  10. Technical note: a method to quantify prolamin proteins in corn that are negatively related to starch digestibility in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, J; Hoffman, P C

    2008-12-01

    Compared with floury or high-moisture corns, dry corn with a greater percentage of vitreous endosperm has been demonstrated to be negatively related to starch digestibility and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. Starch granules in corn are encapsulated by hydrophobic prolamin proteins that are innately insoluble in the rumen environment. Corn prolamin proteins are named zein, and laboratory methods to quantify zein exist but are seldom employed in ruminant nutrition because of their arduous nature. In this study, advances in cereal chemistry were combined with rapid turbidimetric methods yielding a modified turbidimetric zein method (mTZM) to quantify zein in whole corn. Ten dry corns containing unique endosperms were evaluated using the mTZM. Corns with flint, dent, floury, or opaque endosperms were found to contain 19.3, 11.3, 5.8, and 4.9 g of zein/100 g of starch, respectively. The ability of mTZM to differentiate corn endosperm types as defined by least significant difference was 2.6 g of zein/100 g of starch. Ten high-moisture corns of varying moisture content were also evaluated using the mTZM. Zein content of high-moisture corns as defined by mTZM ranged from 8.3 to 2.8 g of zein/100 g of starch with a least significant difference of 1.2 g of zein/100 g of starch. The mTZM determined that zein contents of high-moisture, floury, and opaque corns were markedly less than those of flint and dent dry corns, indicating that mTZM has the ability to quantify starch granule encapsulation by hydrophobic prolamin proteins in whole corn.

  11. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate and plant (soybean meal ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05. A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%, enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83% foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com

  12. Trash to Treasure: NREL's High-Solids Digester Converts Wastes to Biogas and Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This article describes a pilot high-solids digester (HSD) plant for use in : American Samoa. The American Samoa is highly dependent on imported fuel. At : the same time, the local tuna canneries produce large amounts of waste : materials. The HSD pro...

  13. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  14. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on site and extent of digestion and ruminal fermentation characteristics in lambs fed low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Ludden, P A

    2010-02-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Suffolk wether lambs (34.5 +/- 2.0 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square-designed experiment to examine the effects of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on site and extent of digestion in lambs consuming a low-quality forage diet. Wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP supplement provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements, provided on alternate days (MIX-A). Forage OM, N, NDF, or ADF intakes were not affected by treatment. True ruminal OM digestibility was greater (P RUP-A lambs compared with other treatments. Ruminal digestibilities of NDF and ADF were greater (P RUP had less (P RUP-A lambs exhibiting the least concentrations and least variation over time. Ruminal urease activity was not affected by treatment. Microbial N flow was not affected by treatment; however, there was an increase (P = 0.004) in microbial efficiency for RDP-D lambs. Alternate day protein supplementation with a mixture of RDP and RUP may improve digestibility in lambs consuming low-quality forage, which may be related to decreased fluctuation in ruminal ammonia concentrations as a result of greater endogenous N recycling.

  15. Immunomodulatory potential of a brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysate incorporated into low-fat milk following in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Damian; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; McCarthy, Aoife; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) protein rich fraction was previously hydrolysed using Alcalase (U) and three additional fractions were prepared by membrane fractionation; a 5-kDa retentate (U > 5), a 5-kDa permeate (U milk, subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) and their anti-inflammatory potential was investigated. The digestates caused a significant reduction (p RAW 264.7 cells. IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in stimulated Jurkat T cells and IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were not affected in the presence of the digestates. Results show that a SGID milk product supplemented with BSG hydrolysate and its associated ultrafiltered fractions can confer anti-inflammatory effects in Jurkat T cells.

  16. The adsorption of α-amylase on barley proteins affects the in vitro digestion of starch in barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Zou, Wei; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Gidley, Michael J; Fox, Glen P; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-02-15

    The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy. The degradation kinetics of both uncooked barley flour and of purified starches are found to be two-step sequential processes. Barley proteins, especially the water-soluble component, are found to retard the digestion of starch degraded by α-amylase: the enzyme binds with water-insoluble protein and with starch granules, leading to reduced starch hydrolysis. These findings are of potential industrial value in both the brewing and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-02-22

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods.

  18. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2003-09-01

    Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P allergy.

  19. The Effect of Supplementation Urea and Sulfur in Mixed Cassava Waste Fermented and Soyabean Cake Waste on Digestibility of Protein and Blood Urea Male Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bata

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen local male sheep were divided into 3 groups I,II and III based on the body weight 18.55±1.27, 15.79±0.67 and 13.14±1.33 kg respectively. Two level urea (2 and 3% and three levels Sulfur (0.02 and 0.3% as treatment, so pattern factorial 2x3 with Randomized Block Design used this experiment. All of the treatment get a same basal feed namely land-grass and concentrate with dry matter ratio 70:30.  The total intake of  dry matter was 4 % of body weight. The concentrate consist of cassava waste fermented  and soyabean cake waste with dry matter  ratio 77.50 : 22.50. Supplementation of urea and sulfur shown not significant interaction, but supplementation urea had effect high significantly (P<0.01 on digestibility of protein and sulfur only had effect significant  (P<0.05 on blood urea. These result had indication that enriched urea in the diet could increase protein digestibility and sulfur level 0.2% could prevent NH3 absorption from rumen. (Animal Production 1(2: 75-81 (1999   Key Words: cassava waste, soyabean cake waste, fermentation, digestibility, urea blood.

  20. Ingestion of Casein in a Milk Matrix Modulates Dietary Protein Digestion and Absorption Kinetics but Does Not Modulate Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Snijders, Tim; Linkens, Armand M A; Hamer, Henrike M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    The slow digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics of isolated micellar casein have been held responsible for its relatively lower postprandial muscle protein synthetic response compared with rapidly digested proteins such as isolated whey. However, casein is normally consumed within a milk matrix. We hypothesized that protein digestion and absorption kinetics and the subsequent muscle protein synthetic response after micellar casein ingestion are modulated by the milk matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a milk matrix on casein protein digestion and absorption kinetics and postprandial muscle protein synthesis in older men. In a parallel-group design, 32 healthy older men (aged 71 ± 1 y) received a primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]-phenylalanine, L-[ring-3,5-(2)H2]-tyrosine, and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine, and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]-leucine labeled casein dissolved in bovine milk serum (Cas+Serum) or water (Cas). Plasma samples and muscle biopsies were collected in the postabsorptive state and for 300 min in the postprandial period to examine whole-body and skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Casein ingestion increased plasma leucine and phenylalanine concentrations and L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments, with a more rapid rise after Cas vs. Cas+Serum. Nonetheless, dietary protein-derived phenylalanine availability did not differ between Cas+Serum (47 ± 2%, mean ± SEM) and Cas (46 ± 3%) when assessed over the 300-min postprandial period (P = 0.80). The milk matrix did not modulate postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis rates from 0 to 120 min (0.038 ± 0.005 vs. 0.031 ± 0.007%/h) or from 120 to 300 min (0.052 ± 0.004 vs. 0.067 ± 0.005%/h) after Cas+Serum vs. Cas. Similarly, no treatment differences in muscle protein-bound L-[1-(13)C]-phenylalanine enrichments were observed at 120 min (0.003 ± 0.001 vs. 0.002 ± 0.001) or 300 min (0.015 ± 0.002 vs. 0.016 ± 0.002 mole

  1. Slowly digestible properties of lotus seed starch-glycerine monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Jia, Xiangze; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2018-06-30

    Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion. The results of Gel-permeation chromatography and Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed high homogenization pressure impacted molecular weight distribution and semi-crystalline region of complexes, resulting in the formation of new semi-crystalline with repeat unit distance of 16-18 nm and molecular weight distribution of 2.50-2.80 × 10 5  Da, which displayed strong enzymatic resistance. Differential scanning calorimeter results revealed new semi-crystalline lamellar may originate from type-II complexes that exhibited a high transition temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  3. A high-throughput assay for quantifying appetite and digestive dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggiana-Nilo, Drago; Soucy, Edward; Song, Erin Yue; Lei Wee, Caroline; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Food intake and digestion are vital functions, and their dysregulation is fundamental for many human diseases. Current methods do not support their dynamic quantification on large scales in unrestrained vertebrates. Here, we combine an infrared macroscope with fluorescently labeled food to quantify feeding behavior and intestinal nutrient metabolism with high temporal resolution, sensitivity, and throughput in naturally behaving zebrafish larvae. Using this method and rate-based modeling, we demonstrate that zebrafish larvae match nutrient intake to their bodily demand and that larvae adjust their digestion rate, according to the ingested meal size. Such adaptive feedback mechanisms make this model system amenable to identify potential chemical modulators. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that nicotine, l-lysine, ghrelin, and insulin have analogous impact on food intake as in mammals. Consequently, the method presented here will promote large-scale translational research of food intake and digestive function in a naturally behaving vertebrate. PMID:26108871

  4. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D 1 (500-700kgm -3 ), D 2 (900-1000kgm -3 ), D 3 (1100-1200kgm -3 ) and D 4 (1200-1400kgm -3 ) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm -3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cor a 14, the allergenic 2S albumin from hazelnut, is highly thermostable and resistant to gastrointestinal digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima; Dubiela, Pawel; Hummel, Karin; Wortmann, Judith; Hofer, Gerhard; Keller, Walter; Radauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Scope Allergens from nuts frequently induce severe allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physicochemical characteristics of natural Cor a 14, the 2S albumin from hazelnut. Methods and results Cor a 14 was purified from raw hazelnuts using a combination of precipitation and chromatographic techniques. The protein was analyzed using gel electrophoresis, MS, and far‐UV circular dichroism (CD) analyses. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of native, heat‐treated, and in vitro digested Cor a 14 was studied. We identified two different Cor a 14 isoforms and showed microclipping at the C‐terminus. CD spectra at room temperature showed the typical characteristics of 2S albumins, and temperatures of more than 80°C were required to start unfolding of Cor a 14 demonstrating its high stability to heat treatment. In vitro digestion experiments revealed that Cor a 14 is resistant to proteolytic degradation. Native and heat‐treated protein was recognized by sera from hazelnut allergic patients. However, denaturation of the allergen led to significantly reduced IgE binding. Conclusion We identified two different isoforms of Cor a 14 displaying high stability under heating and gastric and duodenal conditions. Data from IgE‐binding experiments revealed the existence of both, linear and conformational epitopes. PMID:26178695

  6. Dietary Considerations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Role of Protein Digestion and Microbial Putrefaction in the Gut-Brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctuary, Megan R; Kain, Jennifer N; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; German, J Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), characterized by a range of behavioral abnormalities and social deficits, display high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) co-morbidities including chronic constipation and diarrhea. Research is now increasingly able to characterize the "fragile gut" in these children and understand the role that impairment of specific GI functions plays in the GI symptoms associated with ASD. This mechanistic understanding is extending to the interactions between diet and ASD, including food structure and protein digestive capacity in exacerbating autistic symptoms. Children with ASD and gut co-morbidities exhibit low digestive enzyme activity, impaired gut barrier integrity and the presence of antibodies specific for dietary proteins in the peripheral circulation. These findings support the hypothesis that entry of dietary peptides from the gut lumen into the vasculature are associated with an aberrant immune response. Furthermore, a subset of children with ASD exhibit high concentrations of metabolites originating from microbial activity on proteinaceous substrates. Taken together, the combination of specific protein intakes poor digestion, gut barrier integrity, microbiota composition and function all on a background of ASD represents a phenotypic pattern. A potential consequence of this pattern of conditions is that the fragile gut of some children with ASD is at risk for GI symptoms that may be amenable to improvement with specific dietary changes. There is growing evidence that shows an association between gut dysfunction and dysbiosis and ASD symptoms. It is therefore urgent to perform more experimental and clinical research on the "fragile gut" in children with ASD in order to move toward advancements in clinical practice. Identifying those factors that are of clinical value will provide an evidence-based path to individual management and targeted solutions; from real time sensing to the design of diets with personalized

  7. Biohydrogen production from co-digestion of high carbohydrate containing food waste and combined primary and secondary sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.; Sahito, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, FW (Food Waste) and SS (Sewage Sludge) were co-digested for biohydrogen production. After characterization both FW and SS were found as better option for biohydrogen production. FW was rich in carbohydrate containing specially rice, which was added as more than 50% and easily hydrolyzable waste. FW is considered as an auxiliary substrate for biohydrogen production and high availability of carbohydrate in FW makes it an important substrate for the production of biohydrogen. On the contrary, SS was rich in protein and has a high pH buffering capacity, which makes it appropriate for codigestion. Adequate supplementation of inorganic salts, the addition of hydrogen producing inoculums, protein enrichment and pH buffering capacity of SS and carbohydrate content in FW increases the hydrogen production potential. Various experiments were performed by considering different mixing ratios like 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 of FW and SS. The 50:50 and 90:10 mixing ratio of FW and SS were found as best among all other co-digested ratios. The maximum specific hydrogen yield 106.7 mL/gVS added was obtained at a waste composition of 50:50 followed by 92.35 mL/gVS added from 90:10 of FW to SS. The optimum pH and temperature for operating this process were in the range of 5.5-6.5 and 35°C. The production of clean energy and waste utilization in anaerobic co-digestion process makes biohydrogen generation a promising and novel approach to fulfilling the increasing energy needs as a substitute for fossil fuels. (author)

  8. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  9. Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Knulst, Andre; Wagner, Stefan; Scheiner, Otto; Mackie, Alan R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2008-01-01

    Kiwifruit is a significant elicitor of allergy both in children and adults. Digestibility of two kiwifruit allergens, actinidin (Act d 1) and thaumatin-like protein (Act d 2), was assessed using an in vitro digestion system that approximates physiological conditions with respect to the passage of

  10. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  11. Relationship between proportion and composition of albumins, and in vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Joon; Kim, Tae Wan; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2010-08-15

    Peas provide an excellent plant protein resource for human diets, but their proteins are less readily digestible than animal proteins. To identify the relationship between composition and in vitro digestibility of pea protein, eight pea varieties with a wide range of protein content (157.3-272.7 g kg(-1)) were determined for the proportion of albumins and globulins, their compositions using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) before and after heat treatment using a multi-enzyme (trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase) method. The proportion of albumins based on total seed protein content decreased from 229 to 147 g kg(-1) as seed protein content increased from 157.3 to 272.7 g kg(-1), while the proportion of globulins increased from 483 to 590 g kg(-1). The IVPDs of eight raw pea seeds were 79.9-83.5%, with significant varietal variations, and those were improved to 85.9-86.8% by cooking. Albumins, including (pea albumins 2) PA2, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and lipoxygenase, were identified as proteolytic resistant proteins. Globulins were mostly digested by protease treatment after heating. The quantitative ratio of albumins and globulins, and the quantitative variations of albumin protein components, including lipoxygenase, PA2, lectins and trypsin inhibitors, appear to influence the protein digestibility of both raw and cooked pea seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Antimicrobial treatment reduces intestinal microflora and improves protein digestive capacity without changes in villous structure in weanling pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Sørensen, Kristina U.; Hedemann, Mette S.

    2007-01-01

    The immediate post-weaning period is often associated with gut malfunction and diarrhoea for young pigs. Administration of antimicrobials remains an effective way to control weaning diarrhoea but it remains unclear how they affect gut physiology and microbiology although this is a prerequisite fo...... that the beneficial effects of antimicrobials are mediated not only through reduction in intestinal bacteria] load, but also through a stimulation of protein digestive function and goblet cell density....

  13. Níveis de treonina digestível em dietas para fêmeas suínas de alto potencial genético em lactação sob condições de alta temperatura ambiente Digestible threonine levels of high-producing lactating sows maintained under high temperature environment conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2007-10-01

    .64; 0.67; 0.70 and 0.73% and 13 replications, and each experimental unit was consisted by a female. The temperature inside in the room was of 29.7 ± 2.5°C. There was no effect of digestible threonine levels in the diet on the weight of the sows at weaning. The total and percentage sow weight losses linearly reduced with the increase of digestible threonine level in the diet during the lactation period. Digestible threonine level in the diets influenced fat thickness (FT at weaning, and affected the total and percentage variation of FT. The compositions of fat and corporal protein at weaning were not influenced by digestible threonine levels in the diet. A linear reduction for total and percentage of corporal fat mobilizations was observed as digestible threonine levels increased in the diet. The mobilization of corporal protein, milk production and the interval weaning time-estrus were not influenced by digestible threonine levels in the diet. Digestible threonine leveld in the diet had no effect on intake of diet, of lysine and of digestible energy. However, a linear increase was observed for the intake of digestible threonine as the levels of it increased in the diet. Digestible threonine levels in the diet had not influenced the energy efficiency of the females, the performance of the piglets and the litters. High-producing lactating sows under high temperature environmental conditions require 0.73% of digestible threonine, corresponding to a daily intake of 32.5g and the digestible threonine:digestible lysine ratio of 73%.

  14. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  15. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  16. Influence of dietary protein and fructooligosaccharides on fecal fermentative end-products, fecal bacterial populations and apparent total tract digestibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Carlo; Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta; Bolduan, Carmen; Grandi, Monica; Stefanelli, Claudio; Windisch, Wilhelm; Zaghini, Giuliano; Biagi, Giacomo

    2018-03-20

    Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content. Twelve healthy adult dogs were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin Square design to determine the effects of four diets: 1) Low protein diet (LP, crude protein (CP) 229 g/kg dry matter (DM)); 2) High protein diet (HP, CP 304 g/kg DM); 3) Diet 1 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg; 4) Diet 2 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg. The diets contained silica at 5 g/kg as a digestion marker. Differences in protein content were obtained using different amounts of a highly digestible swine greaves meal. Each feeding period lasted 28 d, with a 12 d wash-out in between periods. Fecal samples were collected from dogs at 0, 21 and 28 d of each feeding period. Feces excreted during the last five days of each feeding period were collected and pooled in order to evaluate ATTD. Higher fecal ammonia concentrations were observed both when dogs received the HP diets (p < 0.001) and the supplementation with FOS (p < 0.05). The diets containing FOS resulted in greater ATTD of DM, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Fe (p < 0.05) while HP diets were characterized by lower crude ash ATTD (p < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed between FOS and protein concentration in regards to fecal pH (p < 0.05), propionic acid (p < 0.05), acetic to propionic acid and acetic + n-butyric to propionic acid ratios (p < 0.01), bifidobacteria (p < 0.05) and ATTD of CP (p < 0.05) and Mn (p < 0.001). A relatively moderate increase of dietary protein resulted in higher concentrations of ammonia in

  17. Apparent or Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids of Diets Containing Different Protein Feedstuffs Fed at Two Crude Protein Levels for Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adebiyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study determined the apparent or standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids (AID or SID of AA in growing pigs fed diets containing three protein feedstuffs with different fiber characteristics at two dietary crude protein (CP levels. Twenty boars (Yorkshire×Landrace with average initial body weight of 35 (±2.6 kg were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum. These pigs were offered six diets containing soybean meal (SBM, canola meal (CM or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (corn-DDGS that were either adequate (19% or marginal (15% in CP using a triplicated 6×2 Youden Square Design. Except for Met, Trp, Cys, and Pro, AID of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet. Apparent ileal digestibility for Gly and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the corn-DDGS diet. The AID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. Standardized ileal digestibility of AA was greater (p<0.05 in the SBM diet compared with the CM diet for all AA except Trp and Pro. The SID of Ile, Leu, Val, Ala, Tyr, and Asp was greater (p<0.05 in the corn-DDGS diet compared with the CM diet. It was concluded that protein feedstuff affects ileal AA digestibility and is closely related to dietary fiber characteristics, and a 4-percentage unit reduction in dietary CP had no effect on ileal AA digestibility in growing pigs.

  18. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. ...

  19. Changes on antioxidant activity of microwave-treated protein hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion: Purification and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Wickramathilaka, Malithi; Liceaga, Andrea M

    2018-07-15

    Two samples of trout frame protein hydrolysates were prepared by Microwave Pretreatment followed by Conventional Enzymatic hydrolysis (MPCE) and Non-Pretreated followed by Microwave-assisted Enzymatic hydrolysis (NPME), respectively, were subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Changes on degree of hydrolysis, antioxidant activity, molecular weight, and amino acid composition between undigested and after gastrointestinal digestion of peptides were investigated. Comparing to undigested peptides, a breakdown of MPCE and NPME into smaller molecules was observed. Degree of hydrolysis, ABTS + radical scavenging activity and reducing power increased (P digestion. A purified peptide from GI-MPCE had two possible sequences, NGRLGYSEGVM or GNRLGYSWDD (1182.65 Da). Whereas GI-NPME had two peptides IRGPEEHMHR or RVAPEEHMHR (1261.77 Da) and SAGVPRHK or SARPRHK (962.63 Da). These results indicate that digested hydrolysates can be a rich source of antioxidants. Isolated peptides extracted from trout frame by-products could be new food ingredients used as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation and identification of a bacterium from marine shrimp digestive tract: A new degrader of starch and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen

    2011-09-01

    It is a practical approach to select candidate probiotic bacterial stains on the basis of their special traits. Production of digestive enzyme was used as a trait to select a candidate probiotic bacterial strain in this study. In order to select a bacterium with the ability to degrade both starch and protein, an ideal bacterial strain STE was isolated from marine shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) intestines by using multiple selective media. The selected isolate STE was identified on the basis of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as molecular analyses. Results of degradation experiments confirmed the ability of the selected isolate to degrade both starch and casein. The isolate STE was aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-spore-forming, and had catalase and oxidase activities but no glucose fermentation activity. Among the tested carbon/nitrogen sources, only Tween40, alanyl-glycine, aspartyl-glycine, and glycyl-l-glutamic acid were utilized by the isolate STE. Results of homology comparison analyses of the 16S rDNA sequences showed that the isolate STE had a high similarity to several Pseudoalteromonas species and, in the phylogenetic tree, grouped with P. ruthenica with maximum bootstrap support (100%). In conclusion, the isolate STE was characterized as a novel strain belonging to the genus Pseudoalteromonas. This study provides a further example of a probiotic bacterial strain with specific characteristics isolated from the host gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  2. Properties of cellulose micro/nanofibers obtained from eucalyptus pulp fiber treated with anaerobic digestate and high shear mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High production costs remain the single greatest factor limiting wider use of cellulose micro/nanofibers in the industry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of using a low-cost bacteria-rich digestate (liquid anaerobic digestate – AD supernatant) on milled eucalyptus...

  3. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Structure of Proanthocyanidins and Their Effects on Legume Forage Protein Precipitation, Digestion and Absorption in the Ruminant Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forages grown in temperate regions, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and white clover (Trefolium repens L., typically have a high nutritional value when fed to ruminants. Their high protein content and degradation rate result, however, in poor utilization of protein from the forage resulting in excessive excretion of nitrogen into the environment by the animal. Proanthocyanindins (also known as condensed tannins found in some forage legumes such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., bind to dietary protein and can improve protein utilization in the animal. This review will focus on (1 the occurrence of proanthocyanidins; (2 biosynthesis and structure of proanthocyanidins; (3 effects of proanthocyanidins on protein metabolism; (4 protein precipitating capacity of proanthocyanidins and their effects on true intestinal protein adsorption by ruminants; and (5 effect on animal health, animal performance and environmental emissions.

  4. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch altered by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Fan, Huanhuan; Cao, Rong; Blanchard, Christopher; Wang, Min

    2016-11-01

    A nonthermal processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, was investigated to assess its influence on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch (SS). There was no change in the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of SS after the pressure treatments at 120-480MPa. However, treatment at 600MPa produced a pattern similar to 'B'-type crystalline. HHP treatment also resulted in SS granules with rough surfaces. Measured amylose content, water absorption capacity, alkaline water retention, pasting temperature and thermostability increased with increasing pressure levels, while the oil absorption capacity, swelling power, relative crystallinity and viscosity decreased. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified SS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced amount of rapidly digestible starch, as well as increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results indicate that HHP treatment is an effective modification method for altering in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of chemical composition and baking on in vitro digestibility of proteins in breads made from selected gluten-containing and gluten-free flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Taylor, Cheryl; Nebl, Thomas; Ng, Ken; Bennett, Louise E

    2017-10-15

    Breads prepared from cereal grains are a dietary staple, providing a significant proportion of daily energy, but not necessarily of dietary protein. However, good digestibility of proteins in bread is important to avoid potential immunogenic effects of undigested peptides, including for those gluten-intolerant. Four gluten-containing (white wheat, wholemeal wheat, spelt and rye) and four gluten-free (chick pea, lupin, buckwheat, amaranth) flours were used to make yeast-leavened breads standardized for protein. In vitro gastro-intestinal digestion of pre-mixes, doughs and breads baked for 20 and 35min was conducted followed by correlation analysis between fitted parameters of digestion profiles, chemical composition (protein, non-fibre carbohydrates, fibre, ash and total polyphenolics) and amino acid profiles. The results indicated that digestibility generally increased during proofing and decreased during baking. Relatively higher protein digestibility was correlated with ratio of non-fibre carbohydrate to protein and lower digestibility with increasing contents of fibre and total polyphenolics in pre-mixes. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  7. The effect of dietary protein on reproduction in the mare. I. The composition and evaluation of the digestibility of dietary protein from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Van Niekerk

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rations that differed in their crude protein and essential amino-acid content were compiled. Digestibility of the crude protein and essential amino-acid contents were determined biologically in a feeding trial using 4 Anglo-Arab stallions. Their respective daily diets were: Diet 1: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay (Eragrostis tef; Diet 2: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay (Medicago sativa; Diet 3: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg tef hay, 200 g fishmeal; Diet 4: 2 kg cubes, 5 kg lucerne hay, 200 g fishmeal. The concentrations of the amino-acids threonine, iso-leucine, leucine and arginine were increased in the total ration when lucerne hay replaced the tef hay while fishmeal supplementation increased the methionine and lysine contents, which provided a wide range of concentrations of digestible amino-acids in each of the 4 rations.

  8. Behavior in face of a high digestive hemorrhage from gastroduodenal ulcer in elderly: current considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Acosta Gonzalez, Daniel; Fong Estrada, Juana; Pages Gomez, Odalis

    2010-01-01

    High digestive hemorrhage has a peculiar significance in elderly because of it is an event putting quickly at risk the life. In elderly, the high incidence of associated osteomyoarticular and cardiovascular diseases that also fitting the drugs ingestion, e.g. the non-steroid anti-inflammatory and the aspirin and the toxic habits frequent in third age, since the alcohol, coffee and tobacco consumption are factors having an ulcerative effect on the high digestive tract mucosa. The commonest cause of hemorrhage is the gastric ulcer. At present time we considered as of supreme significance the early carrying out of the endoscopy for the consequent medical treatment and diagnosis limiting surgery only for elderlies, who due to its general status and the bleeding extent or persistence be impossible its carrying out when there is a failure of endoscopic and/or pharmacologic treatment. (author)

  9. Protein Correlation Profiles Identify Lipid Droplet Proteins with High Confidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Natalie; Hilger, Maximiliane; Kory, Nora; Wilfling, Florian; Stoehr, Gabriele; Mann, Matthias; Farese, Robert V.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important organelles in energy metabolism and lipid storage. Their cores are composed of neutral lipids that form a hydrophobic phase and are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer that harbors specific proteins. Most well-established LD proteins perform important functions, particularly in cellular lipid metabolism. Morphological studies show LDs in close proximity to and interacting with membrane-bound cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endosomes. Because of these close associations, it is difficult to purify LDs to homogeneity. Consequently, the confident identification of bona fide LD proteins via proteomics has been challenging. Here, we report a methodology for LD protein identification based on mass spectrometry and protein correlation profiles. Using LD purification and quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified LD proteins by correlating their purification profiles to those of known LD proteins. Application of the protein correlation profile strategy to LDs isolated from Drosophila S2 cells led to the identification of 111 LD proteins in a cellular LD fraction in which 1481 proteins were detected. LD localization was confirmed in a subset of identified proteins via microscopy of the expressed proteins, thereby validating the approach. Among the identified LD proteins were both well-characterized LD proteins and proteins not previously known to be localized to LDs. Our method provides a high-confidence LD proteome of Drosophila cells and a novel approach that can be applied to identify LD proteins of other cell types and tissues. PMID:23319140

  10. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  11. Estimation of the True Digestibility of Rumen Undegraded Dietary Protein in the Small Intestine of Ruminants by the Mobile Bag Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Andersen, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Dietary protein degraded to various extents by varying the time of rumen incubation was prepared from eight concentrates and four roughages. Intestinal digestibility was obtained using the mobile bag technique on intact protein and on the samples of undegraded dietary protein from each feed. The ...

  12. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Association between raf kinase inhibitor protein loss and prognosis in cancers of the digestive system: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Qian; Ding, Jiang-Wu; Yang, Zhen; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) may contribute to metastasis in a variety of human cancers. Many studies have evaluated whether loss of RKIP expression is a prognostic factor for survival in cancers of the digestive system, however, its predictive value remains controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the prognostic value of RKIP expression in digestive system cancers. Studies were identified by searching multiple electronic databases through December 12, 2013, and by reviewing reference lists of obtained articles. Studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between RKIP and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in cancers of the digestive system were eligible, including esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Nineteen studies involving approximately 3700 participants were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggested that loss of RKIP expression was associated with unfavorable OS (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and DFS (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.62) among patients with digestive system cancers, whereas the difference was not statistically significant in pancreatic cancer specifically (OS, HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.51-1.01; DFS, HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.28-1.13). Loss of RKIP expression might be an independent indicator of poor prognosis in patients with digestive tract cancers, which includes esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. More studies are needed to further clarify the prognostic value of RKIP in pancreatic cancer. Future studies, preferably large prospective studies utilizing formal marker assessment processes, are needed to establish the prognostic value of RKIP before these results can be clinically applied.

  14. Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 increases plant protein digestion in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the small intestine (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D; Van Dinter, R; Cash, H; Farmer, S; Venema, K

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 [GanedenBC 30 ] (BC30) to aid in protein digestion of alimentary plant proteins. To test this, three plant proteins, from pea, soy and rice, were digested in a validated in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) in the absence and in the presence of BC30. Samples were taken from the TIM-1 fractions that mimic uptake of amino acids by the host and analysed for α-amino nitrogen (AAN) and total nitrogen (TN). Both were increased by BC30 for all three plant proteins sources. The ratio of TN/AAN indicated that for pea protein digestion was increased by BC30, but the degree of polymerisation of the liberated small peptides and free amino acids was not changed. For soy and rice, however, BC30 showed a 2-fold reduction in the TN/AAN ratio, indicating that the liberated digestion products formed during digestion in the presence of BC30 were shorter peptides and more free amino acids, than those liberated in the absence of BC30. As BC30 increased protein digestion and uptake in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it consequently also reduced the amount of protein that would be delivered to the colon, which could there be fermented into toxic metabolites by the gut microbiota. Thus, the enhanced protein digestion by BC30 showed a dual benefit: enhanced amino acid bioavailability from plant proteins in the upper GI tract, and a healthier environment in the colon.

  15. Characterization and BMP Tests of Liquid Substrates for High-rate Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mainardis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the physicochemical characterization and biochemical methane potential (BMP tests of some liquid organic substrates, to verify if they were suitable for undergoing a process of high-velocity anaerobic digestion. The selected substrates were: first and second cheese whey, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW leachate, condensate water and slaughterhouse liquid waste. Firstly, a physicochemical characterization was performed, using traditional and macromolecular parameters; then, batch anaerobic tests were carried out, and some continuous tests were planned. The results revealed that all the analyzed substrates have a potential to be anaerobically treated. Valuable information about treatment rate for a high-velocity anaerobic digestion process was obtained. Start-up of a lab-scale UASB reactor, treating diluted cheese whey, was successfully achieved with good COD removal efficiency. These preliminary results are expected to be further investigated in a successive phase, where continuous tests will be conducted on condensate water and OFMSW leachate.

  16. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( digestibility among protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods and justifies further in vivo testing of novel

  17. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  18. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  19. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The influence of irradiation treatment on gossypol and protein digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal for Broiler chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Effect of gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) on the chemical composition, soluble protein, available lysine, gossypol, in-vitro and in vivo digestibility of decorticated cottonseed meal (CSM) and the performance of broilers fed processed CSM were investigated. Radiation treatment of CSM at dose levels of 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy did not affect moisture, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash and NFW content. However, the treatment reduced soluble protein by 4.18, 7.82, 10.91, 13.46%, respectively. Fluorodinitrobenzene-available lysine concentration reduced by 4.48, 8.12, 17.65 and 21.29% respectively. The concentrations of total gossypol decreased by 7.97, 15.78, 19.92 and 25.39% and free gossypol by 3.74, 7.85, 18.43 and 28.01%, respectively. The digestibility of CSM protein was increased by 5.3, 9.0, 16.6 and 17.2%, for in-vitro digestibility and by 4.8, 7.3, 9.4 and 12.9% for in-vivo due to treatment with 5,10, 15 and 20 kGy, respectively. From 7 to 42 days, arbor acres broilers were freely given iso energetic and iso nitrogenous : corn-soy control diet or diets containing 300 g kg -1 raw or irradiated CSM at 4, 15 or 20 kGy. Intake of raw CSM affected growth, feed intake and feed conversion as compared with birds receiving the control diet

  1. Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05. Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05. The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05. Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05, respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05. Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP, and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05. Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05. It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth

  2. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  3. DIGESTION OF HIGH FIBER DIET IN SHEEP AND GOAT OF JENEPPONTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Rahardja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four does (goat, G and four ewes (sheep, S of Jeneponto were fed chaffed rice straw hay (3.7%crude protein, 63.5% cell wall constituents, 44.5% acid detergent fiber and 6.2% acid detergent lignin,all based on dry matter. The intakes and digestibility of the diet by G and S were compared. Bothspecies consumed the same level of the diet. G digested dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crudefiber, and lignin of the diet to a significant higher extent than did by S. The superiority of G over S indigesting the diet was attributable with longer retention time of ruminal fluid and particulate matters inthe rumen and the entire gut, which then resulted in higher proportion of small size particles (<1 mmsieve, higher proportions of propionic, butyric, valeric and isovaleric acid concentrations produced inthe rumen. Additionally for further studies, there were some possibilities of G having a better chewingactivity (duration and intensity, and ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia levels by a greater urearecycle to the rumen, particularly through salivation.

  4. Microbial Insight into a Pilot-Scale Enhanced Two-Stage High-Solid Anaerobic Digestion System Treating Waste Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cao, Zhiping; Hu, Yuying; Wang, Xiaolu; Wang, Guangqi; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-30

    High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)". Hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanothermobacter spp. dominated the system with relative abundance up to about 100% in both TAD and MAD. Syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) bacteria were discovered in TAD, and they converted acetate into H₂ and CO₂ to support hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The microbial composition and conversion route of this system are derived from the high solid content and protein content in raw sludge, as well as the operational conditions. This study could facilitate the understanding of the enhanced HSAD process, and is of academic and industrial importance.

  5. Reducing the cost of semi-automated in-gel tryptic digestion and GeLC sample preparation for high-throughput proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelcke, Jayde E; Loo, Dorothy; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-21

    Peptide generation by trypsin digestion is typically the first step in mass spectrometry-based proteomics experiments, including 'bottom-up' discovery and targeted proteomics using multiple reaction monitoring. Manual tryptic digest and the subsequent clean-up steps can add variability even before the sample reaches the analytical platform. While specialized filter plates and tips have been designed for automated sample processing, the specialty reagents required may not be accessible or feasible due to their high cost. Here, we report a lower-cost semi-automated protocol for in-gel digestion and GeLC using standard 96-well microplates. Further cost savings were realized by re-using reagent tips with optimized sample ordering. To evaluate the methodology, we compared a simple mixture of 7 proteins and a complex cell-lysate sample. The results across three replicates showed that our semi-automated protocol had performance equal to or better than a manual in-gel digestion with respect to replicate variability and level of contamination. In this paper, we also provide the Agilent Bravo method file, which can be adapted to other liquid handlers. The simplicity, reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness of our semi-automated protocol make it ideal for routine in-gel and GeLC sample preparations, as well as high throughput processing of large clinical sample cohorts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary protein reduction on microbial protein, amino acids digestibility, and body retention in beef cattle. I. Digestibility sites and ruminal synthesis estimated by purine bases and 15N as markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, Lays Débora Silva; Amaral, Paloma de Melo; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Santos, Stefanie Alvarenga; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Prados, Laura Franco; Carneiro Pacheco, Marcos Vinícius; Zanetti, Diego; de Castro Menezes, Gustavo Chamon; Faciola, Antonio P

    2018-06-04

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of reducing dietary CP contents on 1) total and partial nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance and 2) on microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis and true MCP digestibility in the small intestine obtained with 15N and purine bases (PB) in beef cattle. Eight bulls (4 Nellore and 4 Crossbred Angus × Nellore) cannulated in the rumen and ileum were distributed in duplicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. The diets consisted of increasing CP contents: 100, 120, or 140 g CP/kg DM offered ad libitum, and restricted intake (RI) diet with 120 g CP/kg DM. The experiment lasted four 17-d periods, with 10 d for adaptation to diets and another 7 for data collection. Omasal digesta flow was obtained using Co-EDTA and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as markers, and to estimate ileal digesta flow only iNDF was used. From days 11 to 17 of each experimental period, ruminal infusions of Co-EDTA (5.0 g/d) and 15N (7.03 g of ammonium sulfate enriched with 10% of 15N atoms) were performed. There was no effect of CP contents (linear effect, P = 0.55 and quadratic effect, P = 0.11) on ruminal OM digestibility. Intake of CP linearly increased (P content (P ruminally degradable OM and true ruminally degradable OM) had a quadratic tendency (P = 0.07 and P = 0.08, respectively) to CP increasing and was numerically greatest at 120 g CP/kg DM. The adjusted equations for estimating true intestinal digestibility of MCP (Y1) and total CP (Y2) were, respectively, as follows: Y1 =--16.724(SEM = 40.06) + 0.86X(SEM = 0.05) and Y2 = -43.81(SEM = 49.19) + 0.75X(SEM = 0.05). It was concluded that diets with 120 g/kg of CP optimize the microbial synthesis and efficiency and ruminal ash and protein NDF digestibility, resulting in a better use of N compounds in the rumen. The PB technique can be used as an alternative to the 15N to estimate microbial synthesis.

  7. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  8. Inhibition of raw starch digestion by one glucoamylase preparation from black Aspergillus at high enzyme concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, B C; Veda, S

    1981-09-01

    Raw starch digestion by glucoamylase I (Ab. G-I) preparation from black Aspergillus was inhibited significantly at relatively high concentration of the enzyme. The properties of this enzyme were studied together with those of another glucoamylase I (Nor. G-I), also from black Aspergillus. The two glucoamylases do not differ so much in their physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, pH and thermal stability, pH and temperature optimum, substrate specificity, debranching activity, isoelectric point etc. The adsorption rate of both enzymes on raw starch increased by the increase of enzyme concentration. The raw starch digestion rate by adsorbed Ab. G-I, however, was decreased with the increase of concentration of enzyme whereas the same was increased in case of Nor. G-I. The inhibitory effect was weaker at 60 deg. Celcius or above. (Refs. 11).

  9. Biological phosphorus removal during high-rate, low-temperature, anaerobic digestion of wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara eKeating

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, extensive biologically-mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD. A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (~2% within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4-1.5 kg COD m-3 d-1 and hydraulic retention times of 8-24 hours, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28-78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12˚C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina Miseq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterised polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter and Acinetobacter was

  10. Peptidomics of Peptic Digest of Selected Potato Tuber Proteins: Post-Translational Modifications and Limited Cleavage Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C K Rajendran, Subin R; Mason, Beth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-03-23

    Bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting bioactive peptides from food proteins. This study was focused on using bioinformatics and peptidomics to evaluate the specificity of peptide release and post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptic digest of potato protein isolate. Peptides in the protein hydrolysate were identified by LC-MS/MS and subsequently aligned to their parent potato tuber proteins. Five major proteins were selected for further analysis, namely, lipoxygenase, α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, annexin, patatin, and polyubiquitin, based on protein coverage, abundance, confidence levels, and function. Comparison of the in silico peptide profile generated with ExPASy PeptideCutter and experimental peptidomics data revealed several differences. The experimental peptic cleavage sites were found to vary in number and specificity from PeptideCutter predictions. Average peptide chain length was also found to be higher than predicted with hexapeptides as the smallest detected peptides. Moreover, PTMs, particularly Met oxidation and Glu/Asp deamidation, were observed in some peptides, and these were unaccounted for during in silico analysis. PTMs can be formed during aging of potato tubers, or as a result of processing conditions during protein isolation and hydrolysis. The findings provide insights on the limitations of current bioinformatics tools for predicting bioactive peptide release from proteins, and on the existence of structural modifications that can alter the peptide bioactivity and functionality.

  11. Cooking Chicken Breast Reduces Dialyzable Iron Resulting from Digestion of Muscle Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Aditya S.; Mahoney, Raymond R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of cooking chicken breast on the production of dialyzable iron (an in vitro indicator of bioavailable iron) from added ferric iron. Chicken breast muscle was cooked by boiling, baking, sautéing, or deep-frying. Cooked samples were mixed with ferric iron and either extracted with acid or digested with pepsin and pancreatin. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron was measured after extraction or digestion and compared to raw chicken samples. For u...

  12. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  13. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  14. Effect of corn residue harvest method with ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on performance of growing calves and fiber digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T M; Bondurant, R G; Jolly-Breithaupt, M L; Gramkow, J L; Klopfenstein, T J; MacDonald, J C

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of corn residue harvest method on animal performance and diet digestibility. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments using 60 individually fed crossbred steers (280 kg [SD 32] initial BW; = 12). Factors were the corn residue harvest method (high-stem and conventional) and supplemental RUP at 2 concentrations (0 and 3.3% diet DM). A third harvest method (low-stem) was also evaluated, but only in diets containing supplemental RUP at 3.3% diet DM because of limitations in the amount of available low-stem residue. Therefore, the 3 harvest methods were compared only in diets containing supplemental RUP. In Exp. 2, 9 crossbred wethers were blocked by BW (42.4 kg [SD 7] initial BW) and randomly assigned to diets containing corn residue harvested 1 of 3 ways (low-stem, high-stem, and conventional). In Exp. 1, steers fed the low-stem residue diet had greater ADG compared with the steers fed conventionally harvested corn residue ( = 0.03; 0.78 vs. 0.63 kg), whereas steers fed high-stem residue were intermediate ( > 0.17; 0.69 kg), not differing from either conventional or low-stem residues. Results from in vitro OM digestibility suggest that low-stem residue had the greatest ( RUP content (40% of CP) and RUP digestibility (60%) among the 3 residues ( ≥ 0.35). No interactions were observed between harvest method and the addition of RUP ( ≥ 0.12). The addition of RUP tended to result in improved ADG (0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.58 ± 0.07 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.08) and G:F (0.116 ± 0.006 vs. 0.095 ± 0.020 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.02) compared with similar diets without the additional RUP. In Exp. 2, low-stem residue had greater DM and OM digestibility and DE ( < 0.01) than high-stem and conventional residues, which did not differ ( ≥ 0.63). Low-stem residue also had the greatest NDF digestibility (NDFD; < 0.01), whereas high-stem residue had greater

  15. The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Baraniak, Barbara; Pietrzak, Marlena

    2013-12-15

    Pea seeds were fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum 299v in monoculture under different time and temperature conditions and the fermented products were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal conditions. After fermentation and digestion ACE inhibitory activity was determined. In all samples after fermentation no ACE inhibitory activity was noted. Potentially antihypertensive peptides were released during in vitro digestion. The highest DH (68.62%) were noted for control sample, although the lowest IC50 value (0.19 mg/ml) was determined for product after 7 days fermentation at 22 °C. The hydrolysate characterised by the highest ACE inhibitory activity was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptides fractions were obtained. The highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50=64.04 μg/ml) for the first fraction was noted. This fraction was separated by HPLC and identified by LC-MS/MS and the sequence of peptide derived from pea proteins was determined as KEDDEEEEQGEEE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of dietary ileal amino acid digestibility to consumption of different cultivars of potatoes and conventional fibers in grower pigs fed a high-fat basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, X; Leonard, S; Archbold, T; Sullivan, J A; Duncan, A M; Ma, W D L; Bizimungu, B; Murphy, A; Htoo, J K; Fan, M Z

    2012-12-01

    Whereas dietary fibers are well recognized for nutritional management of human health issues, fiber is also known to be one of the dietary factors potentially affecting digestive use of dietary proteins. As a staple food, potato (Solanum tuberosum) may be a significant dietary fiber source. The objective of this study was to examine effects of dietary supplementation of six potato cultivar-genotype samples that differ in soluble fiber content and two conventional fiber components (i.e., cellulose and guar gum) on the apparent ileal AA digestibility in pigs fed a high-fat basal diet. The basal diet was formulated as a zero-fiber negative control (NC) to contain 41.5% poultry meal, 4% casein, 15% animal fat-oil blend, 2.8% sucrose, 31% corn (Zea mays) starch, 0.50% salt, and 0.40% trace mineral-vitamin supplement with fat contributing to 47% of the dietary GE. The two fiber diets were formulated by respectively diluting the basal diet with 10% guar gum and 10% cellulose at the expense of corn starch. Six other test diets were formulated by including 8.5% guar gum and further diluting the basal diet with 25.1% one of the six cultivar-genotype samples of dehydrated potato tuber powder to contain about 10% total dietary fiber at the expense of corn starch. Eighty-one 25-kg barrows were fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed the diets according to a completely randomized block design with each block lasting 28 d. Compared with the NC, the ileal digestibility of Ala, Gly, and Pro were decreased (P guar gum whereas the digestibility of Gly was reduced (P guar gum compared with the NC. Our results suggest that dietary inclusion of fiber at 10% from guar gum and cellulose and contributed by potatoes may adversely affect digestive use of dietary protein.

  17. Dietary protein reduction on microbial protein, amino acid digestibility, and body retention in beef cattle: 2. Amino acid intestinal absorption and their efficiency for whole-body deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, L D S; Amaral, P M; Valadares Filho, S C; Santos, S A; Detmann, E; Marcondes, M I; Pereira, J M V; Silva Júnior, J M; Prados, L F; Faciola, A P

    2018-03-06

    intestinal digestibility of total microbial AA was 80%. The efficiency of utilization of total AA for whole-body protein deposition was 40%. The efficiency of utilization of lysine and methionine was 37% and 58%, respectively. It was concluded that the AA flow to the omasum increases in response to dietary CP content. In addition, there are differences among AA in the efficiency that they are used by beef cattle.

  18. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  19. Competition between bound and free peptides in an ELISA-based procedure that assays peptides derived from protein digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Umberto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an ELISA-based method that can be used to identify and quantitate proteins in biological samples. In this method, peptides in solution, derived from proteolytic digests of the sample, compete with substrate-attached synthetic peptides for antibodies, also in solution, generated against the chosen peptides. The peptides used for the ELISA are chosen on the basis of their being (i products of the proteolytic (e.g. tryptic digestion of the protein to be identified and (ii unique to the target protein, as far as one can know from the published sequences. Results In this paper we describe the competition assay and we define the optimal conditions for the most effective assay. We have performed an analysis of the kinetics of interaction between the four components of the assay: the plastic substratum to which the peptide is bound, the bound peptide itself, the competing added peptide, and the antibody that is specific for the peptide and we compare the results of theoretical simulations to the actual data in some model systems. Conclusion The data suggest that the peptides bind to the plastic substratum in more than one conformation and that, once bound, the peptide displays different affinities for the antibody, depending on how it has bound to the plate

  20. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  1. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  2. High solids co-digestion of food and landscape waste and the potential for ammonia toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Margaret F.; DiStefano, Thomas D., E-mail: thomas.distefano@bucknell.edu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated co-digestion of food and landscape waste with a pilot-scale anaerobic dry digester. • We evaluated reactor performance at 35 °C under low and high organic loading rates. • Performance was stable under low organic loading rate, but declined under high organic loading rate. • Respirometry was employed to investigate potential inhibition due to ammonia. • Landscape waste was unsuitable in increasing the C:N ratio during codigestion. - Abstract: A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2 g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15 g COD/L-day). At low loadings, methane yields were 232 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 229 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed, and at high loadings yields were 211 L CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed and 272 L CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed. Based on characterization and biodegradability studies, food waste appears to be a good candidate for HSAD at low organic loading rates; however, the development of ammonia inhibition at high loading rates suggests that the C:N ratio is too low for use as a single substrate. The relatively low biodegradability of landscape waste as reported herein made it an unsuitable substrate to increase the C:N ratio. Codigestion of food waste with a substrate high in bioavailable carbon is recommended to increase the C:N ratio sufficiently to allow HSAD at loading rates of 15 g COD/L-day.

  3. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  4. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of PO43−:Mg2+ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of NH4+-N and PO43−-P was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.

  6. Energy production from agricultural residues: High methane yields in pilot-scale two-stage anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parawira, W.; Read, J.S.; Mattiasson, B.; Bjoernsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    There is a large, unutilised energy potential in agricultural waste fractions. In this pilot-scale study, the efficiency of a simple two-stage anaerobic digestion process was investigated for stabilisation and biomethanation of solid potato waste and sugar beet leaves, both separately and in co-digestion. A good phase separation between hydrolysis/acidification and methanogenesis was achieved, as indicated by the high carbon dioxide production, high volatile fatty acid concentration and low pH in the acidogenic reactors. Digestion of the individual substrates gave gross energy yields of 2.1-3.4 kWh/kg VS in the form of methane. Co-digestion, however, gave up to 60% higher methane yield, indicating that co-digestion resulted in improved methane production due to the positive synergism established in the digestion liquor. The integrity of the methane filters (MFs) was maintained throughout the period of operation, producing biogas with 60-78% methane content. A stable effluent pH showed that the methanogenic reactors had good ability to withstand the variations in load and volatile fatty acid concentrations that occurred in the two-stage process. The results of this pilot-scale study show that the two-stage anaerobic digestion system is suitable for effective conversion of semi-solid agricultural residues as potato waste and sugar beet leaves

  7. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  8. [A prospective follow-up study on the association between serum level of C-reactive protein and risk of digestive system cancers in Chinese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Cao, L Y; Chen, S H; Xie, S H; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Guo, L W; Li, F; Su, K; Chang, S; Ren, J S; Dai, M; Li, N; Wu, S L; He, J

    2016-11-23

    Objective: It has been reported by some prospective studies that C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with cancer risk. However, the correlation between CRP and digestive system cancers has not been evaluated in Chinese females. We conducted a large population-based cohort study to investigate whether elevated level of CRP in serum is associated with an increased risk of digestive system cancers in Chinese women. Methods: From the Chinese Kailuan Female Cohort, 19, 437 women were enrolled in this study in July 2006, and all of the subjects were followed up through 2014. At the baseline investigation, the serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) were tested for all subjects, and demographic information and risk factor data were collected. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios ( HR ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI ) for the baseline levels of hsCRP after adjusting for age, marital status, smoking, drinking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and physical activity, and risk of digestive system tumors (including colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreas cancer, liver and gallbladder cancer, and other cancers). Results: By Dec 31, 2014, a total of 100 incident cancer cases were observed, including 47 colorectal cancers, 17 stomach cancers, and altogether 29 pancreas, liver and gallbladder cancers. All the subjects investigated were divided into three groups according to the level of hsCRP (3 mg/L). The 8-year cumulative incidence of digestive system cancers were 405/100 000, 520/100 000 and 787/100 000 in these 3 groups, respectively (Log rank test χ 2 = 8.37, P =0.015). Compared to those with lower hsCRP levels (3 mg/L) had a significantly increased risk of pancreas, liver and gallbladder cancers ( HR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.06-6.91; P trend = 0.036). Conclusions: Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline may be associated with increased risk of certain digestive system cancers.

  9. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  10. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (PEubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  11. The effect of physiological conditions on the surface structure of proteins: Setting the scene for human digestion of emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Valderrama, J.; Gunning, A. P.; Ridout, M. J.; Wilde, P. J.; Morris, V. J.

    2009-10-01

    Understanding and manipulating the interfacial mechanisms that control human digestion of food emulsions is a crucial step towards improved control of dietary intake. This article reports initial studies on the effects of the physiological conditions within the stomach on the properties of the film formed by the milk protein ( β -lactoglobulin) at the air-water interface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface tension and surface rheology techniques were used to visualize and examine the effect of gastric conditions on the network structure. The effects of changes in temperature, pH and ionic strength on a pre-formed interfacial structure were characterized in order to simulate the actual digestion process. Changes in ionic strength had little effect on the surface properties. In isolation, acidification reduced both the dilatational and the surface shear modulus, mainly due to strong repulsive electrostatic interactions within the surface layer and raising the temperature to body temperature accelerated the rearrangements within the surface layer, resulting in a decrease of the dilatational response and an increase of surface pressure. Together pH and temperature display an unexpected synergism, independent of the ionic strength. Thus, exposure of a pre-formed interfacial β -lactoglobulin film to simulated gastric conditions reduced the surface dilatational modulus and surface shear moduli. This is attributed to a weakening of the surface network in which the surface rearrangements of the protein prior to exposure to gastric conditions might play a crucial role.

  12. Aminoazo dye-protein-adduct enhances inhibitory effect on digestibility and damages to Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB, methyl yellow, or butter yellow, a human carcinogen, has been banned for use in foods since 1988. In 2014, DAB adulteration in Tofu occurred in Taiwan. We hypothesize that DAB can form [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct with soybean protein (SBP which could damage Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis. Sprague-Dawley rats gavage fed [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct revealed severely reduced body weight and damaged duodenum, liver, hepatic mitochondria, and spleen. Hepatic levels of glutathione and ATP were severely reduced. Serum GOT and GPT were substantially elevated. Analysis by the adsorption isotherm clearly revealed DAB formed very stable [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct at 1:1 molar ration (Phase A. The equilibrium constant of this colloidal adduct [DAB•SBP]adduct was KeqA = ∝, behaving as the most stable and toxic species. At higher protein concentration (Phase C it formed conjugate [DAB×SBPgross]conjugate, with KeqC = 3.23×10-2 mg/mL, implicating a moderately strong adsorption. The in vitro pepsin digestibility test showed apparently reduced digestibility by 27% (by Ninhydrin assay or 8% (by Bradford assay. Conclusively, this is the first report indicating that [DAB•SBP]adduct potentially is capable to damage the Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

  13. Immunological demonstration of intestinal absorption and digestion of protein macromolecules in the trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, U; Sire, M F; Vernier, J M

    1986-01-01

    An immunofluorescence technique using antibodies against the Fc and Fab fragments of human IgG (IgGH) was used to study the absorption of proteins by the intestinal epithelial cells of rainbow trout after oral or anal administration. Cellular absorption of a high molecular weight protein, hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg), was also studied by using two monoclonal antibodies, one specific for the confirmation of the antigen (implying disulfide bridges), and the other that reacts with the constituent polypeptides. Both absorbed IgGH and HBsAg were seen to be segregated in the apical vacuolar system, a characteristic feature of intestinal epithelial cells. The same antibodies were used with an everted sac technique in conjunction with immunofluorescence, to show the intravacuolar degradation of IgGH and HBsAg following absorption. By using an antibody against cathepsin D, it was possible to demonstrate, by immunofluorescence, the localization of this enzyme in the same vacuolar system. After coupling the antibody to peroxidase or to the protein A/colloidalgold complex, the ultrastructural antigenic sites of cathepsin D could be seen to be localized in the interior of the vacuoles. The vacuolar localization of a cathepsin B activity was determined by incubating sections of intestinal mucosa, or isolated epithelial cells, with a specific synthetic substrate (Z-Ala-Arg-Arg-methoxynaphthylamide). The supranuclear hyaloplasmic vacuoles of intestinal epithelial cells may be considered to be phagolysosomes that assure the degradation of absorbed proteins. This function may be of fundamental importance in the in the nutritional processes of this species.

  14. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35 S-rumen bacteria and 14 C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme

  16. Experimental and clinical studies on simultaneous fat and protein tolerance digestion-absorption test using 131I-triolein and 125I-RISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Yasunobu

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous fat and protein tolerance digestion-absorption test using 131 I-triolein and 125 I-RISA was investigated experimentally in rats and clinically in 148 inpatients with various diseases. The results were as follows: Animal experiments. Fat absorption was markedly impaired in the exclusion of bile from the intestine. Each function of fat and protein absorption was independently detected. These animal experiments gave the clinical evaluation of this test for fat and protein digestion-absorption function. Clinical investigations. The test meal was prepared without using commercial Tween 80 as an emulgent. Either fat or protein absorption was markedly impaired in some patients with various diseases. Inpatients with various diseases investigated were divided into 3 groups by correlation coefficient between fecal excretion ratios of fat and protein. Each function of fat and protein digestion-absorption was able to be detected independently by this test simultaneously. This test can further be used as a labolatory aid in evaluating fat and protein digestion-absorption function in patients with malabsorption syndrome. (author)

  17. Thermophilic co-digestion feasibility of distillers grains and swine manure: effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate during high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensai, P; Thangamani, A; Visvanathan, C

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of high solids containing distillers grains and swine manure (total solids, 27 +/- 2% and 18 +/- 2%, respectively) was evaluated in this study to assess the effect of C/N ratio and organic loading rate (OLR). Feed mixture was balanced to achieve a C/N ratio of 30/1 by mixing distillers grains and swine manure. Pilot-scale co-digestion of distillers grains and swine manure was carried out under thermophilic conditions in the continuous mode for seven different OLRs from R1 to R7 (3.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 kg VS/m3 day) under high solid anaerobic digestion. The methane yield and volatile solid (VS) removal were consistent; ranging from 0.33 to 0.34 m3CH4/kg VS day and 50-53%, respectively, until OLR 8 kg VS/m3 day. After which methane yield and VS removal significantly decreased to 0.26 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 42%, respectively, when OLR was increased to 14 kg VS/m3 day. However, during operation, at OLR of 10 kg VS/m3 day, the methane yield and VS removal increased after the 19th day to 0.33 m3 CH4/kg VS day and 46%, respectively, indicating that a longer acclimatization period is required by methanogens at a higher loading rate.

  18. Sugar and protein digestion in flowerpiercers and hummingbirds: a comparative test of adaptive convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schondube, J E; Martinez del Rio, C

    2004-04-01

    Flowerpiercers are the most specialized nectar-feeding passerines in the Neotropics. They are nectar robbers that feed on the sucrose-rich diet of hummingbirds. To test the hypothesis that flowerpiercers have converged with hummingbirds in digestive traits, we compared the activity of intestinal enzymes and the gut nominal area of cinnamon-bellied flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) with those of eleven hummingbird species. We measured sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activities. To provide a comparative context, we also compared flowerpiercers and hummingbirds with 29 species of passerines. We analyzed enzyme activity using both standard allometric analyses and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Both approaches revealed the same patterns. With the exception of sucrase activity, hummingbirds' digestive traits were indistinguishable from those of passerines. Sucrase activity was ten times higher in hummingbirds than in passerines. Hummingbirds and passerines also differed in the relationship between intestinal maltase and sucrase activities. Maltase activity was two times higher per unit of sucrase activity in passerines than in hummingbirds. The sucrase activity of D. baritula was much lower than that of hummingbirds, and not unlike that expected for a passerine of its body mass. With the exception of aminopeptidase-N activity, the digestive traits of D. baritula were not different from those of other passerines. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  19. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  20. Study on microwave digestion technique of granite with high pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chengjian; Luo Yangming; Fu Zhonghua

    2008-06-01

    The digestion relation of heating time, temperature and pressure for acids is discussed in closed container under microwave field. Some granite samples were digested by microwave in 100 ml closed container. The results show that the best acid to digest granite samples is a combination of HNO 3 and HF, 0.5 g sample powder can be digested completely in 21 minutes, and that the maximum sample mass is 2.0 g using 100 ml closed container. (authors)

  1. Use of high metal-containing biogas digestates in cereal production - Mobility of chromium and aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Ivan; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Sogn, Trine A; Horn, Svein J; Krogstad, Tore

    2018-07-01

    Biogas digestate use as organic fertilizer has been widely promoted in recent years as a part of the global agenda on recycling waste and new sustainable energy production. Although many studies have confirmed positive effects of digestates on soil fertility, there is still lack of information on the potential adverse effects of digestates on natural soil heavy metal content, metal leaching and leaching of other pollutants. We have investigated the release of aluminium (Al) and chromium (Cr) from different soils treated with commercial digestates high in mentioned potentially problematic metals in a field experiment, while a greenhouse and a laboratory column experiment were used to address mobility of these metals in two other scenarios. Results obtained from the field experiment showed an increase in total concentrations for both investigated metals on plots treated with digestates as well as a significant increase of water-soluble Al concentrations. Factors that were found to be mostly affecting the metal mobility were dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH and type of soil. Metal binding and free metal concentrations were modelled using the WHAM 7.0 software. Results indicated that the use of digestates with high metal content are comparable to use of animal manure with respect to metal leaching. Data obtained through chemical modelling for the samples from the field experiment suggested that an environmental risk from higher metal mobility has to be considered for Al. In the greenhouse experiment, measured concentrations of leached Cr at the end of the growing season were low for all treatments, while the concentration of leached Al from digestates was higher. The high irrigation column leaching experiment showed an increased leaching rate of Cr with addition of digestates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  3. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  4. Clinical value of Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 as a prognostic marker in patients with digestive system cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhengyan; Liu, Chaoxu; He, Xianli

    2018-01-01

    Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in spindle assembly and dynamics. However, the clinical and prognostic value of TPX2 in the digestive system cancers remains unclear. The objective of this review was to evaluate the association of TPX2 expression with disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and clinicopathological features of digestive system cancers. The software Stata 12.0 was used to analyze the outcomes, including OS, disease-free survival (DFS), and clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 10 eligible studies with 906 patients were included. Elevated TPX2 expression was significantly associated with poor DFS (pooled hazard ratio [HR] =2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.96-3.13) and OS (pooled HR =2.66, 95% CI: 2.04-3.48) of digestive system malignancies. Subgroup analyses showed that cancer type, sample size, study quality, and laboratory detection methods did not alter the significant prognostic value of TPX2. Additionally, TPX2 expression was found to be an independent predictive factor for DFS (HR =2.31, 95% CI: 1.78-3.01). TPX2 expression might be associated with TNM stage and pathological grade in digestive system cancer. In conclusion, TPX2 is an independent prognostic factor for survival of patients with digestive system cancer. Furthermore, its overexpression is associated with TNM stage and pathological grade in digestive system cancer.

  5. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  6. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen-undegraded protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: II. Distillers dried grains with solubles and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in the rumen-undegraded protein fraction (RUP-AA) of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and fish meal (FM) samples and to determine whether these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Five sources of DDGS and 5 sources of FM were obtained from Feed Analysis Consortium, Inc. (Champaign, IL). To obtain the rumen-undegradable protein fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen-undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop-intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of RUP-AA and AA in the intact feeds. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x (100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)/100]. Results indicate that standardized digestibility of feed-AA differs from RUP-AA for DDGS samples but not for FM samples, and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differs within samples. For the DDGS samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and Lys and highest for Met and Trp. For FM samples, standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were most often lowest for His and highest for Trp. Results also indicate that DDGS and most FM samples do not contain a constant protein fraction

  7. Protein profiling reveals inter-individual protein homogeneity of arachnoid cyst fluid and high qualitative similarity to cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berle Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms behind formation and filling of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate AC fluid by proteomics to gain further knowledge about ACs. Two goals were set: 1 Comparison of AC fluid from individual patients to determine whether or not temporal AC is a homogenous condition; and 2 Evaluate the protein content of a pool of AC fluid from several patients and qualitatively compare this with published protein lists of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma. Methods AC fluid from 15 patients with temporal AC was included in this study. In the AC protein comparison experiment, AC fluid from 14 patients was digested, analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a semi-quantitative label-free approach and the data were compared by principal component analysis (PCA to gain knowledge of protein homogeneity of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, AC fluid from 11 patients was pooled, digested, and fractionated by SCX chromatography prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. Proteins identified were compared to published databases of proteins identified from CSF and plasma. AC fluid proteins not found in these two databases were experimentally searched for in lumbar CSF taken from neurologically-normal patients, by a targeted protein identification approach called MIDAS (Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM initiated detection and sequence analysis. Results We did not identify systematic trends or grouping of data in the AC protein comparison experiment, implying low variability between individual proteomic profiles of AC. In the AC proteome evaluation experiment, we identified 199 proteins. When compared to previously published lists of proteins identified from CSF and plasma, 15 of the AC proteins had not been reported in either of these datasets. By a targeted protein identification approach, we identified 11 of these 15 proteins in pooled CSF from neurologically-normal patients, demonstrating that

  8. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Binding of Gallic Acid and Epigallocatechin Gallate to Heat-Unfolded Whey Proteins at Neutral pH Alters Radical Scavenging Activity of in Vitro Protein Digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-09-27

    Preheated (80 °C for 9 min) whey protein isolate (HWPI) was reacted with 20, 120, and 240 μmol/g (protein basis) gallic acid (GA) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) at neutral pH and 25 °C. Isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorometry showed a similar trend that GA binding to HWPI was moderate but weaker than EGCG binding. However, the shift of maximal fluorescence emission wavelength in opposite directions in response to GA (blue) and EGCG (red) suggests discrepant binding patterns. Electrophoresis results showed that EGCG induced formation of HWPI complexes while GA only had a marginal effect. Both free and phenolic-bound HWPI exhibited mild antiradical activity. However, when subjected to in vitro digestion, synergistic radical-scavenging activity was produced between the phenolics and peptides with the highest synergism being observed on 120 μmol/g phenolics.

  10. Intestinal digestibility of amino acids in rumen undegradable protein estimated using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster bioassay: I. Soybean meal and SoyPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S E; Calsamiglia, S; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H; Stern, M D; Erickson, P S; Utterback, P L; Schwab, C G

    2009-09-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to measure intestinal digestibility of AA in rumen undegradable protein (RUP-AA) in soybean meal (SBM) and expeller SBM (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA; SP) and to determine if these feeds contain a constant protein fraction that is undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine, as assumed in the French Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Paris, France) and Scandinavian AAT-PBV (AAT = AA absorbed from small intestine; PBV = protein balance in the rumen) models. Three samples of SBM and 3 samples of SP were obtained from the Feed Analysis Consortium Inc. (Savoy, IL). To obtain the RUP fraction, samples were ruminally incubated in situ for 16 h in 4 lactating cows, and the collected rumen undegraded residues (RUR) were pooled by sample. Subsamples of the intact feeds and RUR were crop intubated to 4 cecectomized roosters, and total excreta were collected for 48 h. Intact feeds, RUR, and excreta were analyzed for AA. Basal endogenous AA loss estimates were obtained from fasted birds and were used to calculate standardized digestibility of AA in the intact feeds and RUP-AA. Indigestibility coefficients of the intact feeds were calculated as (100 - % standardized AA digestibility), and indigestibility of the RUR was calculated as [(100 - % ruminal degradation of AA) x [(100 - % standardized RUP-AA digestibility)]/100]. Results indicated that standardized digestibility of feed-AA was similar to standardized digestibility of RUP-AA for SBM and SP samples and that standardized digestibility of individual AA differed within samples. Standardized feed-AA and RUP-AA digestibility values were lowest for Lys and Cys and highest for Trp and Met. Results also indicated that SBM and SP did not contain a constant protein fraction that was both undegradable in the rumen and indigestible in the small intestine. Indigestibility values of RUR were lower than in intact feeds, suggesting that SBM and SP contain a

  11. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  13. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS, the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for crude protein (81,38% vs 82,65% and crude fibre (35,97% vs 40,65%. Nitrogen balance was more favourable in DLW pigs (32,12% vs 19,67% which showed a higher nitrogen retention (+69%.With respect to the protein source, no differences were observed for nitrogen balance. Sunflower diet showed the higher ADC for ether extract (+20% compared with soybean diet. Crude fibre digestibility was lowered in sunflower (-33% and field beans (-13% diets. Sunflower and field beans diets showed the lowest gross energy digestibility coefficients. Field pea diet had the highest ADC for crude fibre (+ 12% leading to ADCs for organic matter and gross energy comparable to those of soybean meal. It is concluded that field bean, sunflower cake and field pea could be considered as valuable non-conventional protein sources in swine nutrition.

  14. Influence of In vitro Digestion on Antioxidative Activity of Coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: CMPHs are high value-added antioxidants and possess a potential ..... side chain groups were expected to be exposed, ..... enzymatic digestion on antioxidant activity of coffee ... yam bean seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) protein.

  15. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  16. Níveis de proteína e de arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte Protein and digestible arginine levels in pre-starter broiler rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Schaitl Thon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível na ração pré-inicial de frangos de corte e seus efeitos no desempenho das aves dos 7 aos 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 600 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de arginina digestível (1,363; 1,463; 1,563 e 1,663% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (20 e 22%, totalizando oito tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições de 15 aves. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, o índice de conversão alimentar, a biometria dos órgãos do trato gastrintestinal e a digestibilidade e retenção de matéria seca e nitrogênio. O maior ganho de peso na fase de 1 a 14 dias de idade foi obtido com a ração com 22% de proteína bruta. Os níveis de arginina digestível tiveram efeito quadrático na conversão alimentar na fase de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O peso do esôfago e inglúvio foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a ração com 20% de proteína bruta, no entanto, houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de arginina digestível sobre o comprimento do intestino aos 10 dias de idade e sobre o peso do esôfago + inglúvio aos 3 dias de idade. Houve interação entre os níveis de proteína bruta e arginina digestível para o peso relativo do fígado aos 14 dias, que respondeu de forma quadrática ao nível de 20% de proteína bruta, e para o comprimento de intestino, cujo maior valor foi obtido com os níveis de 22% de proteína bruta e 1,603% de arginina digestível. O balanço e a retenção de nitrogênio foram maiores no nível de 22% de proteína bruta. O nível de 1,363% de arginina digestível atende às exigências nutricionais dos frangos de corte na fase pré-inicial.This experiment was carried out to evaluate levels of crude protein and digestible arginine in pre-starter broiler ration and their effects on the performance of the broilers from 7 to

  17. Evaluation of the National Research Council (2001) dairy model and derivation of new prediction equations. 1. Digestibility of fiber, fat, protein, and nonfiber carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Roman-Garcia, Y; Firkins, J L; VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weiss, W P; McGill, T; Garnett, R; Hanigan, M D

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%. All NRC (2001) estimates had notable mean and slope biases and large root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance (CCC) ranged from poor to good. Predicting NDF digestibility with independent equations for legumes, corn silage, other forages, and nonforage feeds improved CCC (0.85 vs. 0.76) compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (NRC equation with parameter estimates re-derived against this data set). Separate FA digestion coefficients were derived for different fat supplements (animal fats, oils, and other fat types) and for the basal diet. This equation returned improved (from 0.76 to 0.94) CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form. Unique CP digestibility equations were derived for forages, animal protein feeds, plant protein feeds, and other feeds, which improved CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (0.74 to 0.85). New NFC digestibility coefficients were derived for grain-specific starch digestibilities, with residual organic matter assumed to be 98% digestible. A Monte Carlo cross-validation was performed to evaluate repeatability of model fit. In this procedure, data were randomly subsetted 500 times into derivation (60%) and evaluation (40%) data sets, and equations were derived using the derivation data and then evaluated against the independent evaluation data. Models

  18. Effects of Chain Length and Degree of Unsaturation of Fatty Acids on Structure and in Vitro Digestibility of Starch-Protein-Fatty Acid Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mengge; Chao, Chen; Yu, Jinglin; Copeland, Les; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shujun

    2018-02-28

    The effects of chain length and degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FAs) on structure and in vitro digestibility of starch-protein-FA complexes were investigated in model systems. Studies with the rapid visco analyzer (RVA) showed that the formation of ternary complex resulted in higher viscosities than those of binary complex during the cooling and holding stages. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the structural differences for ternary complexes were much less than those for binary complexes. Starch-protein-FA complexes presented lower in vitro enzymatic digestibility compared with starch-FAs complexes. We conclude that shorter chain and lower unsaturation FAs favor the formation of ternary complexes but decrease the thermal stability of these complexes. FAs had a smaller effect on the ordered structures of ternary complexes than on those of binary complexes and little effect on enzymatic digestibility of both binary and ternary complexes.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal: protein and lipid-rich substrate degradation and population dynamics of acidogens and methanogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeob; Koo, Taewoan; Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle offal was investigated in batch reactors at 35 °C to determine the feasibility of using cattle offal as a feedstock. The organic content [i.e., volatile solids (VS)] of the cattle offal was mainly composed of protein (33.9%) and lipids (46.1%). Hydrolysis along with acidogenesis was monitored to investigate the substrate degradation and generation of intermediate products (e.g., volatile fatty acids, ammonia). Acetate (2.03 g/L), propionate (0.60 g/L), n-butyrate (0.39 g/L), and iso-valerate (0.37 g/L) were major acidogenesis products (91% of total volatile fatty acid concentration). Overall protein and lipid degradation were 82.9 and 81.8%, respectively. Protein degraded first, and four times faster (0.28 day(-1)) than lipid (0.07 day(-1)). Methane yields were 0.52 L CH4/g VSadded and 0.65 L CH4/g VSremoved, indicating that anaerobic digestion of the offal was feasible. A quantitative QPCR assay was conducted to understand the microbial dynamics. The variation patt erns in the gene concentrations successfully indicated the population dynamics of proteolytic and lipolytic acidogens. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta approximation was used to determine the kinetics of the acidogens. The molecular biotechnology approach was appropriate for the evaluation of the acidogenic biokinetics. The maximum growth rate, μ m, halfsaturation coefficients, K s, microbial yield coefficient, Y, cell mass decay rate coefficient, k d, of the proteolytic acidogens were 9.9 day(-1), 37.8 g protein/L, 1.1 × 10(10) copies/g protein, and 3.8 × 10(-1), respectively. Those for the lipolytic acidogens were 1.2 × 10(-1) day(-1), 8.3 g lipid/L, 1.5 × 10(9) copies/g lipid, and 9.9 × 10(-3) day(-1), respectively.

  20. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, K.; Zander, R.

    1987-01-01

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15 N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15 N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15 N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  1. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-suppressing major kafirin sub-classes is fundamental to improved protein digestibility and nutritional value of sorghum. The improvement is linked to an irregularly invaginated phenotype of protein bodies....

  2. Extraction, partial characterization and evaluation of in vitro digestibility of the protein associated with the exoskeleton of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobedo-Lozano, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of new food sources to satisfy human requirements forces researchers to study any possible alternative supplies. Therefore this study aimed to explore the quality and digestibility evaluation of the protein fractions obtained as a by-product of processing the shrimp exoskeleton Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp exoskeletons were washed, they were dried, mincedand they were brought under acid hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis; released proteins were then precipitated and characterized. 496 g of demineralized exoskeleton were obtained from 1 kg of shrimp shell; out of these, 376 g corresponded to chitin and 120 g corresponded to protein Total protein content was 33.80 ± 0.34 %. The digestible protein fractions were 26.7 g and 92.1 g were insoluble proteins. Of this latter fraction, the largest proportion belonged to the scleroprotein type. The amino acid profile analysis from the recovered proteins indicated that there were present nine amino acids out of the ten essential ones, being leucine the one with the highest proportion. In vitro digestibility was shown to be up to an 83.7 %. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the recovery of digestibleproteins from shrimp exoskeleton may be useful in diet formulation.

  3. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  4. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  5. A novel protein mixture containing vegetable proteins renders enteral nutrition products non-coagulating after in vitro gastric digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van den C.C.M.; Klebach, M.; Abrahamse, E.; Minor, M.; Knol, J.; Hofman, Z.; Ludwig, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Non-coagulation of protein from enteral nutrition (EN) in the stomach is considered to improve gastric emptying and may result in reduced upper gastrointestinal complications such as reflux and aspiration pneumonia. For the development of a new EN protein mixture with reduced

  6. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  7. The Journey of a Sandwich: Computer-Based Laboratory Experiments about the Human Digestive System in High School Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Hajdinjak, Zdravka; Briski, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Teaching high school students about the digestive system can be a challenge for a teacher when s/he wants to overcome rote learning of facts without a deeper understanding of the physiological processes inside the alimentary tract. A series of model experiments illustrating the journey of a sandwich was introduced into teaching high school…

  8. Effects of Toasting Time on Digestive Hydrolysis of Soluble and Insoluble 00-Rapeseed Meal Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Bruininx, Erik M.A.M.; Gruppen, Harry; Carré, Patrick; Quinsac, Alain; Poel, van der Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Thermal damage to proteins can reduce their nutritional value. The effects of toasting time on the kinetics of hydrolysis, the resulting molecular weight distribution of 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) and the soluble and insoluble protein fractions separated from the RSM were studied. Hydrolysis was

  9. Long-term high-solids anaerobic digestion of food waste: Effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuya; Zhang, ShangYi; Li, Lei; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ma, Yao; Shi, Dezhi

    2018-04-22

    A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability. Accumulated acetate caused feedback inhibition at the acetogenesis stage, which resulted in considerable accumulation of propionate, valerate, and other long-chain fatty acids. This high concentration of volatile fatty acids reduced the abundance of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria and allowed hydrolytic fermentative bacteria to dominate. The normally interactive and orderly metabolic network was broken, which further exacerbated the process instability. These results improve the understanding of microbial mechanisms which contribute to process instability and provide guidance for the microbial management of anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Digestibility and nitrogen balance of diets containing non conventional vegetable proteins fed to pigs of genetic strains suitable for outdoor systems

    OpenAIRE

    L. Sardi; M. Simioli; R. Paganelli; G. Martelli; L. Rizzi

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate on growing pigs kept in metabolism crates, either belonging to a “traditional” cross-breed (Duroc x Large White – DLW) or a local breed (Cinta Senese – CS), the digestibility and the nitrogen balance of non-conventional vegetable protein sources (field beans, pea and sunflower cake) when compared to soybean meal. The four diets were formulated so as to supply the same crude protein amount. CS pigs showed lower apparent digestibilit...

  12. An assessment of differences in the ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in brewer’s grains and maize draff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Majer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The submitted thesis aims to assess the differences between the ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein contained in brewer’s grains (BG and maize draff (AMG. The effectiveness of ruminal degradability was tested using the “in sacco” method on 3 dry Holstain cows fitted with rumen cannulas. The dynamics of ruminal degradability of crude protein (CP was detected after 0, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours of samples incubation in the rumen. The intestinal digestibility of crude protein undegradable in the rumen was determined using the “mobile bag” method on 3 dry Holstain cows fitted with duodenal cannulas. The crude protein degradability of BG was detected in the above-mentioned hours (%: 4.06; 18.16; 32.40; 38.56, and 50.70; crude protein degradability of AMG: 42.04; 63.56; 84.47; 85.16, and 87.19. The effectiveness of rumen degradability of BG crude protein at the rate of passage of rumen content 6 % per hour was calculated at 35.33 % and that of AMG, at 76.29 %. Intestinal digestibility of BG crude protein and dry matter at the rate of passage of intestinal content 6 % per hour was calculated at 79.41 % and 22.84 %, respectively, and that of AMG, at 57.01 % and 11.33 %, respectively. The differences between the indicators of both feedstuffs were significant (P < 0.05. The results show that BG are mostly a source of crude protein with higher intestinal digestibility than AMG.

  13. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  14. Evaluation of an in vitro system to simulate equine foregut digestion and the influence of acidity on protein and fructan degradation in the horse's stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, S; Wichert, B; Greef, J M; Hillegeist, D; Zeyner, A; Liesegang, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve an in vitro system in order to gather optimized information on the digestion of different forages in the horse's upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, foregut digestion of several forages was simulated in vitro (Part 1). The effect of different pH values on in vitro fructan degradation of two selected grasses (Part 2) was tested subsequently. Part 1: We hypothesized that our system produces representative results simulating digestive processes in the upper alimentary tract, but neglects microbial fermentation. In vitro digestion of six forages (grass mixture for horses, grass mixture for cows (GMC), tall fescue, English perennial ryegrass (ER), white clover, lucerne) was performed in two phases with pepsin and pancreatin. The results are consistent with current data from in vivo studies, including a degradation of crude protein and monosaccharides as well as a relative increase in fibres. Interestingly, a loss of fructan was measured in two feedstuffs (ER/GMC: 4.1/4.4% DM fructan before and 0.59/0.00% DM after simulated foregut digestion). Part 2: As fructans are thought not to be fragmented by digestive enzymes, another hypothesis was developed: acidic hydrolysis leads to a degradation of fructans. To evaluate the influence of gastric pH on the digestion of fructan and protein, different pH values (2, 3 and 4) were adjusted in a second series of in vitro foregut digestion trials with ER and GMC. As expected, the highest degradation of protein was seen at the lowest pH (protein in ER/GMC at pH 2: 6.11/8.28% DM and at pH 4: 7.73/10.64% DM), whereas fructan degradation was highest at pH 4 (fructan in ER/GMC at pH 2: 1.63/1.95% DM and at pH 4: 1.31/0.91% DM). We presume that not only acidic hydrolysis but also plant enzymes cause the loss of fructans in an acidic environment. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Effects of protein concentration and heat treatment on concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and on amino acid digestibility in four sources of canola meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Maison, T; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of canola meal (high-protein [CM-HP], high-temperature-processed [CM-HT], low-temperature-processed [CM-LT], and conventional [CM-CV] canola meal) and in conventional soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 growing barrows (initial BW: 39.7 ± 1.58 kg) were individually housed in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 24 pigs and 8 replicate pigs per treatment. The 6 diets included a corn-based basal diet and 5 diets that were formulated by mixing corn and 1 of the sources of canola meal (39.0% inclusion) or SBM (28.5% inclusion). Feces and urine were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME in each source of canola meal and in SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. The DE and ME in the 4 sources of canola meal were less (P sources of canola meal. In Exp. 2, 12 growing barrows (initial BW: 34.0 ± 1.41 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to a repeated 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods in each square. Five diets that contained 35% SBM or 45% of 1 of the 4 sources of canola meal as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated, and a N-free diet was also used. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The AID and SID of CP and all AA in SBM were greater (P sources of canola meal. Compared with CM-CV, CM-HP had greater (P < 0.05) AID of Ile, Lys, Asp, Cys, and Pro and greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys and Cys. However, no differences between CM-HT and CM-LT were observed. In conclusion, regardless of the concentration of CP and the processing used, canola meal provides less DE and ME to pigs than corn and SBM, and the SID of AA in canola meal is less than in SBM. The processing

  16. Comparison of high-solids to liquid anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yan, Wei; Sheng, Kuichuan; Sanati, Mehri

    2014-02-01

    Co-digestion of food waste and green waste was conducted with six feedstock mixing ratios to evaluate biogas production. Increasing the food waste percentage in the feedstock resulted in an increased methane yield, while shorter retention time was achieved by increasing the green waste percentage. Food waste/green waste ratio of 40:60 was determined as preferred ratio for optimal biogas production. About 90% of methane yield was obtained after 24.5 days of digestion, with total methane yield of 272.1 mL/g VS. Based the preferred ratio, effect of total solids (TS) content on co-digestion of food waste and green waste was evaluated over a TS range of 5-25%. Results showed that methane yields from high-solids anaerobic digestion (15-20% TS) were higher than the output of liquid anaerobic digestion (5-10% TS), while methanogenesis was inhibited by further increasing the TS content to 25%. The inhibition may be caused by organic overloading and excess ammonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; Digestibility of DM was similar (~66%) among HRFI and LRFI for HS diets but greater for LRFI when fed LS diets (64 vs. 62%). For LS diets, digestibility of DM could account for up to 31% of the differences among HRFI and LRFI for apparent diet energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility

  18. In vitro digestibility, protein composition and techno-functional properties of Saskatchewan grown yellow field peas (Pisum sativum L.) as affected by processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Boye, Joyce I; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Saskatchewan grown yellow field pea was subjected to different processing conditions including dehulling, micronization, roasting, conventional/microwave cooking, germination, and combined germination and conventional cooking/roasting. Their nutritional and antinutritional compositions, functional properties, microstructure, thermal properties, in vitro protein and starch digestibility, and protein composition were studied. Processed field peas including conventional cooked yellow peas (CCYP), microwave cooked yellow peas (MCYP), germinated-conventional cooked yellow peas (GCCYP), and germinated-roasted yellow peas (GRYP) exhibited the significantly higher in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), which was in accordance with their significantly lower trypsin inhibitor activity and tannin content. The SDS-PAGE and size exclusion HPLC profiles of untreated pea proteins and their hydrolysates also confirmed the IVPD result that these four treatments facilitated the hydrolysis of pea proteins to a greater extent. The CCYP, MCYP, GCCYP, and GRYP also exhibited significantly higher starch digestibility which was supported by their lower onset (T o ), peak (T p ), and conclusion (T c ) temperatures obtained from DSC thermogram, their lower pasting properties and starch damage results, as well as their distinguished amorphous flakes' configuration observed on the scanning electron microscopic image. LC/ESI-MS/MS analysis following in-gel digests of SDS-PAGE separated proteins allowed detailed compositional characterization of pea proteins. The present study would provide fundamental information to help to better understand the functionality of field peas as ingredients, and particularly in regards to agri-food industry to improve the process efficiency of field peas with enhanced nutritional and techno-functional qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels....... Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate......In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites...

  20. High solids co-digestion of food and landscape waste and the potential for ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Margaret F; DiStefano, Thomas D

    2014-07-01

    A pilot-scale study was completed to determine the feasibility of high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) of a mixture of food and landscape wastes at a university in central Pennsylvania (USA). HSAD was stable at low loadings (2g COD/L-day), but developed inhibitory ammonia concentrations at high loadings (15 g COD/L-day). At low loadings, methane yields were 232 L CH4/kg COD fed and 229 L CH4/kg VS fed, and at high loadings yields were 211 L CH4/kg COD fed and 272 L CH4/kg VS fed. Based on characterization and biodegradability studies, food waste appears to be a good candidate for HSAD at low organic loading rates; however, the development of ammonia inhibition at high loading rates suggests that the C:N ratio is too low for use as a single substrate. The relatively low biodegradability of landscape waste as reported herein made it an unsuitable substrate to increase the C:N ratio. Codigestion of food waste with a substrate high in bioavailable carbon is recommended to increase the C:N ratio sufficiently to allow HSAD at loading rates of 15 g COD/L-day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights into the Structure of the Vip3Aa Insecticidal Protein by Protease Digestion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, w:w. If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with Agrotis ipsilon midgut juice equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed. However, when the proteolytic reaction was efficiently stopped, it was revealed that the protoxin was only cleaved at a primary cleavage site, regardless of the amount of trypsin used. The 66 kDa and the 19 kDa peptides generated by the proteases co-eluted after gel filtration chromatography, indicating that they remain together after cleavage. The 66 kDa fragment was found to be extremely resistant to proteases. The trypsin treatment of the protoxin in the presence of SDS revealed the presence of secondary cleavage sites at S-509, and presumably at T-466 and V-372, rendering C-terminal fragments of approximately 29, 32, and 42 kDa, respectively. The fact that the predicted secondary structure of the Vip3Aa protein shows a cluster of beta sheets in the C-terminal region of the protein might be the reason behind the higher stability to proteases compared to the rest of the protein, which is mainly composed of alpha helices.

  2. Chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids from blue mussel, starfish, and fish silage in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jens Vinther; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    –162 g CP/kg and 5 g chromicoxide/kg. Endogenous losses of protein and AA were estimated by feeding an N-free diet.On a dry matter (DM) basis, mussel meal contained 605 g, mussel silage 575 g, starfish meal700 g, starfish juice 393 g, and fish silage 776 g CP/kg. The ratio of AA to CP ranged from0......Mussels cultured on lines for nine months and harvested in March were boiled to removeshells and processed into a dry meal or a silage acidified by formic acid. Starfish mealwas prepared from starfish caught in May, and a starfish juice fraction was obtained bypressing fresh starfish. Commercial...... fish silage from farmed salmon was also included in theexperiment. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids(AA) was evaluated in a Latin square design with pigs (initial weight 39.3 kg) fitted with asimple T-cannula in the terminal ileum. Diets contained 131...

  3. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of macro-nutrient, micro-nutrient composition and cooking conditions on in vitro digestibility of meat and aquatic dietary proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Taylor, Cheryl; Nebl, Thomas; Ng, Ken; Bennett, Louise E

    2018-07-15

    Animal and aquatic meats represent important sources of dietary protein and micro-nutrients. Although red and processed meats carry some risks for human health, sensory and nutritional advantages drive meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand how meat processing and cooking influence healthiness. The research aim was to investigate relationships of meat composition (proximates, amino acids and minerals) and cooking conditions (raw, 90 s microwave, 200 °C oven for 10 or 30 min) on protein digestibility, for a selection of four animal (beef, chicken, pork, kangaroo) and four aquatic meats (salmon, trout, prawn, oyster). Lean meats were minced before cooking followed by in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion and analysed for progress of hydrolysis, and size ranges of peptides using MALDI-TOF-MS. Correlation matrix analysis between compositional and functional parameters indicated that digestibility was significantly linked with protein and metal concentrations, likely reflecting moisture-dependent solubility and inter-mixing of sarcoplasmic metallo-proteins and insoluble myofibrillar proteins. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on protein digestion and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.W.; Bruchem, van J.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Tamminga, S.

    1994-01-01

    In four change-over experiments, wilted grass silages, differing in growth stage at harvesting and as a consequence in cell wall content, were fed ad libitum to dairy cows in early and late lactation. Ruminal degradation rate of the crude protein fraction of the silages was investigated using nylon

  6. In Vitro Pepsin Digestibility of Cooked Proso Millet ( Pancium miliaceum L.) and Related Species from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Paridhi; Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Holding, David Richard; Santra, Dipak; Rose, Devin Jerrold

    2018-06-20

    Thirty-three accessions of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) with different countries of origin were screened for their pepsin digestibility after cooking to identify samples with high digestibility. The pepsin digestibility of all samples ranged from 26 to 57% (average 32%). There were no apparent differences in protein profiles (SDS-PAGE) of samples with the lowest, intermediate, and highest digestibilities. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed a negative correlation between pepsin digestibility and peptides that matched to high molecular weight proteins (24 kDa) from Panicum hallii with regions of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids. Low digestibility upon cooking was also observed for other species from the Panicum genus, such as little millet, switchgrass and panicgrass, which suggests a unique inherent property of the genus. The obtained results from this study may form a basis for in-depth analysis of proso proteins that may help in developing new cultivars with higher digestibility upon cooking.

  7. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  8. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g −1 dry weight or 22.5 mg kg −1 N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones. -- Eight steroid hormones were found in biogas digestate byproduct in the ng g −1 dm levels. Anaerobic digestion processes do not completely remove steroid hormones from organic waste residues

  9. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-02-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P protein-derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  10. High-solid anaerobic digestion of corn straw for methane production and pretreatment of bio-briquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Yan, Fang; Li, Tao; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Qian, Mingyu; Xu, Quan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved. A preferred BB can be obtained with side compressive strength of 863.8 ± 10.8 N and calorific value of 20.21 MJ/kg-BB. The finding of this study indicated that the integrated process could be an alternative way to produce methane and high-quality BB with CS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation into the effect of high concentrations of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion on methanogenic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H., E-mail: ingrid.whittle@uibk.ac.at [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Walter, Andreas [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ebner, Christian [Abwasserverband Zirl und Umgebung, Meilbrunnen 5, 6170 Zirl (Austria); Insam, Heribert [Institut für Mikrobiologie, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Different methanogenic communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. • High VFA levels do not cause major changes in archaeal communities. • Real-time PCR indicated greater diversity than ANAEROCHIP microarray. - Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether differences in the levels of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in anaerobic digester plants could result in variations in the indigenous methanogenic communities. Two digesters (one operated under mesophilic conditions, the other under thermophilic conditions) were monitored, and sampled at points where VFA levels were high, as well as when VFA levels were low. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, and the methanogenic diversity was screened using the phylogenetic microarray ANAEROCHIP. In addition, real-time PCR was used to quantify the presence of the different methanogenic genera in the sludge samples. Array results indicated that the archaeal communities in the different reactors were stable, and that changes in the VFA levels of the anaerobic digesters did not greatly alter the dominating methanogenic organisms. In contrast, the two digesters were found to harbour different dominating methanogenic communities, which appeared to remain stable over time. Real-time PCR results were inline with those of microarray analysis indicating only minimal changes in methanogen numbers during periods of high VFAs, however, revealed a greater diversity in methanogens than found with the array.

  12. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25992839

  14. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  15. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  16. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayr, S.; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH 3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N and/or free NH 3 ) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm 3 /kg VS fed . On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm 3 /kg VS fed ). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  17. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  18. Effects of ruminal protein degradability and frequency of supplementation on nitrogen retention, apparent digestibility, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues in lambs fed low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Toone, C D; Robinson, T J; Harmon, D L; Ludden, P A

    2010-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of ruminal protein degradability and supplementation frequency on intake, apparent digestibility, N retention, and nutrient flux across visceral tissues of lambs fed a low-quality forage diet. In both experiments, wethers were fed a basal diet of mature crested wheatgrass hay (4.2% CP) for ad libitum consumption plus 1 of 4 supplements: 1) a high RDP supplement provided daily (RDP-D), 2) the high RDP supplement provided on alternate days (RDP-A), 3) a high RUP provided on alternate days (RUP-A), or 4) a 50:50 mixture of the RDP and RUP supplements provided on alternate days. In Exp. 1, 12 lambs (29.9 +/- 2.7 kg initial BW) were used. Forage OM, NDF, and ADF intake were not affected by treatment. Total tract digestibilities (OM, NDF, ADF, and N) were unaffected (P >or= 0.15) by treatment. Neither protein degradability nor supplementation frequency had an effect (P >or= 0.52) on N retention. In Exp. 2, 15 lambs (34 +/- 4 kg initial BW) fitted with indwelling catheters in a hepatic vein, the hepatic portal vein, a mesenteric vein, and a mesenteric artery were used. Release of ammonia N by the portal-drained viscera (PDV) was reduced (P = 0.004) in alternate-day-supplemented lambs compared with RDP-D. Consequently, hepatic uptake of ammonia N was least (P = 0.003) in all alternate-day lambs. Alpha-amino nitrogen (AAN) release by the PDV and hepatic uptake of AAN were not affected by treatment or supplementation frequency. Additionally, hepatic output and PDV uptake of urea N were not affected by treatment. Hepatic N uptake (ammonia N + AAN) accounted for urea synthesized by the liver in all treatments; however, hepatic urea synthesis was approximately 4.5-fold less for RUP-A lambs. This suggests that the provision of AA as RUP may provide a delay in ureagenesis, thus altering the timing of N recycling.

  19. Categorizing Biases in High-Confidence High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Data Sets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xueping; Ivanic, Joseph; Memišević, Vesna; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-01-01

    We characterized and evaluated the functional attributes of three yeast high-confidence protein-protein interaction data sets derived from affinity purification/mass spectrometry, protein-fragment complementation assay, and yeast two-hybrid experiments. The interacting proteins retrieved from these data sets formed distinct, partially overlapping sets with different protein-protein interaction characteristics. These differences were primarily a function of the deployed experimental technologies used to recover these interactions. This affected the total coverage of interactions and was especially evident in the recovery of interactions among different functional classes of proteins. We found that the interaction data obtained by the yeast two-hybrid method was the least biased toward any particular functional characterization. In contrast, interacting proteins in the affinity purification/mass spectrometry and protein-fragment complementation assay data sets were over- and under-represented among distinct and different functional categories. We delineated how these differences affected protein complex organization in the network of interactions, in particular for strongly interacting complexes (e.g. RNA and protein synthesis) versus weak and transient interacting complexes (e.g. protein transport). We quantified methodological differences in detecting protein interactions from larger protein complexes, in the correlation of protein abundance among interacting proteins, and in their connectivity of essential proteins. In the latter case, we showed that minimizing inherent methodology biases removed many of the ambiguous conclusions about protein essentiality and protein connectivity. We used these findings to rationalize how biological insights obtained by analyzing data sets originating from different sources sometimes do not agree or may even contradict each other. An important corollary of this work was that discrepancies in biological insights did not

  20. Analysis of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice Seeds: Identity, Localization, Tolerance to Digestion, and Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Rice seeds are an ideal production platform for high-value recombinant proteins in terms of economy, scalability, safety, and stability. Strategies for the expression of large amounts of recombinant proteins in rice seeds have been established in the past decade and transgenic rice seeds that accumulate recombinant products such as bioactive peptides and proteins, which promote the health and quality of life of humans, have been generated in many laboratories worldwide. One of the most important advantages is the potential for direct oral delivery of transgenic rice seeds without the need for recombinant protein purification (downstream processing), which has been attributed to the high expression levels of recombinant products. Transgenic rice will be beneficial as a delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals in the future. This chapter introduces the strategy for producing recombinant protein in the edible part (endosperm) of the rice grain and describes methods for the analysis of transgenic rice seeds in detail.

  1. Struvite Precipitation as a Means of Recovering Nutrients and Mitigating Ammonia Toxicity in a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digester Treating Protein-Rich Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunli; Hawkins, Gary L; Kiepper, Brian H; Das, Keshav C

    2016-08-03

    Accumulation of ammonia, measured as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), a product of protein decomposition in slaughterhouse wastes, inhibits the anaerobic digestion process, reducing digester productivity and leading to failure. Struvite precipitation (SP) is an effective means to remove TAN and enhance the buffering of substrates. Different Mg and P sources were evaluated as reactants in SP in acidogenic digester effluents to reduce its TAN levels. In order to measure impact of TAN removal, a standard biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was conducted to measure methane yield from treatments that had the highest TAN reductions. SP results showed 6 of 9 reagent combinations resulted in greater than 70% TAN removal. The BMP results indicated that SP treatment by adding Mg(OH)₂ and H₃PO₄ resulted in 57.6% nitrogen recovery and 41.7% increase in methane yield relative to the substrate without SP. SP is an effective technology to improve nutrient recovery and methane production from the anaerobic digestion of protein-rich feedstocks.

  2. Struvite Precipitation as a Means of Recovering Nutrients and Mitigating Ammonia Toxicity in a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digester Treating Protein-Rich Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunli Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of ammonia, measured as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, a product of protein decomposition in slaughterhouse wastes, inhibits the anaerobic digestion process, reducing digester productivity and leading to failure. Struvite precipitation (SP is an effective means to remove TAN and enhance the buffering of substrates. Different Mg and P sources were evaluated as reactants in SP in acidogenic digester effluents to reduce its TAN levels. In order to measure impact of TAN removal, a standard biochemical methane potential (BMP test was conducted to measure methane yield from treatments that had the highest TAN reductions. SP results showed 6 of 9 reagent combinations resulted in greater than 70% TAN removal. The BMP results indicated that SP treatment by adding Mg(OH2 and H3PO4 resulted in 57.6% nitrogen recovery and 41.7% increase in methane yield relative to the substrate without SP. SP is an effective technology to improve nutrient recovery and methane production from the anaerobic digestion of protein-rich feedstocks.

  3. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  4. Proteolysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins during in vitro gastric digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, A; Cui, J; Singh, H

    2011-06-01

    The influence of gastric proteolysis on the physicochemical characteristics of milk fat globules and the proteins of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in raw milk and cream was examined in vitro in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) containing various pepsin concentrations at pH 1.6 for up to 2h. Apparent flocculation of the milk fat globules occurred in raw milk samples incubated in SGF containing pepsin, but no coalescence was observed in either raw milk samples or cream samples. The changes in the particle size of the fat globules as a result of the flocculation were dependent on the pepsin concentration. Correspondingly, the physical characteristics of the fat globules and the composition of the MFGM proteins in raw milk changed during incubation in SGF containing pepsin. The major MFGM proteins were hydrolyzed at different rates by the pepsin in the SGF; butyrophilin was more resistant than xanthine oxidase, PAS 6, or PAS 7. Peptides with various molecular weights, which altered with the time of incubation and the pepsin concentration, were present at the surfaces of the fat globules. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  6. Steam gasification of a thermally pretreated high lignin corn stover simultaneous saccharification and fermentation digester residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Daniel T.; Taasevigen, Danny; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; McDonald, Armando G.; Li, Guosheng; Wolcott, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Efficient conversion of all components in lignocellulosic biomass is essential to realizing economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, when utilizing biochemical pathways, lignin cannot be fermented. Furthermore, the high lignin and high ash residue resulting from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactors is difficult to thermochemically process due to feed line plugging and bed agglomeration. In this study a corn stover SSF digester residue was thermally pretreated at 300°C for 22.5 minutes (min) and then gasified in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier to study the effect of thermal pretreatment on its processing behavior. Untreated, pelletized SSF residue was gasified at the same conditions to establish the baseline processing behavior. Results indicate that the thermal pretreatment process removes a substantial portion of the polar and non-polar extractives, with a resultant increase in the concentration of lignin, cellulose, and ash. Feed line plugging was not observed, although bed agglomeration was occurring at similar rates for both feedstocks, suggesting that overall ash content is the most important factor affecting bed agglomeration. Benzene, phenol, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the tar were present at higher concentrations in the treated material, with higher tar loading in the product gas. Total product gas generation is lower for the treated material, although the overall gas composition does not change.

  7. Sequential high gravity ethanol fermentation and anaerobic digestion of steam explosion and organosolv pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpouras, Constantinos; Zacharopoulou, Maria; Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-11-01

    The present work investigates the suitability of pretreated corn stover (CS) to serve as feedstock for high gravity (HG) ethanol production at solids-content of 24wt%. Steam explosion, with and without the addition of H 2 SO 4 , and organosolv pretreated CS samples underwent a liquefaction/saccharification step followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Maximum ethanol concentration of ca. 76g/L (78.3% ethanol yield) was obtained from steam exploded CS (SECS) with 0.2% H 2 SO 4 . Organosolv pretreated CS (OCS) also resulted in high ethanol concentration of ca. 65g/L (62.3% ethanol yield). Moreover, methane production through anaerobic digestion (AD) was conducted from fermentation residues and resulted in maximum methane yields of ca. 120 and 69mL/g volatile solids (VS) for SECS and OCS samples, respectively. The results indicated that the implementation of a liquefaction/saccharification step before SSF employing a liquefaction reactor seemed to handle HG conditions adequately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. VSS Degradation Kinetics in High Temperature Aerobic Digestion and Microbial Community Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfen Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piggery wastewater is a kind of high concentration organic wastewater with high concentration of pollutants, large amount of emissions, and serious environmental pollution and is difficult to deal with. Piggery wastewater was treated with autothermal hyperthermia aerobic digestion process (ATAD and its biodegradation kinetics was studied. The ATAD system was automatically heated up and the reaction temperature rose from ambient temperature of 20°C to a maximum temperature of 64°C. Based on Arrhenius formula, the empirical model is obtained through dimensional analysis. The removal of volatile suspended solids (VSS was correlated with the initial VSS concentration, water inlet temperature, aeration rate, and agitation rate in the model. In the empirical model, the apparent activation energy was 2.827 kJ·mol−1. The exponentials for the initial VSS concentration, aeration rate, and stirring rate were 1.0587, −0.0976, and −0.1618, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the exponential factor was 0.9971. The VSS removal efficiency predicted by the model was validated with an actual test, showing a maximum relative deviation of 8.82%. Sludge systems show a lower diversity of microbial populations and Bacillus occupies a very important position in the reactor. The data obtained will be useful for optimizing piggery wastewater treatment process. The new model provided good theoretical guidance with good practicality.

  9. Effect of energy source and ruminally degradable protein addition on performance of lactating beef cows and digestion characteristics of steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T A; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S; Anderson, V L

    2004-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of energy source (ENG) and ruminally degradable protein (RDP) on lactating cow performance and intake and digestion in beef steers. In Trial 1, 78 cow-calf pairs were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effect of ENG (corn or soyhulls; SH) and RDP (with our without sunflower meal) to a forage diet for lactating beef cows. The basal diet consisted of 75% grass hay (11.5% CP) and 25% wheat straw (7.4% CP). Supplement treatments and predicted RDP balances were corn (-415 g of RDP/d); SH (-260 g of RDP/d); corn plus RDP (0 g of RDP/d); or SH plus RDP (0 g of RDP/d). Data were analyzed as a split-plot in time, with pen as the experimental unit (two pens per treatment). No interaction between ENG and RDP was present (P > 0.08) for any response variable. No differences (P > 0.39) due to ENG or RDP were noted for BW, BCS, or milk yield; however, final calf weight tended to increase with ENG (P = 0.06). In Trial 2, a 5 x 5 Latin square was used to determine effects of ENG and RDP on intake and digestion in steers (686 +/- 51 kg BW). Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 plus one factorial and comprised a control (CON; grass hay, 7% CP), grass hay plus 0.4% BW SH, grass hay plus 0.4% BW SH and 0.15% BW sunflower meal, grass hay plus 0.4% BW corn, and grass hay plus 0.4% BW corn and 0.2% BW sunflower meal. Preplanned contrasts included main effects of ENG and RDP, ENG x RDP interaction, and CON vs. supplemented (SUP) treatments. Supplementation increased total DMI compared with CON (P = 0.001), but forage DMI was greater (P = 0.001) for CON than for SUP. An ENG x RDP interaction occurred for forage DMI (P = 0.02); addition of RDP to corn decreased forage intake, whereas addition of RDP to SH had no effect. There was an ENG x RDP interaction (P = 0.001) for ruminal pH; pH tended to increase with RDP addition to SH (P = 0.07), but decreased with RDP addition to corn (P = 0.001). Supplementation increased ruminal

  10. High-throughput peptide mass fingerprinting and protein macroarray analysis using chemical printing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloane, A.J.; Duff, J.L.; Hopwood, F.G.; Wilson, N.L.; Smith, P.E.; Hill, C.J.; Packer, N.H.; Williams, K.L.; Gooley, A.A.; Cole, R.A.; Cooley, P.W.; Wallace, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a 'chemical printer' that uses piezoelectric pulsing for rapid and accurate microdispensing of picolitre volumes of fluid for proteomic analysis of 'protein macroarrays'. Unlike positive transfer and pin transfer systems, our printer dispenses fluid in a non-contact process that ensures that the fluid source cannot be contaminated by substrate during a printing event. We demonstrate automated delivery of enzyme and matrix solutions for on-membrane protein digestion and subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting (pmf) analysis directly from the membrane surface using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). This approach bypasses the more commonly used multi-step procedures, thereby permitting a more rapid procedure for protein identification. We also highlight the advantage of printing different chemistries onto an individual protein spot for multiple microscale analyses. This ability is particularly useful when detailed characterisation of rare and valuable sample is required. Using a combination of PNGase F and trypsin we have mapped sites of N-glycosylation using on-membrane digestion strategies. We also demonstrate the ability to print multiple serum samples in a micro-ELISA format and rapidly screen a protein macroarray of human blood plasma for pathogen-derived antigens. We anticipate that the 'chemical printer' will be a major component of proteomic platforms for high-throughput protein identification and characterisation with widespread applications in biomedical and diagnostic discovery

  11. Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Herrero, J; Alvarez, R; Cespedes, R; Rojas, M R; Conde, V; Aliaga, L; Balboa, M; Danov, S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6 °C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m(-3) d(-1) and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ identification of the synthrophic protein fermentative Coprothermobacter spp. involved in the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Maria Cristina; Braguglia, Camilla Maria; Rossetti, Simona

    2014-09-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have recently attracted great attention because of their potential application in improving different biochemical processes such as anaerobic digestion of various substrates, wastewater treatment or hydrogen production. In this study we report on the design of a specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe for detecting members of Coprothermobacter genus characterized by a strong protease activity to degrade proteins and peptides. The newly designed CTH485 probe and helper probes hCTH429 and hCTH439 were optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on thermophilic anaerobic sludge samples. In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S.R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  15. Effects of Temperature during Moist Heat Treatment on Ruminal Degradability and Intestinal Digestibility of Protein and Amino Acids in Hempseed Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, L; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Stern, M D; Martinsson, K

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in hempseed cake (HC) that were moist heat treated at different temperatures. Samples of cold-pressed HC were autoclaved for 30 min at 110, 120 or 130°C, and a sample of untreated HC was used as the control. Ruminal degradability of CP was estimated, using the in situ Dacron bag technique; intestinal CP digestibility was estimated for the 16 h in situ residue using a three-step in vitro procedure. AA content was determined for the HC samples (heat treated and untreated) of the intact feed, the 16 h in situ residue and the residue after the three-step procedure. There was a linear increase in RUP (p = 0.001) and intestinal digestibility of RUP (p = 0.003) with increasing temperature during heat treatment. The 130°C treatment increased RUP from 259 to 629 g/kg CP, while intestinal digestibility increased from 176 to 730 g/kg RUP, compared to the control. Hence, the intestinal available dietary CP increased more than eight times. Increasing temperatures during heat treatment resulted in linear decreases in ruminal degradability of total AA (p = 0.006) and individual AA (pruminal degradability of total AA from 837 to 471 g/kg, while intestinal digestibility increased from 267 to 813 g/kg of rumen undegradable AA, compared with the control. There were differences between ruminal AA degradability and between intestinal AA digestibility within all individual HC treatments (pruminants.

  16. Efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible lysine and threonine for whole body protein deposition in growing pigs is reduced when dietary casein is replaced by wheat shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libao-Mercado, A J; Leeson, S; Langer, S; Marty, B J; de Lange, C F M

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effect of dietary inclusion level of wheat shorts (WS; a high nonstarch poly-saccharide-containing feed ingredient) and casein (CS; a control) on the efficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys (kLys) and Thr (kThr) for whole body protein deposition (PD) in the growing pig, 2 separate N-balance studies were conducted with either Lys or Thr as first-limiting AA in cornstarch-based diets. For the Lys study, a basal diet (L-basal) was formulated to contain 0.24 g of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys per MJ of DE, to which 0.095 or 0.19 g of SID Lys per MJ of DE were added using either CS (L-CS2 or L-CS3, respectively) or WS (L-WS2 or L-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to L-CS3 but to which 6% pectin (L-pectin) was added as a source of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides. For the Thr study, the basal diet (T-basal) was formulated to contain 0.14 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE, to which 0.055 or 0.11 g of SID Thr per MJ of DE were added from CS (T-CS2 or T-CS3, respectively) or from WS (T-WS2 and T-WS3, respectively). A sixth diet was evaluated that was similar to T-CS3 but to which 6% pectin was added (T-pectin). Increasing SID Lys intake from CS did not influence kLys for PD (P > 0.10), whereas increasing SID Lys intake from WS reduced kLys for PD (P = 0.001; 89 vs. 79%). Inclusion of 6% pectin had no effect on kLys for PD (P > 0.10). Increasing SID Thr intake from CS also did not influence kThr for PD (P > 0.10), whereas kThr for PD was reduced at the greatest dietary inclusion level of WS (P 0.10). The inefficiency of utilizing ileal digestible Lys intake for PD may be attributed to nonreactive Lys in WS. The negative impact of including high levels of WS in the diet of pigs on kThr seems to be associated with fiber content of WS; it was not related to increased endogenous ileal AA losses at the distal ileum. The impact of dietary AA source on the use of ileal digestible Lys and Thr for PD, or other body functions, is

  17. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  18. Psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion of highland barley straw with two animal manures at high altitude for enhancing biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Suzhen; Zhang, Hongfeng; Cai, Xiaobu; Xu, Jin; Fang, Jiangping; Liu, Heman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High I/S ratio (>2/1) was favorable to both sole digestion and co-digestion. • Biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • Long SRT (>80 days) is needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. • BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase biogas production. • IVS removal efficiency was correlated with biogas production. - Abstract: Biogas production from the co-digestion of highland barley straw (BS) with Tibet pig manure (TPM) and cow manure (CM) was investigated at Tibet plateau under low temperature (15 °C) condition. The effect of inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio and BS to manure ratio on the biogas production was studied using a series of batch digesters performed at substrate concentration of 20%, based on total solid (TS). The results showed that biogas production from BS was feasible at low temperature and low air pressure condition. High I/S ratio (>2/1) and BS to manure ratio of 1/1 could increase the biogas production. Long solid retention time (SRT) (>80 days) was needed for biogas production at low temperature and low air pressure condition. The highest cumulative biogas production obtained from the co-digestion of BS with TPM and CM was 233.4 ml/gVS and 192.0 ml/gVS, respectively. Removal efficiencies of substrate showed that biogas production was correlated with the removal efficiency of water-insoluble volatile solids (IVS) but not with the change rate of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)

  19. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion improves the downstream methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, P; Dooms, M; Hattou, S; Benbelkacem, H

    2018-07-01

    The role of the hydrolytic stage in high solids temperature phased anaerobic digestion was investigated with a mixture of cattle slurry and maize silage with variable ratios (100, 70 and 30% volatile solids coming from cattle slurry). It was incubated for 48 h at 37, 55, 65 and 72 °C. Soluble chemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential were measured at 0, 24 and 48 h. Higher temperatures improved the amount of solubilized COD, which confirmed previously reported results. Nevertheless, solubilization mostly took place during the first 24 h. The rate of methane production in post-hydrolysis BMPs increased after 48 h hydrolysis time, but not after 24 h. The first order kinetic constant rose by 40% on average. No correlation was observed between soluble COD and downstream methane production rate, indicating a possible modification of the physical structure of the particulate solids during the hydrolytic stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evanescent wave-initiated photopolymerisation as a new way to create monolithic open-tubular capillary columns: use as enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Smejkal, Petr; Yavorska, O.; Foret, František; Macka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 3 (2010), s. 477-481 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023; GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * light-emitting -diode * on-line protein digestion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.913, year: 2010

  2. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  3. Study on furundu, a traditional Sudanese fermented roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed: effect on in vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition, and functional properties of the total proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoub, Abu El-Gasim A; Mohamed, Babiker E; Ahmed, Abdel Halim R; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2004-10-06

    Furundu, a meat substitute, is traditionally prepared by cooking the karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and then fermenting it for 9 days. Physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked seed and of furundu ferments were analyzed. Furundu preparation resulted in significant changes in karkade seed major nutrients. Total polyphenols and phytic acid were also reduced. The increase in total acidity and fat acidity coupled with a decrease in pH indicates microbial hydrolysis of the major nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. In vitro digestibility of the seed proteins reached the maximum value (82.7%) at the sixth day of fermentation, but thereafter it significantly decreased. The effect of furundu preparation on N solubility profiles and functional properties, such as emulsification and foaming properties and other related parameters, is investigated in water and in 1 M NaCl extracts from defatted flour samples. The results show that cooking followed by fermentation affects proteins solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. The foaming capacity (FC) from the flour of raw seed decreased as a result of cooking. Fermentation for 9 days significantly increased the FC of the cooked seed, restoring the inherent value. Foam from fermented samples collapsed more rapidly during a period of 120 min as compared to the foam from raw and cooked karkade seeds; stability in 1 M NaCl was lower as compared to those in water. In water, the emulsion stability (ES) from the fermented samples was significantly higher than that of the raw seed flour. Addition of 1 M NaCl significantly decreased the ES of the fermented samples.

  4. An Evaluation on the Ratio of Plant to Animal Protein in the Diet of Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus): Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Nonspecific Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Pengyun; Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yongping

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of plant/animal (P/A) protein ratios (viz.1:4, 1:3, 1:2, 1:1,2:1, 3:1, 4:1) on growth performance, body composition, apparent digestibility of diets, and nonspecific immunity of juvenile sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Sea cucumbers were divided into 21 plastic tanks, and each tank was stocked with 15 individuals (initial weight: about 23.73 g). Each feed was allocated to three replicates of sea cucumbers. The feeding experiment lasted for 50 days. Results indicated that weight gain rate (WGR) and body wall weight (BWW) significantly increased as dietary ratio of P/A increased from 1:4 to 3:1, and then decreased significantly with further increase of this ratio (P 0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and lipid increased with ratio of P/A increasing from 1:4 to 2:1 (P protein (1:1-3:1) significantly increased the growth performance, apparent digestibility, and nonspecific immunity of sea cucumber. This will contribute to improving the feed formulation for juvenile cucumbers.

  5. Effects of acylation on the functional properties and in vitro trypsin digestibility of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of succinylation and acetylation on some functional properties and the in vitro trypsin digestibility of kidney bean protein isolate (KPI) were investigated. The extent of succinylation or acetylation progressively increased from 0% to 96% to 97%, as the anhydride-to-protein ratio increased from 0 to 1 g/g. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and zeta potential analyses indicated that acylation, especially succinylation, considerably increased the net charge and hydrodynamic radius of the proteins in KPI, especially vicilin. Acylation treatment at various anhydride-to-protein ratios (0.05 to 1 g/g) remarkably improved the protein solubility (PS) and emulsifying activity index (EAI) at neutral pH, but the improvement by succinylation was much better than that by acetylation. Succinylation resulted in a marked decrease in mechanical moduli of heat-induced gels of KPI, while the mechanical moduli were, on the contrary, increased by acetylation. Additionally, in vitro trypsin digestibility was improved by the acylation in an anhydride-type and level-dependent manner. The results suggest that the functional properties of KPI could be modulated by the chemical acylation treatment, using succinic or acetic anhydride at appropriate anhydride-to-protein ratios.

  6. Waste minimization through high-pressure microwave digestion of soils for gross α/β analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeger, J.S.; Smith, L.L.

    1995-04-01

    As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental restoration and waste management activities, laboratories receive numerous analytical requests for gross α/β analyses. Traditional sample preparation methods for gross α/β analysis of environmental and mixed waste samples require repetitive leaching, which is time consuming and generates large volumes of secondary wastes. An alternative to leaching is microwave digestion. In the past. microwave technology has had limited application in the radiochemical laboratory because of restrictions on sample size resulting from vessel pressure limitations. However, new microwave vessel designs allow for pressures on the order of 11 MPa (1500 psi). A procedure is described in which microwave digestion is used to prepare environmental soil samples for gross α/β analysis. Results indicate that the described procedure meets performance requirements for several soil types and is equivalent to traditional digestion techniques. No statistical differences at the 95% confidence interval exist between the measurement on samples prepared from the hot plate and microwave digestion procedures for those soils tested. Moreover, microwave digestion allows samples to be prepared in a fraction of the time with significantly less acid and with lower potential of cross-contamination. In comparison to the traditional hot plate method, the waste volumes required for the microwave procedure are a factor of 10 lower, while the analyst time for sample processing is at least a factor of three lower

  7. Chemical composition and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein and amino acids, and intestinal digestibility of amino acids from tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ferreira Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the chemical composition and ruminal degradation of the crude protein (CP, total and individual amino acids of leaves from tropical forages: perennial soybean (Neonotonia wightii, cassava (Manihot esculenta, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and ramie (Boehmeria nivea, and to estimate the intestinal digestibility of the rumen undegradable protein (RUDP and individual amino acids of leaves from the tropical forages above cited, but including pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Three nonlactating Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ ruminal degradability of protein and amino acids from leaves (6, 18 and 48 hours of ruminal incubation. For determination of the intestinal digestibility of RUDP, the residue from ruminal incubation of the materials was used for 18 hours. A larger concentration of total amino acids for ramie and smaller for perennial soybean were observed; however, they were very similar in leucaena and cassava. Leucine was the essential amino acid of greater concentration, with the exception of cassava, which exhibited a leucine concentration 40.45% smaller. Ramie showed 14.35 and 22.31% more lysine and methionine, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of RUDP varied from 23.56; 47.87; 23.48; 25.69 and 10.86% for leucaena, perennial soybean, cassava, ramie and pigeon pea, respectively. The individual amino acids of tropical forage disappeared in different extensions in the rumen. For the correct evaluation of those forages, one should consider their composition of amino acids, degradations and intestinal digestibility, once the amino acid composition of the forage does not reflect the amino acid profiles that arrived in the small intestine. Differences between the degradation curves of CP and amino acids indicate that degradation of amino acids cannot be estimated through the degradation curve of CP, and that amino acids are not degraded in a similar degradation profile.

  8. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  9. Evaluation of different types of anaerobic seed sludge for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis

    2017-08-01

    Three different types of anaerobic sludge (granular, thickened digestate and anaerobic sewage) were evaluated as seed inoculum sources for the high rate anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in UASB reactors. Granular sludge performance was optimal, allowing a high efficiency process yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 4.1LCH 4 L -1 d -1 at 1.5days HRT (0.248LCH 4 g -1 COD) at an organic loading rate of 16.4gCODL -1 d -1 . The thickened digestate sludge experimented flotation problems, thus resulting inappropriate for the UASB process. The anaerobic sewage sludge reactor experimented biomass wash-out, but allowed high process efficiency operation at 3days HRT, yielding a volumetric methane production rate of 1.7LCH 4 L -1 d -1 (0.236LCH 4 g -1 COD) at an organic loading rate of 7.2gCODL -1 d -1 . To guarantee the success of the UASB process, the settleable solids of the slurry must be previously removed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: Impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region.

  11. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  12. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was

  13. Extraction and identification of α-amylase inhibitor peptides from Nephelium lappacheum and Nephelium mutabile seed protein using gastro-digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristus, Natashya Anak; Wan Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Gan, Chee-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    The potential of N. lappacheum and N. mutabile seed as a source of α-amylase inhibitor peptides was explored based on the local traditional practice of using the seed. Different gastro-digestive enzymes (i.e. pepsin or chymotrypsin) or a sequential digestion were used to extract the peptides. The effects of digestion time and enzyme to substrate (E:S) ratio on the α-amylase inhibitory activity were investigated. Results showed that chymotrypsin was effective in producing the inhibitor peptides from rambutan seed protein at E:S ratio 1:20 for 1 h, whereas pepsin was more effective for pulasan seed protein under the same condition. A total of 20 and 31 novel inhibitor peptides were identified, respectively. These peptides could bind with the subsites of α-amylase (i.e. Trp58, Trp59, Tyr62, Asp96, Arg195, Asp197, Glu233, His299, Asp300, and His305) and formed a sliding barrier that preventing the formation of enzyme/substrate intermediate leading to lower α-amylase activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  15. Recovery of ammonia and production of high-grade phosphates from digester effluents (municipal and livestock)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) recovery of anaerobically digested swine wastewater and side-stream municipal wastewater via magnesium precipitation was enhanced by combining it with the recovery of ammonia (NH3) through gas-permeable membranes and low-rate aeration. The low-rate aeration stripped the natural carbon...

  16. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of corn ethanol thin stillage in batch and by high-rate down-flow fixed film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A; Kennedy, K J

    2012-01-01

    Thin stillage (CTS) from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant was evaluated as a carbon source for anaerobic digestion (AD) by batch and high rate semi-continuous down-flow stationary fixed film (DSFF) reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were carried out with CTS concentrations ranging from approximately 2,460-27,172 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre, achieved by diluting CTS with clean water or a combination of clean water and treated effluent. High TCOD, SCOD and volatile solids (VS) removal efficiencies of 85 ± 2, 94 ± 0 and 82 ± 1% were achieved for CTS diluted with only clean water at an organic concentration of 21,177 mg TCOD per litre, with a methane yield of 0.30 L methane per gram TCOD(removed) at standard temperature and pressure (STP, 0 °C and 1 atmosphere). Batch studies investigating the use of treated effluent for dilution showed promising results. Continuous studies employed two mesophilic DSFF anaerobic digesters treating thin stillage, operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 20, 14.3, 8.7, 6.3, 5 and 4.2 d. Successful digestion was achieved up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 7.4 g TCOD L(-1)d(-1) at a 5 d HRT with a yield of 2.05 LCH(4) L(-1)d(-1) (at STP) and TCOD and VS removal efficiencies of 89 ± 3 and 85 ± 3%, respectively.

  18. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  19. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  20. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw)

  4. Anaerobic digestion of grain stillage at high organic loading rates in three different reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Pröter, Jürgen; Scholwin, Frank; Nelles, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study the anaerobic digestion of grain stillage in three different reactor systems (continuous stirred tank reactor, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, fixed bed reactor) with and without immobilization of microorganisms was investigated to evaluate the performance during increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 1 to 10 g of volatile solids (VS) per liter reactor volume and day and decrease of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 40 to 6 days. No significant differences have been observed between the performances of the three examined reactor systems. The changes in OLR and HRT caused a reduction of the specific biogas production (SBP) of about 25% from about 650 to 550 L kg −1 of VS but would also diminish the necessary digester volume and investment costs of about 75% compared to the state of the art. -- Highlights: ► It was shown that without immobilization of microorganisms low HRT's are possible. ► No significant differences have been observed between different digester designs. ► Trace element supplementation is obligatory with grain stillage as substrate

  5. Characterizing the Range of Extracellular Protein Post-Translational Modifications in a Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria Using a Multiple Proteolyic Digestion/Peptide Fragmentation Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykstra, Andrew B [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Cook, Kelsey [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are known to play a significant role in many biological functions. The focus of this study is to characterize the post-translational modifications of the cellulosome protein complex used by the bacterium Clostridium thermocellum to better understand how this protein machine is tuned for enzymatic cellulose solubilization. To enhance comprehensive characterization, the extracellular cellulosome proteins were analyzed using multiple proteolytic digests (trypsin, Lys-C, Glu-C) and multiple fragmentation techniques (collisionally-activated dissociation, electron transfer dissociation, decision tree). As expected, peptide and protein identifications were increased by utilizing alternate proteases and fragmentation methods, in addition to the increase in protein sequence coverage. The complementarity of these experiments also allowed for a global exploration of PTMs associated with the cellulosome based upon a set of defined PTMs that included methylation, oxidation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and signal peptide cleavage. In these experiments, 85 modified peptides corresponding to 28 cellulosome proteins were identified. Many of these modifications were located in active cellulolytic or structural domains of the cellulosome proteins, suggesting a level of possible regulatory control of protein function in various cellulotyic conditions. The use of multiple enzymes and fragmentation technologies allowed for independent verification of PTMs in different experiments, thus leading to increased confidence in PTM identifications.

  6. Xylanase Increased the Ileal Digestibility of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Concentration of Low Molecular Weight Non-Digestible Carbohydrates in Pigs Fed High Levels of wheat DDGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, Shukun; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of a commercially available xylanase (CAX), an experimental xylanase (EX), and EX in combination with protease (EXP) on the degradation of nondigestible carbohydrates (NDC) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients in wheat distillers dried grains...... with solubles (wDDGS). The control and 3 enzyme diets contained 96% wDDGS supplemented with vitamins, minerals, l-lysine, and chromic oxide as a digestibility marker in addition to enzyme premix. Eight ileal cannulated pigs were fed 4 experimental diets containing 96% wDDGS—a control diet or 1 of 3 diets...

  7. Role of metastasis-associated protein 1 in prognosis of patients with digestive tract cancers: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dong Cao

    Full Text Available Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1 is a transcriptional regulator and significantly associated with prognosis of patients with cancer. However, its role as a potential prognostic marker in digestive tract cancer (DTC is controversial. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the MTA1 expression as a predictor of clinicopathology and survival of patients with DTC.We searched PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science and Cochrane databases using multiple search strategies for eligible studies. STATA 11.0 software was used to pool the data and analyze the association, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to measure the strength of the association. Furthermore, the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to evaluate the quality of eligible studies.MTA1 overexpression was strongly associated with depth of invasion (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.05-3.37, P = 0.03, lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.76-3.01, P<0.001, vascular invasion (OR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.40-2.91, P<0.001 and TNM stage (OR = 2.78, 95%CI: 1.63-4.74, P<0.001, and was related to 1- (RR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.18-2.89, P = 0.008, 3- (RR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.32-2.30, P<0.001 and 5-year (RR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.18-2.27, P = 0.003 OS. Further, MTA1 was associated with 1- (RR = 4.16, 95%CI: 1.35-12.81, P = 0.01, 3- (RR = 1.90, 95%CI: 1.02-3.53, P = 0.04 and 5- (RR = 2.17, 95%CI: 1.41-3.32, P<0.001 year DFS. In subgroup analyses based on study quality and tumor type, MTA1 overexpression was obviously related to clinical parameters, such as lymph node metastasis and TNM stage, and was also associated with prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal or esophageal cancer.MTA1 expression is strongly correlated with metastasis-related variables, and represents a promising prognostic factor in DTC.

  8. Very high expander processing of maize on animal performance, digestibility and product quality of finishing pigs and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntigam, R; Schedle, K; Schwarz, C; Wanzenböck, E; Eipper, J; Lechner, E-M; Yin, L; Gierus, M

    2017-11-06

    The present study investigated the effect of hydrothermic maize processing and supplementation of amino acids (AA) in two experiments. In total, 60 barrows and 384 broilers were fed four diets including either unprocessed (T1), or hydrothermically processed maize, that is short- (T2), or long-term conditioned (LC) (T3), and subsequently expanded maize of the same batch. Assuming a higher metabolizable energy (ME) content after processing, the fourth diet (T4) contains maize processed as treatment T3, but AA were supplemented to maintain the ideal protein value. Performance, digestibility and product quality in both species were assessed. Results show that in pigs receiving T4 the average daily feed intake was lower compared with the other treatments, whereas no difference was observed in broilers. The T3 improved the feed conversion rate compared with T1 (Panimal species, suggesting a higher ME content in diets with processed maize. The higher ME content of diets with processed maize is supported also by measurements of product quality. Supplementation of AA in T4 enhanced the loin depth in pigs as well as the amount of breast meat in broilers. Further effects of processing maize on meat quality were the reduced yellowness and antioxidative capacity (Panimal performance and digestibility in both species. However, effects on carcass characteristics and product quality differed. The negative effects on product quality could be partly compensated with the AA supplementation, whereas a change in meat colour and reduced antioxidative capacity was observed in all groups fed hydrothermic maize processing.

  9. The effect of age and carbohydrate and protein sources on digestibility, fecal microbiota, fermentation products, fecal IgA, and immunological blood parameters in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, A P J; Ayane, L; Putarov, T C; Loureiro, B A; Neto, B P; Casagrande, M F; Gomes, M O S; Glória, M B A; Carciofi, A C

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet). Data were evaluated using the MIXED procedure and considering the effects and interactions of block, animal, diets, and age. Means were compared using Tukey's test ( dogs had a reduced coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of DM, which was explained by the age and diet interaction of CP and fat digestibility that was lower for old than for adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs fed the NFF diet had increased DM content ( dogs fed the FF and SM diets compared with dogs fed the NFF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs ( dogs fed the SM diet regardless of age ( dogs had reduced peripheral T and B lymphocytes ( dogs fed the SM diet had increased IgA in feces compared with animals fed the NFF and FF diets ( dogs, both the FF and SM diets induced increased IgA compared with the NFF diet ( dogs. The protein and oligosaccharides of soybean meal are digestible by dogs, induce the production of SCFA and spermidine, and increase fecal IgA. Old dogs had increased putrecine, cadaverine, and spermine fecal concentrations.

  10. Peptide profiling and the bioactivity character of yogurt in the simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Yu, Yang; Qi, Yanxia; Wang, Fangjun; Yan, Jiaze; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between peptide profiles and the bioactivity character of yogurt in simulated gastrointestinal trials. A total of 250, 434 and 466 peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS analyses of yogurt, gastric digest and pancreatic digest. Forty peptides of yogurt survived in gastrointestinal digestion. κ-CN and β-CN contributed the diversity of peptides during the fermentation process and gastrointestinal digestion, respectively. The favorite of κ-CN by lactic acid bacteria complemented gut digestion by hydrolyzing κ-CN, the low abundance milk proteins. The potential bioactivities were evaluated by in vitro ACE and DPP-IV inhibition assays. The ACE inhibition rate of the pancreatic digests was ~4 - and ~2 - fold greater than that of yogurt and the gastric digests. The ACE inhibitory peptides generated during gastrointestinal digestion improved the ACE inhibitory activity of the gastric and pancreatic digests. The DPP-IV inhibition rate of the pancreatic digest was ~6 - and ~3 - fold greater than that of yogurt and the gastric digest. The numbers of potential DPP-IV inhibitory peptides were positively correlated to the DPP-IV inhibitory activity of the gastric and pancreatic digests. The present study describes the characters and bioactivities of peptides from yogurt in a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The number of peptides identified from yogurt and gastrointestinal digests by LC-MS/MS increased in the simulated gastrointestinal trials. The in vitro ACE and DPP-IV inhibition bioactivities revealed that the bioactivity of yogurt was enhanced during gastrointestinal digestion. The correlation between peptides and bioactivity in vitro indicated that not only the peptides amount but also the proportion of peptides with high bioactivities contributed to increased bioactivity during gastrointestinal digestion. The study of peptides identified from yogurt and digests revealed that the number of released peptides was not determined

  11. Functional and in vitro gastric digestibility of the whey protein hydrogel loaded with nanostructured lipid carriers and gelled via citric acid-mediated crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Behnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Salami, Maryam

    2017-12-15

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with mean size of 347nm were fabricated and added into a heat-denatured whey protein solution. The subsequent crosslinking of proteins by citric acid or CaCl 2 resulted in the formation of cold-set hydrogels. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) proposed formation of more hydrogen bonds in gel due to NLC loading or citric acid-mediated gelation. It was also found based on FITR spectroscopy that citric acid crosslinking disordered whey proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed a non-porous and finely meshed microstructure for the crosslinked gels compared to non-crosslinked counterparts. Crosslinking also increased the firmness and water-holding capacity of gels. In pepsin-free fluid, a strong correlation existed between reduction in gel swellability and digestibility over periods up to 60min due to NLC loading and citric acid gelation. However, in peptic fluid, NLC loading and citric acid crosslinking brought about much higher decrease in digestibility than swellability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  13. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  14. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Bruchem, van J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM).

  15. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-Ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-He; Yang, Hai-Ying; Chen, Li-Shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties.

  16. Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Mavinic, D.S.; Kelly, H.G.; Ramey, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70 o C or 22 o C for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60 o C or 70 o C), or unchanged (40 o C or 50 o C), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22 o C). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

  17. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids after in vitro digestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Wang, Ye; Li, Yu-ting; Gowd, Vemana; Niu, Xin-he; Yang, Hai-ying; Chen, Li-shui; Chen, Wei; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of rutin as a major component and quercitrin as a minor component of both digested and non-digested flavonoids. Both extracts showed a significant antioxidant capacity, but digested flavonoids showed reduced activity compared to non-digested. There were some decreases of the antioxidant activities (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) of digested tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids compared with non-digested. Flavonoids from both groups significantly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and α-glucosidase activity. Both digested and non-digested flavonoids markedly increased glucose consumption and glycogen content in HepG2 cells. Tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids showed appreciable antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, even after digestion. Tartary buckwheat rice appears to be a promising functional food with potent antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. PMID:27921399

  18. Influence of barley grain particle size and treatment with citric acid on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Salem, A Z M; López, S

    2017-08-01

    Chemical and physical treatments of barley grain increase ruminally resistant starch and can improve the rumen fermentation pattern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemical (addition of citric acid, CA) and physical (grinding to two different particle sizes, PS) treatment of barley grain on performance, rumen fermentation, microbial protein yield in the rumen and selected blood metabolites in growing calves. In all, 28 male Holstein calves (172±5.1 kg initial BW) were used in a complete randomised design with a factorial arrangement of 2 barley grain particle sizes×2 levels of citric acid. The diets were as follows: (i) small PS (average 1200 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no CA addition); (ii) small PS barley grain soaked in a CA solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley); (iii) large PS (average 2400 µm) barley grain soaked in water (no citric acid addition) and (iv) large PS barley grain soaked in a citric acid solution (adding 20 g CA/kg barley). Barley grain was then incorporated at 35% in a total mixed ration and fed to the calves for 11 weeks. Feeding small PS barley decreased feed intake (P=0.02) and average daily weight gain (P=0.01). The addition of CA to barley grain did not affect intake but increased weight gain (P0.05). However, the molar proportion of propionate was increased (P=0.03) when barley was more finely ground, and that of acetate was increased (P=0.04) when CA was added to barley grain. The ruminal concentration of ammonia nitrogen was increased (Pgrain with citric acid increased fibre digestibility of total mixed rations, attenuated the decrease in ruminal pH, and improved weight gain and feed efficiency in male Holstein growing calves fed a high-cereal diet (550 g cereal grain/kg diet).

  19. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted

  20. Nitrogen utilization and digestibility of amino acids by lambs fed a high-concentrate diet with limestone or magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, M L; Webb, K E

    1990-07-01

    Effects were evaluated of high dietary levels of magnesium oxide (MgO) or limestone on DM, OM and CP digestibility, N balance and intestinal absorption of amino acids by lambs fed a high concentrate diet. Twelve wether lambs equipped with abomasal and ileal cannulas were blocked by weight and breeding and allotted to treatments in a randomized block design in two consecutive trials. Diets were control (800 g), control plus 1.5% MgO (812 g), control plus 1.5% limestone (812 g) and control plus 3.0% limestone (824 g) fed in two equal portions at 12-h intervals. Ruminal fluid pH differences were small. The pH of ileal digesta was greater (P less than .05) with MgO than with limestone (8.23 vs 7.73). Fecal pH was higher (P less than .01) for lambs fed all mineral treatments (avg 8.75) than for lambs fed the control (7.61) and was higher (P less than .01) when MgO (9.53) rather than limestone (8.36) was fed. Ruminal NH3N was lower (P less than .01) when lambs were fed MgO (11.9 mg/dl) compared with limestone (avg 31.2 mg/dl). Preintestinal DM digestibility was greatest (P less than .10) with limestone (avg 49.5%) feeding compared with feeding MgO (31.2%) or the control (35.4%). About 41.5% more essential (P less than .05) and 48% more nonessential (P less than .03) amino acids reached the small intestine when MgO was fed than when limestone was fed. Partial digestibility of amino acids in the small intestine was reduced (P less than .03) an average of 5 percentage units when MgO or limestone was fed. Feeding high levels of MgO or limestone to lambs did not improve the overall digestibility of DM, OM or CP. In fact, feeding high levels of MgO or limestone appeared to be detrimental, reducing intestinal absorption of amino acids.