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Sample records for digested black water

  1. Nitrogen Removal from Digested Black Water by One-stage Partial Nitritation and Anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.E.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the technical feasibility to treat digested black water from vacuum toilets (> 1000 mg NH4+-N L-1) in a lab-scale oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor. After an adaptation period of 2.5 months, a stable. nitrogen removal...... conversion was very low, in contrast to the high specific AnAOB activity. DGGE analysis showed that the dominant AerAOB and AnAOB species were resistant to the transition from synthetic medium to digested black water. This study demonstrates high-rate nitrogen removal from digested black water by one...

  2. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  3. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  4. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa, K.; Elmitwally, T.A.; Gaillard, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Zeeman, G.

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20degreesC for a

  5. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams--black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR--decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented for an enhanced primary treatment or, in some situations, as a main treatment. Two reactor configurations were extensively studied; accumulation system (AC) and UASB septic tank at 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. Due to long retention times in an AC reactor, far stabilisation of treated medium can be accomplished with methanisation up to 60%. The AC systems are the most suitable to apply when the volume of waste to be treated is minimal and when a direct reuse of a treated medium in agriculture is possible. Digested effluent contains both liquid and solids. In a UASB septic tank, efficient separation of solids and liquid is accomplished. The total COD removal was above 80% at 25 degrees C. The effluent contains COD and nutrients, mainly in a soluble form. The frequency of excess sludge removal is low and sludge is well stabilised due to a long accumulation time.

  6. Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse in an accumulation system within the DESAR (decentralized sanitation and reuse) concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Gaillard, A; van Leeuwen, M; Zeeman, G

    2003-01-01

    Co-digestion of concentrated black water and kitchen refuse within the DESAR concept was the objective of this pilot research. The digestion took place in two, non-mixed accumulation reactors (AC1 and AC2) inoculated with digested primary sludge from a WWTP at a temperature of 20 degrees C for a period of around 150 days. Reactor AC1 was fed with a mixture of faeces, urine and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that one individual generates per day. The AC2 was fed with a mixture of faeces and kitchen refuse in the equivalent amount that two individuals produce per day. Some contribution of urine to AC2 was not to be avoided. Detailed characterisation of waste(water) was performed. The performance of the stratified reactor was followed by monitoring the reactor content for several reactors' heights as well as being based on the biogas production. In general the system exposed good process stability. The methanisation of 34 and 61% was obtained for AC1 and AC2 respectively. The biogas yield was 26.5 and 50.8 L/p/d for the respective reactors. Proper choice of inoculum as well as good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA and an inhibitive effect due to relatively high ammonium concentration. The chosen process is a promising technology showing good process stability especially for high strength influent.

  7. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  8. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  9. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  10. Inhibition of raw starch digestion by one glucoamylase preparation from black Aspergillus at high enzyme concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, B C; Veda, S

    1981-09-01

    Raw starch digestion by glucoamylase I (Ab. G-I) preparation from black Aspergillus was inhibited significantly at relatively high concentration of the enzyme. The properties of this enzyme were studied together with those of another glucoamylase I (Nor. G-I), also from black Aspergillus. The two glucoamylases do not differ so much in their physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, pH and thermal stability, pH and temperature optimum, substrate specificity, debranching activity, isoelectric point etc. The adsorption rate of both enzymes on raw starch increased by the increase of enzyme concentration. The raw starch digestion rate by adsorbed Ab. G-I, however, was decreased with the increase of concentration of enzyme whereas the same was increased in case of Nor. G-I. The inhibitory effect was weaker at 60 deg. Celcius or above. (Refs. 11).

  11. Stability of Anthocyanins from Commercial Black Currant Juice under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alija Uzunović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L. juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (1,83%- in commercial black currant juice.

  12. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  13. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  15. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  16. PHOSPHATES REMOVAL FROM REJECT WATER FROM DIGESTION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sperczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research work was to evaluate if coagulants used on technical scale are useful in phosphates removal from reject water. Effectiveness of phosphorus compounds removal from reject water from digestion of sewage sludge was examined. Selected prehydrolysed alkaline aluminium polychlorides were used. The results were compared to the ones obtained with aluminium sulphate. Reject water from digestion of sewage sludge form WWTP of 100 000 PE were examined. Commercial agents – prehydrolysed PAX 18, PAX XL10, PAX-XL1905 as well as aluminium sulphate were used. Various doses of coagulants: 0.7; 1.0; 1.5 – time higher than stoichiometric dose were applied. Stoichiometric dose was calculated based on chemical reaction of insoluble aluminium phosphate formation. Concentrations of Kiejdahl nitrogen (891 mgNKj/dm3, phosphates (125 mgPO43-/dm3 and organic compounds - COD (592 mgO2/dm3 in reject water were very high. The effectiveness of coagulation process increased as the doses of chemical agents increased. The most effective doses were the highest ones used during the experiment. The most effective agent was PAX 18 (96% removal efficiency. As the phosphates concentration decreased COD content declined simultaneously. Maximum COD removal (47% was obtained when highly alkaline PAX XL 1905 was used. Use of the lowest dose of Al2(SO43 allowed for 50% phosphates removal, whereas the lowest dose of PAX 18 decreased phosphates concentration by 83%.

  17. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

  18. Phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the integration of treatment systems for black and grey water was investigated to improve resource recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Special focus was set on phosphate and organic fertilizer recovery from vacuum collected black water. Currently, the soil

  19. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  20. Black gram ( L. foliage supplementation to crossbred cows: effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Dey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of dried and ground foliage of black gram (Vigna mungo L. on feed intake and utilization, and production performance of crossbred lactating cows. Methods Eighteen lactating crossbred (Bos taurus×Bos indicus cows (body weight 330.93± 10.82 kg at their second and mid lactation (milk yield 6.77±0.54 kg/d were randomly divided into three groups of six each in a completely randomized block design. Three supplements were formulated by quantitatively replacing 0, 50, and 100 per cent of dietary wheat bran of concentrate mixture with dried and ground foliage of black gram. The designated supplement was fed to each group with basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production. Daily feed intake and milk yield was recorded. A digestion trial was conducted to determine the total tract digestibility of various nutrients. Results The daily feed intake was increased (p0.05, the fibre digestibility was increased (p0.05 among the groups, milk yield was increased by 10 per cent with total replacement of wheat bran in concentrate mixture with of black gram foliage. The economics of milk production calculated as feed cost per kg milk yield (INR 10.61 vs 7.98 was reduced by complete replacement of wheat bran with black gram foliage. Conclusion Black gram foliage could be used as complete replacement for wheat bran in concentrate mixture of dairy cows in formulating least cost ration for economic milk production in small holders’ animal production.

  1. Performance of UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water within DESAR concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Fernandes, T; Wiryawan, Y; Tawfik, A; Visser, M; Zeeman, G

    2005-01-01

    Separation of wastewater streams produced in households according to their origin, degree of pollution and affinity to a specific treatment constitutes a starting point in the DESAR concept (decentralised sanitation and reuse). Concentrated black water and kitchen waste carry the highest load of organic matter and nutrients from all waste(water)streams generated from different human activities. Anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water is a core technology in the DESAR concept. The applicability of the UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water was investigated under two different temperatures, 15 and 25 degrees C. The removal of total COD was dependent on the operational temperature and attained 61 and 74% respectively. A high removal of the suspended COD of 88 and 94% respectively was measured. Effluent nutrients were mainly in the soluble form. Precipitation of phosphate was observed. Effective sludge/water separation, long HRT and higher operational temperature contributed to a reduction of E. coli. Based on standards there is little risk of contamination with heavy metals when treated effluent is to be applied in agriculture as fertiliser.

  2. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  3. Selection of black poplars for water use efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Orlović Saša S.; Pajević Slobodanka P.; Krstić Borivoj Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass production have been investigated in nine black poplar clones (section Aigeiros) in three field experiments. Eastern cottonwood clones (Populus deltoides) had the highest net photosynthesis and water use efficiency. European black poplar clones had the highest transpiration intensity. Correlation analysis showed that net photosynthesis was in a high positive correlation with biomass. Medium negative correlations existed bet...

  4. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An unusually wide swath of significant snow cover resulted from a series of winter storms moving northeastward across the central United States during January 29-31, 2002. Total snowfall accumulations across the Great Plains, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions were as high as 6-18 inches. Along the southeastern edge of the heavy snow band, significant freezing rain resulted in a 1-3 inch coating of ice across parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Missouri. This was one of the worst ice storms in Oklahoma history, downing 4,000 electric power poles and causing loss of power to a quarter of a million homes and businesses. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite produced an image of the area on February 1, 2002. In visible wavelengths (above, top) the ice appears transluscent, in contrast to the bright white snow and darker ground. The ice is visible as a thick black stripe along the lower right edge of the medium gray snow in the near infrared image (above, lower). Because water absorbs near-infrared light so strongly, bare ground is actually brighter than the snow in this image. full resolution image (1.1 MB JPEG) A clear, dry wind from the north blew southward across the Great Lakes yesterday, picking up moisture from the lakes and pushing it high into the air. The resulting cloud formation can be seen in this image of United States taken on February 4, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) aboard the OrbView-2 satellite. The cloud formation stretches across Indiana, Ohio, and northeastern Pennsylvania before stopping abruptly at central and southern Appalachian Mountains. A band of snowfall can also be seen lying across southern Nebraska, Oklahoma, Iowa, and Michegan. The crisp, straight boundaries of the snow are easily discernable in the image. In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders. MODIS image courtesy University of

  6. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; Pwater clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; Pwater excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  7. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  8. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O

    2013-12-01

    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorthuizen, E.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph; Temmink, Hardy

    2008-01-01

    Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent

  10. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  11. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of thin stillage for energy recovery and water reuse in corn-ethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan-Ozkaynak, A; Karthikeyan, K G

    2011-11-01

    Recycling of anaerobically-digested thin stillage within a corn-ethanol plant may result in the accumulation of nutrients of environmental concern in animal feed coproducts and inhibitory organic materials in the fermentation tank. Our focus is on anaerobic digestion of treated (centrifugation and lime addition) thin stillage. Suitability of digestate from anaerobic treatment for reuse as process water was also investigated. Experiments conducted at various inoculum-to-substrate ratios (ISRs) revealed that alkalinity is a critical parameter limiting digestibility of thin stillage. An ISR level of 2 appeared optimal based on high biogas production level (763 mL biogas/g volatile solids added) and organic matter removal (80.6% COD removal). The digester supernatant at this ISR level was found to contain both organic and inorganic constituents at levels that would cause no inhibition to ethanol fermentation. Anaerobic digestion of treated-thin stillage can be expected to improve the water and energy efficiencies of dry grind corn-ethanol plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  15. Analysis of black water aggregation in Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-hua Lu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Black water aggregation (BWA in Taihu Lake is a disaster for the lake environment. It is a phenomenon resulting from water environmental deterioration and eutrophication caused by accumulation of pollutants in the lake, according to research on the water quality, pollutants of BWA, and occurrence mechanisms of BWA. Dead algae are the material base of BWA, the polluted sediment is an important factor for the formation of BWA, and hydrological and meteorological conditions such as sun light, air temperature, wind speed, and water flow are the other factors that may lead to the formation of BWA. Thioether substances such as dimethyl trisulfide are the representative pollutants of BWA. Parameters such as chlorophyll-a, DO, pH, and water temperature are sensitive indicators of BWA. Measures such as algae collection, ecological dredging, pollution control, and water diversion from the Yangtze River to the lake, are effective, and strengthening aeration is an emergency measure to control BWA.

  16. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  18. Slowing the Starch Digestion by Structural Modification through Preparing Zein/Pectin Particle Stabilized Water-in-Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Feng; Guo, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Zhi-Li; Yang, Juan; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2018-04-25

    Slowing the digestion of starch is one of the dominant concerns in the food industry. A colloidal structural modification strategy for solving this problem was proposed in this work. Due to thermodynamic incompatibility between two biopolymers, water/water emulsion of waxy corn starch (WCS) droplets dispersed in a continuous aqueous guar gum (GG) was prepared, and zein particles (ZPs), obtained by antisolvent precipitation and pectin modification, were used as stabilizer. As the ratio of zein to pectin in the particles was 1:1, their wetting properties in the two polysaccharides were similar, which made them accumulate at the interface and cover the WCS-rich droplets. The analysis of digestibility curves indicated that a rapid (rate constant k 1 : 0.145 min -1 ) and a slow phase ( k 2 : 0.022 min -1 ) existed during WCS digestion. However, only one slow phase ( k 2 : 0.019 min -1 ) was found in the WCS/GG emulsion, suggesting that this structure was effective in slowing starch digestion.

  19. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p < 0.05). Also, digestibility of dry matter, NDF and ADF by whole buffalo micro-organisms was more than those in cow (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the potential of gas production of sugarcane pith by rumen protozoa in water buffalo was more than that of cow (p < 0.05). Total rumen ciliate protozoa numbers in water buffalo were significantly higher than those of cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p < 0.05). The number of Diplodinium in buffalo was more than that of cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  20. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  1. [Remote sensing monitoring and screening for urban black and odorous water body: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Zhu, Li; Cao, Hong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Continuous improvement of urban water environment and overall control of black and odorous water body are not merely national strategic needs with the action plan for prevention and treatment of water pollution, but also the hot issues attracting the attention of people. Most previous researches concentrated on the study of cause, evaluation and treatment measures of this phenomenon, and there are few researches on the monitoring using remote sensing, which is often a strain to meet the national needs of operational monitoring. This paper mainly summarized the urgent research problems, mainly including the identification and classification standard, research on the key technologies, and the frame of remote sensing screening systems for the urban black and odorous water body. The main key technologies were concluded too, including the high spatial resolution image preprocessing and extraction technique for black and odorous water body, the extraction of water information in city zones, the classification of the black and odorous water, and the identification and classification technique based on satellite-sky-ground remote sensing. This paper summarized the research progress and put forward research ideas of monitoring and screening urban black and odorous water body via high spatial resolution remote sensing technology, which would be beneficial to having an overall grasp of spatial distribution and improvement progress of black and odorous water body, and provide strong technical support for controlling urban black and odorous water body.

  2. Interactive effects of dietary palm oil concentration and water temperature on lipid digestibility in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong; Campbell, Patrick J; Dick, James R; Bell, J Gordon

    2003-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the interactive effects of dietary crude palm oil (CPO) concentration and water temperature on lipid and FA digestibility in rainbow trout. Four isolipidic diets with 0, 5, 10, or 20% (w/w) CPO, at the expense of fish oil, were formulated and fed to groups of trout maintained at water temperatures of 7, 10, or 15 degrees C. The apparent digestibility (AD) of the FA, measured using yttrium oxide as an inert marker, decreased with increasing chain length and increased with increasing unsaturation within each temperature regimen irrespective of CPO level fed to the fish. PUFA of the n-3 series were preferentially absorbed compared to n-6 PUFA in all diet and temperature treatments. Except for a few minor FA, a significant (P digestibility was found. Increasing dietary levels of CPO lead to significant reductions in the AD of saturates and, to a lesser extent, also of the other FA. Lowering water temperature reduced total saturated FA digestibility in trout regardless of CPO level. Based on the lipid class composition of trout feces, this reduction in AD of saturates was due in part to the increasing resistance of dietary TAG to digestion. Increasing CPO level and decreasing water temperature significantly increased TAG content in trout fecal lipids, with saturates constituting more than 60% of the FA composition. Total monoene and PUFA digestibilities were not significantly affected by water temperature in fish fed up to 10% CPO in their diet. The potential impact of reduced lipid and FA digestibility in cold-water fish fed diets supplemented with high levels of CPO on fish growth performance requires further research.

  3. Effects of inclusion levels of pelleted silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis Andress.) in the diet on digestibility, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in breeding Japanese Black cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Keigo; Ishida, Miho; Ishida, Motohiko

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effects of inclusion levels of pelleted silvergrass (PS) in the diet on digestibility, ruminal fermentation and nutrient status of breeding Japanese Black cows, four cows were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. Treatments were control fed a diet consisting of 89.4% Sudangrass hay and 10.6% soybean meal on a dry matter (DM) basis, and PS18, PS27 and PS45 fed the diet replaced with 18%, 27% and 45% of control with PS, respectively. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) content of PS was 45.6% on a DM basis. The TDN intakes were significantly decreased by increasing PS level in the diet (P ruminal fluid and serum metabolite concentrations were not significantly different among the treatments. The results suggested that including PS up to 45% in the diet did not have adverse effects on the ruminal fermentation and nutrient status in breeding Japanese Black cows at the maintenance stage. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Black Faculty at Harvard: Does the Pipeline Defense Hold Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    The hiring practices of Harvard University are examined as they relate to the argument that black college faculty members are not available because there are no blacks in the "pipeline" of Ph.D.s. This spurious defense is an anachronism that must be reexamined in considering racial diversity at America's universities. (SLD)

  5. Effects of dissolved organic matter leaching from macrophyte litter on black water events in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhong; Song, Na; Jiang, He-Long

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the black water phenomenon has become an environmental event in eutrophic shallow lakes in China, leading to deterioration of lake ecosystems and potable water crises. Decomposition of macrophyte debris has been verified as a key inducement for black water events. In this study, the effects of the decomposition of dissolved organic matter (Kottelat et al., WASP 187:343-351, 2008) derived from macrophyte leachate on the occurrence of black water events are investigated to clarify the detailed mechanisms involved. Results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM) is composed of a trace of chromophoric DOM and mostly non-chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). DOM decomposition is accompanied by varied concentration of CDOM components, generation of organic particles, and increased microbial concentrations. These processes increase water chroma only during initial 48 h, so the intensified water color cannot be maintained by DOM decomposition alone. During DOM decomposition, microorganisms first consume non-CDOM, increasing the relative CDOM concentration and turning the water color to black (or brown). Simultaneously, tryptophan and aromatic proteins, which are major ingredients of CDOM, enhance UV light absorption, further aggravating the macroscopic phenomenon of black color. Our results show that DOM leached from decayed macrophytes promotes or even triggers the occurrence of black water events and should be taken more seriously in the future.

  6. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  7. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  8. Biogenic Properties of Deep Waters from the Black Sea Reduction (Hydrogen Sulphide) Zone for Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Polikarpov, Gennady G.; Lazorenko, Galina Е.; Тereschenko, Natalya N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generalized data of biogenic properties investigations of the Black Sea deep waters from its reduction zone for marine algae are presented. It is shown on board and in laboratory that after pre-oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by intensive aeration of the deep waters lifted to the surface of the sea, they are ready to be used for cultivation of the Black Sea unicellular, planktonic, and multicellular, benthic, algae instead of artificial medium. Naturally balanced micro- and macroeleme...

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  10. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  11. Identification of antihyperuricemic peptides in the proteolytic digest of shark cartilage water extract using in vivo activity-guided fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Itsuki; Taguchi, Satoko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Park, Eun Young; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-03-19

    A peptide that exerts antihyperuricemic activity after oral administration was identified from a microbial protease (alcalase) digest of the water extract of shark cartilage by in vivo activity-guided fractionation, using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Water extract of shark cartilage was first fractionated by preparative ampholine-free isoelectric focusing, followed by preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalse digests of the obtained fractions was evaluated using an animal model. Alcalase digests of the basic and hydrophobic fractions exerted antihyperuricemic activity. A total of 18 peptides were identified in the alcalase digest of the final active fraction. These peptides were chemically synthesized and evaluated for antihyperuricemic activity. Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr and Ser-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Pro-Tyr lowered the serum uric acid level via intravenous injection at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Furthermore, orally administered Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr showed antihyperuricemic activity. Therefore, these peptides are at least partially responsible for the antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalase digest of shark cartilage.

  12. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the

  13. Chemical Composition, Starch Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity of Tortilla Made with a Blend of Quality Protein Maize and Black Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Bello-Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tortilla and beans are the basic components in the diet of people in the urban and rural areas of Mexico. Quality protein maize is suggested for tortilla preparation because it presents an increase in lysine and tryptophan levels. Beans contain important amounts of dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to prepare tortilla with bean and assesses the chemical composition, starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity using a quality protein maize variety. Tortilla with bean had higher protein, ash, dietary fiber and resistant starch content, and lower digestible starch than control tortilla. The hydrolysis rate (60 to 50% and the predicted glycemic index (88 to 80 of tortilla decreased with the addition of bean in the blend. Extractable polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were higher in the tortilla with bean than control tortilla. This pattern produced higher antioxidant capacity of tortilla with bean (17.6 μmol Trolox eq/g than control tortilla (7.8 μmol Trolox eq/g. The addition of bean to tortilla modified the starch digestibility and antioxidant characteristics of tortilla, obtaining a product with nutraceutical characteristics.

  14. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  15. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  16. Enhancement of micropore filling of water on carbon black by platinum loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Naoya, E-mail: miyajima@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Hatori, Hiroaki [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Radovic, Ljubisa R. [Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Yamada, Yoshio [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two kinds of typical carbons, carbon black and activated carbon fibers, were modified with platinum nanoparticles without changing their original pore structures. The surface properties of the modified carbons were investigated by measuring of water adsorption isotherms. Micropore filling of water was facilitated by the presence of platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon black. On the other hand, such a filling effect was not observed in the case of the activated carbon fibers. A critical content and/or size of platinum nanoparticles could be required to promote efficiently the water adsorption.

  17. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-01-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet. PMID:27686984

  18. First evaluation of neustonic microplastics in Black Sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Ulgen; Valente, Andre; Senturk, Yasemen; Usta, Riza; Esensoy Sahin, Fatma Basak; Mazlum, Rahsan Evren; Agirbas, Ertugrul

    2016-08-01

    The Black Sea has a high risk of plastic pollution given the high river discharge of several industrialized countries into this semi-enclosed sea. Here, for the first time, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics are reported for the Black Sea. Microplastics were assessed from zooplankton samples taken during two cruises along the south eastern coast of the Black Sea in the November of 2014 and February of 2015. In each cruise neuston samples were collected at 12 stations using a WP2 net with 200 μm mesh. Microplastics (0.2-5 mm) were found in 92% of the samples. The primary shapes were fibres (49.4%) followed by plastic films (30.6%) and fragments (20%), and no micro beads were found. Average microplastic concentration in November (1.2 ± 1.1 × 10(3) par. m(-3)) was higher than in February (0.6 ± 0.55 × 10(3) par. m(-3)). Reduced concentrations in February were possibly caused by increased mixing. The highest concentrations of microplastics were observed in offshore stations during November sampling. The heterogeneous spatial distribution (0.2 × 10(3)-3.3 × 10(3) par. m(-3) for all samples) and accumulation in some stations could be associated to transport and retention mechanisms linked with wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well by different sources of plastic. There were no statistically significant differences in MP concentration between sampling stations and sampling periods (t-test, p pollution and there is an urgency to understand their origins, transportation and effects on marine life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  20. Water intake and digestive metabolism of broilers fed all-vegetable diets containing acidulated soybean soapstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare live performance and digestive metabolism of broiler chickens fed all-vegetable diets (All-Veg compared to a regular diet including animal by-products. Three feeds were formulated and provided to broilers according to the feeding program: pre-starter from 1 to 10 days, starter from 11 to 21 days, and grower from 21 to 35 days. All feeds had corn and soybean meal as major ingredients; however, two of them were all-vegetable diets having either Degummed Soybean Oil (DSO or Acidulated Soybean Soapstock (ASS as fat sources. The third diet included poultry by-product and poultry fat. A total number of 360 day-old broiler chicks were allocated to 1m² battery cages, 10 chicks in each, and 12 replicates per treatment. Live performance was similar between groups of birds receiving the different diets with the exception of weight gain, which was increased for birds fed the All-Veg diet with ASS. Birds fed All-Veg diets had increased water intake and produced more excreta with a concurrent reduced feed metabolizability at both ages, regardless of fat source. Metabolizable Energy was not different for the three diets.

  1. Micropollutant removal from black water and grey water sludge in a UASB-GAC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Sevenou, L; Meulepas, R J W; Hernandez Leal, L; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2018-02-01

    The effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition on the removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, galaxolide and triclosan in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was studied. Prior to the reactor studies, batch experiments indicated that addition of activated carbon to UASB sludge can decrease micropollutant concentrations in both liquid phase and sludge. In continuous experiments, two UASB reactors were operated for 260 days at an HRT of 20 days, using a mixture of source separated black water and sludge from aerobic grey water treatment as influent. GAC (5.7 g per liter of reactor volume) was added to one of the reactors on day 138. No significant difference in COD removal and biogas production between reactors with and without GAC addition was observed. In the presence of GAC, fewer micropollutants were washed out with the effluent and a lower accumulation of micropollutants in sludge and particulate organic matter occurred, which is an advantage in micropollutant emission reduction from wastewater. However, the removal of micropollutants by adding GAC to a UASB reactor would require more activated carbon compared to effluent post-treatment. Additional research is needed to estimate the effect of bioregeneration on the lifetime of activated carbon in a UASB-GAC reactor.

  2. Improved Water Consumption Estimates of Black Locust Plantations in China’s Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Schwärzel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a major tree species in China’s large-scale afforestation. Despite its significance, black locust is underrepresented in sap flow literature; moreover, the published water consumption data might be biased. We applied two field methods to estimate water consumption of black locust during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013. The application of Granier’s original sap flow method produced a very low transpiration rate (0.08 mm d−1 while the soil water balance method yielded a much higher rate (1.4 mm d−1. A dye experiment to determine the active sapwood area showed that only the outermost annual ring is responsible for conducting water, which was not considered in many previous studies. Moreover, an in situ calibration experiment was conducted to improve the reliability of Granier’s method. Validation showed a good agreement in estimates of the transpiration rate between the different methods. It is known from many studies that black locust plantations contribute to the significant decline of discharge in the Yellow River basin. Our estimate of tree transpiration at stand scale confirms these results. This study provides a basis for and advances the argument for the development of more sustainable forest management strategies, which better balance forest-related ecosystem services such as soil conservation and water supply.

  3. The Precipitation Behavior of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs with an Emphasis on the Digestion of Lipid Based Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of newly discovered drugs are poorly water-soluble and the use of natural and synthetic lipids to improve the oral bioavailability of these drugs by utilizing the digestion pathway in-vivo has proved an effective formulation strategy. The mechanisms responsible for lipid digestion and drug solubilisation during gastrointestinal transit have been explored in detail, but the implications of drug precipitation beyond the potential adverse effect on bioavailability have received attention only in recent years. Specifically, these implications are that different solid forms of drug on precipitation may affect the total amount of drug absorbed in-vivo through their different physico-chemical properties, and the possibility that the dynamic environment of the small intestine may afford re-dissolution of precipitated drug if present in a high-energy form. This review describes the events that lead to drug precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid based formulations, common methods used to inhibit precipitation, as well as conventional and newly emerging characterization techniques for studying the solid state form of the precipitated drug. Moreover, selected case studies are discussed where drug precipitation has ensued from the digestion of lipid based formulations, as well as the apparent link between drug ionisability and altered solid forms on precipitation, culminating in a discussion about the importance of the solid form on precipitation with relevance to the total drug absorbed.

  4. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J.; Nichols, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs

  5. Health Effects of Alkaline Diet and Water, Reduction of Digestive-tract Bacterial Load, and Earthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Haider Abdul-Lateef

    2016-04-01

    In the article, the author discusses the issue of chronic, low-grade acidosis that is thought to be brought about primarily by 2 factors: (1) advancing age, with a consequent decline in renal function; and (2) diet. An acid-forming diet can induce low-grade metabolic acidosis, which causes very small decreases in blood pH and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3-) that remain within the range considered to be normal. However, if the duration of the acidosis is prolonged or chronically present, even a low degree of acidosis can become significant. This article reviews supporting evidence in the literature that has shown that consumption of abundant alkaline-forming foods can result in improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle mass, protection from chronic illnesses, reduced tumor-cell invasion and metastasis, and effective excretion of toxins from the body. In addition, a large number of studies showing the benefits of alkaline water (mineral water) have revealed that people consuming water with a high level of total dissolved solids (TDS) (ie, with a high mineral content) have shown a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer and lower total mortality rates. Consumption of alkaline water also may prevent osteoporosis and protect pancreatic beta cells with its antioxidant effects. In addition, this article discusses the literature that shows that reducing digestive-tract bacterial load can play an important role in increasing blood alkalinity toward the normal upper limit. That change occurs through good oral hygiene, flossing of teeth, perfect chewing of food, and bowel evacuation as soon as possible. Finally, the author reviews the literature that shows that earthing (ie, the direct contact of the human body with the earth) can supply a current of plentiful electrons. Earthing has been shown to reduce acute and chronic inflammation, blood glucose in patients with diabetes, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, and blood

  6. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  7. Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules and methane in anaerobic treatment of black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha Costa, da J.M.R.; Tervahauta, T.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Hernández Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) granules were discovered in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (BW), using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. This allows simultaneous recovery of CaP granules and methane in the UASB reactor. However, the role of BW composition on CaP

  8. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  9. Performance of UASB septic tank for treatment of concentrated black water within DESAR concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Fernandes, T.; Wiryawan, Y.; Tafwik, A.; Visser, de M.; Zeeman, G.

    2005-01-01

    Separation of wastewater streams produced in households according to their origin, degree of pollution and affinity to a specific treatment constitutes a starting point in the DESAR concept (decentralised sanitation and reuse). Concentrated black water and kitchen waste carry the highest load of

  10. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luostarinen, S.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The

  11. Calcium phosphate granulation in anaerobic treatment of black water: a new approach to phosphorus recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Weijden, van der R.D.; Flemming, R.L.; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of phosphorus from wastewater as calcium phosphate could diminish the need for mining of scarce phosphate rock resources. This study introduces a novel approach to phosphorus recovery by precipitation of calcium phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water. The granules formed

  12. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Morphological and genomic comparisons of Hawaiian and Japanese Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) using double digest RADseq: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Elisa G; Shultz, Allison J; Sato, Fumio; Hiraoka, Takashi; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-08-01

    Evaluating the genetic and demographic independence of populations of threatened species is important for determining appropriate conservation measures, but different technologies can yield different conclusions. Despite multiple studies, the taxonomic status and extent of gene flow between the main breeding populations of Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), a Near-Threatened philopatric seabird, are still controversial. Here, we employ double digest RADseq to quantify the extent of genomewide divergence and gene flow in this species. Our genomewide data set of 9760 loci containing 3455 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded estimates of genetic diversity and gene flow that were generally robust across seven different filtering and sampling protocols and suggest a low level of genomic variation (θ per site = ∼0.00002-0.00028), with estimates of effective population size (N e = ∼500-15 881) falling far below current census size. Genetic differentiation was small but detectable between Japan and Hawaii (F ST ≈ 0.038-0.049), with no F ST outliers. Additionally, using museum specimens, we found that effect sizes of morphological differences by sex or population rarely exceeded 4%. These patterns suggest that the Hawaiian and Japanese populations exhibit small but significant differences and should be considered separate management units, although the evolutionary and adaptive consequences of this differentiation remain to be identified.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, Qiao; Ranjith, Pathegama Gamage; Long, Xinping; Ji, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/supe...

  15. The effect of water temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ghysvandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of water temperature on digestive enzymes activity and food transit time in Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum larvae. Caspian kutum larvae (532 ± 0.05 and 543 ± 0.02 mg were divided into two groups with three replicates and reared at different water temperature i.e. 25.6 ± 0.4°C (T1 and 18.4 ± 0.1°C (T2. At the end of the experiment, sampling of intestine was performed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 16, 24 and 30 h after feeding from each treatment. In T2, food was observed until 24 h after feeding and the intestine was empty 29 h after feeding, while in T1 19 h after feeding the intestine was empty. Digestive enzymes activities were higher in T2 treatment. The peaks of trypsin and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activity were found 8 h after feeding in T1, while occurred 16 h after feeding in T2. The highest chymotrypsin and alpha-amylase enzymes activity were observed 5 and 8h after feeding in T1 and T2, respectively. These results confirmed remarkable effects of temperature on food transit time and digestive enzymes activity of Caspian kutum.

  16. TRAC-B thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Black Fox boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.

    1993-05-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analyses of six hypothetical accident scenarios for the General Electric Black Fox Nuclear Project boiling water reactor were performed using the TRAC-BF1 computer code. This work is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and is being done in conjunction with future analysis work at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Training Center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. These accident scenarios were chosen to assess and benchmark the thermal-hydraulic capabilities of the Black Fox Nuclear Project simulator at the Technical Training Center to model abnormal transient conditions

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of source segregated brown water (feces-without-urine) and food waste: For Singapore context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Lim, Jun Wei; Mao, Yu; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) [feces-without-urine] and food waste (FW) in decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept. An effort has been made to separate the yellow water (urine) and brown water from the source (using no-mix toilet) primarily to facilitate further treatment, resource recovery and utilization. Batch assay analytical results indicated that anaerobic co-digestion [BW + FW] showed higher methane yield (0.54–0.59 L CH 4 /gVS added ) than BW or FW as a sole substrate. Anaerobic co-digestion was performed in the semi-continuously fed laboratory scale reactors viz. two-phase continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and single-stage sequencing-batch operational mode reactor (SeqBR). Initial 120 d of operation shows that SeqBR performed better in terms of organic matter removal and maximum methane production. At steady-state, CODs, CODt, VS removals of 92.0 ± 3.0, 76.7 ± 5.1 and 75.7 ± 6.6% were achieved for SeqBR at 16 d HRT, respectively. This corresponds to an OLR of 2–3 gCOD/L d and methane yield of about 0.41 L CH 4 /gVS added . Good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA, showing better process stability of SeqBR at higher loading rates. The positive findings show the great potential of applying anaerobic co-digestion of BW + FW for energy production and waste management. In addition, daily flush water consumption is reduced up to 80%. Decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept is expected to provide a practical solution for those countries experiencing rapid urbanization and water shortage issues, for instance Singapore. - Highlights: ► Source separation of organic waste/wastewater streams on household level was done. ► Brown water (BW) was collected from a specially designed no-mix toilet. ► BW and food waste codigestion proved as a potential substrate for biogas production. ► A distinct improvement in methane yield

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of source segregated brown water (feces-without-urine) and food waste: For Singapore context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth, E-mail: rrajinime@yahoo.co.in [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Jun Wei [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Mao, Yu [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); School of Energy and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan Normal University, 121 Street, Kunming 650092 China (China); Chen, Chia-Lung [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, 637141 Singapore (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of brown water (BW) [feces-without-urine] and food waste (FW) in decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept. An effort has been made to separate the yellow water (urine) and brown water from the source (using no-mix toilet) primarily to facilitate further treatment, resource recovery and utilization. Batch assay analytical results indicated that anaerobic co-digestion [BW + FW] showed higher methane yield (0.54–0.59 L CH{sub 4}/gVS{sub added}) than BW or FW as a sole substrate. Anaerobic co-digestion was performed in the semi-continuously fed laboratory scale reactors viz. two-phase continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and single-stage sequencing-batch operational mode reactor (SeqBR). Initial 120 d of operation shows that SeqBR performed better in terms of organic matter removal and maximum methane production. At steady-state, CODs, CODt, VS removals of 92.0 ± 3.0, 76.7 ± 5.1 and 75.7 ± 6.6% were achieved for SeqBR at 16 d HRT, respectively. This corresponds to an OLR of 2–3 gCOD/L d and methane yield of about 0.41 L CH{sub 4}/gVS{sub added}. Good buffering capacity did not lead to accumulation of VFA, showing better process stability of SeqBR at higher loading rates. The positive findings show the great potential of applying anaerobic co-digestion of BW + FW for energy production and waste management. In addition, daily flush water consumption is reduced up to 80%. Decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concept is expected to provide a practical solution for those countries experiencing rapid urbanization and water shortage issues, for instance Singapore. - Highlights: ► Source separation of organic waste/wastewater streams on household level was done. ► Brown water (BW) was collected from a specially designed no-mix toilet. ► BW and food waste codigestion proved as a potential substrate for biogas production. ► A distinct improvement

  19. Application of the International Water Association activated sludge models to describe aerobic sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, M; Eskicioglu, C

    2011-12-01

    Batch and semi-continuous flow aerobic digesters were used to stabilize thickened waste-activated sludge at different initial conditions and mean solids retention times. Under dynamic conditions, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids (VSS) and total and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD and PCOD) were monitored in the batch reactors and effluent from the semi-continuous flow reactors. Activated Sludge Model (ASM) no. 1 and ASM no. 3 were applied to measured data (calibration data set) to evaluate the consistency and performances of models at different flow regimes for digester COD and VSS modelling. The results indicated that both ASM1 and ASM3 predicted digester COD, VSS and PCOD concentrations well (R2, Ra2 > or = 0.93). Parameter estimation concluded that compared to ASM1, ASM3 parameters were more consistent across different batch and semi-continuous flow runs with different operating conditions. Model validation on a data set independent from the calibration data successfully predicted digester COD (R2 = 0.88) and VSS (R2 = 0.94) concentrations by ASM3, while ASM1 overestimated both reactor COD (R2 = 0.74) and VSS concentrations (R2 = 0.79) after 15 days of aerobic batch digestion.

  20. Assimilation of water and dietary ions by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nadella, Sunita R; McGaw, Iain J; Wood, Chris M

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies focusing on the consequences of feeding for ion and water balance in freshwater fish have revealed the need for similar comparative studies in seawater fish. A detailed time course sampling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents following the ingestion of a single meal of a commercial diet revealed the assimilation of both water and dietary ions (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) along the GI tract of seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been fasted for 1 week. Consumption of the meal did not change the drinking rate. There was a large secretion of fluid into the anterior intestine and caecae (presumably bile and/or pancreatic secretions). As a result, net assimilation (63%) of the ingested water along the GI tract was lower than generally reported for fasted trout. Mg(2+) was neither secreted into nor absorbed from the GI tract on a net basis. Only K(+) (93% assimilated) and Ca(2+) (43% assimilated) were absorbed in amounts in excess of those provided by ingested seawater, suggesting that dietary sources of K(+) and Ca(2+) may be important to seawater teleosts. The oesophagus-stomach served as a major site of absorption for Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+), and the anterior intestine and caecae as a major site of net secretion for all of these ions, except Cl(-). Despite large absorptive fluxes of these ions, the ionic composition of the plasma was maintained during the digestion of the meal. The results of the present study were compared with previous work on freshwater-acclimated rainbow trout, highlighting some important differences, but also several similarities on the assimilation of water and ions along the gastrointestinal tract during digestion. This study highlights the complicated array of ion and water transport that occurs in the intestine during digestion while revealing the importance of dietary K(+) and Ca(2+) to seawater-acclimated rainbow trout. Additionally, this study reveals that digestion

  1. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function : Supplementary Issue: Water Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1 hydrolysis rate, (2 direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3 community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4 methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5 bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses.

  2. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2013–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Mason, Jon P.

    2017-12-07

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 16 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2013 to December 2015. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals (pumping), (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In 2013, total groundwater withdrawals were 3,980 acre-feet (ft), in 2014 total withdrawals were 4,170 acre-ft, and in 2015 total withdrawals were 3,970 acre-ft. From 2013 to 2015 total withdrawals varied by less than 5 percent.From 2014 to 2015, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 9 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 3 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.6 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2015, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both the confined and unconfined areas was -13.2 feet; the median water-level changes were -1.7 feet for 16 wells measured in the unconfined areas and -42.3 feet for 18 wells measured in the confined area.Spring flow was measured at four springs in 2014. Flow fluctuated during the

  3. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Kim, Ji-Yung; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR) on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications). Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1%) moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05). Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05). No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05). It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  5. Effects of water addition to total mixed ration on water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol and blood indices in Corriedale ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding water to total mixed ration (TMR on fresh water intake, nutrient digestibility, wool cortisol, and blood indices in Corriedale ewes under hot and humid conditions. Methods Nine non-pregnant Corriedale ewes (ave. body weight = 41±3.5 kg were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirements in metabolic crates. Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups according to a triplicate 3×3 Latin Square design for 3 periods of 21 days duration each (9 ewes per treatment, 27 replications. Treatments were TMR (crude protein [CP] = 16.1, total digestible nutrients = 69.1% moisture levels for 40%, 50%, and 60%. Results No differences were found in body weight gain among all treatment groups (p>0.05. Nitrogen balance including digestible N, retained N, and urinary and fecal N showed no change among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Fresh water intake was the lower in 50% TMR moisture group than in the other groups (p0.05. No significant difference was observed for serum protein, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, and triglyceride among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Wool and blood cortisol were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Blood hematology including red blood cell, white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, basophils, and eosinophils were not different among the treatment groups (p>0.05. Conclusion It is concluded that TMR moisture at 40%, 50%, and 60% had no effects on N balance parameters, and nutrient digestibilities except for the ether extract under hot and humid conditions. Additionally there were no effects on stress conditions include wool cortisol, as well as blood cortisol levels of ewes.

  6. Analysis on the formation condition of the algae-induced odorous black water agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofang; Li, Xianning; Fang, Yang; Huang, Rui

    2014-12-01

    The algae-induced odorous black water agglomerate (OBWA) is a phenomenon in which water turns black and emits odorous gas. It is an ecological and environmental problem that has occurred several times in Taihu, a large eutrophic shallow lake in China. In this study, the collected eutrophic water with different algae densities was used to simulate OBWA. The results revealed that the massive accumulation and death of algae was the substrate source for OBWA. When the algae density reached 1.0 × 10(8) cells/L in the static and dark condition, at a constant high temperature (30 ± 2 °C), OBWA happened. There was a time difference between the water stinking and blackening with the stinking first. When the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value was between -250 and -50 mV, Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), the main contributor to the water stinking at the initial stage, and other odorous organics were produced. Water blackening was closely related to the increases of sulfide and dissolved Fe(2+) concentration. When the ORP value was between -350 and -300 mV, heavy metal containing sulfides such as FeS formed. Therefore, the condition when the water ORP value decreased to about -300 mV was considered the precursor for OBWA formation.

  7. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; O'Sullivan, Colin; Reible, Danny; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (K PCBids ) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. K PCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L −1 . The resulting K PCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the K PCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the K OW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  8. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  9. Plant-water relationships and growth of black walnut in a walnut-forage multicropping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; M. R. Conway; H. E. Garrett; T. S. Hinckley; G. S. Cox

    1987-01-01

    Eastern black walnut seedlings were planted on a 1.5 ? 1.5m spacing in the spring of 1976 and irrigated throughout the growing season. During the spring of 1977, forage plots consisting of Kentucky 31 tall fescue, orchard grass, or Kobe lespedeza measuring 1 m wide and 10.2 m long and centered on a row of trees, were established with and without irrigation. Soil-water...

  10. Coccolithophore assemblage response to Black Sea Water inflow into the North Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsolis, B.-Th.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; Dimiza, M. D.; Malinverno, E.; Lagaria, A.; Mara, P.; Archontikis, O.; Psarra, S.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to presents the species composition of living coccolithophore communities in the NE Aegean Sea, investigating their spatial and temporal variations along a north-south transect in the area receiving the inflowing surface Black Sea Water (BSW) over the deeper Levantine Water (LW) layer. Coccolithophores in the area were relatively diverse and a total of 95 species over 3 sampling periods studied were recognized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished two coccolithophore Groups (I, IIa, IIb, IIc) with different ecological preferences. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of Group I, whereas Syracosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp. and holococcolithophores were prevailing in the highly diversified Group II assemblages. Biometric analysis conducted on E. huxleyi coccoliths from Aegean water column and Black Sea sediment trap samples, indicated that during autumn, NE Aegean specimens in samples under BSW influence were featured by unimodal distribution concerning the coccolith relative tube width, with values similar to those provided by the Black Sea specimens. In early spring, coccoliths in the stations with increased BSW influx displayed a bimodal pattern of relative tube width with smaller values found mostly in the surface layers, while the distribution became again unimodal and dominated by larger values within the deeper LW layers. In the summer period, the typical LW holococcolithophore species (Group II) presented low cell numbers in the surface layer (huxleyi was almost absent in the NE Aegean during the summer sampling period.

  11. Depletion of barium and radium-226 in Black Sea surface waters over the past thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenison Falkner, K.K.; Edmond, J.M.; O'Neill, D.J.; Todd, J.F.; Moore, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nearly landlocked waters of the Black Sea support a valuable fishery, but are also particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance. Here we use dissolved barium and radium-226 as tracers, to investigate the biogeochemical health of the sea. Both elements are brought to surface waters by vertical mixing of deeper, enriched waters, and by rivers; these inputs should ordinarily be balanced by outflow of surface waters at the Bosphorus, and by biologically mediated removal of 226 Ra-bearing barite. We show, however, that surface-water inventories have been substantially depleted over the past few decades: recent (1988-89) barium concentrations were 1.6 times lower than in 1958 and 1967. These observations suggest that steady-state cycling of these elements has been perturbed by increased primary productivity, presumably fuelled by nutrients from industry and agricultural runoff, and to a lesser extent by decreased fluvial sediment loads owing to extensive impoundment of rivers in the region. (author)

  12. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  13. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  14. Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B.; Zanewich, K.; Stefura, C. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Mahoney, J.M. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Cottonwoods have shown an adaptation to the riparian zone by coordinating root elongation to maintain contact with the water table, whose depth varies with the elevation of the adjacent river. The rate of water decline on growth allocation and concentrations of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in black cottonwood saplings were studied at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Water declines were achieved by using rhizopods, and root elongation approximately doubled in response whereas leaf area was reduced. At some point, a greater water decline rate led to water stress resulting in reduced growth, increased leaf diffusive resistance, decreased water potential, and leaf senescence and abscission. After extraction of endogenous GAs, they were purified and analysed by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring with internal ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA standards. The results showed that GAs were higher in shoot tips and sequentially lower in basal stems, root tips, leaves and upper roots. Noticeable relationships did not appear between GA concentration and growth allocation across the water decline treatments. Only GA{sub 8} showed a consistent reduction in plants experiencing water table decline. This research did not permit the authors to conclude whether endogenous GAs play a primary role in the regulation of root elongation in response to water table decline. 7 figs., 25 refs.

  15. Water resources of the Black Sea Basin at high spatial and temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouholahnejad, Elham; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Srinivasan, Raghvan; Bacu, Victor; Lehmann, Anthony

    2014-07-01

    The pressure on water resources, deteriorating water quality, and uncertainties associated with the climate change create an environment of conflict in large and complex river system. The Black Sea Basin (BSB), in particular, suffers from ecological unsustainability and inadequate resource management leading to severe environmental, social, and economical problems. To better tackle the future challenges, we used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of the BSB coupling water quantity, water quality, and crop yield components. The hydrological model of the BSB was calibrated and validated considering sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. River discharges, nitrate loads, and crop yields were used to calibrate the model. Employing grid technology improved calibration computation time by more than an order of magnitude. We calculated components of water resources such as river discharge, infiltration, aquifer recharge, soil moisture, and actual and potential evapotranspiration. Furthermore, available water resources were calculated at subbasin spatial and monthly temporal levels. Within this framework, a comprehensive database of the BSB was created to fill the existing gaps in water resources data in the region. In this paper, we discuss the challenges of building a large-scale model in fine spatial and temporal detail. This study provides the basis for further research on the impacts of climate and land use change on water resources in the BSB.

  16. Remote Sensing of Black Lakes and Using 810 nm Reflectance Peak for Retrieving Water Quality Parameters of Optically Complex Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Kutser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many lakes in boreal and arctic regions have high concentrations of CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter. Remote sensing of such lakes is complicated due to very low water leaving signals. There are extreme (black lakes where the water reflectance values are negligible in almost entire visible part of spectrum (400–700 nm due to the absorption by CDOM. In these lakes, the only water-leaving signal detectable by remote sensing sensors occurs as two peaks—near 710 nm and 810 nm. The first peak has been widely used in remote sensing of eutrophic waters for more than two decades. We show on the example of field radiometry data collected in Estonian and Swedish lakes that the height of the 810 nm peak can also be used in retrieving water constituents from remote sensing data. This is important especially in black lakes where the height of the 710 nm peak is still affected by CDOM. We have shown that the 810 nm peak can be used also in remote sensing of a wide variety of lakes. The 810 nm peak is caused by combined effect of slight decrease in absorption by water molecules and backscattering from particulate material in the water. Phytoplankton was the dominant particulate material in most of the studied lakes. Therefore, the height of the 810 peak was in good correlation with all proxies of phytoplankton biomass—chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.77, total suspended matter (R2 = 0.70, and suspended particulate organic matter (R2 = 0.68. There was no correlation between the peak height and the suspended particulate inorganic matter. Satellite sensors with sufficient spatial and radiometric resolution for mapping lake water quality (Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI were launched recently. In order to test whether these satellites can capture the 810 nm peak we simulated the spectral performance of these two satellites from field radiometry data. Actual satellite imagery from a black lake was also used to study whether these sensors can detect the peak

  17. The Change in Black Sea Water Composition and Hydrology during Deglaciation from Multiproxy Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchilina, A.; Ryan, W. B. F.; McManus, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of changes in the water column from the last glacial into the early Holocene using stable isotope, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C, and trace element ratios from mollusks from the shelf area and ostracods from the basin of the Black Sea. The stable isotope record is compared to a thoroughly U/Th dated terrestrial stable isotope record of a nearby cave, Sofular cave in northwestern Turkey. The combination of deep, surface, and terrestrial signals gives valuable insight towards the behavior of the lake water during the deglaciation in multiple dimensions, specifically the water column stratification and hydrological dynamics. The comparison of the stable isotope records of two independent proxies allows to make inferences on the changes in the 14C reservoir of the Black Sea-Lake. Results show that during the glacial period, water from the Black Sea-Lake was outflowing to the Sea of Marmara but the ventilation of the water column was weak as old 14C was not removed and allowed to accumulate giving the lake a large 14C reservoir age. A deglacial pulse of meltwater released from the Eurasian Fennoscandian pro-glacial lakes increased ventilation of the water column. This is seen in lighter δ18O and a spike in radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in both deep and shallow parts of the water column. The dynamic ventilation and outflow of water into the Sea of Marmara continued until the onset of the Bolling/Allerod as the radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr was almost completely flushed out in a couple hundred years time. During the Bolling/Allerod and Preboreal warming, δ18O got heavier whereas the 87Sr/86Sr stayed constant and the 14C again accumulated and contributed to an older reservoir age. The Younger Dryas period, sandwiched in between the two warming periods, shows a return to glacial conditions in the δ13C and that the water outflowed to the Sea of Marmara as the δ18O only showed a slight change towards a more heavy value.

  18. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  19. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  20. Bacillus Probiotic Enzymes: External Auxiliary Apparatus to Avoid Digestive Deficiencies, Water Pollution, Diseases, and Economic Problems in Marine Cultivated Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos Soto, Jorge

    Exploitation of marine fishes is the main source of several life-supporting feed compounds such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that maintain the production of most trading marine organisms by aquaculture. However, at this rate the marine inventory will go to the end soon, since fishery resources are finite. In this sense, the availability of the principal ingredients obtained from marine fishes is going to decrease considerably, increasing the diet prices and affecting the economy of this activity. Therefore, aquaculture industry needs to find nonexpensive land unconventional resources of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids and use bacterial probiotics to improve digestion-assimilation of these unfamiliar compounds. Bacillus subtilis is a cosmopolitan probiotic bacterium with a great enzymatic profile that could improve nutrient digestion-assimilation, induce healthy growth, and avoid water pollution, decreasing economic problems and increasing yields in the aquaculture industry. In this chapter, we present how Bacillus enzymes can help marine animals to assimilate nutrients from unconventional and economic plant resources. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of a biogas digester feed in energy by a solar-water heating collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miri, R.; Tou, I.

    2006-01-01

    The socio-economic development which occurred to the XIX E and XX E centuries would have been impossible without energy. Indeed coal, oil, the nature gas and various other sources of energy were the world engine of the economy. Currently, energy is available in great quantity and remains relatively cheap. It makes it possible to many populations to enjoy very high levels of comfort, productivity and mobility. The access to these great quantities of energy and their exploitation is however unequally distributed between the areas and the countries. In Algeria in spite of the high contents in hydrocarbons, the supply fossil fuels (oil, natural gas) remains one of the major problems of the wedged areas and more particularly the mountainous areas and those of the south, which generated a consumption increased out of wood, a thorough degradation of the forests, an erosion of the grounds and a deterioration of the climate and environment. To meet the requirements in energy for our country, in order to ensure its perennity, to appreciably reduce local pollution and the effect of greenhouse, for the safeguarding of the environment, the prospecting and the development of new sources of energy were in particular undertaken the energy of the biomass and more precisely that provided by biogas. This largely available renewable energy, inexpensive and non-polluting in used to supplement non-renewable fossil energy. Energy production starting from the organic matter of various origins: animal manure, under products of the food industry, mud of the stations of purification, household refuse..., by means of processes of anaerobic digestion in suitable digesters (for bio-methane production), will allow a better management of waste. a safeguarding of the environment and a development as well as a diversification of the energy resources (alternative energies). In addition, this organic matter, at the local level, will make it possible to produce energy at lower cost for cooking. the

  2. Sustained exercise-trained juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus at a moderate water velocity exhibit improved aerobic swimming performance and increased postprandial metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine whether sustained exercise training at four water velocities, i.e. nearly still water (control, 1 body length (BL s−1, 2 BL s−1 and 4 BL s−1, has effects on swimming performance and digestive metabolism in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to sustained training at 2 and 4 BL s−1 showed significantly higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit and maximum metabolic rate (MMR over the control group. Fish subjected to sustained training at 1 and 2 BL s−1 showed a significantly (30 and 54% prolonged duration, 14 and 17% higher postprandial ṀO2 increment (i.e. ṀO2peak, and 62 and 92% more energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA, respectively, after consuming a similar meal over fish kept in nearly still water. These results suggest that (1 sustained exercise training at a higher speed (2 or 4 BL s−1 had a positive influence on the aerobic swimming performance of juvenile M. piceus, which may be associated with improved aerobic metabolism; and (2 sustained exercise training at a lower speed (1 or 2 BL s−1 resulted in elevated postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile M. piceus.

  3. Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, Sari; Sanders, Wendy; Kujawa-Roeleveld, Katarzyna; Zeeman, Grietje

    2007-03-01

    The effect of northern European seasonal temperature changes and low temperature on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks treating black water was studied. Three UASB-septic tanks were monitored with different operational parameters and at different temperatures. The results indicated the feasibility of the UASB-septic tank for (pre)treatment of black water at low temperatures with respect to removal of suspended solids and dissolved organic material. Inoculum sludge had little effect on COD(ss) removal, though in the start-up phase some poorly adapted inoculum disintegrated and washed out, thus requiring consideration when designing the process. Removal of COD(dis) was at first negative, but improved as the sludge adapted to low temperature. The UASB-septic tank alone did not comply with Finnish or Dutch treatment requirements and should therefore be considered mainly as a pre-treatment method. However, measuring the requirements as mgCOD l(-1) may not always be the best method, as the volume of the effluent discharged is also an important factor in the final amount of COD entering the receiving water bodies.

  4. Optics of Water Cloud Droplets Mixed with Black-Carbon Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Cairns, Brian; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    We use the recently extended superposition T-matrix method to calculate scattering and absorption properties of micrometer-sized water droplets contaminated by black carbon. Our numerically exact results reveal that, depending on the mode of soot-water mixing, the soot specific absorption can vary by a factor exceeding 6.5. The specific absorption is maximized when the soot material is quasi-uniformly distributed throughout the droplet interior in the form of numerous small monomers. The range of mixing scenarios captured by our computations implies a wide range of remote sensing and radiation budget implications of the presence of black carbon in liquid-water clouds. We show that the popular Maxwell-Garnett effective-medium approximation can be used to calculate the optical cross sections, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter for the quasi-uniform mixing scenario, but is likely to fail in application to other mixing scenarios and in computations of the elements of the scattering matrix.

  5. Determination of particles concentration in Black Sea waters from spectral beam attenuation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchemkina, E. N.; Latushkin, A. A.; Lee, M. E.

    2017-11-01

    The methods of determination of concentration and scattering by suspended particles in seawater are compared. The methods considered include gravimetric measurements of the mass concentration of suspended matter, empirical and analytical calculations based on measurements of the light beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) in 4 spectral bands, calculation of backscattering by particles using satellite measurements in the visible spectral range. The data were obtained in two cruises of the R/V "Professor Vodyanitsky" in the deep-water part of the Black Sea in July and October 2016., Spatial distribution of scattering by marine particles according to satellite data is in good agreement with the contact measurements.

  6. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter of black waters in a highly eutrophic Chinese lake: Freshly produced from algal scums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Niu, Cheng; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang

    2015-12-15

    Field campaigns and an incubation experiment were conducted to evaluate the sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in black water spots in highly polluted regions of the Chinese Lake Taihu. A significant positive correlation (pCDOM absorption coefficient a(350), indicating that algae degradation was likely the primary source of CDOM in black waters. This is supported by our field results that Chl-a, a(350) and the spectral slope ratio (SR) were significantly higher in the black water samples than in the regular samples (pCDOM source where a(350) increased with decreasing Chl-a concentrations. After seven days' incubation, a 72.2% decrease and a 74.9% increase were recorded for Chl-a and a(350), respectively, relative to the initial values. Parallel factor analysis identified five fluorescent components. The maximal fluorescence intensity (Fmax) of tryptophan-like C1 and microbial humic-like C3 of black water samples was significantly higher than in the regular water samples (pCDOM source in black water spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Unema, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year. The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2011 to September 2012. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry. In 2011, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,480 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,390 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 3,090 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2011 were about 39 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a slurry. From 2010 to 2011 total withdrawals increased by 11 percent; industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 19 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 8 percent. From 2011 to 2012, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 8 of 15 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 feet. Water levels declined in 9 of 18 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.0 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2012, the median water-level change for 34 wells in both

  9. Groundwater, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona—2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Truini, Margot

    2016-03-02

    The Navajo (N) aquifer is an extensive aquifer and the primary source of groundwater in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use by a growing population and because of low precipitation in the arid climate of the Black Mesa area. Precipitation in the area typically is between 6 and 14 inches per year.The U.S. Geological Survey water-monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and provides information about the long-term effects of groundwater withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected as part of the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2012 to September 2013. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) groundwater withdrawals, (2) groundwater levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) groundwater chemistry.In calendar year 2012, total groundwater withdrawals were 4,010 acre-ft, industrial withdrawals were 1,370 acre-ft, and municipal withdrawals were 2,640 acre-ft. Total withdrawals during 2012 were about 45 percent less than total withdrawals in 2005 because of Peabody Western Coal Company’s discontinued use of water to transport coal in a coal slurry pipeline. From 2011 to 2012 total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent; industrial withdrawals decreased by approximately 1 percent, and total municipal withdrawals decreased by 15 percent.From 2012 to 2013, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 6 of 16 wells that were available for comparison in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was 0.8 feet. Water levels declined in 5 of 16 wells measured in the confined area of the aquifer. The median change for the confined area of the aquifer was 0.3 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2013, the median water

  10. Relationships between water and gas chemistry in mature coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, Jack C.; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella R.; Mann, Steven D.; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Water and gas chemistry in coalbed methane reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin reflects a complex interplay among burial processes, basin hydrodynamics, thermogenesis, and late-stage microbial methanogenesis. These factors are all important considerations for developing production and water management strategies. Produced water ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride brine. The hydrodynamic framework of the basin is dominated by structurally controlled fresh-water plumes that formed by meteoric recharge along the southeastern margin of the basin. The produced water contains significant quantities of hydrocarbons and nitrogen compounds, and the produced gas appears to be of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin.Late-stage microbial methanogenesis began following unroofing of the basin, and stable isotopes in the produced gas and in mineral cements indicate that late-stage methanogenesis occurred along a CO2-reduction metabolic pathway. Hydrocarbons, as well as small amounts of nitrate in the formation water, probably helped nourish the microbial consortia, which were apparently active in fresh to hypersaline water. The produced water contains NH4+ and NH3, which correlate strongly with brine concentration and are interpreted to be derived from silicate minerals. Denitrification reactions may have generated some N2, which is the only major impurity in the coalbed gas. Carbon dioxide is a minor component of the produced gas, but significant quantities are dissolved in the formation water. Degradation of organic compounds, augmented by deionization of NH4+, may have been the principal sources of hydrogen facilitating late-stage CO2 reduction.

  11. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana N Docile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the Onchocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 % in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 % in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 % in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII differed in rela&tion to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatumand S. pertinaxwere significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted

  12. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  13. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  14. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, Jack [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); McIntyre-Redden, Marcella [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mann, Steven [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Merkel, David [Geological Survey Of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production

  15. Evaluation of treated black liquor used as dispersant of concentrated coal-water slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingsong Zhou; Qian Kong; Bing Pan; Xueqing Qiu; Dongjie Yang; Hongming Lou [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering

    2010-03-15

    The paper making waste liquor is a great water pollution source and much work has been done over the years to overcome this challenge. We present here a solution of black liquor used as dispersant of coal-water slurry (abbreviated as CWS) following chemical treatment. The treated black liquor (abbreviated as TBL) is used to prepare CWS for three bituminous coals, and the factors influencing its dispersing ability and the properties of CWS are investigated. The results show that the increasing sulfonating agent and formaldehyde dosage increase the sulfonic group content while reducing the molecular weight of TBL. The comparison with a naphthalene dispersant shows that TBL has a similar or better dispersing ability, and the large quantity of sulfonic groups engrafted in lignin molecules and the markedly increase of molecular weight are considered the key reason for the excellent performance of TBL. Moreover, the change of the molecular configuration from globular to flocculent in solution observed by TEM is also considered as an important reason for the excellent dispersing effect of TBL for CWS. 25 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. RATIONALE OF KUYALNIK ESTUARY FILLING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY BY THE BLACK SEA WATERS. CHEMICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Antonovich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It was found that currently sulphate and calcium ions content in Kuyalnik brine close to the solubility product of CaSO4. If brine will not by dilute precipitation of gypsum may be expect in prospectstive. It is shown that the dilution of the Kuyalnik brine by seawater willreduces the concentration of calcium and sulfate ions reducing their solubility product and making it impossible the formation of calcium sulfate and precipitation of gypsum. On the basis of established the contents of some heavy metals, polyarenes, chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls which were in water and sediments of the Gulf of Odessa , brine and peloids Kuyalnik estuary pronounced more pollution by priority toxicants of estuary compared with seawater. Concluded tht environmental safety of Kuyalnik estuary filling by the Black Sea waters.

  17. Water dynamics in the digestive tract of the freshwater rainbow trout during the processing of a single meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2006-05-01

    The temporal effects of feeding and digestion on chyme composition, specifically water and solid content, and net fluxes across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as plasma parameters, were examined in freshwater rainbow trout. A single meal of commercial dry pellets, incorporating ballotini beads as inert reference markers, was employed. Plasma Na+ levels increased by 15-20% at 2 h post-feeding, where Cl- levels did not change. Plasma osmolality was well regulated despite an initial chyme osmolality (775 mOsm) 2.8-fold higher than that in the blood plasma. Chyme osmolality throughout the gastrointestinal tract remained significantly higher than plasma osmolality for the duration of the 72 h period. Solid material was absorbed along the entire intestinal tract, although not in the stomach, necessitating the incorporation of an inert marker. A similar temporal pattern of transit between the ballotini beads (solid phase marker) and 3[H]-PEG 4000 (fluid phase marker), provided support for the use of ballotini beads. Large additions of water to the chyme were seen in the stomach, the largest occurring within 2 h following feeding (7.1+/-1.4 ml kg(-1)), and amounted to approximately 16 ml kg(-1) over the first 12 h. As the chyme entered the anterior intestine, a further large water secretion (3.5+/-0.5 ml kg(-1)) was seen. Thereafter the water fluxes into the chyme of the anterior intestine decreased steadily over time, but remained positive, whereas the mid-intestine exhibited net absorption of water at all time points, and the posterior intestine demonstrated little water handling at any time. The endogenous water that was secreted into the anterior intestine was absorbed along the tract, which showed a net water flux close to zero. However, assuming that the water secreted into the stomach was endogenous in nature, the processing of a single meal resulted in net loss of endogenous water (0.24 ml kg(-1) h(-1)) to the environment, a beneficial consequence of the

  18. Radiological indices of drinking waters on the north part of the bulgarian black sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, P.T.; Rusev, R.; Chuturkova, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bulgaria is a country which is located in the Eastern Europe. A drinking water sources on the North part of Bulgarian Black Sea coast have different radiological indices. The sources of drinking water can be lakes, rivers, wells, dam lakes and so on. Property estimation of the contents of Uranium (Ur), Radium (Ra 226), and total Beta activity, shows that concentrations of investigated parameters vary around TDI (tolerable daily intake). To Uranium for example the TDI yields a guideline value are 2 μg/litre if a 60 kg adult consuming 2 litres of drinking water per day and the provisional guideline value of Uranium which shows the health significance in drinking waters is 0.002 mg/1. The situation with the full Beta activity and Radium concentrations is the same. All these qualitative and quantitative indices are close to the provisional guideline values, but in some cases it is higher than the limit concentrations. The full Beta activity is measured in Becquerel per litre and values are around 0.193+7-20% Bq/1. The Radium concentration takes the dimensions of Bq/1 and it is about 0.009 Bq/l. No matter of the source of drinking water, contents of radiological indices is a very important element of the health care control

  19. Chemical Control of Black Flies in Large Rivers as an Impact in Agrochemical Residue-Biota Interactions in Water Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haufe, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    Livestock losses have been an obstacle to economic development of the farming and livestock industry in more northerly areas of Canada until two species of black fly, Simulium arcticum and S. luggeri, outbreaks are controlled effectively. The problem is complicated by its association with an abundance of large rivers and streams. Since effective control of black flies is presently limited to reduction of their breeding sources in flowing water, the managers of Canadian inland waters have been concerned about any major practice of using pesticides as black fly larvicides. Consequently, Canadian inland waters have been subject to continuous monitoring of major drainage systems with special attention to the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The latest status of residues was published from a Canadian Survey of 333 sampling locations between 1972 and 1975

  20. Lab-scale co-digestion of kitchen waste and brown water for a preliminary performance evaluation of a decentralized waste and wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Girotto, Francesca; Hirata, Osamu; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-08-01

    An overall interaction is manifested between wastewater and solid waste management schemes. At the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering (LISA) of the University of Padova, Italy, the scientific and technical implications of putting into practice a decentralized waste and wastewater treatment based on the separation of grey water, brown water (BW - faecal matter) and yellow water (YW - urine) are currently undergoing investigation in the Aquanova Project. An additional aim of this concept is the source segregation of kitchen waste (KW) for subsequent anaerobic co-digestion with BW. To determine an optimal mixing ratio and temperature for use in the treatment of KW, BW, and eventually YW, by means of anaerobic digestion, a series of lab-scale batch tests were performed. Organic mixtures of KW and BW performed much better (max. 520mlCH 4 /gVS) in terms of methane yields than the individual substrates alone (max. 220mlCH 4 /gVS). A small concentration of urine proved to have a positive effect on anaerobic digestion performance, possibly due to the presence of micronutrients in YW. When considering high YW concentrations in the anaerobically digested mixtures, no ammonia inhibition was observed until a 30% and 10% YW content was added under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid-Based Formulations Can Enable the Model Poorly Water-Soluble Weakly Basic Drug Cinnarizine to Precipitate in an Amorphous-Salt Form during in Vitro Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben J

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for poorly water-soluble weakly basic drugs to precipitate in a noncrystalline form during the in vitro digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) was linked to an ionic interaction between drug and fatty acid molecules produced upon lipid digestion. Cinnarizine was chosen as a model...... from the starting free base crystalline material to the hydrochloride salt, thus supporting the case that ionic interactions between weak bases and fatty acid molecules during digestion are responsible for producing amorphous-salts upon precipitation. The conclusion has wide implications...... weakly basic drug and was dissolved in a medium-chain (MC) LBF, which was subject to in vitro lipolysis experiments at various pH levels above and below the reported pKa value of cinnarizine (7.47). The solid-state form of the precipitated drug was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier...

  2. Potential for chlorate interference in ion chromatographic determination of total nitrogen in natural waters following alkaline persulfate digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, J A; Edwards, J; Soracco, R J; Armstrong, R W

    1999-10-01

    Determination of total nitrogen in aqueous samples after thermal potassium peroxydisulfate (persulfate) digestion is a commonly used alternative to the tedious Kjeldahl procedure. When ion chromatography is used to quantify the nitrate formed during digestion, there is a potential for interference from a chlorate peak if the digested sample initially contained chloride in concentrations close to or greater than the concentration of nitrogen. It was determined that this interference can be avoided either by using chromatographic conditions which cleanly resolve the nitrate and chlorate peaks (e.g., the Dionex AG9-HG column) or by using digestion reagent concentrations chosen to maintain a high pH throughout the digestion. The second alternative is not a viable option for investigators using a single digestion for both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) analysis.

  3. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  4. IR-BASED SATELLITE PRODUCTS FOR THE MONITORING OF ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR OVER THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELEA LILIANA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of precipitable water (TPW in the atmospheric column is one of the important information used weather forecasting. Some of the studies involving the use of TPW relate to issues like lightning warning system in airports, tornadic events, data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models for short-range forecast, TPW associated with intense rain episodes. Most of the available studies on TPW focus on properties and products at global scale, with the drawback that regional characteristics – due to local processes acting as modulating factors - may be lost. For the Black Sea area, studies on the climatological features of atmospheric moisture are available from sparse or not readily available observational databases or from global reanalysis. These studies show that, although a basin of relatively small dimensions, the Black Sea presents features that may significantly impact on the atmospheric circulation and its general characteristics. Satellite observations provide new opportunities for extending the knowledge on this area and for monitoring atmospheric properties at various scales. In particular, observations in infrared (IR spectrum are suitable for studies on small-scale basins, due to the finer spatial sampling and reliable information in the coastal areas. As a first step toward the characterization of atmospheric moisture over the Black Sea from satellite-based information, we investigate three datasets of IR-based products which contain information on the total amount of moisture and on its vertical distribution, available in the area of interest. The aim is to provide a comparison of these data with regard to main climatological features of moisture in this area and to highlight particular strengths and limits of each of them, which may be helpful in the choice of the most suitable dataset for a certain application.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS tests together with an acoustic emission (AE system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qiao; Ranjith, Pathegama Gamage; Long, Xinping; Ji, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation. PMID:28773784

  7. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO₂-Water-Rock Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Qiao; Ranjith, Pathegama Gamage; Long, Xinping; Ji, Bin

    2016-08-06

    The effects of CO₂-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO₂ in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young's modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young's modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young's modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO₂, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂). SC-CO₂ causes a greater reduction of shale's mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO₂. The EDS results show that CO₂-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  8. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in protein structure makeup and conformation between the two lines. In terms of energy values, there were significant differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN; 149 vs 133 g/kg DM), metabolizable energy (ME; 58 vs 52 MJ/kg DM), and net energy for lactation (NEL; 42 vs 37 MJ/kg DM) between CS-Y and CS-B lines. For in situ rumen degradation kinetics, the two lines differed in soluble fraction (S; 284 vs 341 g/kg CP), potential degradation fraction (D; 672 vs 590 g/kg CP), and effective degraded

  9. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  10. Anaerobic digestion potential for ecological and decentralised sanitation in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Feng, Yucheng; Behrendt, Joachim; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The potential of anaerobic digestion in ecological and decentralised sanitation has been investigated in this research. Different anaerobic digestion systems were proposed for the treatment of sewage, grey water, black water and faeces. Moreover, mathematical models based on anaerobic digestion model no.1 (ADM1) were developed for determination of a suitable design for each system. For stable performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating sewage, the model results indicated that optimisation of wastewater conversion to biogas (not COD removal) should be selected for determination of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the reactor. For the treatment of sewage or black water in a UASB septic-tank, the model results showed that the sludge removal period was the main parameter for determination of the HRT. At such HRT, both COD removal and wastewater conversion are also optimised. The model results demonstrated that for treatment of faeces in an accumulation (AC) system at temperature > or = 25 degrees C, the filling period of the system should be higher than 60 days. For maximisation of the net biogas production (i.e. reduction of biogas losses as dissolved in the effluent), the separation between grey water, urine and faeces and reduction of water consumption for faeces flushing are required. Furthermore, the faeces and kitchen organic wastes and grey water are digested in, respectively, an AC system and UASB reactor, while the urine is stored.

  11. Antibiotic and fermentative activity of bacteria found in water and digestive tract of fish from Lake Drukshiai at Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubianskiene, V.; Jastiuginiene, R.

    1996-01-01

    The composition and antagonistic activity of microflora found in water and digestive tract of roaches - fish, which prevail in Lake Drukshiai, were investigated. The investigations revealed that unfavourable environmental conditions first of all gave rise to the changes in bacteria composition. It has been found that the bacteria of g. Vibrio, prevailed, their virulentic properties became more intense, antibiotical properties weakened, the prevailing microflora lost its ability to fight with pathogenic microorganisms. An increased lysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria in the intestinal tract of fishes shows their resistance to phagocytosis and ability to stay for a long time in the digestive tract. The high antilysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria in fishes digestive tract shows their ability to inactivate the lysozyme secreted by cells of organism reaction to pathogenic microflora. Antilysozymic and lysozymic activity of g. Vibrio bacteria is supposed to be one of the causes predetermining the predominance of this genus in biocenosis. The predominance of g. Vibrio bacteria in biocenosis of water and fish digestive tract bacteria, the strengthening of their virulentic properties speak for poor microecological conditions in the lake and lower immunological state of fish. 15 refs., 7 figs

  12. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Hu, Chuanmin; Lapointe, Brian; Melo, Nelson; Johns, Elizabeth; Smith, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms...

  13. Using residual tritiated water from Cernavoda NPP to study Danube - Black Sea Canal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Lazar, R.; Varlam, M.; Patrascu, V.; Bucur, C.; Bobric, E.

    2003-01-01

    By benefiting of Cernavoda NPP's location in the neighbourhood of Danube - Black Sea Canal one suggests extending the area of interest along this canal particularly to use the residual tritiated water from this CANDU type reactor as tracing means in the study of canal's hydrodynamics. This canal appears to be ideal for such a study because releases in normal operation of NPP are occasional. The tritiated water can be used for simulating the transport and dispersion of soluble pollutants because it has the same physical characteristics as the usual water. By measuring response curves produced at injecting a known amount of tracer one can developed an efficient method for estimating: the soluble pollutant velocity along the canal; attenuation rate of concentration peak as a function of time as well as the time required by the propagation front of the soluble pollutant to reach a given point along the canal. In this work the calculation of the mixture length as a function of the particular characteristics of the canal is presented as well as different experimental formulas. Also the reference level of tritium concentration in the investigated area is established for future experiments

  14. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  15. Water Level Controls on Sap Flux of Canopy Species in Black Ash Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Shannon; Matthew Van Grinsven; Joshua Davis; Nicholas Bolton; Nam Noh; Thomas Pypker; Randall Kolka

    2018-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) exhibits canopy dominance in regularly inundated wetlands, suggesting advantageous adaptation. Black ash mortality due to emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) will alter canopy composition and site hydrology. Retention of these forested wetlands requires understanding black ash...

  16. Water table response to harvesting and simulated emerald ash borer mortality in black ash wetlands in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Christian F. Lenhart; Kenneth N. Brooks; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Black ash wetlands are seriously threatened because of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB). Wetland hydrology is likely to be modified following ash mortality, but the magnitude of hydrological impact following loss via EAB and alternative mitigation harvests is not clear. Our objective was to assess the water table response to simulated EAB and harvesting to...

  17. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  18. Water use by black wattle (Acacia mearnsii): implications for the link between removal of invading trees and catchment streamflow response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available vegetation covers. Author’s review shows that very high rates of total evaporation are possible from dense infestations of black waffle occurring in riparian zones, where there are no soil water deficits through the year. Annual total evaporation from...

  19. Proteínas do feijão preto sem casca: digestibilidade em animais convencionais e isentos de germes (germ-free Proteins of dehulled black beans: digestibility in conventional and germ-free animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Angelina dos Santos PEREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. é uma leguminosa de grande importância para a dieta da população brasileira. No entanto, um de seus maiores problemas é representado pelo baixo valor nutricional de suas proteínas, decorrente, por um lado, da sua baixa digestibilidade e, de outro, do teor e biodisponibilidade reduzidos de aminoácidos sulfurados. Com o objetivo de avaliar a digestibilidade das proteínas albumina e globulina do feijão preto sem casca, foram realizados ensaios biológicos com camundongos isentos de germes e convencionais e com ratos (Wistar, recém-desmamados, com idade de 21 a 25 dias. Avaliou-se ainda o Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína. A digestibilidade verdadeira no experimento com camundongos isentos de germes foi de 90,21 e 90,00%, no teste com camundongos convencionais foi de 85,53 e 86,73%, e no experimento com ratos foi de 82,62 e 68,53%, para albumina e globulina, respectivamente. O Escore Químico Corrigido pela Digestibilidade da Proteína foi de 61,00% para a albumina e 51,00% para a globulina. A digestibilidade determinada em animais isentos de germes foi superior aos valores encontrados em animais convencionais, sugerindo que a flora intestinal esteja contribuindo para elevar o teor de nitrogênio nas fezes dos animais convencionais, e, portanto, esteja sendo subestimada a digestibilidade verdadeira do feijão.The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. is a legume of great importance in the Brazilian typical diet. Nevertheless, it presents a low protein quality due to its poor digestibility and low levels and bioavailability of its sulfur aminoacids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the digestibility of albumin and globulin protein fractions of dehulled black beans in conventional and germ-free mice and also in weaning rats (Wistar of 21 to 25 days of age. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score was also determined. True digestibility values in germ-free mice were 90.21 and 90

  20. Electron beam irradiation enhances the digestibility and fermentation yield of water-soaked lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Seop Bak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the limitation of commercial electron beam irradiation (EBI, lignocellulosic rice straw (RS was pretreated using water soaking-based electron beam irradiation (WEBI. This environment-friendly pretreatment, without the formation (or release of inhibitory compounds (especially hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural, significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields of RS. Specifically, when water-soaked RS (solid:liquid ratio of 100% was treated with WEBI doses of 1 MeV at 80 kGy, 0.12 mA, the glucose yield after 120 h of hydrolysis was 70.4% of the theoretical maximum. This value was predominantly higher than the 29.5% and 52.1% measured from untreated and EBI-treated RS, respectively. Furthermore, after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 48 h, the ethanol concentration, production yield, and productivity were 9.3 g/L, 57.0% of the theoretical maximum, and 0.19 g/L h, respectively. Finally, scanning electron microscopy images revealed that WEBI induced significant ultrastructural changes to the surface of lignocellulosic fibers.

  1. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H 2 ) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H 2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  2. Surface-water hydrology of the Little Black River basin, Missouri and Arkansas, before water-land improvement practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkas, W.R.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Mesko, T.O.; Thompson, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in accordance with Public Law 566, is implementing various types of water-land improvement practices in the Little Black River basin in southeastern Missouri. These practices are designed, in part, to decrease the suspended sediment (SS) transport in the basin, decrease flood damage in the basin, and improve drainage in the agricultural area. The general features of the basin, such as geology, groundwater hydrology, soils, land use, water use, and precipitation are described; surface water quantity, quality, and suspended sediment discharge are also described. The aquifers are the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer, which can yield about 3,500 gal/min to properly constructed wells, and the Ozark and St. Francois aquifers, which can yield from about 30 to 500 gal/min to properly constructed wells. Soils in the area have formed in loess and cherty residuum in the uplands or have formed in alluvial sediment in the lowlands. About 93% of the estimated 3 billion gal/year of water used in the basin is for crop irrigation. The average monthly precipitation varies slightly throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of about 47 inches. Water quality data were collected at seven stations. Specific conductance values ranged from 50 to 400 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Water temperatures ranged from 0.0 C in the winter to 33.5 C in summer. pH values ranged from 6.4 to 8.5 units. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 12.8 ml/l. Total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 2.20 ml/l as nitrogen, with organic nitrogen as the most abundant form. Phosphorus concentrations ranged from zero to 0.29 ml/l as phosphorus. Bacterial counts were largest during storm runoff in the basin with livestock waste as the significant contributor. For the period from October 1, 1980, to September 30, 1984, the average annual SS discharge ranged from 2,230 tons/yr in the headwater areas to 27,800 tons

  3. Status of the membrane procedure - Possible applications to waste water digestion; Stand der Technik von Membranverfahren. Einsatzmoeglichkeiten bei der Vergaerung von Abwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.; Edelmann, W.

    2001-07-01

    In waste water with low organic loadings anaerobic microorganisms are working at a low efficiency. The plant's energy balance becomes negative because a big need of process energy to warm up the 'unproductive' water is created. This can be dealt with by concentrating the waste waters my means of membrane systems. Separation of slightly loaded flows into purified permeate and digestible concentrate may therefore increase the potential of digestion in industrial waste water significantly. As a basis for this report the following connections were used: congresses and exhibitions, personal contacts with people and companies who work and have published in this field as well as data base research. According to the technical standard the different processes of nano filtration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis are used to purify industrial or domestic waste water. Therefore, the majority of classic suppliers of waste water technology offer membrane systems. The membrane bio-reactors belong to the typical systems used. In this system the biomass is separated and retained by a membrane. Due to this combination the volume of the reactor can be reduced and the grade of degradation increased. Simultaneously a permeate is produced which can reach the quality of the desired effluent and which can be re-used manifold. Additional concentration of weakly loaded waste water to be used in a subsequent digestion can reduce energy consumption. Due to the fact that mainly the technical feasibility of the membrane technology was emphasised, some further evaluation in regard of energy consumption and cost has to be made. (author)

  4. Topographically Driven Lateral Water Fluxes and Their Influence on Carbon Assimilation of a Black Spruce Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, A.; Chen, J. M.; Margolis, H.; Bernier, P. Y.

    2006-12-01

    Current estimates of ecophysiological indicators overlook the effects of topographically-driven lateral flow of soil water. We hypothesize that topographically driven lateral water flows over the landscape have significant influence on the terrestrial carbon cycle. To this end, we simulated the hydrological controls on carbon cycle processes in a black spruce forest in central Quebec, Canada, using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at a daily time step. We accounted for lateral surface and subsurface flows in BEPS by incorporating a distributed, process-oriented hydrological procedure. The results show that modeled dynamics of ecophysiological processes such as evapotranspiration (ET) and photosynthesis (GPP) are consistent with the spatial variation of land cover, topography, soil texture, and leaf area index. Simulated ET and GPP averaged within the footprint of an eddy covariance tower in the watershed agree well with flux measurements with R2=0.77 and 0.83 for ET and GPP, respectively. For ET simulation, much of the remaining discrepancies are found in the winter when the model underestimates snow sublimation. For GPP, there is an underestimation in the fall coinciding with a mid growing season drought, showing the high sensitivity of the model to the soil water status. The key processes controlling primary production were hydraulic limitations for water transfer from soil, roots, stems and leaves through stomatal conductance. Therefore, a further understanding of soil water dynamics is warranted. Comparison with the soil water content of the footprint- averaged unsaturated zone showed that the model captured the annual trend. We also simulated the variations in the water table as well as the mid growing season drought, with a reasonable accuracy(R2=0.68). The foot print average water budget reveals that the annual precipitation of 835mm is partitioned into 282mm of ET, 541 mm of subsurface runoff, and 6 mm of storage change. To test the

  5. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source as sub-plot. Statistical analysis of the results showed that water stress has significant effect on grain yield and essential oil of black cumin. At the level of 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan, the grain yield decreased by 22.8% and essential oil by 27.6%. Application of 225 kg/ha sulfur fertilizer increased grain yield up to 7.2%. Water stress and sulfur fertilizer treatments had only significant effect on chlorophyll a content. However, water stress decreased chlorophyll a content, but sulfur fertilizer application up to 225 kg/ha increased the content of chlorophyll a. In this study, water stress decreased potassium content in black cumin leaves, but increased the sodium and calcium accumulation. Although application of sulfur fertilizer affected significantly the potassium and magnesium contents in shoots, but did not have significant effect on sodium and calcium contents.

  6. Study On The Uranium Adsorption Capability Of Bone Black In Radioactive Waste Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Dinh Tuan

    2008-01-01

    It has been found that bone black can adsorb uranium and radium from radioactive wastewater. Nevertheless, bone black is not so competitive for the low adsorption capability and the slow adsorption rate. The article describes the research results in increasing the uranium adsorption capability of bone black by treating it with hydrochloric acid. The influences of pH on adsorption capability and the results of batch- and column tests have been investigated. Column tests for elution process have pointed out that HCl is quite good eluent for uranium. It is recommended to apply the treated bone black for radioactive wastewater treatment and uranium recovery. (author)

  7. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lapointe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms of spatial and temporal coverage. An in situ survey indicated that the 2012 black water patch contained toxic K. brevis and had relatively low CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter and turbidity but high chlorophyll-a concentrations, while salinity was somewhat high compared with historical values. Further analysis revealed that the 2012 black water was formed by the K. brevis bloom initiated off central west Florida in late September 2011, while river runoff, Trichodesmium and possibly submarine groundwater discharge also played important roles in its formation. Black water patches can affect benthic coral reef communities by decreasing light availability at the bottom, and enhanced nutrient concentrations from black water patches support massive macroalgae growth that can overgrow coral reefs. It is thus important to continue the integrated observations where satellites provide synoptic and repeated observations of such adverse water quality events.

  8. Study of microbial community and biodegradation efficiency for single- and two-phase anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J W; Chen, C-L; Ho, I J R; Wang, J-Y

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the microbial community and reactor performance for the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste in single- and two-phase continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). Bacterial and archaeal communities were analyzed after 150 days of reactor operation. As compared to single-phase CSTR, methane production in two-phase CSTR was found to be 23% higher. This was likely due to greater extent of solubilization and acidification observed in the latter. These findings could be attributed to the predominance of Firmicutes and greater bacterial diversity in two-phase CSTR, and the lack of Firmicutes in single-phase CSTR. Methanosaeta was predominant in both CSTRs and this correlated to low levels of acetate in their effluent. Insights gained from this study would enhance the understanding of microorganisms involved in co-digestion of brown water and food waste as well as the complex biochemical interactions promoting digester stability and performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  10. Long-term post-Chernobyl 90Sr and 137Cs profiles as the indicators of the large scale vertical water mixing in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.; Stokozov, N.A.; Mirzoyeva, N.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive and chemical pollutions, eutrophic elements come to the surface water layer of the Black Sea from the territory of 22 countries. The self-purification of the surface water layer essentially depends from the vertical water mixing. The atmospheric fallout in the May 1986 after Chernobyl NPP accident were main source of the 137 Cs input in the Black Sea. The 90 Sr input to the Black Sea was caused by atmospheric fallout as well as the Dnieper River and Danube River runoff during of consequent years. 90 Sr and 137 Cs are conservative elements in a marine environment and could be used as tracers of the hydrological processes, including vertical water mixing. The aim of our investigations was an assessment of the large-scale vertical water exchange in the Black Sea on base of analysis time-series 90 Sr and 137 Cs vertical profiles

  11. The Precipitation Behavior of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs with an Emphasis on the Digestion of Lipid Based Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Rades, Thomas; Boyd, Ben

    2016-01-01

    digestion and drug solubilisation during gastrointestinal transit have been explored in detail, but the implications of drug precipitation beyond the potential adverse effect on bioavailability have received attention only in recent years. Specifically, these implications are that different solid forms...... the events that lead to drug precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid based formulations, common methods used to inhibit precipitation, as well as conventional and newly emerging characterization techniques for studying the solid state form of the precipitated drug. Moreover, selected case...... studies are discussed where drug precipitation has ensued from the digestion of lipid based formulations, as well as the apparent link between drug ionisability and altered solid forms on precipitation, culminating in a discussion about the importance of the solid form on precipitation with relevance...

  12. Digestive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prolapse Esophagus problems, such as stricture (narrowing) and achalasia Liver problems, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis ... has received extra training in the diagnosis and treatment of the digestive disorders. Other health care providers ...

  13. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  14. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  15. Effects of γ-radiation on microbial load and antioxidant proprieties in black tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Hassimotto, N.M.A.; Bastos, D.H.M.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of gamma radiation on black tea irradiated with different water activities. The black tea samples had their Aw adjusted to three values (0.92, 0.65, and 0.18) and were irradiated in 60 Co source at doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The methods used were: microbiology, total phenolic compounds quantification, antioxidant activity by ORAC, and quantification of the main antioxidants. It was observed that the greater the amount of free water present in the samples, lower was the dose to achieve microbiological control. Regardless the water activity used, there was no difference in content of the phenolic compounds and at the mainly theaflavins, as well in the antioxidant activity at doses up to 5.0 kGy. - Highlights: • Higher the Aw, lower is the radiation dose to archive microbiology safety. • The doses up to 10.0 kGy had no effect on antioxidant capacity in all Aw used. • The recommended dose to irradiated black tea is 5.0 kGy

  16. Molecular taxonomy study of representatives of the genus Gobius inhabiting coastal waters of Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha Tserkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin the Black Sea gobies can be divided to Ponto-Caspian relicts and Mediterranean immigrants. The increase of species diversity in the Black Sea is a consequence of Mediterranean immigrants. The present study investigated the variability in Cytochrome b sequences isolated from two former Mediterranean immigrant species: Gobius niger and Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. The annotated at NCBI Cyt b sequences of the species were also used to extend the reach of the study. The analyses demonstrated that Black Sea inhabited by four haplotypes of G. niger. Four other haplotypes were found in sequences of Mediterranean black gobies. In the Black Sea haplotype, 6 is predominant and 83.5% of all G. niger representatives belong to it. Three other haplotypes (H_1; H_7 and H_8 were found to form isolated populations. The Tajima D-test indicated that in the Black Sea G. niger in a stage of expansion and significant evolutionary pressure according to data from Maximum Composite Likelihood model of Tamura-Nei, which can explain the accumulation of mutation and appearance of new haplotypes. Unlike G. niger, Z. ophiocephalus populations are shrinking according to Tajima D-test and only one haplotype is still surviving in isolated locations in the Black Sea. These data are in agreement with previous reports of other authors which alarmed that the grass goby is a critically endangered species close to extinction.

  17. Station black out concurrent with PORV failure using a Generic Pressurized Water Reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ababneh, Ahmad; Ishag, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •SBO accident simulation by using a GPWR simulator. •Normal SBO, and SBO with additional failure of Pilot Operated Relief Valve. •The research results will provide help in future for better understanding of accidents in APR 1400 reactors. -- Abstract: Station Black Out (SBO) is an accident situation that refers to the total loss of offsite power, along with the unavailability of onsite power, which results from the failure of all Diesel Generators (DG). Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) spans a number of methods that include modeling of event-trees and simulation of accidents scenarios, aimed to quantify risk and ensure safety in nuclear power plants. PSA also deals with prediction of future accidents and calculation of failure probabilities that has been done in this study. A SBO accident was simulated using a Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator from KEYMASTER™. The accident scenario consists of two stages; the first stage belongs to normal SBO, in second stage SBO accident with additional failure of Pilot Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opens and it stuck open has been considered for the pressurizer. A comparison of the two stages was made by plotting variables on the same graph. The research has been carried out to analyze the hot and cold leg temperatures, Steam Generator (SG) pressure, SG Narrow Range (NR) level, SG water-level-percentage (PCT), Pressurizer pressure, Fuel Temperature, and containment pressure. Simulation results suggest that failure in closing PORV has negligible impact on hot and cold leg temperatures, results in an overall less pressure in SGs, but higher pressure in the pressurizer. Additionally, containment pressure did not exceed the maximum approved pressure of 8.7 kg/cm 2 , but was approaching the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor’s (APR-1400) design pressure of 4.218 kg/cm 2 . Finally, nuclear fuel temperature exceeded Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) limit of 726.7 °C for both scenarios. The

  18. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  19. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  20. Biochemical response of hybrid black poplar tissue culture (Populus × canadensis) on water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, B M; Štajner, D; Ždero-Pavlović, R; Tari, I; Csiszár, J; Gallé, Á; Poór, P; Galović, V; Trudić, B; Orlović, S

    2017-05-01

    In this study, poplar tissue culture (hybrid black poplar, M1 genotype) was subjected to water stress influenced by polyethyleneglycol 6000 (100 and 200 mOsm PEG 6000). The aim of the research was to investigate the biochemical response of poplar tissue culture on water deficit regime. Antioxidant status was analyzed including antioxidant enzymes, superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), guiacol-peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-reductase, reduced glutathione, total phenol content, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH radical antioxidant power. Polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine-ammonium-lyase were determined as enzymatic markers of polyphenol metabolism. Among oxidative stress parameters lipid peroxidation, carbonyl-proteins, hydrogen-peroxide, reactive oxygen species, nitric-oxide and peroxynitrite were determined. Proline, proline-dehydrogenase and glycinebetaine were measured also as parameters of water stress. Cell viability is finally determined as a biological indicator of osmotic stress. It was found that water stress induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and lipid peroxidation in leaves of hybrid black poplar and reduced cell viability. Antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx, CAT and GSH-Px were induced but total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were reduced by PEG 6000 mediated osmotic stress. The highest biochemical response and adaptive reaction was the increase of proline and GB especially by 200 mOsm PEG. While long term molecular analysis will be necessary to fully address the poplar potentials for water stress adaptation, our results on hybrid black poplar suggest that glycine-betaine, proline and PDH enzyme might be the most important markers of poplar on water stress and that future efforts should be focused on these markers and strategies to enhance their concentration in poplar.

  1. Microbial ecology of the stratified water column of the Black Sea as revealed by a comprehensive biomarker study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.; Amann, Rudi; Freemann, Katherine H.

    2007-01-01

    The stratified water column of the Black Sea is partitioned into oxic, suboxic, and euxinic zones, each characterized by different biogeochemical processes and by distinct microbial communities. In 2003, we collected particulate matter by large volume in situ filtration at the highest resolution...... reduction, and sulfide oxidation at the chemocline, and bacterial sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane by archaea in the anoxic zone. Cell densities for archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria are estimated based on water column biomarker concentrations and compared with CARD-FISH results....

  2. Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihom A.P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study Dark-Black Stains on Rooftops: Implications on the Quality of Water Harvested from Rooftops in Uyo Metropolis-Nigeria has been undertaken. The study took samples of harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in four different locations in Uyo Metropolis. The samples were taken for analysis at the Ministry of Science and Technology Laboratory-Uyo. The parameters of the harvested rainwater investigated covered physical and chemical properties, heavy metals, total organic carbon (TOC and total coliform count (TCC. Gravimetric, titrimetric and instrumental methods of analysis were used in determining the various parameters investigated. The result was analysed by comparing it with WHO and Ministry of Environment standard specifications for drinking water. The result was equally compared with the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops to establish whether the stains on the rooftops were from the rainwater. Findings were astounding; the rainwater was acidic in all the four stations and could not meet up with WHO standard for drinking water. Lead values of 0.75 mg/l and 0.22 mg/l in stations 2 and 3 respectively exceeded WHO standard specification of 0.01mg/l for drinking water. The iron content in the water from stations 2, 3, and 4 all exceeded WHO standard specification for drinking water of 0.30mg/l. All the four stations had cadmium content in the rainwater, which was more than WHO specification for drinking water of 0.003mg/l. The water showed bacteria contamination with total coliform count of 118MPN/100ml in station 4. Some of the parameters in the rainwater also reported in the composition of the dark-black stains on the rooftops an indication that the rain contributed to the dark-black stains on the rooftops in Uyo metropolis. The study concluded that harvested rainwater from the rooftops of buildings in Uyo metropolis is polluted and is not suitable for drinking, bathing and even for use in fish farming. The

  3. Black water fever associated with acute renal failure among Congolese children in Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Bodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is reported in some severe forms of malaria such as black water fever (BWF. It is associated with a high mortality rate and can be managed effectively with adequate renal replacement. A prospective survey of children with dark urine after a malarial infection with Plasmodium falciparum was coupled with a chart review study of patients managed in the past 11 years in the Pediatrics′ Kinshasa University Hospital. Eighty-nine cases of ARF were identified, but data from only 63 patients were available, of whom 44 (69.8% had severe malaria (39 with BWF and 5 with cerebral malaria. The mean age of the patients was 8.2 ± 1.73 years. Of the 39 cases of BWF, an association with quinine ingestion was observed in 32 children (82%. Urea and creatinine levels were elevated in all cases (135.4 ± 88.2 and 3.83 ± 2.81 mg/dL, respectively. Oligo-anuria was observed in 44.4%, severe metabolic acidosis (bicarbonate <15 mEq/L in 61.5% and hyponatremia (<130 mEq/L in 33.3%. Peritoneal dialysis was required in 36 patients, including 20 with BWF. The remaining patients were managed with conservative treatment. Twenty-eight children (44.4%, including 20 on dialysis, fully recovered and 14 died (22.2%, including eight cases of BWF. Our study suggests that ARF is commonly associated with BWF in Congolese children. Elevated urea and creatinine and severe metabolic acidosis were observed more often than other clinical/metabolic disturbances. Severe renal impairment remains a significant complication with a high mortality rate in low-resource settings.

  4. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae in Amazonian black water floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piedade Maria Teresa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and slands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari w,as analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha-1. The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near BarcelosAstrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae es una de las especies más comunes de palma en las llanuras de inundación por las llamadas "aguas negras", aguas ricas en taninos que tienen pocos nutrientes para la fauna. Habita el subdosel que se desarrolla en riberas e islas, con una distribución amplia en toda la gradiente de inundación (resiste entre 30 y 340 días bajo el agua. La especie es importante para la nutrición de los peces y en la producción de palmito. La autoecología de A. jauari fue analizada por dos años en el Archipiélago Anavilhanas, río Negro, Brazil, con énfasis en fenología, producción de frutas, y dispersores de semillas. La caída de los frutos es anual y sincronizada con el aumento de los niveles de agua, con una producción de 1.6 ton de fruta ha-1. Las frutas son comidas por al menos de

  6. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra-seasonal and inter-annual temperature variations. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water mass between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season due to formation of a seasonal pycnocline. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from in-situ observations taken over the 2nd half of the 20th century. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the shelf area during the summer stratification period (May–November.The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by a cold phase between 1985 and 1995 and a further warming after 1995. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the BSW significantly reduces during the warm season. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. It is shown that temperature in the BSW is stronger correlated with the temperature of Cold Intermediate Waters (CIW in the deep sea than with the severity of the previous winters, thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal variability of the BSW on the western Black Sea shelf than effects of winter convection on the shelf itself.

  7. A new record of Ratan goby - Ponticola ratan (Nordmann, 1840 (Pisces: Gobiidae in the Black Sea, Romanian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cocan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In August 2015 we managed to capture a specimen of ratan goby (Ponticola ratan in the Romanian coastal waters of the Black Sea, near the locality of Sf. Gheorghe (Tulcea County. This is the 7-th signaling for this species in Romanian coastal waters. The previous 6 specimens were recorded in the period 1960-1993, between Mangalia (Constanţa County and Sulina (Tulcea County. The species was identified by means of meristic characters (number of scales on medial line, number of spiny and soft rays, and morphological particularities (cycloid scales on the nape area and pectoral fin joint. Also, the measurements made, confirmed that the ratio between the head length and total length, which was 33% (TL=8.70 cm vs. Head Length=2.61cm. Another morphological character, specific to this species, is the lower jaw, which exceeds in length the upper jaw. Being a Ponto-Caspian endemite, with low population along the Bulgarian and Romanian coastline, we considered it important to point out this new record. Noting that, being known the trend of sporadic migration of this species, would not be excluded that global warming causes a shift from its normal distribution area, from northern and northeastern (Black Sea to south-west. Therefore, future research may bring more notifications regarding this species in south-western area of the Black Sea

  8. Black tungsten nitride as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting operable at up to 765 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu Lei; Li, Yu Hang; Wang, Xue Lu; Chen, Ai Ping; Yang, Hua Gui [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Nie, Ting; Gong, Xue Qing [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Centre for Computational Chemistry and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Li Rong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-06-19

    Semiconductor photocatalysts are hardly employed for overall water splitting beyond 700 nm, which is due to both thermodynamic aspects and activation barriers. Metallic materials as photocatalysts are known to overcome this limitation through interband transitions for creating electron-hole pairs; however, the application of metallic photocatalysts for overall water splitting has never been fulfilled. Black tungsten nitride is now employed as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 765 nm. Experimental and theoretical results together confirm that metallic properties play a substantial role in exhibiting photocatalytic activity under red-light irradiation for tungsten nitride. This work represents the first red-light responsive photocatalyst for overall water splitting, and may open a promising venue in searching of metallic materials as efficient photocatalysts for solar energy utilization. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Dominant culturable bacterial microbiota in the digestive tract of the American black vulture (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 and search for antagonistic substances Microbiota bacteriana dominante cultivável no trato digestivo do urubu (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydston Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Strict and facultative culturable anaerobic bacteria from the digestive tract of six American black vultures (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 were isolated and identified. After capture, the birds received a non-contaminated diet for one week to eliminate possible allochthonous microorganisms. Then, specimens collected from tongue, stomach and intestines were weighed, submitted to decimal dilution in an anaerobic chamber, inoculated into culture media and incubated aerobically and anaerobically at 37ºC for enumeration, isolation and identification. Isolated bacteria were submitted to tests to detect possible antagonisms between them. The total bacterial population along the digestive tract ranged from 3.46 ± 0.39 log CFU/g in the stomach to 10.75 ± 0.37 log CFU/g in the distal intestine. Some bacteria were isolated for the first time from the digestive tract of C. atratus: Actinomyces bovis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Micrococcus luteus, Neisseria sicca, Clostridium bifermentans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Peptostreptococcus sp., Sarcina sp., Serratia odorifera, and Shigella flexneri. Associations between microorganisms were observed during isolation on two occasions, one involving A. bovis and N. sicca, and the other involving A. bovis and a Gram-negative rod. Hetero-, iso- and autoantagonisms were observed, suggesting the ecological role of these indigenous microorganisms in terms of population auto-control and environmental barrier in the digestive tract of carrion-feeding birds.As bactérias anaeróbias estritas e facultativas cultiváveis do trato digestivo de seis urubus (Coragyps atratus Bechstein 1793 foram isoladas e identificadas. Após a captura, as aves receberam uma alimentação de baixa contaminação durante uma semana para eliminar possíveis microorganismos alóctonos. A seguir, amostras colhidas na língua, estomago e intestinos foram pesadas, submetidas a diluições decimais numa câmara anaeróbia, inoculadas em meios de

  10. To prevent the occurrence of black water agglomerate through delaying decomposition of cyanobacterial bloom biomass by sediment microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Li; Jiang, He-Long; Cai, Hai-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    Settlement of cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) into sediments in eutrophic lakes often induced the occurrence of black water agglomerate and then water quality deterioration. This study investigated the effect of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) on CBB removal in sediments and related water pollution. Sediment bulking and subsequent black water from decomposition of settled CBB happened without SMFC, but were not observed over 100-day experiments with SMFC employment. While CBB in sediments improved power production from SMFC, the removal efficiency of organic matters in CBB-amended sediments with SMFC was significantly lower than that without SMFC. Pyrosequencing analysis showed higher abundances of the fermentative Clostridium and acetoclastic methanogen in CBB-amended bulk sediments without SMFC than with SMFC at the end of experiments. Obviously, SMFC operation changed the microbial community in CBB-amended sediments, and delayed the CBB degradation against sediment bulking. Thus, SMFC could be potentially applied as pollution prevention in CBB-settled and sensitive zones in shallow lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  12. Anaerobic digestion apparatus and process. Procede et installation de digestion anaerobie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baere, L.

    1989-05-09

    This invention concerns a process for the anaerobic digestion of apparently solid organic matter. The matter is mixed and kneaded with an inoculant to form an apparently solid mass having a water content which varies from around 55 wt % to around 75 wt %. This mass is then introduced into a digestor, where it is digested for a period of around less than 50 days. The biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion stage is recovered, said biogas being a byproduct of the digestion process. The digested mass is extracted, and at least a third, by weight, of that mass is recycled to act as the inoculant. The non-recycled digested mass is removed.

  13. Geohydrology and effects of water use in the Black Mesa area, Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1983-01-01

    The N aquifer is the main source of water in the 5,400-square-mile Black Mesa area in the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations in northeastern Arizona. The N aquifer consists of the Navajo Sandstone and parts of the underlying Kayenta Formation and Wingate Sandstone of Jurassic and Triassic age. Maximum saturated thickness of the aquifer is about 1,050 feet in the northwestern part of the area, and the aquifer thins to extinction to the southeast. Water is under confined conditions in the central 3,300 square miles of the area. To the east, north, and west of Black Mesa, the aquifer is exposed at the surface, and water is unconfined. The aquifer was in equilibrium before about 1965. Recharge of about 13,000 acre-feet per year was balanced primarily by discharge near Moenkopi Wash and Laguna Creek and by evapotranspiration. At least 180 million acre-feet of water was in storage. The estimated average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 0.65 foot per day. The confined storage coefficient is estimated to be about 0.0004 where the aquifer is thickest, and the estimated unconfined storage coefficient ranges from 0.10 to 0.15. Ground-water withdrawals that averaged 5,300 acre-feet per year from 1976 to 1979 have caused water levels to decline in wells in the confined part of the aquifer. Withdrawals include an average of 3,700 acre-feet per year to supply a coal-slurry pipeline from a coal mine on Black Mesa. Six observation wells equipped with water-level recorders have been used to monitor aquifer response. The water level in one well 32 miles south of the mine declined 17 feet from 1972 through 1979 and 3.5 feet during 1979. A mathematical model of the N aquifer was developed and calibrated for equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The model was used in part to improve estimates of aquifer characteristics and the water budget, and it successfully reproduced the observed response of the aquifer through 1979. The model results indicate that about 95 percent of

  14. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  15. Capsule-type pe biogas digester: low-cost and environment friendly system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Khan, M.A.; Aslam, M.; Hussain, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The Indian model of the biogas digester has been introduced in the country during the last three decades, whereas the Chinese dome-type design could not be introduced due to the skills required for construction of this digester. The other problem associated with Chinese dome-type digester is that large quantities of solid waste are needed to fill the digester. The Chinese dome-type digester constructed on experimental basis could not perform satisfactorily. The Indian Model, although popular in the country, is not environment friendly and is of high cost, both in terms of capital investment and 0 and M. It creates quite dirty environment around the digester due to the free movement of slurry. It also creates problems of mosquitoes, as the environment. is conducive for their breeding. Taking into consideration, these limitations, design of polyethylene capsule-type digester (with black carbon and UV stabilizers) was developed, using water tanks normally constructed for domestic water storage by the local plastic companies. Modification was made in the PE water tank and one of the local companies collaborated to manufacture the capsule-type digester. Solid waste is introduced from the top, whereas the slurry can be disposed from the bottom through a controlled valve. Thus input of solid waste and slurry-disposal is now within the choice of the owner. The slurry can be disposed into a tank, where it can be composted to reduce the pH, before its use for agriculture. The PE capsule-type black-color digester is also attractive for increasing the temperature of the digester due to black body absorption. The production of gas during summer season might take a few days, whereas additional greenhouse effect during winter can raise the temperature by 10 degree C. Hence, this digester is more suitable for cooler regions where the Indian model is not successful. The design is modular in nature; therefore linking additional modules in series can increase the capacity of biogas

  16. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  17. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  18. Multiple scattering of light by water cloud droplets with external and internal mixing of black carbon aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hai-Hua; Sun Xian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The mixture of water cloud droplets with black carbon impurities is modeled by external and internal mixing models. The internal mixing model is modeled with a two-layered sphere (water cloud droplets containing black carbon (BC) inclusions), and the single scattering and absorption characteristics are calculated at the visible wavelength of 0.55 μm by using the Lorenz—Mie theory. The external mixing model is developed assuming that the same amount of BC particles are mixed with the water droplets externally. The multiple scattering characteristics are computed by using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that when the size of the BC aerosol is small, the reflection intensity of the internal mixing model is bigger than that of the external mixing model. However, if the size of the BC aerosol is big, the absorption of the internal mixing model will be larger than that of the external mixing model. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  20. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants in River Waters Discharging into the Black Sea along the Ukrainian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major rivers of Ukraine, including the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug and Danube, discharge approximately 8500 m3/s of freshwater into the northern and western portions of the Black Sea. As one of the largest countries in Europe, Ukraine also has one of the largest human po...

  1. Bridge over Troubled Waters: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Cody, Bretjet; Smith, Leann; Beasley, Samuel; Miller, Keino I. S.; Hurst, Ashley; Awosogba, Olufunke; Stone, Steven; Jackson, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the mental health needs of black children will take more than just increasing access to mental health services and early identification. It also will require a critical evaluation of the practices and models being used to diagnose and treat mental health concerns. Frameworks have been established that use a positive, strengths-based,…

  2. Fe-Binding Dissolved Organic Ligands in the Oxic and Suboxic Waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Bown, J.; Margolin, A.R.; Laan, P.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the oxygen-rich layer of the Black Sea, above the permanent halocline, the Fe and nitrate concentrations are low where fluorescence is relatively high, indicating uptake by phytoplankton. In this study we used ligand exchange adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-aCSV), using

  3. Robust Means for Estimating Black Carbon-Water Sorption Coefficients of Organic Contaminants in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    compounds by black carbon, Springer, Dordrecht. Plata, D.L., Hemingway , J.D. and Gschwend, P.M. (2015) Polyparameter linear free energy relationship for...1320-1331. 32 8. Appendices Scientific/Technical Publications Plata, D.L., J.D. Hemingway , and P.M. Gschwend. Polyparameter linear free energy

  4. Effect of Water Stress and Sulfur Fertilizer on Grain Yield, Chlorophyll and Nutrient Status of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Heidari; A. R. Rezapor

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effects of water stress and different amounts of sulfur fertilizer on grain yield, nutrient status and chlorophyll content in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted at Ghaen city in 2009. Treatments included three levels of irrigation after 50, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from Class A pan as main plot and four levels of sulfur fertilizer including 0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha from bentonite-sulfur source a...

  5. Nickel toxicity to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) differs seasonally and among the black, white and clear river waters of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Wood, Chris M; Smith, D Scott; Correia, Tiago Gabriel; Val, Adalberto L

    2017-10-15

    This study investigated the acute toxicity of nickel (Ni) to cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), within the three main water types of the Amazon basin: black (Rio Negro), white (Rio Solimões) and clear (Rio Tapajós) during the wet and dry season at pH 7 (representative of white and clear rivers) and pH 4 (representative of black waters). The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quality on Ni toxicity within the three waters was also explored via the use of DOC isolates. Differences in water chemistry, DOC quality and ion concentrations were shown between waters and between seasons. Toxicity of Ni was shown to vary between river waters, seasons, and pHs. Ni was significantly less toxic during the dry season at pH 4 in all three river waters; for example, black water during the wet season had an LC 50 of 9.72 mg Ni/L compared to 41.5 mg Ni/L during the dry season. At pH 7, contrasting effects in toxicity between seasons were shown between black and clear waters (black: wet = 28.9 mg/L, dry = 17.3 mg/L; clear: wet = 13.8 mg/L, dry = 24.1 mg/L). There were no significant differences in Ni toxicity for white waters at pH 7 (white: wet = 22.2 mg/L, dry = 21.8). Overall, Ni was shown to be more toxic at pH 7 than at pH 4 except in black water during the wet season. Toxicity of Ni at pH 4 was positively related to DOC concentration and amount of humic-like and fulvic-like DOC and negatively related to fluorescence index. Therefore, at pH 4, Ni is more toxic in waters containing more allochthonous DOC, consisting of higher amounts of humic-like and fulvic-like components. LC 50 values for the different DOC concentrates at the same DOC concentration of 4.5 mg/L (black: 26.8 mg/L; white: 73.3 mg/L; clear: 49.2) support the river water findings at pH 4 (Ni more toxic in presence of black DOC) indicating that DOC quality alone can influence Ni toxicity at this pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  7. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O 2 /L R -d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied

  8. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jun Wei [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: jywang@ntu.edu.sg [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 06-08 CleanTech One, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was

  9. Chlorophyll Diagenesis in the Water Column and Sediments of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Washington. Eyssen H. J., Parmentier G. G., Compemolle G. C., De Pauw G., and Piessens-Denef M. (1973) Biohydrogenation of sterols by Eubacterium ATCC...sediments. I 144 dominant diatom species identified in the Black Sea, Rhizoselenium spp , is cholesterol (Volkman, 1986; Benli, 1987). The flux of cholesterol...in the Clack Sea, for example Gonyaulax polygramma and Peridinium spp ., do not possess this sterol (Volkman, 1986; Benli, 1987). The appeav ince of

  10. A biogas plant for the digestion of distillery residue in combination with waste water treatment; Biogasanlage fuer die Vergaerung von Destillationsrueckstaenden in Kombination mit der Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, A.; Vetter, H.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project at a Swiss food-processing company that produces fruit juices and beverages containing fruit components. The company uses an anaerobic pre-treatment plant to treat effluents before they are discharged to a local municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The report describes the installation, which generates biogas that is used to provide heating energy for the processes used in the extraction process. The monitoring and measurement system is described and figures are quoted for energy production in the company's facilities. Also, the energy savings in the local WWTP resulting from the reduced energy consumption of the aeration blowers as a result of the pre-treatment of the wastes are discussed. Operational aspects of the installation are examined. including temperature effects on the digestion process, control strategies and waste air treatment.

  11. The effects of temperature and water concentration on the otolith incorporation of barium and manganese in black rockfish Sebastes melanops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J A

    2009-07-01

    Observations of multiple years of geographic variation in [Ba:Ca](otolith) and [Mn:Ca](otolith) in black rockfish Sebastes melanops prompted this study to examine the effects of temperature and water concentration on the otolith incorporation of Ba and Mn in this wholly marine species. The replicated experiment design consisted of two water temperatures (7.4 and 13.0 degrees C) and four water concentrations of Ba:Ca and Mn:Ca. A positive, linear relationship between [Ba:Ca](water) and [Ba:Ca](otolith) was observed at both temperatures. A positive temperature effect was also observed with mean partition coefficients for Ba (D(Ba)) greater in the 13 degrees C than in the 7.4 degrees C treatments (mean = 0.061 and 0.048, respectively). There was no relationship between [Mn:Ca](water) and [Mn:Ca](otolith) although a negative temperature effect was observed. Mean partition coefficients for Mn (D(Mn)) were lower in the 13 degrees C than in the 7.4 degrees C treatments (mean = 0.027 and 0.036, respectively). The data presented support the assumption of a positive, linear relationship between water and otolith Metal:Ca concentrations for Ba:Ca but not for Mn:Ca. Thus, although indicative of residence in distinct water masses, observed variation in [Metal:Ca](otolith) may not reflect variation in water concentration and can be affected by temperature. Caution should be applied in the interpretation of geographic variation of [Mn:Ca](otolith) until the mechanisms regulating its incorporation are more fully understood.

  12. Significance of thermal transitions on starch digestibility and firming kinetics of restricted water mixed flour bread matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Piga, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    The impact of wheat (WT) flour replacement up to 45% (weight basis) by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours on the thermal profiles of quaternary blended dough matrices have been investigated by simulating baking, cooling, and storage in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans. Endothermal transitions related to suitable patterns for low and slow starch hydrolysis, softer crumb and retarded firming kinetics in blended breads include delayed temperatures for starch gelatinization, and for the dissociation of amylose-lipid complex. In addition, (a) higher stability for the amylose-lipid inclusion complex, (b) lower energy for starch gelatinization, (c) lower limiting melting enthalpy and (d) slower rate for amylopectin retrogradation meet thermal requirements for achieving suitable textural and starch digestibility features in blended breads, fulfilled by adding T/GP/BW to replace 45% of WT flour in blended dough formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical Application of Sea Water Quality Mathematical Model for the Black Sea Coast of Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Burunin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an application of the developed model of the sea water quality for forecasting of coastal waters indicators change in the artificial coastal water areas of Sochi. Results of the researches conducted in relation to yacht port «Grand Marina Sochi» are considered.

  14. Laser irradiation in water for the novel, scalable synthesis of black TiOx photocatalyst for environmental remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zimbone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970, TiO2 photocatalysis has been considered a possible alternative for sustainable water treatment. This is due to its material stability, abundance, nontoxicity and high activity. Unfortunately, its wide band gap (≈3.2 eV in the UV portion of the spectrum makes it inefficient under solar illumination. Recently, so-called “black TiO2” has been proposed as a candidate to overcome this issue. However, typical synthesis routes require high hydrogen pressure and long annealing treatments. In this work, we present an industrially scalable synthesis of TiO2-based material based on laser irradiation. The resulting black TiOx shows a high activity and adsorbs visible radiation, overcoming the main concerns related to the use of TiO2 under solar irradiation. We employed a commercial high repetition rate green laser in order to synthesize a black TiOx layer and we demonstrate the scalability of the present methodology. The photocatalyst is composed of a nanostructured titanate film (TiOx synthetized on a titanium foil, directly back-contacted to a layer of Pt nanoparticles (PtNps deposited on the rear side of the same foil. The result is a monolithic photochemical diode with a stacked, layered structure (TiOx/Ti/PtNps. The resulting high photo-efficiency is ascribed to both the scavenging of electrons by Pt nanoparticles and the presence of trap surface states for holes in an amorphous hydrogenated TiOx layer.

  15. Hydrogeology and sources of water to select springs in Black Canyon, south of Hoover Dam, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Wilson, Jon W.; Beard, L. Sue

    2015-11-03

    Springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, directly south of Hoover Dam in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada and Arizona, are important hydrologic features that support a unique riparian ecosystem including habitat for endangered species. Rapid population growth in areas near and surrounding Black Canyon has caused concern among resource managers that such growth could affect the discharge from these springs. The U.S. Geological Survey studied the springs in Black Canyon between January 2008, and May 2014. The purposes of this study were to provide a baseline of discharge and hydrochemical data from selected springs in Black Canyon and to better understand the sources of water to the springs.

  16. A Study on Retrieval Algorithm of Black Water Aggregation in Taihu Lake Based on HJ-1 Satellite Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Zou; Bing, Zhang; Junsheng, Li; Qian, Shen; Fangfang, Zhang; Ganlin, Wang

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of black water aggregation (BWA) occurs in inland water when massive algal bodies aggregate, die, and react with the toxic sludge in certain climate conditions to deprive the water of oxygen. This process results in the deterioration of water quality and damage to the ecosystem. Because charge coupled device (CCD) camera data from the Chinese HJ environmental satellite shows high potential in monitoring BWA, we acquired four HJ-CCD images of Taihu Lake captured during 2009 to 2011 to study this phenomenon. The first study site was selected near the Shore of Taihu Lake. We pre-processed the HJ-CCD images and analyzed the digital number (DN) gray values in the research area and in typical BWA areas. The results show that the DN values of visible bands in BWA areas are obviously lower than those in the research areas. Moreover, we developed an empirical retrieving algorithm of BWA based on the DN mean values and variances of research areas. Finally, we tested the accuracy of this empirical algorithm. The retrieving accuracies were89.9%, 58.1%, 73.4%, and 85.5%, respectively, which demonstrates the efficiency of empirical algorithm in retrieving the approximate distributions of BWA

  17. Waste treatment and energy production from small-scale wastewater digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Stephanie; Maile-Moskowitz, Ayella; Eaton, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Three tubular anaerobic digestion (AD) systems were installed in Haiti to treat black water (toilet-based wastewater), including a three cell 36m 3 clinic digester (CD), a two cell 2m 3 hotel digester (HD), and a three-cell 3m 3 farm digester (FD) for worker use. During digestion, total coliforms were reduced by 99.1%, E. coli by 98.5%, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.6%. Nutrients in the effluent averaged 99.4mg/L NH 4 + and 10.6mg/L PO 4 2- , producing an effective organic fertilizer. Average biogas production in CD was 108L/d, with 65.4% CH 4 . Survey participants (n=573) were willing to pay $0.10-0.30 per use for sanitation facilities. Seventy-two percent of the rural population surveyed in Cange, Haiti lacked access to improved sanitation due to financial constraints. The economic analysis calculated an investment cost for a shared toilet AD systems of $16-$47 (USD) per person based on daily use at design capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  19. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Alleviates Salt Stress in Black Locust through Improved Photosynthesis, Water Status, and K+/Na+ Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xinlu; Tang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization and the associated land degradation are major and growing ecological problems. Excess salt in soil impedes plant photosynthetic processes and root uptake of water and nutrients such as K+. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can mitigate salt stress in host plants. Although, numerous studies demonstrate that photosynthesis and water status are improved by mycorrhizae, the molecular mechanisms involved have received little research attention. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of AM symbiosis and salt stress on photosynthesis, water status, concentrations of Na+ and K+, and the expression of several genes associated with photosynthesis (RppsbA, RppsbD, RprbcL, and RprbcS) and genes coding for aquaporins or membrane transport proteins involved in K+ and/or Na+ uptake, translocation, or compartmentalization homeostasis (RpSOS1, RpHKT1, RpNHX1, and RpSKOR) in black locust. The results showed that salinity reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and relative water content in both non-mycorrhizal (NM) and AM plants; the reductions of these three parameters were less in AM plants compared with NM plants. Under saline conditions, AM fungi significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate, quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and K+ content in plants, but evidently reduced the Na+ content. AM plants also displayed a significant increase in the relative water content and an evident decrease in the shoot/root ratio of Na+ in the presence of 200 mM NaCl compared with NM plants. Additionally, mycorrhizal colonization upregulated the expression of three chloroplast genes (RppsbA, RppsbD, and RprbcL) in leaves, and three genes (RpSOS1, RpHKT1, and RpSKOR) encoding membrane transport proteins involved in K+/Na+ homeostasis in roots. Expression of several aquaporin genes was regulated by AM symbiosis in both leaves and roots depending on soil salinity. This study suggests that the beneficial effects of AM symbiosis on

  20. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Alleviates Salt Stress in Black Locust through Improved Photosynthesis, Water Status, and K+/Na+ Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhang, Haoqiang; Zhang, Xinlu; Tang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization and the associated land degradation are major and growing ecological problems. Excess salt in soil impedes plant photosynthetic processes and root uptake of water and nutrients such as K + . Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can mitigate salt stress in host plants. Although, numerous studies demonstrate that photosynthesis and water status are improved by mycorrhizae, the molecular mechanisms involved have received little research attention. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of AM symbiosis and salt stress on photosynthesis, water status, concentrations of Na + and K + , and the expression of several genes associated with photosynthesis ( RppsbA, RppsbD, RprbcL , and RprbcS ) and genes coding for aquaporins or membrane transport proteins involved in K + and/or Na + uptake, translocation, or compartmentalization homeostasis ( RpSOS1, RpHKT1, RpNHX1 , and RpSKOR ) in black locust. The results showed that salinity reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and relative water content in both non-mycorrhizal (NM) and AM plants; the reductions of these three parameters were less in AM plants compared with NM plants. Under saline conditions, AM fungi significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate, quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry, and K + content in plants, but evidently reduced the Na + content. AM plants also displayed a significant increase in the relative water content and an evident decrease in the shoot/root ratio of Na + in the presence of 200 mM NaCl compared with NM plants. Additionally, mycorrhizal colonization upregulated the expression of three chloroplast genes ( RppsbA, RppsbD , and RprbcL ) in leaves, and three genes ( RpSOS1, RpHKT1 , and RpSKOR ) encoding membrane transport proteins involved in K + /Na + homeostasis in roots. Expression of several aquaporin genes was regulated by AM symbiosis in both leaves and roots depending on soil salinity. This study suggests that the beneficial

  1. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  2. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  3. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  4. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  5. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.

  6. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  7. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel development by anaerobic digestion of European marine cold-water seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Ashok; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; McIlveen-Wright, David; Novaes, Marcio; Hewitt, Neil

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economic characteristics of macro-algae utilisation from European temperate zones was evaluated in a selected Anaerobic Digester (AD) using the chemical process modelling software ECLIPSE. The assessment covered the mass and energy balance of the entire process followed by the economic feasibility study, which included the total cost estimation, net present value calculation, and sensitivity analysis. The selected plant size corresponded to a community based AD of 1.6 MWth with a macro-algae feed rate of 8.64 tonnes per day (dry basis). The produced biogas was utilised in a combined heat and power plant generating 237 kWenet electricity and 367 kWth heat. The breakeven electricity-selling price in this study was estimated at around €120/MWh. On the ground of different national and regional policies, this study did not account for any government incentives. However, different support mechanisms such as Feed-in-Tariffs or Renewable Obligation Certificates can significantly improve the project viability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2001-01-01

    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  9. Black workers, typhoid fever and the construction of the Berg River – Saldanha military water pipeline, 1942 – 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieutenant Colonel GE (Deon Visser

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available War creates a huge need for labour to support the war efforts of the belligerent parties. In South Africa tens of thousands of ‘non-white’ workers were mobilised during the Second World War to satisfy the Union Defence Force’s (UDF’s labour needs at home and abroad. This article, firstly, outlines the role of ‘non-white people’, particularly black Africans, in the UDF with special reference to those employed within the Union of South Africa. Secondly, it briefly delineates typhoid fever as an historical thorn in the flesh of military forces up to the early 20th century. It then looks briefly into the incidence of and perceptions on typhoid fever as a killer disease in South Africa on the eve of the Second World War. Against that background, the article investigates the employment of black workers on the construction of the Berg River-Saldanha Bay military water pipeline and the UDF’s response to the threat and subsequent outbreak of typhoid fever amongst the workers at the Berg River intake site in 1943. The article concludes that the public health authorities and UDF were aware of the threat of typhoid fever with regard to the Berg River water scheme, but did not take sufficient precautionary measures, which could have had serious repercussions for the Allied war effort. This incident should serve as a warning to the South African National Defence Force when deploying on peace support operations on the African continent where typhoid fever remains a serious threat next to Hiv/Aids.

  10. Black yeasts-like fungi isolated from dialysis water in hemodialysis units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figel, Izabel Cristina; Marangoni, Paulo Roberto Dantas; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Vicente, Vânia Aparecida; Dalzoto, Patrícia do Rocio; do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure promotes the removal of toxic substances, water, and minerals from the body and often takes place in specialized clinics. Microbial contamination of dialysis fluid is a serious problem in therapy. One of the sources of contamination is the water

  11. The study of the digestive absorption of water in patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, by using two hydrogen tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Boszormenyi, M.; Fallot, P.; Masson, J.; Calvet, P.

    1960-01-01

    We have studied the rate of appearance of ingested water in the peripheral blood of four patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver with ascites. For this purpose, oral administration of deuterium oxide and intravenous administration of tritiated water were made simultaneously. This double experiment enables the phenomenon of diffusion of the tracer outside the vascular regions to be observed and calculation to be made of the amounts absorbed by the digestive tract and transferred to the peripheral circulation. The rate of absorption observed under the above conditions proves to be distinctly less (1.2 percent per minute of the ingested dose) than that observed by Scholer and Code in normal subjects (9 percent per minute of the ingested dose). Hypotheses are advanced which could account for the facts observed and which offer a satisfactory explanation of Gilbert's opsiuria. Reprint of a paper published in International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 7, p. 233-243, 1960 [fr

  12. Family variation in photosynthesis of 22-year-old black spruce: a test of two models of physiological response to water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1996-01-01

    Gas exchange and water potential were measured in 22-year-old black spruce (Piceamariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families on two sites (one drier and one wetter) at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Ontario. Based on an observed genotype × environment interaction and earlier work with seedlings, a...

  13. Assimilation of water and dietary ions by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion in seawater-acclimated rainbow trout

    OpenAIRE

    Bucking, Carol; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Nadella, Sunita R.; McGaw, Iain J.; Wood, Chris M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies focusing on the consequences of feeding for ion and water balance in freshwater fish have revealed the need for similar comparative studies in seawater fish. A detailed time course sampling of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents following the ingestion of a single meal of a commercial diet revealed the assimilation of both water and dietary ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) along the GI tract of seawater-acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which had been fasted for 1 ...

  14. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Daniel G; Bradford, Wendell L; Moran, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    .... This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District...

  15. Evaluation of ammonium nitrate phosphate (Suphala) having different water soluble phosphorus levels on black soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo Dutt; Mutatkar, V.K.; Chapke, V.G.

    1974-01-01

    Efficiency of the laboratory prepared 32 P tagged ammonium nitrate phosphate (Suphala) varying in water soluble P was studied both on calcareous and non-calcareous soils of Maharashtra for bajra and wheat crops under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed a significant increase in dry matter production and uptake of total and fertilizer P with Suphala containing 30-32% water-soluble phosphorus. (author)

  16. Digestibilidade aparente da farinha de aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo Apparent digestibility of water hyacinth meal by Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Vicente Biudes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e comparar as digestibilidades aparentes da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e energia bruta (EB e as disponibilidades aparentes de minerais das farinhas da biomassa emersa (lâmina foliar e pecíolo, submersa (raiz e rizoma e total do aguapé em tilápias-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Foram elaboradas quatro rações marcadas com 0,10% de óxido de crômio-III (uma ração-referência purificada e três contendo 30,0% de cada ingrediente. As tilápias-do-nilo (125,5 ± 10,5 g foram alimentadas até a saciedade e a coleta de fezes foi realizada pelo sistema Ghelph modificado. As digestibilidades aparentes da farinha da biomassa emersa (MS = 57,8; PB = 72,3; EE = 63,2 e EB = 62,0% foram maiores que as das farinhas da biomassa total (MS = 45,7; PB = 57,3; EE = 50,3 e EB = 42,3% e submersa (MS = 38,3; PB = 50,8; EE = 43,5 e EB = 32,0%. As disponibilidades aparentes de fósforo (P, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, manganês (Mn, cobre (Cu e zinco (Zn da farinha da biomassa emersa também foram maiores. A farinha de biomassa emersa do aguapé apresenta melhor digestibilidade e disponibilidade aparente dos nutrientes em comparação às farinhas da biomassa total e submersa.This study was carried out to determine and compare the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fat (CF, gross energy (GE, and the apparent availability of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn of emergent (leaf and petiole, submerged (root and rhizome and total biomass meal of water hyacinth for Nile tilapia. Four diets were prepared, containing 0.10% chromic oxide-III, one being the reference diet (purified and the others containing 30% of each ingredient. The Nile tilapias (125.5 ± 10.5 g were fed until satiation and the feces were collected by the modified Guelph system. The apparent digestibility of emergent biomass meal (DM = 57.8, CP = 72.3, CF = 63.2, and GE = 62.0% was higher than

  17. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Black Carbon (Biochar) In Water/Soil Environments: Molecular Structure, Sorption, Stability, and Potential Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-12-05

    Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in the environments and participates in various biogeochemical processes. Both positive and negative effects of BC (especially biochar) on the ecosystem have been identified, which are mainly derived from its diverse physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, few studies systematically examined the linkage between the evolution of BC molecular structure with the resulted BC properties, environmental functions as well as potential risk, which is critical for understanding the BC environmental behavior and utilization as a multifunctional product. Thus, this review highlights the molecular structure evolution of BC during pyrolysis and the impact of BC physicochemical properties on its sorption behavior, stability, and potential risk in terrestrial and aqueous ecosystems. Given the wide application of BC and its important role in biogeochemical processes, future research should focus on the following: (1) establishing methodology to more precisely predict and design BC properties on the basis of pyrolysis and phase transformation of biomass; (2) developing an assessment system to evaluate the long-term effect of BC on stabilization and bioavailability of contaminants, agrochemicals, and nutrient elements in soils; and (3) elucidating the interaction mechanisms of BC with plant roots, microorganisms, and soil components.

  19. Water-soluble carbohydrates and in vitro digestibility of annual ryegrass (Lolium ridigum Gaudin) sown at varying densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smouter, H.; Simpson, R.J.; Pear, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment is described in which the tiller density of microswards of Lolium rigidum was varied by altering planting density. The treatments were expected to alter the interplant competition for light and thus affect the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) of the grass swards.

  20. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  1. Increased transpiration and plant water stress in a black spruce bog exposed to whole ecosystem warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/) in Northern Minnesota, USA, has exposed 12.8 m diameter plots of an ombrotrophic Picea mariana-Ericaceous shrub bog to whole ecosystem warming (0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75, +9 °C) since August 2015, and elevated CO2 treatments (ambient or +500 ppm) since June 2016. The mixed-age stand has trees up to 40 year old, and a 5-8 m tall canopy. Thermal dissipation sap flow probes were installed into dominant Picea mariana and Larix laricina trees in each of the 10 open-top chambers in fall 2015. This talk will focus on the first two years of sap flux data from the 10 treatment plots and the relationships with seasonal growth and prevailing environmental conditions. Sap flow was scaled to whole tree and plot level transpiration based on prior in situ calibrations using cut trees, establishment of a sapwood depth: tree diameter relationship, and the tree size distribution within each plot. We also assessed water potential in the trees and two dominant shrubs at the site: Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata. The warming treatments increased the growing season by up to 6 weeks, with sapflow beginning earlier in spring and lasting later into the fall. The deciduous Larix was the only species exhibiting substantial predawn water stress under the treatments, where water potentials reached -2.5 MPa for the warmest plots. The elevated CO2 reduced midday water stress in the Rhododendron, but not the Chamaedaphne, which could lead to shifts in shrub species composition.

  2. Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling opened up oil palm biomass structure resulting in enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent advances in transport of water-soluble vitamins in organs of the digestive system: a focus on the colon and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Hamid M

    2013-11-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) transport in the large intestine and pancreas, two important organs of the digestive system that have only recently received their fair share of attention. WSV, a group of structurally unrelated compounds, are essential for normal cell function and development and, thus, for overall health and survival of the organism. Humans cannot synthesize WSV endogenously; rather, WSV are obtained from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. The intestine is exposed to two sources of WSV: a dietary source and a bacterial source (i.e., WSV generated by the large intestinal microbiota). Contribution of the latter source to human nutrition/health has been a subject of debate and doubt, mostly based on the absence of specialized systems for efficient uptake of WSV in the large intestine. However, recent studies utilizing a variety of human and animal colon preparations clearly demonstrate that such systems do exist in the large intestine. This has provided strong support for the idea that the microbiota-generated WSV are of nutritional value to the host, and especially to the nutritional needs of the local colonocytes and their health. In the pancreas, WSV are essential for normal metabolic activities of all its cell types and for its exocrine and endocrine functions. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in the uptake of WSV and the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the uptake processes.

  4. Two-Year Monitoring of Water Samples from Dam of Iskar and the Black Sea, Bulgaria, by Molecular Analysis: Focus on Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Panaiotov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the Bulgarian Black Sea is a popular summer holiday destination. The Dam of Iskar is the largest artificial dam in Bulgaria, with a capacity of 675 million m3. It is the main source of tap water for the capital Sofia and for irrigating the surrounding valley. There is a close relationship between the quality of aquatic ecosystems and human health as many infections are waterborne. Rapid molecular methods for the analysis of highly pathogenic bacteria have been developed for monitoring quality. Mycobacterial species can be isolated from waste, surface, recreational, ground and tap waters and human pathogenicity of nontuberculose mycobacteria (NTM is well recognized. The objective of our study was to perform molecular analysis for key-pathogens, with a focus on mycobacteria, in water samples collected from the Black Sea and the Dam of Iskar. In a two year period, 38 water samples were collected—24 from the Dam of Iskar and 14 from the Black Sea coastal zone. Fifty liter water samples were concentrated by ultrafiltration. Molecular analysis for 15 pathogens, including all species of genus Mycobacterium was performed. Our results showed presence of Vibrio spp. in the Black Sea. Rotavirus A was also identified in four samples from the Dam of Iskar. Toxigenic Escherichia coli was present in both locations, based on markers for stx1 and stx2 genes. No detectable amounts of Cryptosporidium were detected in either location using immunomagnetic separation and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analyses did not detect key cyanobacterial toxins. On the basis of the results obtained we can conclude that for the period 2012–2014 no Mycobacterium species were present in the water samples. During the study period no cases of waterborne infections were reported.

  5. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  6. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  7. Costs, benefits, and international financing related to the water sector in the Danube and Black Sea region in the perspective of WFD implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleari, S.

    2006-01-01

    Further to constitute a challenge far many EU15 countries, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is going to represent the main reference for the process of approximation of water legislation of accession countries, as well as water policy and legislation of many third countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In this work we focus on expected investment costs, estimated benefits, and external financing programmes for water policies and WFD implementation in an extensive geographical area, the Black Sea region, which includes the Danube Basin (that is the second largest European water basin after the Volga Basin) and covers industrial and agricultural areas of 22 countries. As we are primarily interested in the economic aspects of water policies and the WFD implementation in the above geographical area, we will develop a joint analysis of: (a) the available estimates on the size of investments in the water sector required to approximate the provisions and/or (depending on single countries) the principles of WFD; (b) the available estimates on the expected benefits from implementing EU water legislation and the WFD; (c) the flows of international assistance and financial resources available during the next few years for investing in water-sector infrastructures and management in the countries of the Black Sea region. The approximation of EU water legislation and the implementation of the WFD will entail huge investment costs by accession countries during the next decades and water is expected be the most significant area of investment within the environmental sector in the majority of these countries. The attempts to estimate economic and environmental benefits indicate that the same process of compliance with EU legislation and the WFD will produce significant benefits for the economy and the environment of these countries. During the last part of the I990s, however, the trends of actual expenses in environmental and water infrastructures in the countries of

  8. Anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production: in fluence of harvest time on the kinetics of the process. Digestion anaerobia de las aguas de lavado de aceitunas de almazara: influencia del periodo de recoleccion sobre la cinetica del proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja-Padilla, R.; Alba-Mendoza, J.; Hidalgo-Casado, F.

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic study was carried out of anaerobic digestion of waste waters after washing olives used for oil production, collected at three different harvest times (December 1992, January and February 1993). A 1-litre mixed batch bioreactor operated at 35 degree centigree and containing a sepiolite-immobilized biomass was used. Assuming that the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to a first-order kinetics, experimental data pairs, namely methane volume yield (G) and time (t), fit Roediger's equation, from which the rate coefficient values, k[sub o], were determined in each of the situations studied. The rate coefficient considerably decreased with the harvest time, over the substrate concentration range studied (0.5-2.5 g COD/1). The average values obtained were [sub 1.67],[sub 1.13] and [sub 0.75] days for the waste waters corresponding to the three harvest times considered. Also, the methanogenic activity decreased with the ripening of the olives; the observed differences increased when the substrate concentration in the digester increased. The coefficients of methane yield, Yp ranged between 0.263 (first harvest time) and 0.298 I CH[sub 4]/g COD removed (third harvest time). The elimination of COD exceeded 64% in all cases. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure.

  10. Hydrogen incorporation by plasma treatment gives mesoporous black TiO 2 thin films with visible photoelectrochemical water oxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Reed, Allen; Nagpure, Suraj; Wanninayake, Namal; Browning, James F.; Strzalka, Joseph; Kim, Doo Young; Rankin, Stephen E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we use neutron reflectometry (NR) to investigate the roles of hydrogen in plasma treated hydrogen doped mesoporous black titania thin films in their visible light absorption and enhanced photoactivity for water oxidation. The cubic ordered mesoporous TiO2 thin films are prepared by a surfactant-templated sol-gel method and are treated with hydrogen plasma, an approach hypothesized to capitalize on the high degree of disorder in the material and the high energy of the plasma species to achieve efficient hydrogen doping. UV-vis absorbance spectra indicate that H2 plasma treatment makes TiO2 films black, with broad-spectrum enhancement of visible light absorption, and XPS analysis shows peak for Ti3+ state in treated films. The presence of hydrogen in black mesoporous titania (H-TiO2) films is confirmed by the scattering length density (SLD) profiles obtained from neutron reflectometry measurements. The H-TiO2 shows ca. 28 times and 8 times higher photocurrent for photoelectrochemical water oxidation compared to undoped TiO2 films under UV (365 nm) and blue (455 nm) LED irradiation, respectively. These findings provide the first direct evidence that the dramatic change in visible light absorbance of H-treated black TiO2 is accompanied by significant hydrogen uptake and not just Ti3+ generation or surface disordering.

  11. Complex rheological properties of a water-soluble extract from the fronds of the black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Hall, Christopher E; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2007-11-01

    A water-soluble extract was obtained from the fronds of a New Zealand native black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or Mamaku in Māori). The extract exhibited complex rheological behavior. Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, antithixotropic, and viscoelastic behaviors were observed depending on polymer concentration, shear rate, and shear history. The extract also displayed rod-climbing and self-siphoning properties typical of viscoelastic fluids. Such complex rheological properties have been reported in synthetic or chemically modified polymers but are less frequent in unmodified biopolymers. Although Mamaku extract obtained from the pith of the fern has been traditionally used by the Māori in New Zealand for treating wounds and diarrhea among other ailments, this material has never been characterized before. This study reports on the chemical composition of the extract and on its viscoelastic properties through rotational and oscillatory rheological measurements. Explanations of the mechanism behind the rheological properties were based on transient network models for associating polymers.

  12. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  13. Anaerobic on-site treatment of black water and dairy parlour wastewater in UASB-septic tanks at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, Sari A; Rintala, Jukka A

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic on-site treatment of synthetic black water (BW) and dairy parlour wastewater (DPWW) was studied in two-phased upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-septic tanks at low temperatures (10-20 degrees C). At all temperatures, total chemical oxygen demand (COD(t)) removal was above 90% with BW and above 80% with DPWW and removal of total suspended solids (TSS) above 90% with both wastewaters. Moreover, dissolved COD (COD(dis)) removal was approx. 70% with both wastewaters indicating good biological activity of the sludges. With BW, a single-phased reactor was found sufficient for good COD removals, while with DPWW, a two-phased process was required. Temperature optimum of reactor sludges was still 35 degrees C after long (398d) operation. Most of the nutrients from BW were removed with TSS, while with DPWW nutrient removal was low. In conclusion, UASB-septic tank was found feasible for (pre)treatment of BW and DPWW at low temperatures.

  14. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total

  15. Effects of human management on black carbon sorption/desorption during a water transfer project: Recognizing impacts and identifying mitigation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Rong; Zhang, Jinliang; Wang, Peichao; Hu, Ronggui; Song, Yantun; Wu, Yupeng; Qiu, Guohong

    2018-05-15

    Water resources management is an important public concern. In this study, we examined the extent of sorption/desorption of trace pollutants to soil black carbon (BC) in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the middle route of the South to North Water Transfer Project in China. In addition, we investigated the main management measures affecting these processes during the project. The results showed that the pseudo second-order model adequately describes the sorption/desorption of phenanthrene on the soil BC in the WLFZ. Water level fluctuation may indirectly influenced BC sorption/desorption by altering water chemistry. Water level residence time had negative effects on BC sorption in short-term experiments (days to months), but the impact gradually diminished with increased residence time. The results suggested that long-term field monitoring of water chemistry is urgent. During the initial period of water transfer, delaying the water supplies as drinking water source or directly irrigating crops could mitigate the adverse impacts. Future research should focus on the water-soluble products of BC degradation. The findings of this study should be useful in improving sustainable management of water resources for water transfer projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of applicability of Electro-Fenton method for the mineralization of naphthol blue black in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ayça Atılır; Özcan, Ali

    2018-07-01

    In this study, mineralization and color removal performance of electro-Fenton method were examined in water containing naphthol blue black (NBB), a diazo dye. NBB was totally converted to intermediate species in a 15-min electrolysis at 60 mA, but complete de-colorization took 180 min. A very high oxidation rate constant ((3.35 ± 0.21) x 10 10  M -1 s -1 ) was obtained for NBB, showing its high reactivity towards hydroxyl radicals. A very high total organic carbon (TOC) removal value (45.23 mg L -1 ) was obtained in the first 60 min of the electro-Fenton treatment of an aqueous solution of NBB (0.25 mM) at 300 mA, indicating the mineralization efficiency of the electro-Fenton method. Mineralization current efficiency values obtained at 300 mA gradually decreased from 24.18% to 4.47% with the electrolysis time, indicating the presence of highly parasitic reactions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the cleavage of azo bonds of NBB led to formation of different aromatic and aliphatic oxidation intermediates. Ion chromatography analysis showed that ammonium, nitrate and sulfate were the mineralization end-products. The concentration of sulfate ion reached to its quantitative value at the 4th h of electrolysis. On the other hand, the total concentration of ammonium and nitrate ions reached to only 61% of the stoichiometric amount of initial nitrogen after a 7 h electrolysis. Finally, it can be said that the electro-Fenton method is a suitable and efficient method for the removal of NBB and its intermediates from water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  18. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  19. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  20. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama): Facilitating Scientific Understanding of the Hydrologic Cycle in Low-Resource Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Stone, K.

    2008-12-01

    Youth, as future citizens, play an important role in obtaining and maintaining water resources. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama) provides off-campus environmental and water-education activities designed to increase the appreciation, knowledge, conservation, and protection of water resources by middle-school teachers and children from predominantly African-American families in some of Alabama's poorest counties. The project is structured around a variety of indoor and outdoor activities held at two field sites, Auburn University's E. V. Smith Center in Macon County and the Robert G. Wehle Nature Center in Bullock County located in Alabama's "Black Belt" region, a region in which the prosperity of local communities is low. The educational activities provide an engaging laboratory and field experience for children from rural schools that lack scientific facilities and equipment. Both hosting centers have easy access to surface water (ponds, wetlands, streams) and offer facilities for basic hydrologic experiments (e.g., aquifer models, permeameter, water quality). The E.V. Smith site has access to groundwater through pairs of nested wells. Educational activities are designed to help students and teachers visualize groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water in an aquifer tank model; compare the hydrologic properties (porosity and permeability) of different aquifer materials (sands, gravels, and clays); learn about groundwater purging and sampling; and assess water quality and flow direction in the field. Simple exercises demonstrate (1) the balance of recharge and discharge, (2) the effects of flooding, drought and pumping, and (3) movement of contaminants through aquifers. A set of ready-to-teach laboratory exercises and tutorials address goals specified by the State of Alabama science curriculum for grades 6 to 8. The ultimate goal of Project WET Alabama is to help students and teachers from resource-poor schools become knowledgeable

  1. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  2. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  3. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of macroalgae Cystoseira used as biomonitor of the Black Sea coastal waters pollution (South-Western Crimea, Sevastopol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, A.V.; Mil'chakova, N.A.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time for Sevastopol region the peculiarities of 26 (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Sm, Nd, Ag, Au and U) macro- and microelements accumulation in the thalli of brown algae Cystoseira from the coastal waters of south-western Crimea (the Black Sea) were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The possibility of using brown algae Cystoseira as a biomonitor of coastal waters pollution was shown

  4. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  5. Insights into the benthic communities response to the inflow of Black Sea mesotrophic waters in the North Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Sevastou, Katerina; Podaras, Dimitrios; Tselepides, Anastasios

    2017-10-01

    The effects of the Dardanelles inflow of buoyant, modified Black Sea waters (BSW) of low salinity and temperature, on the meio- and macrobenthic communities of the north Aegean ecosystem was investigated during two cruises in October 2013 and March 2014. Sediment samples were collected from two stations subjected to the BSW effect, one shallow and one deep north of the Dardanelles Straits, and from two stations of similar bathymetry, which were considered to be outside the influence of BSW and were located to the south of the Dardanelles Straits. Results suggest that there is an effect of the BSW on benthos, as both meiofaunal and macrofaunal standing stocks were lower at the most distant, and therefore least affected from the inflow, station, and higher at the station of similar bathymetry which was affected the most by the BSW inflow. Univariate and multivariate non-parametric analyses (nMDS, PERMANOVA) provided further support, indicating differences between the two areas (North vs. South) in the case of the deep stations, while differences between depth categories were evident in the area outside the BSW influence zone. Distance-based linear modeling (DISTLM) indicated that meiofauna correlated with proxies of food availability and sediment characteristics. Macrofauna, on the other hand, showed a rather high significant correlation with depth only. Nematode species composition was statistically significant different between depth categories only, yet the nMDS ordination clearly separated the deep southern station from the rest, with non-selective deposit feeders dominating the stations under the influence of the BSW, and epistratum feeders being important at the stations outside the influence of the BSW. It is concluded that both the meiofaunal and macrofaunal communities at the northern stations benefit from a constant input of high amounts of organic matter to the seafloor, while those at the southern area may be occasionally affected by the thermohaline BSW

  6. Performance of a lab-scale bio-electrochemical assisted septic tank for the anaerobic treatment of black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamalloa, Carlos; Arends, Jan B A; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2013-06-25

    Septic tanks are used for the removal of organic particulates in wastewaters by physical accumulation instead of through the biological production of biogas. Improved biogas production in septic tanks is crucial to increase the potential of this system for both energy generation and organic matter removal. In this study, the effect on the biogas production and biogas quality of coupling a 20 L lab-scale septic tank with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was investigated and compared with a standard septic tank. Both reactors were operated at a volumetric organic loading rate of 0.5gCOD/Ld and a hydraulic retention time between 20 and 40 days using black water as an input under mesophilic conditions for a period of 3 months. The MEC-septic tank was operated at an applied voltage of 2.0±0.1V and the current experienced ranged from 40 mA (0.9A/m(2) projected electrode area) to 180 mA (5A/m(2) projected electrode area). The COD removal was of the order of 85% and the concentration of residual COD was not different between both reactors. Yet, the total phosphorous in the output was on average 39% lower in the MEC-septic tank. Moreover, the biogas production rate in the MEC-septic tank was a factor of 5 higher than in the control reactor and the H2S concentration in the biogas was a factor of 2.5 lower. The extra electricity supplied to the MEC-septic tank was recovered as extra biogas produced. Overall, it appears that the combination of MEC and a septic tank offers perspectives in terms of lower discharge of phosphorus and H2S, nutrient recuperation and a more reliable supply of biogas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Northern Gulf of Mexico During OAE2 and the Relationship Between Water Depth and Black Shale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Christopher M.; Cunningham, Robert; Barrie, Craig D.; Bralower, Timothy; Snedden, John W.

    2017-12-01

    Despite their name, Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) are not periods of uniform anoxia and black shale deposition in ancient oceans. Shelf environments account for the majority of productivity and organic carbon burial in the modern ocean, and this was likely true in the Cretaceous as well. However, it is unlikely that the mechanisms for such an increase were uniform across all shelf environments. Some, like the northwest margin of Africa, were characterized by strong upwelling, but what might drive enhanced productivity on shelves not geographically suited for upwelling? To address this, we use micropaleontology, carbon isotopes, and sedimentology to present the first record of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) from the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf. Here OAE2 occurred during the deposition of the well-oxygenated, inner neritic/lower estuarine Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstone. The overlying organic-rich oxygen-poor Marine Tuscaloosa Shale is entirely Turonian in age. We trace organic matter enrichment from the Spinks Core into the deepwater Gulf of Mexico, where wireline log calculations and public geochemical data indicate organic enrichment and anoxia throughout the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval. Redox change and organic matter preservation across the Gulf of Mexico shelf were driven by sea level rise prior to the early Turonian highstand, which caused the advection of nutrient-rich, oxygen-poor waters onto the shelf. This results in organic matter mass accumulation rates 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than upwelling sites like the NW African margin, but it likely occurred over a much larger geographic area, suggesting that sea level rise was an important component of the overall increase in carbon burial during OAE2.

  8. Stream Water, Carbon and Total Nitrogen Load Responses to a Simulated Emerald Ash Borer Infestation in Black Ash Dominated Headwater Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grinsven, M. J.; Shannon, J.; Noh, N. J.; Kane, E. S.; Bolton, N. W.; Davis, J.; Wagenbrenner, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Kolka, R.; Pypker, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    The rapid and extensive expansion of emerald ash borer (EAB) is considered an important ecological and economic disturbance, and will likely affect critical ecosystem services associated with black ash wetlands. It is unknown how EAB-induced disturbance in wetlands dominated with black ash will impact stream water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) export dynamics. We hypothesized that loads of water, DOC and TDN exported from black ash wetlands would be elevated following an EAB-induced disturbance. Stream water, DOC and TDN loads exiting two black ash wetlands in headwater watersheds in Michigan were quantified over a four-year period, and were combined with wetland soil temperature and soil decomposition rate monitoring to better understand the biogeochemical implications of an EAB-induced disturbance. After a two-year baseline monitoring period, an EAB disturbance was simulated by felling (ash-cut) all black ash trees with diameters greater than 2.5-cm in one wetland. When compared to the unaltered control, stream water DOC and TDN concentrations exiting the ash-cut wetland were significantly larger by 39% and 38%, respectively during the post-treatment study period. The significantly elevated DOC and TDN concentrations were likely associated with the higher soil temperatures and increased rates of soil decomposition detected in the ash-cut site during the post-treatment period. No significant mean daily stream discharge differences were detected between treatments during the pre-treatment period, however the 0.46 mm d-1 mean daily stream discharge exiting the ash-cut wetland was significantly smaller than the 1.07 mm d-1 exiting the unaltered control during the post-treatment study period. The significantly smaller daily stream discharge in the ash-cut site likely contributed to the fact no significant differences between treatments for either mean daily DOC loads or TDN loads were detected during the post-treatment period

  9. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  10. Seasonal changes of 234Th scavenging in surface water across the western Black Sea: an implication of the cyclonic circulation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Two seasonal surveys of 234 Th activity in surface water were carried out in November 1998 and June 1999 along the transect Sevastopol (Ukraine) - Istanbul (Turkey) crossing the entire western Black Sea between the SW Crimean Peninsula and the Bosphorus Strait entry. A steady-state model of 234 Th/ 238 U equilibrium in seawater was used to calculate the net removal flux of 234 Th by particles. The results obtained from central stations of the transect were in good agreement with those observed seasonally in 1992-1994 within the western cyclonic gyre of the abyssal Black Sea, showing that in June 1999 the sampling was conducted during the peak summer bloom of coccolithophorids, while in November 1998 the samples were collected three weeks after the autumn phytoplankton bloom. The 234 Th scavenging rates and the total mass fluxes were thus much higher in the June sampling period than in November at the stations located in the western cyclonic gyre and at the northern margin of the abyssal Black Sea basin. In contrast, the considerable seasonal differences were not found at the location near the Bosphorus Strait entry, suggesting a larger lateral input of particulate matter transported to this area from the western and northwestern shelf due to cyclonic circulation of the surface waters

  11. [Responses of accumulation-loss patterns for soil organic carbon and its fractions to tillage and water erosion in black soil area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng Zhi; Chen, Xiang Wei; Wang, En Heng

    2017-11-01

    Tillage and water erosion have been recognized as the main factors causing degradation in soil organic carbon (SOC) pools of black soil. To further explore the response of SOC and its fractions to different driving forces of erosion (tillage and water), geostatistical methods were used to analyze spatial patterns of SOC and its three fractions at a typical sloping farmland based on tillage and water erosion rates calculated by local models. The results showed that tillage erosion and deposition rates changed according to the slope positions, decreasing in the order: upper-slope > lower-slope > middle-slope > toe-slope and toe-slope > lower-slope > middle-slope > upper-slope, respectively; while the order of water erosion rates decreased in the order: lower-slope > toe-slope > middle-slope > upper-slope. Tillage and water erosion cooperatively triggered intense soil loss in the lower-slope areas with steep slope gradient. Tillage erosion could affect C cycling through the whole slope at different levels, although the rate of tillage erosion (0.02-7.02 t·hm -2 ·a -1 ) was far less than that of water erosion (5.96-101.17 t·hm -2 ·a -1 ) in black soil area. However, water erosion only played a major role in controlling C dynamics in the runoff-concentrated lower slope area. Affected by water erosion and tillage erosion-deposition disturbance, the concentrations of SOC, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in depositional areas were higher than in erosional areas, however, microbial biomass carbon showed an opposite trend. Tillage erosion dominated SOC dynamic by depleting particulate organic carbon.

  12. Prestudy: Anaerobic digestion with primary hydrolysis from increased methane production in waste water treatment plants band biogas plants; Foerstudie: Roetning med inledande hydrolyssteg foer utoekad metanutvinning paa avloppsreningsverk och biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Emelie; Ossiansson, Elin (BioMil AB, Lund (Sweden)); Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina; Olsson, Lars-Erik (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    Anaerobic degradation of organic matter is a multi-step process through the action of various groups of microorganisms whose optimum conditions can differ considerably regarding e.g. nutrient and pH demand, sensitivity for changes and patterns for growth and nutrient uptake. One way of optimizing the anaerobic digestion process, and thereby increase the biogas production and the reduction of organic matter, can be to physically divide the anaerobic digestion process in two steps consisting of an initial hydrolysis and acid production step followed by a methane production step in an anaerobic digester. One problem with the biogas processes of today is that not all organic matter that is added to the process becomes available for conversion into biogas. This is particularly evident in digestion of waste water treatment sludge where almost half of the organic matter added remains after anaerobic digestion. More efficient utilization of substrate in biogas plants is an important element to increase the profitability of biogas production. The possibility to use different pre-treatment methods is being discussed to increase the degree of conversion of organic matter into biogas in the digester. Pre-treatment methods are often energy as well as cost demanding and can require the addition of chemicals. To use the microbiological steps in the biogas process more efficiently by adding an initial hydrolysis step is a method that does not require the usage of chemicals or increased energy consumption. This pre-study is based on literature studies related to anaerobic digestion with initial biological hydrolysis and collected knowledge from full-scale plants, universities and suppliers of equipment. Nearly 70 published scientific articles relevant to the subject have been found in the performed literature searches. The articles have been subdivided according to the purpose of each article. A large part of the articles have concerned modelling of anaerobic digestion why a

  13. Study of seasonal dynamics of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants from the surface water layer of the Black Sea during 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Krivenko, O.V.; Stokozov, N.A.; Zherko, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A series of regular measurements of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen) and pollutants (mercury, polychlorided biphenyls) from the surface water layer was carried out with 1-2 month interval between the measurements using 234 Th in the region of western cyclonic circulation of the Black Sea. It allowed to estimate the seasonal dynamics and to obtain average annual values of dientrophication and sedimentational self-purification of the euphotic zone of the Western part of the Black Sea. The parallel measurements of the rates of sedimentation evacuation of suspended organic nitrogen from the euphotic zone, which were performed using 234 Th and determining the so called products of phitoplankton by the absorption of 15 N traced nitrates and ammonium, give practically identical results. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Interannual variability of Danube waters propagation in summer period of 1992-2015 and its influence on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The propagation of the Danube River plume has strong interannual variability that impacts the local balance of nutrients and the thermohaline structure in the western Black Sea. In the present study, we use a particle-tracking model based on satellite altimetry measurements and wind reanalysis data, as well as satellite measurements (SeaWiFS, MODIS), to investigate the interannual variability in the Danube plume pathways during the summer from 1993 to 2015. The wind conditions largely define the variability in the Danube water propagation. Relatively low-frequency variability (on periods of a week to months) in the wind stress curl modulates the intensity of the geostrophic Rim Current and related mesoscale eddy dynamics. High-frequency offshore wind-drift currents transport the plume across isobaths and provide an important transport link between shelf and offshore circulation. Inherent plume dynamics play an additional role in the near-mouth transport of the plume and its connection with offshore circulation. During the years with prevailing northeast winds ( 30% of studied cases), which are usually accompanied by increased wind curl over the Black Sea and higher Danube discharge, an alongshore southward current at the NorthWestern Shelf (NWS) is formed near the western Black Sea coast. Advected southward, the Danube waters are entrained in the Rim Current jet, which transports them along the west coast of the basin. The strong Rim Current, fewer eddies and downwelling winds substantially decrease the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients. During the years with prevailing southeastern winds ( 40%), the Rim Current is less intense. Mesoscale eddies effectively trap the Danube waters, transporting them to the deep western part of the basin. The low- and high-frequency southeastern wind-drift currents contribute significantly to cross-isobath plume transport and its connection with offshore circulation. During several years ( 15%), the Danube waters moved eastward to

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Support and Modeling for the Boiling Water Reactor Station Black Out Case Study Using RELAP and RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Riley, Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schroeder, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Aldrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nielsen, Joe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Dan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated. In order to evaluate the impact of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the impact of power uprate on the safety of a boiled water reactor system. The case study considered is a loss of off-site power followed by the loss of diesel generators, i.e., a station black out (SBO) event. Analysis is performed by using a thermo-hydraulic code, i.e. RELAP-5, and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at INL, i.e. RAVEN. Starting from the event tree models contained in SAPHIRE, we built the input file for RELAP-5 that models in great detail system dynamics under SBO conditions. We also interfaced RAVEN with RELAP-5 so that it would be possible to run multiple RELAP-5 simulation runs by changing specific keywords of the input file. We both employed classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. We also employed advanced data analysis and visualization tools that helped us to correlate simulation outcome such as maximum core temperature with a set of input uncertain parameters. Results obtained gave a detailed overview of the issues associated to power uprate for a SBO accident scenario. We were able to quantify how timing of safety related events were impacted by a higher reactor core power. Such insights can provide useful material to the decision makers to perform risk-infomed safety margins management.

  16. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum

  17. Effect of volatile and acid accumulation in dung digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, G; Pathak, B N

    1966-01-01

    In continuation of laboratory experiments on the anaerobic digestion of cow dung experiments were carried out to determine the limiting concentrations of volatile acids and to investigate methods of regenerating digestion after failure. Volatile acids were increased by adding acetic acid to digesting dung slurry; digestion failed completely when volatile-acid concentration was 6194 mg per litre, at pH 4.4. Attempts were made to regenerate digestion by adding lime, after dilution with water, but although over a period the volatile-acid content was reduced from 5650 to 3730 mg per litre, and the pH value rose on average from 4.5 to 6.3, gas production remained at a low value until additional digested slurry was introduced, leading to resumption of normal digestion.

  18. Available and unavailable carbohydrate content of black gram(Vigna Mungo) and chick-pea (Cicer Arietinum) as affected by soaking and cooking processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia-ur-Rehman; Rashid, M.; Salariya, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of soaking (Tap water, sodium bicarbonate solution) and cooking in tap water were investigated on available and unavailable carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick-peas. Available carbohydrates including total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch contents of these two legumes decreased to various extents as a result of soaking and cooking. From 3.43 - 25.63% total soluble sugars and 4.26 - 22.70% starch contents were lost on soaking black grams and chick-peas in tap water and sodium bicarbonate solution. Maximum amounts of total soluble sugars (28.43 - 59.64%) and starch contents (29.93 - 67.40%) were lost on cooking the water and alkali soaked legumes. However, these losses were comparatively less in case of water soaking process. Soaking and cooking processes also brought about some changes in the profile of unavailable carbohydrates of black grams and chick-peas. Soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution led to an appreciable increase of hemicellulose (42.50 - 54.31%) and NDF (28.69 - 30.68%) but not in legumes soaked in tap water. However, cooking process caused reduction in NDF (19.25 - 41.04%), ADF (5.48 - 25.31%), cellulose (12.88 - 28.42%) and hemicellulose (31.86 - 59.37%). Lignin contents of these legumes increased to some extents on cooking whereas it remained unchanged as a result of soaking. Starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas was markedly improved after cooking. However, no appreciable improvement in starch digestibility was observed after soaking these legumes in tap water or alkaline solution.(author)

  19. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  20. Utilizing remote sensing data for modeling water and heat regimes of the Black Earth Region territory of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Uspensky, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    At present physical-mathematical modeling processes of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered land surfaces and atmosphere is the most appropriate method to describe peculiarities of water and heat regime formation for large territories. The developed model of such processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) is intended for calculation evaporation, transpiration by vegetation, soil water content and other water and heat regime characteristics, as well as distributions of the soil temperature and humidity in depth utilizing remote sensing data from satellites on land surface and meteorological conditions. The model parameters and input variables are the soil and vegetation characteristics and the meteorological characteristics, correspondingly. Their values have been determined from ground-based observations or satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10. The case study has been carried out for the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth region with coordinates 49.5 deg. - 54 deg. N, 31 deg. - 43 deg. E and a total area of 227,300 km2 located in the steppe-forest zone of the European Russia for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. From AVHRR data there have been derived the estimates of three types of land surface temperature (LST): land surface skin temperature Tsg, air-foliage temperature Ta and efficient radiation temperature Ts.eff, emissivity E, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, leaf area index LAI, cloudiness and precipitation. From MODIS data the estimates of LST Tls, E, NDVI and LAI have been obtained. The SEVIRI data have been used to build the estimates of Tls, Ta, E, LAI and precipitation. Previously developed method and technology of above AVHRR-derived estimates have been improved and adapted to the study area. To check the reliability of the Ts.eff and Ta estimations for named seasons the error statistics of their definitions has been analyzed through

  1. The hydro digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheil, Hermann [Itaipu Mondig, Power Generation Group (KWU), Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Digest WK is an analysis and diagnostics system for turbine generators in large hydroelectric plant: it was developed from the Digest system which has been used in steam turbine plants for many years. The system is in use at the world's biggest hydro plant in Itaipu Binacional between Paraguay and Brazil. The system is described under the sub-headings of (a) monitoring concept; (b) the Digest WK system; (c) vibration monitoring; (d) generator temperature analysis and (e) outlook.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  3. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  4. Application of non-thermal plasma reactor for degradation and detoxification of high concentrations of dye Reactive Black 5 in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation and detoxification efficiency of high concentrations of commercially available reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 solution (40, 80, 200, 500, 1000 mg L-1, were studied. Advanced oxidation processes in water falling film based dielectric barrier discharge as a non-thermal plasma reactor were used. For the first time, this reactor was used for the treatment of high concentrations of organic pollutants such as reactive textile dye Reactive Black 5 in water. Solution of the dye is treated by plasma as thin water solution film that is constantly regenerated. Basically, the reactor works as a continuous flow reactor and the electrical discharge itself takes place at the gas-liquid interphase. The dye solution was recirculated through the reactor with an applied energy density of 0-374 kJ L-1. Decolorization efficiency (% was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometric technique. Samples were taken after every recirculation (~ 22 kJ L-1 and decolorization percent was measured after 5 min and 24 h of plasma treatment. The efficiency of degradation (i.e. mineralization and possible degradation products were also tracked by determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and by ion chromatography (IC. Initial toxicity and toxicity of solutions after the treatment were studied with Artemia salina test organisms. Efficiency of decolorization decreased with the increase of the dye concentration. Complete decolorization, high mineralization and non-toxicity of the solution (<10 % were acomplished after plasma treatment using energy density of 242 kJ L-1, while the initial concentrations of Reactive Black 5 were 40 and 80 mg L-1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172030 i br. 171034

  5. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  6. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  7. Evaluation of water quality and best management practices (BMPs) in the Black Creek Watershed using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint sources of runoff from agricultural lands are believed to be responsible for elevated nutrient and sediment levels in the Black Creek Watershed (BCW). This watershed located in Shelby County in Northeast Missouri covers an area of 140 km2. The purpose of this project was to quantify sedimen...

  8. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    The operation of household scale anaerobic digesters is typically based on diluted animal dung, requiring stabled livestock and adequate water availability. This excludes many rural households in low-income countries from the benefits of a domestic biogas digester. Solid state anaerobic digestion...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... dome digester indicated that SSAD can reduce process water demand and the digester volume necessary to supply a given biogas demand....

  9. Digestive morphophysiology of Gryllodes sigillatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagio, Fernanda P; Tamaki, Fabio K; Terra, Walter R; Ribeiro, Alberto F

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of the digestive system in the Order Orthoptera is disclosed from the study of the morphophysiology of the digestive process in its major taxa. This paper deals with a cricket representing the less known suborder Ensifera. Most amylase and trypsin activities occur in crop and caeca, respectively. Maltase and aminopeptidase are found in soluble and membrane-bound forms in caeca, with aminopeptidase also occurring in ventriculus. Amaranth was orally fed to Gryllodes sigillatus adults or injected into their haemolymph. The experiments were performed with starving and feeding insects with identical results. Following feeding of the dye the luminal side of the most anterior ventriculus (and in lesser amounts the midgut caeca) became heavily stained. In injected insects, the haemal side of the most posterior ventriculus was stained. This suggested that the anterior ventriculus is the main site of water absorption (the caeca is a secondary one), whereas the posterior ventriculus secretes water into the gut. Thus, a putative counter-current flux of fluid from posterior to anterior ventriculus may propel digestive enzyme recycling. This was confirmed by the finding that digestive enzymes are excreted at a low rate. The fine structure of midgut caeca and ventriculus cells revealed that they have morphological features that may be related to their involvement in secretion (movement from cell to lumen) and absorption (movement from lumen to cell) of fluids. Furthermore, morphological data showed that both merocrine and apocrine secretory mechanisms occur in midgut cells. The results showed that cricket digestion differs from that in grasshopper in having: (1) more membrane-bound digestive enzymes; (2) protein digestion slightly displaced toward the ventriculus; (3) midgut fluxes, and hence digestive enzyme recycling, in both starved and fed insects.

  10. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  11. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  12. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa Area, northeastern Arizona: 2000-2001, and performance and sensitivity of the 1988 USGS numerical model of the N aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in Black Mesa has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2000, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,740 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,490 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,250 acre-feet. From 1999 to 2000, total withdrawals increased by 9 percent, industrial use increased by 7 percent, and municipal use increased by 12 percent. From 1999 to 2001, water levels declined in 10 of 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.4 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 16 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.2 foot. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2001, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -17.2 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.2 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.0 feet for 18 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 1999 and once in 2001 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 5 percent and 33 percent at two springs and increased by 3 percent and 81 percent at two springs. For about the past 10 years, discharges did not significantly change in Burro Spring, the unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and Moenkopi School Spring. The record of discharge from a consistent measuring point for Pasture Canyon Spring is too short for statistical analysis of trends. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected

  13. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  14. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  15. Estimation of Sector-Resolved Effects of Dust and Black Carbon Emissions on Water Resources in the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, T. M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kleiman, G.; Winijkul, E.; Shindell, D. T.; Adams-Selin, R.; Hunt, E. D.; Brodowski, C. M.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Faluvegi, G.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change from greenhouse gases (GHGs) and regional changes caused by aerosols, including dust and black carbon, are impacting seasonal snowpacks, long-term mass balance of glaciers, and water availability in mountain regions. In particular, the basins originating in the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush (HKHK) are home to over 1 billion people who depend on water resources from these mountain headwaters for a wide variety of purposes. Disentangling the effects of GHGs and aerosols on water resources is therefore important to facilitate the design of regional aerosol emissions policies that positively impact water resources - as well as air quality - over multiple time horizons. To assess the atmospheric transport of aerosols, we run WRF-Chem v3.6.1 for South Asia, with aerosol emissions corresponding to a modified version of the ECLIPSE 5a emissions inventory and global climate simulated by GISS-E2-R with prognostic aerosol characterization including aerosol-cloud interactions with cloud microphysics. The future scenarios include a no further controls (NFC) scenario, as well as a mitigation (MIT) scenario, in which aerosol emissions within South Asia are reduced substantially but emissions outside the region are maintained at NFC levels. Using tagged tracers, we estimate the emissions contributions from diesel fuel, industry, solid fuel, open burning, and biomass burning; we also track emissions by country within the region and emissions from outside the region. These simulations are used as boundary conditions to the modular, process-based Conceptual Cryosphere Hydrology Framework (CCHF) v2. To account for effects of black carbon and dust on snow and ice albedo, we add a light absorbing impurities (LAI) module to CCHF. By combining WRF-Chem boundary conditions and CCHF land process representations we are able to efficiently run multiple 1 km multi-year simulations with a daily time step for the entire HKHK region and assess the relative

  16. Photodegradation of Acid Black 1 and Removing Heavy Metals from the Water by an Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized via Simple Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Mohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, PbS/ZnS/ZnO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple co-precipitation method. The effect of Zn2+/Pb2+ mole ratio was investigated on the product size and morphology. The products were characterized via scanning electron microscopy to obtain product size and morphology. The optical properties of the nanocomposites were studied by ultra violet-visible spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity of the product was examine by decomposition of acid black 1 as dye. To investigation of the effect of as synthesized nanocomposite on the water treatment, the influences of the nanocomposite to remove heavy ions was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the synthesized nanocomposite has well optical properties, photocatalytic and water treatment activities.

  17. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A monthly newsletter with evidence-based information on ... require a viewer such as the free Adobe Reader . NCCIH Publication No.: D268 Updated: September 2016 Print ...

  18. The behavior of scavenged isotopes in marine anoxic environments: 210Pb and 210Po in the water column of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.L.; Murray, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved and particulate 210 Pb and 210 Po were determined at two stations in the Black Sea in June 1988. Vertical fluxes of 210 Pb and 210 Po were also measured in the upper 150 m, using floating sediment traps. The fractionation of 210 Pb between dissolved and particulate phases in the Black Sea is strongly influenced by the redox conditions in the water column. Dissolved 210 Pb dominates in the oxic zone, while particulate 210 Pb is the major form in the deep sulfide-rich anoxic zone. The distribution of 210 Pb across the suboxic zone appears to be mainly controlled by redox cycling of manganese and iron. In the sulfide-rich layer coprecipitation of lead with iron sulfide is probably the dominant scavenging mechanism. A simple scavenging model was used to calculate the residence times of dissolved and particulate 210 Pb in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zones. The residence times of dissolved 210 Pb relative to scavenging by particles are 0.5-1, 2-3, and 3.5 years in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic layers, respectively. The corresponding residence times of particulate 210 Pb relative to particle removal processes in the same layers are 0.1, 1.5-2.5, and 8.5 years, respectively. A particle settling velocity of about 40 m y -1 was derived from the 210 Pb/ 226 Ra disequilibrium in the deep Black Sea. The relatively short residence times of 210 Pb support the hypothesis that anoxic basins are important sites for boundary scavenging of 210 Pb. The 210 Po profiles indicate that biological rather than inorganic particles are the major carrier phases for Po in the Black sea. Based on the magnitude of distribution coefficients, the relative partitioning of Pb, Po, and Th to particles found in the oxic and anoxic layers of the Black Sea are Po > Th > Pb and Po = Pb > Th, respectively. Colloidal phases may be important for the scavenging of these radionuclides

  19. Teaching and Learning about the Earth. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyonyong

    This ERIC Digest investigates the earth and space science guidelines of the National Science Education Standards. These guidelines are frequently referred to as the earth system and include components such as plate tectonics, the water cycle, and the carbon cycle. This Digest describes the development of earth systems science and earth systems…

  20. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  1. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  2. Temporal variability of the microbial food web (viruses to ciliates under the influence of the Black Sea Water inflow (N. Aegean, E. Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GIANNAKOUROU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Τhe entire pelagic microbial food web was studied during the winter-spring period in the frontal area of the North Aegean Sea. Abundance of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, auto- and hetero-trophic flagellates, and ciliates, as well as bacterial production, were measured at three stations (MD1, MD2, MD3 situated along a N-S transect between the area directly influenced by the inflowing Black Sea water and the area covered by the Levantine water. Samples were collected in December 2009, and January, March, April, and May 2011. Station MD1 exhibited the highest values of abundance and integrated biomass of all microbial groups and bacterial production during all months, and MD3 the lowest. Bacteria dominated the total integrated biomass at all stations and months, followed by cyanobacteria, auto-, hetero-trophic flagellates and ciliates. On a temporal scale, the microbial food web was less important in March as all microbial parameters at all stations showed the lowest values. After the phytoplankton bloom in March, the heterotrophic part of the microbial food web (mainly strongly increased, though the intensity of the phenomenon was diminished from North to South. Pico-sized plankton was found to be heterotrophic whereas nanoplankton was autotrophic. It seems that the influence of the Black Sea water on station MD1, permanent throughout the study period of early winter to late spring, was reflected in all microbial populations studied, and produced a more productive pelagic food web system, with potential consequences for the upper trophic levels.

  3. Effect of volumetric organic loading rate (OLR) on H2 and CH4 production by two-stage anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and brown water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sachin; Kang, Youngjun; Yoo, Yeong-Seok; Seo, Gyu Tae

    2017-03-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion system consisting of two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) operating at mesophillic conditions (37°C) were studied. The aim of this study is to determine optimum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of the two-stage anaerobic digester system for hydrogen and methane production. This paper also discusses the effect of OLR with change in HRT on the system. Four different HRTs of 48, 24, 12, 8h were monitored for acidogenic reactor, which provided OLR of 17.7, 34.8, 70.8, 106gVS/L·d respectively. Two HRTs of 15days and 20days were studied with OLR of 1.24 and 1.76gVS/L·d respectively in methanogenic reactor. Hydrogen production at higher OLR and shorter HRT seemed favorable 106gVS/L·d (8h) in acidogenic reactor system. In methanogenic reactor system HRT of 20day with OLR of 1.24gVS/L·d was found optimum in terms of methane production and organic removal. The result of this study illustrated the optimum HRT of 8h and 20days in acidogenic stage and methanogenic stage for maximum hydrogen and methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 238U series isotopes and 232Th in carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya: implications to dissolved uranium abundances in Ganga-Indus source waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Dalai, Tarun K.; Krishnaswami, S.

    2003-01-01

    238 U and 232 Th concentrations and the extent of 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th radioactive equilibrium have been measured in a suite of Precambrian carbonates and black shales from the Lesser Himalaya. These measurements were made to determine their abundances in these deposits, their contributions to dissolved uranium budget of the headwaters of the Ganga and the Indus in the Himalaya and to assess the impact of weathering on 238 U- 234 U- 230 Th radioactive equilibrium in them. 238 U concentrations in Precambrian carbonates range from 0.06 to 2.07 μg g -1 . The 'mean' U/Ca in these carbonates is 2.9 ng U mg -1 Ca. This ratio, coupled with the assumption that all Ca in the Ganga-Indus headwaters is of carbonate origin and that U and Ca behave conservatively in rivers after their release from carbonates, provides an upper limit on the U contribution from these carbonates, to be a few percent of dissolved uranium in rivers. There are, however, a few streams with low uranium concentrations, for which the carbonate contribution could be much higher. These results suggest that Precambrian carbonates make only minor contributions to the uranium budget of the Ganga-Indus headwaters in the Himalaya on a basin wide scale, however, they could be important for particular streams. Similar estimates of silicate contribution to uranium budget of these rivers using U/Na in silicates and Na* (Na corrected for cyclic and halite contributions) in river waters show that silicates can contribute significantly (∼40% on average) to their U balance. If, however, much of the uranium in these silicates is associated with weathering resistant minerals, then the estimated silicate uranium component would be upper limits. Uranium concentration in black shales averages about 37 μg g -1 . Based on this concentration, supply of U from at least ∼50 mg of black shales per liter of river water is needed to balance the average river water U concentration, 1.7 μg L -1 in the Ganga-Indus headwaters

  5. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  6. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  7. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  8. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  10. Abundance and Summer Distribution of a Local Stock of Black Sea Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Cetacea, Delphinidae, in Coastal Waters near Sudak (Ukraine, Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladilina E. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first assessment of abundance of a local population of bottlenose dolphins in the Black Sea (near the Sudak coast in 2011–2012 has been conducted: the results of a mark-recapture study of photo identified animals were complemented by a vessel line transect survey. The overall abundance of a population was estimated at between 621 ± 198 and 715 ± 267 animals (Chapman and Petersen estimates, and the majority of members of the population were recorded in the surveyed area. The summer range covered the area of a few hundred square kilometers, similar to migrating coastal stocks in other world regions. The greatest density of distribution was observed in August in sea 45–60 m deep; in addition, frequent approaches to the coastline are usual for dolphins of this stock. These trends in distribution may be partly explained by distribution of prey. Interaction with sprat trawling fisheries can be a factor shaping the local population structure. Coastal waters of Sudak and adjoining sea areas are an important habitat for bottlenose dolphins in the northern Black Sea, significant for their conservation.

  11. Otolith shape analysis as a tool for stock discrimination of the black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839 (Pisces: Trichiuridae, in Portuguese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Farias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The variability in otolith contour shape of black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo from Portuguese waters was analysed for stock discrimination purposes. The contour shape of otoliths from specimens caught off mainland Portugal, Madeira and Azores archipelagos was digitised and extracted according to the closed-form Fourier analysis technique. Mainland and Madeira specimens were compared through the adjustment of a MANOVA model to the normalised elliptic Fourier descriptor (NEFDs obtained for the otoliths of 200 females and 200 males sampled at each area. Significant differences were found between areas and between sexes; the interaction term was not statistically significant. The effect of the area also proved to be significant when samples from the three regions were considered. These results were further supported by the discriminant analysis of the individual NEFDs for which the correct classifications were 87.5-89% when they were considered by sex and total length for the mainland and Madeira, and 90.9-97.7%, when NEFDs from the three areas were compared by sex and fish length. Otolith contour shape was shown to be a possible tool for differentiating between black scabbardfish stocks in the NE Atlantic.

  12. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  13. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Yield, Component Yield and Essential Oil of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the production of medicinal plants can be influenced by environmental factors such as water limitation. In other hand salicylic acid as a plant regulator can enhance drought resistance in plants. In order to investigate the effect of different irrigation intervals on yield, yield components and essential oil of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted a farm located in West Azerbaijan province- city Nagadeh, West- Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2011- 2012. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrigation intervals (6, 12 and 18 days and three levels of salicylic acid concentration (0, 0.5 and 1 mM considered as in main plots and sub-plots, respectively. Results showed that irrigation had significant effects on all characteristics such as Plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield with the exception of 1000- seed weight. With increasing irrigation intervals from 6 to 18 days, plant height, number of follicule per plant, number of seed per follicule, biological yield, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield were decreased up to 49, 52, 40, 35, 43, 20 and 55 %, respectively. In contrast, yield components and yield were enhanced up to treatments 0.5 mM of salicylic acid. Grain yield and essential oil yield with application of 0.5 mM salicylic acid increased up to 13 and 11 % compared to control, respectively. It seems that due to the limited sources of water in the region irrigation after 12 days and 0.5 mM salicylic acid concentration are suitable for black cumin grain production.

  14. Water use in forest canopy black cherry trees and its relationship to leaf gas exchange and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Joyce; K. C. Steiner; J. M. Skelly

    1996-01-01

    Models of canopy gas exchange are needed to connect leaf-level measurement to higher scales. Because of the correspondence between leaf gas exchange and water use, it may be possible to predict variation in leaf gas exchange at the canopy level by monitoring rates of branch water use.

  15. Pressurized wet digestion in open vessels (T11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettisch, P.; Maichin, P.; Zischka, M.; Knapp, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Pressurized wet digestion in closed vessels, microwave assisted or with conventional conductive heating, is the most important sample preparation technique for digestion or leaching procedures in element analysis. In comparison to open vessel digestion closed vessel digestion methods have many advantages, but there is one disadvantage - complex and expensive vessel designs. A new technique - pressurized wet digestion in open vessels - combine the advantages of closed vessel sample digestion with the application of simple and cheap open vessels made of quartz or PFA. The vessels are placed in a high pressure Asher HPA, which is adapted with a Teflon liner and filled partly with water. The analytical results with 30 ml quartz vessels, 22 ml PFA vessels and 1.5 ml PIA auto sampler cups will be shown. In principle every dimensions of vessels can be used. The vessels are loaded with sample material (max. 1.5 g with quartz vessels, max. 0.5 g with PFA vessels and 50 mg with auto sampler cups) and digestion reagent. Afterwards the vessels are simply covered with PTFE stoppers and not sealed. The vessels are transferred into a special adapted HPA and digested at temperatures up to 270 o C. The digestion time is 90 min. and cooling down to room temperature 30 min. The analytical results of CRM's are within the certified values and no cross contamination and losses of volatile elements could be observed. (author)

  16. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  17. Some effects of aeration on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhywapathanapun, S

    1972-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of meat works waste water is made possible by separating the sludge solids, after which necessary amounts of the concentrated sludge are returned to the digester. Sludge recirculation prolongs solid retention time in the digester. However, sludge separation by gravitational sedimentation is almost impossible because the sludge tends to rise with the continuous gassing. Therefore treatment of the sludge suspension prior to sedimentation is necessary for effective solid separation. The present study examined aeration degasification as a method for sludge suspension pretreatment and found that the rates of aeration of 0.75 to 1.0 VVM (0.12 to 0.16 cubic foot of air per gallon of mixed liquor per minute) were optimal for aeration degasification. The toxic effects on the anaerobic bacteria were small, daily gas production being reduced by only 5%.

  18. Water use characteristics of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) communities along an ecotone with marsh at a northern geographical limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Hester, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are expanding into warm temperate-zone salt marsh communities in several locations globally. Although scientists have discovered that expansion might have modest effects on ecosystem functioning, water use characteristics have not been assessed relative to this transition. We measured early growing season sapflow (Js) and leaf transpiration (Tr) in Avicennia germinans at a latitudinal limit along the northern Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana, United States) under both flooded and drained states and used these data to scale vegetation water use responses in comparison with Spartina alterniflora. We discovered strong convergence when using either Js or Tr for determining individual tree water use, indicating tight connection between transpiration and xylem water movement in small Avicennia trees. When Tr data were combined with leaf area indices for the region with the use of three separate approaches, we determined that Avicennia stands use approximately 1·0–1·3 mm d–1 less water than Spartina marsh. Differences were only significant with the use of two of the three approaches, but are suggestive of net conservation of water as Avicennia expands into Spartina marshes at this location. Average Js for Avicennia trees was not influenced by flooding, but maximum Js was greater when sites were flooded. Avicennia and Spartina closest to open water (shoreline) used more water than interior locations of the same assemblages by an average of 1·3 mm d−1. Lower water use by Avicennia may indicate a greater overall resilience to drought relative to Spartina, such that aperiodic drought may interact with warmer winter temperatures to facilitate expansion of Avicennia in some years.

  19. Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester vessel, RADTU recently completed a six-month campaign of processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During the campaign, 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes were processed at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h (limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds). On-line operating efficiency was nearly 50%, averaged over 12 hours/day, for five days/week. After shutdown, a new annular high-rate digester was installed for testing that demonstrated a sustained capacity of 8 kg/h to 10 kg/h with greatly improved contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new unit began processing low-level waste from Hanford's z-Plant during June 1980. Plutonium levels in the waste processed will be increased gradually as operating experience has been gained. Processing recoverable scrap is expected to begin in the last quarter of CY 1980

  20. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia produce biogas either directly from the wastewater or from anaerobic digestion of the primary and/or secondary sludge, which in turn is used to create energy. Some WWTPs produce electricity from the biogas to either support the treatment plant or to export the electricity to the grid or both. High-strength organic wastes such as fats, oil and grease, food waste, commercial (restaurant) waste and brewery waste are attractive biogas sources that can be realised through co-digestion with the sludge from wastewater treatment. Co-digestion of high-strength waste can be a tricky business due to the varying nature of the waste, special handling requirements, and potential digester process issues like foaming. However, experiences over the past decade have helped identify mitigation measures and advanced designs to reduce these risks. Several WWTPs in the US accept fats, oil and grease (FOG) as a feedstock for co-digestion, and CH2M Hill has been involved in various capacities on some of those projects. The Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Johnson County, Kansas, includes an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of FOG wastes from local restaurants and industrial sources. FOG waste receipts are handled using a separate onsite liquid receiving facility, and the FOG tanks and pipes are heated to minimise clogging. Co-digestion of FOG enhanced the gas production to fuel a 2.1 megawatt biogas co-generation system. Other CH2M Hill FOG co-digestion projects are FOG addition to the incinerator at the Hampton Roads Sanitation District in Virginia; FOG co-digestion at the Pinellas County in Florida; and FOG co-digestion and co-generation at the Essex Junction in Vermont. This experience was recently expanded to the co-digestion of other high-strength organic waste for Yarra Valley Water (YVW) and City West Water (CWW) in Victoria. The potential high-strength waste

  1. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  2. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  4. Modeling flow inside an anaerobic digester by CFD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Alexandra Martinez; Jimenez, P. Amparo Lopez [Departmento do Ingenieria Hidralica y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera S/N 46022 (Spain); Martinez, Tatiana Montoya; Monanana, Vincente Fajardo [Grupo Aquas de Valencia. Avenida Marques del Turia 19 46005 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are used to treat high strength organic wastewater as well as for the treatment of primary and secondary sludge from conventional wastewater treatment plants. In these processes, heterotrophic microorganisms convert biodegradable organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide in the absence of dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Some of the most important aspects of the design of anaerobic digesters are related to hydraulic considerations. In spite of its important role in performance, hydraulics of flow inside digesters has not been quantified or adequately characterized. In this contribution a three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation has been performed for a particular anaerobic digester, in order to visualize the flow patterns. Flow and velocities profiles have been represented inside the digester to identify possible dead zones or stratifications. The geometry of a real digester installed in Valencia Waste Water Treatment Plant (located in Quart-Benager, Valencia, Spain) has been used in order to consider the proposed methodology.

  5. Parameterization of light absorption by components of seawater in optically complex coastal waters of the Crimea Peninsula (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Egor V; Khomenko, Georges; Chami, Malik; Sokolov, Anton A; Churilova, Tatyana Y; Korotaev, Gennady K

    2009-03-01

    The absorption of sunlight by oceanic constituents significantly contributes to the spectral distribution of the water-leaving radiance. Here it is shown that current parameterizations of absorption coefficients do not apply to the optically complex waters of the Crimea Peninsula. Based on in situ measurements, parameterizations of phytoplankton, nonalgal, and total particulate absorption coefficients are proposed. Their performance is evaluated using a log-log regression combined with a low-pass filter and the nonlinear least-square method. Statistical significance of the estimated parameters is verified using the bootstrap method. The parameterizations are relevant for chlorophyll a concentrations ranging from 0.45 up to 2 mg/m(3).

  6. The candelabra tree (Euphorbia ingens: a source of water for black rhinoceros in Liwonde National Park, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Dudley

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of two rhinoceros into a 15 km2 fenced sanctuary within Liwonde National Park provided an opportunity for close observation of the animals feeding on the toxic succulent Euphorbia ingens. Feeding invariably caused the death of the plant and for plants with basal diameters between 5-17 cm, mortality ranged from 40-90 . During the severe drought of 1994 rhinoceros did not drink from the artificial waterhole from approximately 15 July to at least 23 September. As this waterhole was the only source of free water it is believed that the rhinoceros obtained their water from browsing on E. ingens.

  7. Recovery of black-necked swans, macrophytes and water quality in a Ramsar wetland of southern Chile: Assessing resilience following sudden anthropogenic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Lagos, Nelson A; Labra, Fabio A; Paredes, Enrique; Acuña, Emilio; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Velásquez, Carlos; Duarte, Cristian

    2018-07-01

    In 2004 migration and mortality for unknown reasons of the herbivorous Black necked swan (Cygnus melancorhyphus (Molina, 1782)) occurred within the Río Cruces wetland (southern Chile), a Ramsar Site and nature sanctuary. Before 2004, this wetland hosted the largest breeding population of this water bird in the Neotropic Realm. The concurrent decrease in the spatial occurrence of the aquatic plant Egeria densa Planch. 1849 - the main food source of swans - was proposed as a cause for swan migration and mortality. Additionally, post-mortem analyses carried out on swans during 2004 showed diminished body weight, high iron loads and histopathological abnormalities in their livers, suggesting iron storage disease. Various hypotheses were postulated to describe those changes; the most plausible related to variations in water quality after a pulp mill located upstream the wetland started to operate in February 2004. Those changes cascaded throughout the stands of E. densa whose remnants had high iron contents in their tissues. Here we present results of a long-term monitoring program of the wetland components, which show that swan population abundance, body weights and histological liver conditions recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 2012. The recovery of E. densa and iron content in plants throughout the wetland, also returned to pre-disturbance levels in the same 8-year time period. These results show the temporal scale over which resilience and natural restoring processes occur in wetland ecosystems of temperate regions such as southern Chile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive System Symptoms & Causes How to Prepare for Tests ... Part in Studies Resources Publications Library En Español Digestive Health Matters Medical Definitions Links Books of Interest ...

  9. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBESITY AND YOUR DIGESTIVE HEALTH Do You Know Your GI Risks? A Patient Education Resource from the American College of Gastroenterology GI Specialists ... reduce the quality and longevity of your life. Digestive Disorders Associated with Obesity Esophagus Gallbladder Pancreas Colon ...

  10. Water Quality Management Studies, Middle Black Warrior and Lower Tombigbee Rivers, Warrior and Demopolis Lakes, July 1978-October 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Environmental Samples, ~ Health Effects Research Laboratory, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, December, 1976. 7...Family Sapindaceae Genus cardiosperrum halicacabwn Family Malvaceae Genus Hibiscus moecheutos 0 H. militaris Family Hypericaceae Genus Hypericwn waiteri...Algal metabolites 4 can produce taste, coloration and even health problems whicn might limit water use. Orthophosphates and inorganic nitrogen (TIN) are

  11. Influence of Reservoir Water Level Fluctuations on Sediment Methylmercury Concentrations Downstream of the Historical Black Butte Mercury Mine, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern due to its ability to accumulate as methylmercury (MeHg) in biota. Mercury is methylated by anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water and sediment. Throughout North America, reservoirs tend to have e...

  12. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  13. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the stomach. Sometimes, though, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori or the chronic use of certain medications weakens ... can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus as well ... organs to produce enzymes and other substances that aid in digestion. ...

  14. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  15. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  16. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  17. Annual variability in light absorption by particles and colored dissolved organic matter in the Crimean coastal waters (the Black Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilova, T.; Moiseeva, N.; Efimova, T.; Suslin, V.; Krivenko, O.; Zemlianskaia, E.

    2017-11-01

    Bio-optical studies were carried out in coastal waters around the Crimea peninsula in different seasons 2016. It was shown that variability of chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a), light absorption by suspended particles (ap(λ)), phytoplankton pigments (aph(λ)), non-algal particles (aNAP(λ)) and by colored dissolved organic matter (aCDOM(λ)) in the Crimea coastal water was high ( order of magnitudes) in all seasons 2016. Relationships between ap(440), aph(440) and Chl-a were obtained and their seasonal differences were analyzed. Spectral distribution of aNAP(λ) and aCDOM(λ) were parameterized. Seasonality in aCDOM(λ) parameterization was revealed, but - in aNAP(λ) parameterization was not revealed. The budget of light absorption by aph(λ), aNAP(λ) i aCDOM(λ) at 440 nm was assessed and its seasonal dynamics was analyzed.

  18. Nitrate and drinking water from private wells: will there be an epidemic of cancers of the digestive tract, urinary bladder and thyroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeze, G E; Dilibe, U; Ilo, C

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the nitrate levels in private wells located in different parts of Enugu and discuss the future health implications following chronic ingestion of well water. The map of Enugu was used to divide the city into many 25 units, using grid lines 1 cm apart. Cluster sampling method was used to collect samples. These samples were sent to two laboratories for estimation of nitrate levels. The people drawing water from the different wells were interviewed to determine what they used the water for. The subjects who were interviewed said they ingested the water. The nitrate levels found in these wells (median value of 31 mg/L) were significantly higher than the internationally accepted levels of nitrate in water for ingestion, (P nitrate levels drinking water is dangerous to health and can cause methemoglobinemia in children. It may also increase cancer risk in adults because nitrate is endogenously reduced to nitrite and subsequent nitrosation reactions give rise to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), which are highly carcinogenic and can act systemically.

  19. Distribution and Composition of Thiotrophic Mats in the Hypoxic Zone of the Black Sea (150–170 m Water Depth, Crimea Margin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Struck, Ulrich; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    At the Black Sea chemocline, oxygen- and sulfide-rich waters meet and form a niche for thiotrophic pelagic bacteria. Here we investigated an area of the Northwestern Black Sea off Crimea close to the shelf break, where the chemocline reaches the seafloor at around 150–170 m water depth, to assess whether thiotrophic bacteria are favored in this zone. Seafloor video transects were carried out with the submersible JAGO covering 20 km2 on the region between 110 and 200 m depth. Around the chemocline we observed irregular seafloor depressions, covered with whitish mats of large filamentous bacteria. These comprised 25–55% of the seafloor, forming a belt of 3 km width around the chemocline. Cores from the mats obtained with JAGO showed higher accumulations of organic matter under the mats compared to mat-free sediments. The mat-forming bacteria were related to Beggiatoa-like large filamentous sulfur bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences from the mat, and visual characteristics. The microbial community under the mats was significantly different from the surrounding sediments and enriched with taxa affiliated with polymer degrading, fermenting and sulfate reducing microorganisms. Under the mats, higher organic matter accumulation, as well as higher remineralization and radiotracer-based sulfate reduction rates were measured compared to outside the mat. Mat-covered and mat-free sediments showed similar degradability of the bulk organic matter pool, suggesting that the higher sulfide fluxes and subsequent development of the thiotrophic mats in the patches are consequences of the accumulation of organic matter rather than its qualitative composition. Our observations suggest that the key factors for the distribution of thiotrophic mat-forming communities near to the Crimean shelf break are hypoxic conditions that (i) repress grazers, (ii) enhance the accumulation and degradation of labile organic matter by sulfate-reducers, and (iii) favor thiotrophic filamentous bacteria

  20. Distribution and Composition of Thiotrophic Mats in the Hypoxic Zone of the Black Sea (150-170 m Water Depth, Crimea Margin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Gerdhard L; Lichtschlag, Anna; Struck, Ulrich; Boetius, Antje

    2016-01-01

    At the Black Sea chemocline, oxygen- and sulfide-rich waters meet and form a niche for thiotrophic pelagic bacteria. Here we investigated an area of the Northwestern Black Sea off Crimea close to the shelf break, where the chemocline reaches the seafloor at around 150-170 m water depth, to assess whether thiotrophic bacteria are favored in this zone. Seafloor video transects were carried out with the submersible JAGO covering 20 km(2) on the region between 110 and 200 m depth. Around the chemocline we observed irregular seafloor depressions, covered with whitish mats of large filamentous bacteria. These comprised 25-55% of the seafloor, forming a belt of 3 km width around the chemocline. Cores from the mats obtained with JAGO showed higher accumulations of organic matter under the mats compared to mat-free sediments. The mat-forming bacteria were related to Beggiatoa-like large filamentous sulfur bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequences from the mat, and visual characteristics. The microbial community under the mats was significantly different from the surrounding sediments and enriched with taxa affiliated with polymer degrading, fermenting and sulfate reducing microorganisms. Under the mats, higher organic matter accumulation, as well as higher remineralization and radiotracer-based sulfate reduction rates were measured compared to outside the mat. Mat-covered and mat-free sediments showed similar degradability of the bulk organic matter pool, suggesting that the higher sulfide fluxes and subsequent development of the thiotrophic mats in the patches are consequences of the accumulation of organic matter rather than its qualitative composition. Our observations suggest that the key factors for the distribution of thiotrophic mat-forming communities near to the Crimean shelf break are hypoxic conditions that (i) repress grazers, (ii) enhance the accumulation and degradation of labile organic matter by sulfate-reducers, and (iii) favor thiotrophic filamentous bacteria

  1. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form

  2. Acid-digestion treatment of plutonium-containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, H.; Kemmler, G.; Krause, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid-Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the acid-digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU, with its original tray digestion vessel, has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boil-off rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve-hour day, five-day week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high-rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat-transfer surface, which is expected to provide at least twice the water boil-off rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form. (author)

  3. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  4. Nitrate isotopes illuminate the black box of paddy soil biogeochemistry: water and carbon management control nitrogen sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, N. S.; Clough, T. J.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Buresh, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the available nitrogen (N) pool in submerged paddy soils is needed in order to produce rice, one of the world’s most essential crops, in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. By applying emerging nitrate dual-isotope (δ15N- δ18O- NO3-) techniques to paddy systems, we were able to obtain a unique process-level quantification of the synergistic impacts of carbon (C) and water management on N availability. Soil and water samples were collected from fallow experimental plots, with or without organic C amendments, that were maintained under 1 of 3 different hydrologic regimens: continuously submerged, water excluded, or alternate wetting and drying. In continuously submerged soils the δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- signal of denitrification was not present, indicating that there was no N attenuation. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was the dominant factor in defining the available N pool under these conditions, with δ15N-NO3- approaching atmospheric levels as size of the pool increased. Using an isotope-based pool-mixing model, it was calculated that 10±2 µg N g-1 soil were contributed by BNF during the fallow. A lack of BNF combined with removal via denitrification (δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- = 1) caused relatively lower available N levels in dried and alternate wetting-drying soils during this period. Magnitude and net impact of denitrification was defined by the extent of drying and C availability, with rice straw C additions driving tighter coupling of nitrification and denitrification (δ15N:δ18O <1). However, despite high rates of attenuation during wetting events, soils that had been completely dried and received straw amendments ultimately retained a significantly larger available N pool due to enhanced input from soil organic matter. These findings underline the necessity of, and validate a new means for, accurate quantification micro-scale biogeochemical interactions for developing farm-scale management practices that

  5. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  6. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  7. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  8. Potential of Black Liquor of Potassium Hydroxide to Pretreat Corn Stover for Biomethane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Hanan Siddhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the pretreatment cost of lignocellulosic biomass by utilizing alkali to alter its recalcitrant nature is an effective method for biofuel production. In this experiment, 1.5% KOH solution and its black liquor (spent liquor of KOH (BL were applied to pretreat corn stover (CS at a temperature of 20 °C to enhance the digestibility for anaerobic digestion (AD. Results showed no significant difference in weighted average methane content on the basis of experimental methane and biogas yields between BL-treated and original KOH-treated CS after AD. The BL process significantly increased the overall methane yield by 52.4% compared with untreated CS (135.2 mL/gVS, whereas no significant difference between the overall methane yields of 1.5% KOH-treated and BL-treated CS was observed. In addition, the BL process significantly saved water and KOH consumption, by 56.2% and 57.4%, respectively, compared with the 1.5% KOH pretreatment. Overall methane production was well explained by the modified Gompertz model. The physiochemical changes to CS after BL pretreatment were confirmed by SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses. Our findings collectively suggest that recycling and reuse of KOH black liquor might be an efficient method for lignocellulosic biomass treatment and have the capability to reduce input costs in future AD processes.

  9. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  10. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  11. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  12. Turbidity retrieval and monitoring of Danube Delta waters using multi-sensor optical remote sensing data: An integrated view from the delta plain lakes to the western-northwestern Black Sea coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Guttler, Fabio; Niculescu, Simona; Gohin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Based on multi-sensor optical remote sensing techniques, more than 80 medium and high spatial resolution satellite images were used for studying the turbidity patterns of Danube Delta waters. During a selected 4-year temporal coverage (2006 to 2009), the turbidity gradients were simultaneously analyzed in the delta plain lakes and in the Black Sea western-northwestern coastal zone. Two distinct, but complementary, methodologies for retrieving turbidity were employed, one for the lakes and the...

  13. Anaerobic digestion of waste from an intensive pig unit. [NON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N; Shaw, B G

    1973-03-01

    Use was made of heated (35/sup 0/C), stirred, and daily fed laboratory digesters. It was found that digestion of undiluted feces-urine was impossible, but balanced digestion could be obtained in digesters originally seeded from a working domestic anaerobic digester or in digesters filled with water into which small amounts of waste were regularly added. The results from running two digesters for over 80 weeks at loading rates of 0.5 to 3.2 g VS/l/day at detention times of 37.5 to 14 days are given. Above a loading rate of about 2.6 g VS/l/day, at a detention time of 14 days, performance in terms of percentage reduction in solids, BOD and COD began to fall. Maximum BOD reduction of 80 to 90% was found at that loading rate. Volatile acids and ammonia remained below inhibitory levels. It was postulated that there was an upper limit of total solids of about 4.5% above which satisfactory performance cannot be expected.

  14. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  15. Depolymerization of chitosan by enzymes from the digestive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complex of enzymes was isolated in a preparation derived from the digestive tract of sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus. Hydrolysis of chitosan using this enzyme preparation decreased its molecular weight (Mw), increased its water solubility and produced water-soluble chitosan (WSC). The conditions for hydrolysis were ...

  16. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  17. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  18. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  19. Fertilizer and sanitary quality of digestate biofertilizer from the co-digestion of food waste and human excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owamah, H I; Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, U S; Alfa, M I

    2014-04-01

    This research was aimed at assessing the fertilizer quality and public health implications of using digestate biofertilizer from the anaerobic digestion of food wastes and human excreta. Twelve (12) kg of food wastes and 3kg of human excreta were mixed with water in a 1:1 w/v to make 30-l slurry that was fed into the anaerobic digester to ferment for 60days at mesophilic temperature (22-31°C). Though BOD, COD, organic carbon and ash content in the feedstock were reduced after anaerobic digestion by 50.0%, 10.6%, 74.3% and 1.5% respectively, nitrogen, pH and total solids however increased by 12.1%, 42.5% and 12.4% respectively. The C/N ratios of the feedstock and compost are 135:1 and 15.8:1. The residual total coliforms of 2.10×10(8)CFU/100ml in the digestate was above tolerable limits for direct application on farmlands. Microbial analysis of the digestate biofertilizer revealed the presence of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Penicillum, Salmollena, and Aspergillus. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Penicillum and Aspergillus can boost the efficiency of the biofertilizer through nitrogen fixation and nutrient solubility in soils but Klebsiella again and Salmollena are potential health risks to end users. Further treatment of the digestate for more efficient destruction of pathogens is advised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  1. Photosonic digestion of aqueous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, M.S.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the program discussed in this report has been to develop an on-line aqueous organic digestion process that decomposes the organic compounds in water to ionic species, which can then be removed by the plant's demineralizers. At the Susquehanna Steam Electric Plant (SSES) of Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (PP ampersand L), the sonolysis process was tested by application to standard water streams to which ethylene glycol and urea were added. There were a substantial number of ionic species generated from both compounds as determined by ion chromatography. The sonolysis process and another organic destruction method, the General Electric ozone/UV process, were compared for their ability to remove the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) from streams from the collection tanks of the plant's radwaste system. The sonolysis process efficiency, evaluated after the effluent from sonolysis was passed through a demineralizer, was estimated to be 55 + 17% for TOC removal as compared to a 93% removal by ozone/UV. Sonolysis led to the removal of 93% of the TIC as compared to 100% by the UV/ozone process

  2. Biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cow dung using gelatin as additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Sikder, Md Asif R.; Islam, Majedul

    2017-06-01

    A research work was conducted to investigate the enhanced production ability of biogas from mesophilic anaerobic digestions of cow dung (CD) using gelatin as additive. Five laboratory scale digesters were constructed to digest cow dung, where one set up was used for digestion of cow dung without additive and the other set up were used for digestion with additive. Gelatin additive was added in the slurry of amount 0.29, 0,57, 0.85 and 1.14% (wt.). The digesters were made of glass conical flask of 1-liter capacity each. Cow dung was used 335 gm and water was used 365 gm in each experiment. In the slurry, total solid content was maintained 8% (wt.) for all the observations. The digesters were fed on batch basis. The digesters were operated at ambient temperatures of 26 - 35°C. The total gas yield was obtained about 14.4 L/kg CD for digestion without additive and about 65% more biogas for digestion with 0.29% gelatin additive. The retention time for digestion without additive was 38 days and with additive retention time varied between 24 and 52 days.

  3. Recovery of Nutrients from Biogas Digestate with Biochar and Clinoptilolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocatürk, Nazli Pelin

    in recovery of nutrients whose natural reserves are being depleted such as phosphorus and potassium. In this thesis I propose the use of sorbents i.e. biochar and clinoptilolite to concentrate nutrients and subsequently the application of digestate-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite as fertiliser. Therefore...... the overall objective of this thesis is to investigate the use of clinoptilolite and biochar to recover plant nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate resulting from anaerobic digestion of animal manure and investigate the plant-availability of the recovered form of nutrients. In Chapter 1 (General...... of nutrients on sorbent) but decreasing efficiencies of clinoptilolite to remove nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate. In Chapter 3, I studied the chemical activation of biochar by treating the biochar with deionised water, hydrogen peroxide, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions...

  4. The study of the digestive absorption of water in patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, by using two hydrogen tracers; etude de l'absorption digestive de l'eau chez les malades atteints de cirrhose du foie a l'aide de deux indicateurs de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine-Boszormenyi, M. [Institut National d' Hygiene (France); Fallot, P.; Masson, J.; Calvet, P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de, CEA Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    We have studied the rate of appearance of ingested water in the peripheral blood of four patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver with ascites. For this purpose, oral administration of deuterium oxide and intravenous administration of tritiated water were made simultaneously. This double experiment enables the phenomenon of diffusion of the tracer outside the vascular regions to be observed and calculation to be made of the amounts absorbed by the digestive tract and transferred to the peripheral circulation. The rate of absorption observed under the above conditions proves to be distinctly less (1.2 percent per minute of the ingested dose) than that observed by Scholer and Code in normal subjects (9 percent per minute of the ingested dose). Hypotheses are advanced which could account for the facts observed and which offer a satisfactory explanation of Gilbert's opsiuria. Reprint of a paper published in International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 7, p. 233-243, 1960 [French] Nous avons etudie chez quatre malades atteints de cirrhose du foie avec ascite, la vitesse d'apparition dans le sang peripherique de l'eau ingeree. A cet effet, nous avons administre simultanement a nos malades de l'oxyde de deuterium par voie orale et de l'eau tritiee par voie intraveineuse. Cette double epreuve permet de faire la part du phenomene de diffusion de 11 indicateur hors des territoires vasculaires et de calculer les quantites absorbees par le tube digestif et transferees dans la circulation peripherique. La vitesse d'absorption appreciee dans les conditions precedentes (1,2 pour cent par minute de la dose ingeree) s'avere notablement inferieure a celle observee par SCHOLER et CODE chez les sujets normaux (9 pour cent par minute de la dose ingeree). Nous avons evoque des hypotheses susceptibles de rendre compte des faits observes qui apportent une explication satisfaisante a l'opsiurie de Gilbert. Reproduction d'un article publie dans International Journal

  5. Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, utilizes high fibrous plant material and is an important meat source in West Africa. An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were ...

  6. Distribution and sources of dissolved black carbon in surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, and the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Motohiro; Ajioka, Taku; Yamashita, Youhei

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon, also called black carbon (BC), is an important component in the global carbon cycle. BC produced by biomass burning or fossil fuel combustion is transported to oceans by the atmosphere or rivers. However, environmental dynamics (i.e., major sources and sinks) of BC in marine environments have not been well documented. In this study, dissolved BC (DBC) collected from surface waters of the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific were analyzed using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The DBC concentration and the ratio of B5CA and B6CA to all BPCAs (an index of the DBC condensation degree) ranged from 4.8 to 15.5 µg-C L-1 and from 0.20 to 0.43, respectively, in surface waters of the Chukchi/Bering Seas and the North Pacific Ocean. The concentration and condensation degree of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas were higher and more variable than those in the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which implies that the major factors controlling DBC distribution were different in these marine provinces. In the Chukchi/Bering Seas, the DBC concentration was negatively correlated to salinity but positively correlated to chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) quantity and total dissolved lignin phenol concentration estimated by CDOM parameters. These correlations indicated that the possible major source of DBC in the Chukchi/Bering Seas was Arctic rivers. However, in the North Pacific, where riverine inputs are negligible for most sampling sites, DBC was possibly derived from the atmosphere. Although spectral slopes of CDOM at 275-295 nm (an index of the photodegradation degree of CDOM) differed widely between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, the concentration and condensation degrees of DBC were similar between the subarctic and subtropical North Pacific, which suggests that photodegradation was not the only major factor controlling DBC distribution. Therefore, DBC distributions of the

  7. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  8. Synbiotic Microencapsulation from Slow Digestible Colored Rice and Its Effect on Yoghurt Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattananapakasem, Isara; Valenberg, van Hein J.F.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Costabile, Adele; Suwannaporn, Prisana

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was encapsulated by slowly digestible hydrolyzed heat-moisture-treated (hydrolyzed-HMT) black waxy rice and applied in yoghurt. Incorporating these microcapsules in yoghurt resulted in higher viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus C49 and Streptococcus thermophilus C44,

  9. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and steam-exploded Salix with recirculation of liquid digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Sapci, Zehra; Linjordet, Roar; Schnürer, Anna; Morken, John

    2014-04-01

    The effects of recirculating the liquid fraction of the digestate during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of steam-exploded Salix and cow manure were investigated in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors. An average organic loading rate of 2.6 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days were employed. Co-digestion of Salix and manure gave better methane yields than digestion of manure alone. Also, a 16% increase in the methane yield was achieved when digestate was recirculated and used instead of water to dilute the feedstock (1:1 dilution ratio). The reactor in which the larger fraction of digestate was recirculated (1:3 dilution ratio) gave the highest methane yields. Ammonia and volatile fatty acids did not reach inhibitory levels, and some potentially inhibitory compounds released during steam explosion (i.e., furfural and 5-hydroxy methyl furfural) were only detected at trace levels throughout the entire study period. However, accumulation of solids, which was more pronounced in the recycling reactors, led to decreased methane yields in those systems after three HRTs. Refraining from the use of fresh water to dilute biomass with a high-solids content and obtaining a final digestate with increased dry matter content might offer important economic benefits in full-scale processes. To ensure long-term stability in such an approach, it would be necessary to optimize separation of the fraction of digestate to be recirculated and also perform proper monitoring to avoid accumulation of solids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of desugared molasses with cow manure; focusingon sodium and potassium inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    dilutions with water and co-digestion with manure. Stable operation at maximum methane yield of 300 mL-CH4/gVSadded was obtained at a mixture of 5% DM in cow manure. The biogas process was inhibited at DM concentrations higher than 15%. Manure was a good base substrate for co-digestion, and a stable...

  13. Studies on Brewers Spent Grains (BSG) Biomethanation: I - Optimal Conditions for Digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezeonu, F. C.; Udedi, S. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the effect of parameters such as water dilution and carbon to nitrogen ratio, on the anaerobic digestion of brewer's spent grains (BSG). Digesters were operated at between 270C and 330C and pH 6.0 - 7.0 The initiation of methane production was achieved using small volumes of cow rumen liquor (1: -10 v/v). The optimum conditions for anaerobic digestion are presented and the importance of the level of organic nitrogen, moisture content and in the digester starring materials emphasized

  14. Bacterial population of piggery-waste anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N; Shaw, B G

    1974-08-01

    A survey was made of the anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria present in piggery waste, digesting piggery waste and domestic anaerobic sludge used to start a piggery waste digester. An influence of the input waste was shown in that streptococci, the predominant facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the piggery waste, were the predominant bacteria in the digesting waste, and they replaced Entrobacter, predominant in the domestic sludge, when a piggery waste digestion had been established from this latter material. Cellulolytic or methanogenic bacteria could not be detected in the piggery waste but populations of these, and other hydrolytic bacteria, became established at different times during the build-up of digestion by gradual addition of piggery waste to water. The bacteria concerned in degradation of the waste constituents were all anaerobes. Production of methane from H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, formate and butyrate could be detected in mixed cultures from dilutions of digester contents, but the only methanogenic bacterium that could be isolated in pure culture was Methanobacterium formicicum, which uses H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ or formate only.

  15. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  16. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  17. Nutrient digestibility in Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus fed diets containing animal meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gugołek

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three digestibility experiments on Arctic foxes were carried out. Control groups were fed standard diets (C1 and C2 composed of fresh or frozen animal by-products and steamed ground grain. Dry experimental diets (E1 and E2 contained animal meals, extracted meals and fat, were mixed with water prior to administration. In a preliminary experiment, the digestibility of dry diet E1 moistened with water for 15min and 24h was compared to determine the optimum moistening time during the experimental period proper. The preliminary experiment showed that moistening time had no significant effect on digestibility. In the main experiment, two independent digestibility trials were performed to compare the digestibility of diets fed to foxes during growth (C1 vs. E1 and fur development (C2 vs. E2. Better nutrient digestibility was noted for control diets, compared to experimental. The greatest differences were reported for total protein digestibility. Protein contained in meals undergoes denaturation during heat treatment, which reduces digestibility. It was found that the retention of nitrogen in relation to nitrogen digestion was higher in foxes fed experimental diets (E1 and E2.

  18. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  19. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  20. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  1. How to handle station black outs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, Frigyes

    1986-01-01

    Station black out is defined as the loss of ail high voltage alternating current at a nuclear power site. An international study was made to survey the practices in the different countries. The best way to handle station black out is to avoid it therefore briefly the normal off site and emergency on site power supplies are discussed. The ways in use to enhance nuclear power plants using Boiling Water Reactors or Pressurized Water Reactors to cope with a station black out are discussed in some detail. (author)

  2. How to handle station black outs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisch, Frigyes [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, S-10252 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    Station black out is defined as the loss of ail high voltage alternating current at a nuclear power site. An international study was made to survey the practices in the different countries. The best way to handle station black out is to avoid it therefore briefly the normal off site and emergency on site power supplies are discussed. The ways in use to enhance nuclear power plants using Boiling Water Reactors or Pressurized Water Reactors to cope with a station black out are discussed in some detail. (author)

  3. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  4. Trace determination of heavy metal concentrations in fauna, flora and salt samples from Black Sea waters by charged particles - induced X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, T.; Ciortea, C.; Dima, S.; Petrovici, A.; Popescu, I.; Serbanescu, O.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were performed on Black Sea pollution by charged particles induced X-rays spectra analysis, using alpha and 16 O beams. Fauna, flora and salt samples were analysed. We found some of the concentrations of pollutant elements to be below the accepted levels. (author)

  5. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  6. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. INCREASE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS FOLLOWING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled “Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges”. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bac...

  8. An evaluation of biogas production from anaerobic digester of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezekiel Adeniran

    2015-09-15

    Sep 15, 2015 ... average rate of production of biogas was found to be 641.83±88.26 m3/day. ... Key words: Anaerobic digester, biogas, constructed wetland, domestic sewage, ... of diseases and odour, when discharged in water bodies.

  9. Research advances in dry anaerobic digestion process of solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry anaerobic digestion process is an innovative waste-recycling method to treat high-solidcontent bio-wastes. This can be done without dilution with water by microbial consortia in an oxygenfree environment to recover potential renewable energy and nutrient-rich fertilizer for sustainable solid waste management.

  10. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow ...

  11. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dig That Digestive System Print en español Tu sistema digestivo So there you are, sitting at lunch, ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  12. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  13. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  14. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  16. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  17. Utilizing of black water from vacuum toilets in the biogas production. Aspects for the integration into a construction project under special consideration of co-substrates; Schwarzwasser von Vakuumtoiletten zur Biogaserzeugung. Aspekte zur Integration in ein Bauprojekt unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Co-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Ina; Hertel, Saskia; Deegener, Stefan; Boltz, Kirstin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Gruppe Biokonversion und Emissionsminderung

    2013-10-01

    In the Hamburg Jenfelder Au district, a residential area is currently being developed for 1,800 inhabitants. The buildings will be connected to an innovative system for the separate collection of grey water, rain water, and also of black water via vacuum toilets. An anaerobic fermentation plant will provide the district with electricity and heat via gas turbines. The daily black water quantity in Jenfelder Au will amount to approximately 12 m{sup 3}. It will provide only a trickle of the biogas needed to run the gas turbines. Therefore, high-caloric co-substrates are required. In an inventory, the theoretical regional potential of secondary and tertiary bioresources which could be used as co-substrates was determined. Enough greasy water from Hamburg and surrounding would be available on short term by redirection from another anaerobic fermentation plant. More sustainable would be the application of unused lawn cuttings. Enough lawn cuttings are probably available within a radius of five kilometers. Fresh or silage lawn cuttings need to be prepared in order to be mixable with the black water. The available options are the production of a juice through pressing, or of a suspension through wet grinding. Black water and co-substrates were characterized with regards to parameters necessary for the planning of the anaerobic fermentation plant. Continuous fermentation tests were first carried out with greasy water. Scenarios were developed with regard to suitable mixtures. (orig.)

  18. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  19. The Physical State of Emulsified Edible Oil Modulates Its in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Bellissimo, Nick; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-10-18

    Emulsified lipid digestion was tailored by manipulating the physical state of dispersed oil droplets in whey protein stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, where the oil phase consisted of one of five ratios of soybean oil (SO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO). The evolution in particle size distribution, structural changes during oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion, and free fatty acid release during intestinal digestion were all investigated. Irrespective of the physical state and structure of the dispersed oil/fat, all emulsions were stable against droplet size increases during oral digestion. During gastric digestion, the 50:50 SO:FHSO emulsion was more stable against physical breakdown than any other emulsion. All emulsions underwent flocculation and coalescence or partial coalescence upon intestinal digestion, with the SO emulsion being hydrolyzed the most rapidly. The melting point of all emulsions containing FHSO was above 37 °C, with the presence of solid fat within the dispersed oil droplets greatly limiting lipolysis. Fat crystal polymorph and nanoplatelet size did not play an important role in the rate and extent of lipid digestion. Free fatty acid release modeled by the Weibull distribution function showed that the rate of lipid digestion (κ) decreased with increasing solid fat content, and followed an exponential relationship (R 2 = 0.95). Overall, lipid digestion was heavily altered by the physical state of the dispersed oil phase within O/W emulsions.

  20. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  1. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  2. 33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the...

  3. Fontes de lipídeos na dieta de búfalas lactantes: consumo, digestibilidade e N-uréico plasmático Effects of dietary fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen for lactating water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da suplementação de fontes lipídicas sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o N-uréico plasmático foram avaliados em 12 búfalas lactantes, em três quadrados latinos simultâneos, cada um com quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro dietas contendo uma das fontes de lípideo estudadas (sem lipídeo adicional; grão de soja; óleo de soja ou caroço de algodão. O período experimental foi de 84 dias, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, divididos em 14 dias para a adaptação e 7 para coleta. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, duas vezes ao dia, na forma de mistura completa. Nos dias de coleta de cada período, os alimentos fornecidos e as sobras foram pesados e amostrados para análise bromatológica. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas diretamente no reto dos animais para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal, utilizando-se a fibra em detergente neutro indigestível como indicador, e para o cálculo de digestibilidade aparente. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido foram semelhantes entre as dietas. Os consumos de extrato etéreo e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT foram maiores para a dieta com óleo de soja. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca, proteína bruta e carboidratos não-fibrosos e as concentrações de N-uréico plasmático foram semelhantes entre as dietas. A utilização das fontes de lipídeos nas dietas de búfalas em lactação não influenciou o consumo e coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca. Entretanto, as digestibilidades do extrato etéreo da dieta com grão de soja e das frações fibrosas da dieta com caroço de algodão foram as mais baixas.The effects of fat sources on intake, nutrient digestibility and plasma urea nitrogen were evaluated in lactating water buffalo. Twelve females were randomly distributed into four treatments: without additional lipid, soybean grain, soybean oil and

  4. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiganides, E P; Baumann, E R; Johnson, H P; Hazen, T E

    1963-01-01

    A short history, a list of advantages and limitations, and a short introduction to the principles of the process of anaerobic digestion are given. Six five gallon bottle digesters were daily fed hog manure, maintained at 35/sup 0/C, and constantly agitated. Satisfactory operation was assured at 3.2 g VS/l/day with a detention time of 10 days, yielding 490-643 ml gas/g VS/day with a CH/sub 4/ content of 59% (2.1 x 10/sup 7/ joules/m/sup 3/). A figure and discussion portray the interrelationships of loading rate, solids concentration and detention time. They estimate that a marginal profit might be obtained by the operation of a heated digester handling the wastes of 10,000 hogs.

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  6. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  7. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  8. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  9. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  10. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  11. The repeatability of individual nutrient digestibility in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Verschuren, L.M.G.; Pijlman, J.; Bergsma, R.; Schokker, D.; Knol, E.F.; Aar, van der P.J.; Molist, F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2018-01-01

    Digestibility of nutrients in pig diets is an important component of overall feed efficiency. Targeted improvement of digestibility is currently mainly achieved by optimization of pig diets, based on information generated from digestibility trials that aim to establish fecal digestibility

  12. 33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. 162.175 Section 162.175 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

  13. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Lactose Intolerance Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  14. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Join the fight against LBD! Donate Lewy Digest Click here to subscribe today to receive regular ... research in Lewy body dementia. April 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Compassion Caregiver Spotlight Research Centers of ...

  15. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  16. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  17. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  18. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Santanu, E-mail: s.mukherjee@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom [BASF SE, Crop Protection, 67117, Limburgerhof (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Sustainable Campus, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting {sup 14}C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. - Highlights: • Biochar and digestate significantly affects the dissipation pattern of pesticides. • Addition of digestate enhanced mineralization of

  19. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biopurification systems, such as biofilters, are biotechnological tools to prevent point sources of pesticide pollution stemming from on-farm operations. For the purification processes pesticide sorption and mineralization and/or dissipation are essential and both largely depend on the type of filling materials and the pesticide in use. In this paper the mineralization and dissipation of three contrasting "1"4C-labeled pesticides (bentazone, boscalid, and pyrimethanil) were investigated in laboratory incubation experiments using sandy soil, biochar produced from Pine woodchips, and/or digestate obtained from anaerobic digestion process using maize silage, chicken manure, beef and pig urine as feedstock. The results indicate that the addition of digestate increased pesticide mineralization, whereby the mineralization was not proportional to the digestate loads in the mixture, indicating a saturation effect in the turnover rate of pesticides. This effect was in correlation with the amount of water extractable DOC, obtained from the digestate based mixtures. Mixing biochar into the soil generally reduced total mineralization and led to larger sorption/sequestration of the pesticides, resulting in faster decrease of the extractable fraction. Also the addition of biochar to the soil/digestate mixtures reduced mineralization compared to the digestate alone mixture but mineralization rates were still higher as for the biochar/soil alone. In consequence, the addition of biochar to the soil generally decreased pesticide dissipation times and larger amounts of biochar led to high amounts of non-extractable residues of pesticide in the substrates. Among the mixtures tested, a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) gave optimal results with respect to mineralization and simultaneous sorption for all three pesticides. - Highlights: • Biochar and digestate significantly affects the dissipation pattern of pesticides. • Addition of digestate enhanced mineralization of

  20. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  1. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  2. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  3. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  4. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  5. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  6. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  7. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  8. Biogas production from anaerobic codigestion of cowdung and elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) using batch digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Agus; Hasanudin, Udin; Afrian, Chandra; Zulkarnaen, Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed at determining biogas production from codigestion of Elephant grass and cowdung using batch digester. Fresh grass was manually chopped with a maximum length of 3 cm. Chopped grass (25 kg) was perfectly mixed with fresh cowdung (25 kg). The mixture was introduced into a 220-liter batch drum digester. The substrate was diluted with water at different rates (P1 = 50 L, P2 = 75 L, and P3 = 100 L) and was stirred thoroughly. Six digesters were prepared as duplicate for each treatment. Two other digesters containing only 25 kg cowdung diluted with 25 L water were also provided as control treatment (P0). The digesters were air tightly sealed for 70 days. Observation was conducted on daily temperature, substrate pH (initial and final), TS and VS content, biogas yield and biogas composition. Results showed that final pH of grass containing substrate was in the acidic range, namely 4.50, 4.62, 6.82, whereas that of control (P0) was normal with pH of 7.30. Digester with substrate composition 25:25:100 (cowdung:grass:water) produced the highest biogas total (524.3 L). Biogas yield of codigestion, however, was much lower as compared to that of control, namely 7.35, 16.75, and 111.72 L/kg VS r respectively for treatment P1, P2, P3. with dilution rate of 50, 75, and 100 L. Biogas produced from control digester had methane content of 53.88%. In contrast, biogas resulted from all treatments contained low methane (the highest was 31.37%). Methane yield of 39.3 L/kg TS removal was achieved from digester with dilution 100 L (P3). Mechanical pretreatment is suggested to break Elephant grass down into smaller particles prior to introducing it into the digestion process.

  9. Comment on "Synergistic co-digestion of solid-organic-waste and municipal-sewage-sludge: 1 plus 1 equals more than 2 in terms of biogas production and solids reduction" [Water Research 87, 416-423].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Heribert; Markt, Rudolf

    2016-05-15

    Co-digestion of organic waste and sewage sludge enhances biogas production and reduces the mass of remaining solids. This phenomenon of enhanced organic matter decomposition by adding labile substrate is known from other habitats like soils and sediments where it is called priming effect. It is thus suggested to adopt the term priming effect also in environmental biotechnology, and in particular for biomethanisation of wastewater sludges by the addition of energy-rich co-substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In Situ Lipolysis and Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for the Direct Determination of the Precipitation and Solid-State Form of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug During Digestion of a Lipid-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Hawley, Adrian; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In situ lipolysis and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to directly detect and elucidate the solid-state form of precipitated fenofibrate from the digestion of a model lipid-based formulation (LBF). This method was developed in light of recent findings that indicate variab...... on drugs, and experimental conditions, which are anticipated to produce altered solid-state forms upon the precipitation of drug (i.e., polymorphs, amorphous forms, and salts). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci....

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  12. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste with UF-membrane separation and recycling of permeate after free ammonia stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, H; Hunziker, W; Hofer, H

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion can adapt to free ammonia to a certain extent. During the anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste, however, an ammonia concentration of up to 15 g Nl(-1) can be reached in the sludge liquid and this will even inhibit adapted sludge. To lower this concentration, a fraction of the digester liquid must therefore be continuously separated from the digested sludge and the free ammonia stripped before the liquid is recycled to the digester. A mesophilic laboratory digester was successfully operated with an ammonium concentration of 4-5g l(-1) and a pH of 8.0-8.4. After free ammonia stripping, the excess liquid was treated in a laboratory SBR for nitrogen and phosphorus removal before being added to the receiving water. The effluent had no toxic effect on daphnia and algae.

  14. Determination of phosphorus-32 in wet-digested plant leaves by Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, P.A.; Kamalam, N.V.; Sankar, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of determination of 32 P activity in leaf samples by Cerenkov counting technique is described. The method involves wet digestion of oven-dried leaves with 1:1 nitric-perchloric acid mixture followed by transferring the digest into a scintillation counting vial with distilled water upto a final volume of 20 mL, and determining the activity in a liquid scintillation system. Reproducible count rates can be obtained if the vials are counted after 4h allowing the silica in the digest to settle. (author)

  15. Process and design considerations for the anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, S.R.; Bastuk, B. [Larsen Engineers, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Full scale experience exists and justifies implementing anaerobic digestion for pretreatment of high strength industrial waste water and side streams. Anaerobic treatment of sludge and manure have demonstrated cost effective, environmentally sound treatment of these wastes. Recent attention has focused on the potential for anaerobically treating high solids municipal solid wastes to assist in meeting state waste reduction goals and provide a new renewable source of energy. This paper focuses on the fundamental facility design and process protocol considerations necessary for a high solids anaerobic digesting facility. The primary design and equipment considerations are being applied to a 5 to 10 ton per day demonstration anaerobic digestion facility in Bergen, New York.

  16. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests....... The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink...

  17. Evaluation of the efficiency of a plug-flow digester to produce biogas from swine waste water; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na producao de biogas a partir de aguas residuarias de suinocultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Armin [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Reichl, Johann [Escola de Energia Biolsolar, Quatro Pontes, PR (Brazil); Schwab, Jair; Schwab, Vera [Colegio Estadual Entre Rios do Oeste, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of a plug-flow digester, type Reichl, was evaluated with and without mixing. The digester, treating swine wastewater, had a capacity of 800 m{sup 3} and were operated at a loading rate of 0,931 kg and 0,634 kg of total solids and volatile solids per day, respectively. With mixing, the daily average biogas production was 289,50 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}, the specific volume production of 0,362 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,389 m{sup 3} and 0,571 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. Without mixing, was observed a reduction of 17,69% on the daily average biogas production, to only 238,30 m{sup 3} day{sup -1}. It correspond to a specific volume production of 0,298 m{sup 3} biogas m{sup -3} reactor day{sup -1} and a specific biogas production of 0,320 m{sup 3} and 0,470 m{sup 3} biogas kg{sup -1} total solids and volatile solids added, respectively. With mixing, a reduction of 68,67% total solids was achieved, compared to 52,11% without mixing. Considering volatile solids, it was achieved 80,16% with mixing, compared to 58,77% without mixing. (author)

  18. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  19. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  20. Effect of Addition of High Strength Food Wastes on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidya, Ramola Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and food wastes high in chemical oxygen demand (COD) has been an area of interest for waste water treatment facilities looking to increase methane production, and at the same time, dispose of the wastes and increase the revenue. However, addition of food wastes containing fats, oils and grease (FOG) to the conventional anaerobic digestion process can be difficult and pose challenges to utilities. Incorporating these wastes into the treatment plants c...

  1. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  2. Immersion microcalorimetry of a carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelbaum, Georges

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis first reports a detailed bibliographical study on various topics (fabrication of carbon black, oxidation, immersion heat, adsorptions, main existing theories, and thermodynamics) and then the development of immersion and adsorption microcalorimetry apparatuses aimed at studying the surface of a carbon black and the influence of the oxidation of this carbon black on the adsorption of polar and non-polar solvents. Immersion heats of a raw or oxidised carbon black have been measured in water, in cyclohexane and in methanol. The adsorption of methanol at 20 C and that of nitrogen at -196 C have also been measured. The author outlines that degassing conditions had to be taken into account before performing measurements [fr

  3. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  4. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  5. Solar Biogas Digester with Built-In Reverse Absorber Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasan S. Karimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the design, fabrication and investigation of a solar biogas digester with built-in RAH (Reverse Absorber Heater is presented. The maximum temperature (50 o C inside of the methane tank was taken as a main parameter at the design of the digester. Using energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated; the parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were counted. The biogas digester is consisting of methane tank with built-in solar RAH to utilize solar energy for the heating of the slurry prepared from the different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc. The methane tank was filled up to 70% of volume by organic wastes of the GIK Institute sewage, firstly, and secondly, by sewage and cow dung as well. During three months (October-December, 2009 and two months (February-March, 2010 the digester was investigated. The solar irradiance incident to the absorber, slurry's temperature and ambient temperature were measured. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung the retention times was 4 weeks and two weeks respectively and biogas quantity produced was 0.4 and 8.0 m 3 respectively. In addition, biogas upgradation scheme for removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapor from biogas and conversion of biogas energy conversion into electric power is also discussed.

  6. Destruction of organic materials by pressurized microwave digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramel, P. (GSF - Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Ecological Chemistry, Neuherberg (Germany)); Hasse, S. (GSF - Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Ecological Chemistry, Neuherberg (Germany))

    This paper describes the utility of pressurized microwave digestion (up to 85 bar) for a broad spectrum of organic materials (blood, urine, milk powder, tissues). The 'quality' of the sample solution was tested by the determination of Pb, Cd and Cu (additionally Ni and Co in some of the matrices) by anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and Hydride Generation AAS (HAAS) for As. It is clearly shown that no universal 'cooking recipe' can be given. The necessary oxidation potential is very dependent on the type of organic matrix and therefore the use of acid combinations (HNO[sub 3]/HClO[sub 4]/H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) is generally necessary to obtain adequate solution of the sample. In some cases the power of the microwave oven was not high enough to digest two samples simultaneoulsy. (Significant differences in the ease of solution are shown in the digestion of one or two samples). Some important improvements for sample preparation, such as moistening the powdered material with water and mixing well with the acid used before closing the digestion vessel etc., are also given. (orig.)

  7. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  8. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  9. Light absorption coefficients by phytoplankton pigments, suspended particles and colored dissolved organic matter in the Crimea coastal water (the Black sea) in June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, N.; Churilova, T.; Efimova, T.; Krivenko, O.; Latushkin, A.

    2017-11-01

    Variability of the bio-optical properties of the Crimean coastal waters in June 2016 has been analyzed. The type of vertical distribution chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton light absorption coefficients and spectra shape differed between shallow and deeper water. In the deeper water seasonal stratification divided euphotic zone into layers with different environmental conditions. In the deeper part of the euphotic zone (below the thermocline) phytoplankton absorption spectra had local maximum at 550 nm, which was likely to be associated with high abundance of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus sps.) in the phytoplankton community. The concentration of chlorophyll a specific light absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreased with depth (especially pronounced in the blue domain of the spectrum). In the shallow water the vertical distributions of all absorption properties were relatively homogeneous due to vertical water mixing. In the shallow water non-algal particles light absorption coefficient and its contribution to total particulate absorption were higher than those in the deeper water. The non-algal particles (NAP) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) light absorption spectra were well described by an exponential function with a slope averaging 0.010 nm-1 (SD = 0.001 nm-1) and 0.022 nm-1 (SD = 0.0060 nm-1), correspondingly. The CDOM absorption at 440 nm and slope coefficient varied significantly across the investigated area, which was possibly associated with the terrestrial influences. The assessment of the contribution of phytoplankton, NAP and CDOM to total light absorption showed that CDOM dominated in the absorption at 440 nm.

  10. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  12. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  13. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  14. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  15. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  16. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  17. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Flowers, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  18. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  20. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  2. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  3. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  6. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  7. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  8. Manure digestate recycling - Technologies and manufacturers; Biogoedselfoeraedling - Tekniker och leverantoerer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Carl (SWECO Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Today, several biogas plants are planned. Some are large-scale or in localizations that means a long distance to croplands. The digestate indeed contain phosphorus and nitrogen but above all large quantities of water, which makes it tempting to try to refine the product. Low concentration of nutrients in the digestate means that the theoretically possible value is low which sets high demand on resource consumption of the processes to be used. In this report you can find ammonia stripping, evaporation, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation, but there might be other methods. None of these methods will generate a profit, but are dependent of that the alternative, handling of not dewatered digestate, for some reason (e.g. transport distance) is to expensive. Dewatering of digestate followed by reject water treatment with aim to transform the ammonia and organic nitrogen to airborne nitrogen (disposal) has not been discussed in this report. In this project, visits have been made to three full scale plants and one pilot plant. The techniques on these plants have been ammonia stripping to ammonium sulphate, ammonia stripping to ammonia nitrate, ultra filter + reverse osmosis and struvite precipitation (pilot plant). Any appropriate plant where evaporation with developed energy recovery is used has not been found. Both plants with ammonia stripping work satisfying as well as the struvite precipitation plant. Struvite precipitation should be seen as a way to separate the phosphate from the reject water. Ultra filter + Reverse Osmosis are a functioning technique, but the concentrate was too dilute to be possible to transport any longer distance at the current facility

  9. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  12. Temperature regulates deterministic processes and the succession of microbial interactions in anaerobic digestion process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Qiang; De Vrieze, J.; Li, Ch.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Yao, M.; Heděnec, Petr; Li, H.; Li, T.; Rui, J.; Frouz, Jan; Li, X.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, October (2017), s. 134-143 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaerobic digestion * deterministic process * microbial interactions * modularity * temperature gradient Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Water resources Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  13. Effect of Waste Paper on Biogas Production from Co-digestion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of waste paper on biogas production from the co-digestion of fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth was studied at room temperature in five batch reactor for over 60 days. Waste paper addition was varied for a fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth until maximum biogas production was achieved.

  14. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  15. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  16. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  17. Neural Network Modeling for the Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Eudialyte Concentrate by Dry Digestion and Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Yiqian Ma; Srecko Stopic; Lars Gronen; Milovan Milivojevic; Srdjan Obradovic; Bernd Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Eudialyte is a promising mineral for rare earth elements (REE) extraction due to its good solubility in acid, low radioactive, and relatively high content of REE. In this paper, a two stage hydrometallurgical treatment of eudialyte concentrate was studied: dry digestion with hydrochloric acid and leaching with water. The hydrochloric acid for dry digestion to eudialyte concentrate ratio, mass of water for leaching to mass of eudialyte concentrate ratio, leaching temperature and leaching time ...

  18. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  19. A small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of graphitized carbon black aggregates in Triton X-100/water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garamus, V.M.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    concentration to a lower value. The CB aggregates have a fractal structure and the apparent fractal dimension is lower near the match point (75% heavy water). The scattering data are modelled using fractal-like aggregates (CB+surfactant), and voids in the CB particles and micelles. The data are fitted...... simultaneously for three different contrasts. The fractal dimension is found to be larger than 3 with the maximum size of the fractal aggregate being around 150-200 Angstrom. The primary CB particles have a broad size distribution with an average size of about 30-80 Angstrom. The surfactant coverage of the CB...... particles is 8% and is constant with varying CB and surfactant concentration. The volume fraction of the voids does not exceed 1% of the CB; The micelle structure is found to be the same as in surfactant/water solutions. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  20. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  1. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome†

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1) niche availability and habitat space and 2) a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determi...

  2. A benthic macroinvertebrate size spectra index for implementing the Water Framework Directive in coastal lagoons in Mediterranean and Black Sea ecoregions

    OpenAIRE

    Basset, A.; Barbone, E.; Borja, A.; Brucet, S.; Pinna, M.; Quintana, X. D.; Reizopoulou, S.; Rosati, I.; Simboura, N.

    2012-01-01

    Size spectra show common patterns of variation among ecosystem types, functional guilds and taxonomic groups, as well as predictable responses to pressures. Here, we extend the size spectra approach to macroinvertebrate ecological status assessment in transitional waters, by developing, testing and validating a multi-metric index of size spectra sensitivity (ISS), which integrates size structure metrics with metrics describing the sensitivity of size classes to anthropogenic distu...

  3. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  4. A Robust CuCr2O4/SiO2 Composite Photothermal Material with Underwater Black Property and Extremely High Thermal Stability for Solar-Driven Water Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yusuf

    2017-12-27

    The design and fabrication of efficient photothermal materials is the key issue in solar-driven water evaporation. In this work, a robust CuCr2O4/SiO2 composite membrane with outstanding solar-driven water evaporation performance (1.32 kg m−2 h−1) under one sun irradiation is rationally designed and synthesized by using quartz glass fibrous membrane as supporting matrix and stable CuCr2O4 particles as the active light absorber. Instead of coating a separate layer on top of the support, the CuCr2O4 particles are evenly distributed inside the matrix, which endows the membrane with great mechanical strength and excellent wear and abrasion resistance. The highly porous composite survives 6 atm pressure and retains its performance even after 75% of the membrane is removed by sandpaper. This work also looks into a generally overlooked aspect of wet versus dry state of photothermal material and its implications. Interestingly, the composite possesses a gray color with a high reflectance in dry state but turns into deep black with a low reflectance in wet state due to the decreased subsurface scattering and strong NIR light absorbance of water in wet state. This composite material also possesses excellent thermal stability and thermal shock resistance, making it able to be easily recovered by calcination in air or direct burning in fire for contaminants removal. The results demonstrate that this composite is a competitive photothermal material for practical solar distillation and indicate that the optical properties of material in wet state are more relevant to photothermal material screening and optimization for solar distillation.

  5. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  6. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  7. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  8. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  9. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  10. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  11. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  12. The Black Woman's Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  13. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  14. Effect of Hot Water Blanching Time and Drying Temperature on the Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of and Anthocyanin Degradation in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. Shreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Garba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the eff ect of blanching treatment (98 °C for 3 and 6 min and air drying temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C on the thin layer drying characteristics such as drying time, drying rate constant, effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy, as well as on anthocyanin content of black carrot shreds. It was observed that drying temperature aff ected the drying rate but blanching did not have an eff ect on drying time. Three thin layer drying models, i.e. Page, Lewis and Henderson-Pabis were evaluated. The goodness of these models was evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error, reduced chi square (χ2 and standard error. Page model showed the best fit to the drying data. The effective diffusivity ranges of 1.4·10–9 to 2.6·10–9 m2/s, 1.3·10–9 to 2.1·10–9 m2/s and 1.5·10–9 to 2.2·10–9 m2/s aft er 3 or 6 min of blanching and control samples respectively were calculated using Fick’s second law. The activation energy of 37.5, 26.0 and 34.6 kJ/(mol·K of the control samples and samples blanched for 3 or 6 min respectively was determined from the Arrhenius plot. The blanching treatment affected the anthocyanin content to a great extent. The anthocyanin content of (231.7±2.9 and (278.8±7.8 mg per 100 g was recorded in samples blanched for 3 and 6 min and then dried at 60 °C, and (153.0±4.3 and (247.0±5.5 mg per 100 g was recorded at 40 °C as compared to the control of (580.1±1.3 at 60 °C and (466.7±1.1 mg per 100 g at 40 °C.

  15. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  16. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  18. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Peeters, Marc; Cats, Annemieke; Dahele, Anna; Droste, Jochim Terhaar sive

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the management of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Digestive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organization of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certifications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:21556128

  19. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  20. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  1. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  2. Biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sarah L.; Clarke, Michèle L.; Othman, Mukhrizah; Ramsden, Stephen J.; West, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from soil with simultaneous amendments of anaerobic digestates and biochar. The main source of anthropogenic emissions of N 2 O is agriculture and in particular, manure and slurry application to fields. Anaerobic digestates are increasingly used as a fertiliser and interest is growing in their potential as sources of N 2 O via nitrification and denitrification. Biochar is a stable product of pyrolysis and may affect soil properties such as cation exchange capacity and water holding capacity. Whilst work has been conducted on the effects of biochar amendment on N 2 O emissions in soils fertilised with mineral fertilisers and raw animal manures, little work to date has focused on the effects of biochar on nitrogen transformations within soil amended with anaerobic digestates. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the effects of biochar application on ammonification, nitrification and N 2 O fluxes within soil amended with three anaerobic digestates derived from different feedstocks. A factorial experiment was undertaken in which a sandy loam soil (Dunnington Heath series) was either left untreated, or amended with three different anaerobic digestates and one of three biochar treatments; 0%, 1% or 3%. Nitrous oxide emissions were greatest from soil amended with anaerobic digestate originating from a maize feedstock. Biochar amendment reduced N 2 O emissions from all treatments, with the greatest effect observed in treatments with maximum emissions. The degree of N 2 O production and efficacy of biochar amelioration of gas emissions is discussed in context of soil microbial biomass and soil available carbon. - Highlights: • Nitrous oxide was emitted from anaerobic digestates applied to soil. • Simultaneous amendment of soil with biochar and anaerobic digestate reduced N 2 O emissions. • Soil nitrate accumulation occurred but was digestate dependent

  3. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  5. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  6. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  7. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко; Л. М. Михальська; В. В. Швартау

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate...

  8. Evaluation of Novel Inoculation Strategies for Solid State Anaerobic Digestion of Yam Peelings in Low-Tech Digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiske, Stefan; Jurgutis, Linas; Kádár, Zsófia

    2015-01-01

    (SSAD) can be operated with low process water demands, but the technology involves operational challenges, as e.g., risk of process acidification or low degradation rates. This study aimed at developing simple methods to perform SSAD of yam peelings in low-tech applications by testing different...... inoculation strategies and evaluating the necessity of dung addition as a supportive biomass. In initial lab scale trials 143 +/- 4 mL CH4/g VS (volatile solids) were obtained from a mixture of yam peelings and dung digested in a multi-layer-inoculated batch reactor. In a consecutive incubation cycle in which...... adapted inoculum was applied, bottom inoculated digesters loaded without dung reached a yield of 140 +/- 16 mL CH4/g VS. This indicates that SSAD of yam peelings is possible with simple inoculation methods and dung addition is unnecessary after microbial adaptation. A comparison with a conventional fixed...

  9. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was

  10. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  11. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  12. Cayuga County Regional Digester: Vision Becomes Reality. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, Kamyar V. [Blue Electron Technology Solutions International LLC, Manlius, NY (United States); Young, Jim [Cayuga Soil and Water Conservation District, Auburn, NY (United States)

    2013-03-12

    With an average herd size of 113 mature cows, Cayuga County is home to 280 dairy farms and 31,500 dairy milking cows producing approximately 855 million gallons of milk per year. The Cayuga Dairy industry is a major contributor to the countys economy, employing nearly 1200 people, while generating $140,000,000 of revenue from sale of milk alone. At the same time, the Cayuga County dairy industry also produces 5.7 million gallons of manure daily: (a) Nearly 34% of this manure is produced on smaller farms. (b) Digesters are expensive pieces of equipment and require attention and care. ( c) The on-farm digester systems have fairly long payback (>10 years) even for larger CAFO farms (>1000 milking cows). In 2005, Cayuga County Soil and Water Conservation District (The District), a Public Agency under Cayuga County, decided to undertake a centralized community digester project. The primary goal of the project was to develop an economically sustainable model, under the auspices of The District to address manure management issues facing the smaller dairies, improve the water quality and improve the quality of life for Cayuga County residents. It is believed that the District has accomplished this goal by completing construction of Cayuga County Regional Digester on a parcel of land behind the Cayuga County Natural Resource Center located at 7413 County House Road in the Town of Sennett in Cayuga County, New York. The digester facility consists of the following major components. 1. Transfer Station: This an indoor truck bay, where 35,000 gallons of manure from three local farms, 8,500 gallons of liquid organic food-processor waste, and 1,200 gallons of brown grease are unloaded from tanker trucks and the digested slurry is loaded onto the tanker trucks for delivery back to the participating farms. 2. Anaerobic Digester: The project utilizes a hydraulic mix anaerobic digester, a unique design that has no internal moving parts for mixing. The digester, which operates at

  13. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  14. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  15. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mekkawi, Samar A.; Ismail, Ibrahim M.; El-Attar, Mohammed M.; Fahmy, Alaa A.; Mohammed, Samia S.

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor f...

  16. Identification of a low digestibility δ-Conglutin in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) seed meal for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by coupling 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Adrián; Aizawa, Tomoko; Ogihara, Jun; Sunairi, Michio; Alcaino, Javier; Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Maureira-Butler, Iván J

    2013-01-01

    The need of quality protein in the aquaculture sector has forced the incorporation of alternative plant proteins into feeding diets. However, most plant proteins show lower digestibility levels than fish meal proteins, especially in carnivorous fishes. Manipulation of protein content by plant breeding can improve the digestibility rate of plant proteins in fish, but the identification of low digestibility proteins is essential. A reduction of low digestibility proteins will not only increase feed efficiency, but also reduce water pollution. Little is known about specific digestible protein profiles and/or molecular identification of more bioavailable plant proteins in fish diets. In this study, we identified low digestibility L. luteus seed proteins using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) crude digestive enzymes in an in vitro assay. Low digestibility proteins were identified by comparing SDS-PAGE banding profiles of digested and non-digested lupin seed proteins. Gel image analysis detected a major 12 kDa protein band in both lupin meal and protein isolate digested products. The 12 kDa was confirmed by 2D-PAGE gels and the extracted protein was analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in tandem mass mode. The MS/MS data showed that the 12 kDa low digestibility protein was a large chain δconglutin, a common seed storage protein of yellow lupin. Comparison of the protein band profiles between lupin meal and protein isolates showed that the isolatation process did not affect the low digestibility of the 12 kDa protein.

  17. Effect of bile acids on digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Stremoukhov

    2013-12-01

    stable for about 1 minute was observed. Studying of the impact of GPC on bile motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The method is based on determining the length of the path traversed by contrast weighing intestine that characterizes asset -ness motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Studying the impact of HPC on bile motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract was performed on white mice weighing 20,0-23,0 for 20 hours exposed to starvation diet without restriction of water intake. Animals were divided into two groups of in 6 each. The first group of animals, which were an hour before the mass introduction of contrast injected bile GPC 25 mg/kg, the second group - the control animals, which an hour before the administration of contrast were injected mass equivalent amount of water. 10% slurry of activated charcoal in 1% starch paste was used as a contrast. After 60 minutes after the injection the animals were administered 0,3 ml of contrast mass. After 40 minutes the animals were taken out of the experiment dislocation of the cervical vertebrae. Measurement of the absolute length of the intestine and the path traversed by contrasting mass through the intestines, carried out on graph paper. Conclusions. It was established that GPC bile promotes the absorption of fats, activates lipase during digestion and stimulates intestinal peristalsis in experimental animals and can be recommended as a preventive measure to improve digestion.

  18. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  19. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  20. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    factors investigated. Generally, results in respect of crops treated with digested manure, were quite ... conclusion, digested poultry manure enhanced the growth characteristics of the treated plants for the ... values of animal waste production range from 144 million ..... Ph.D thesis, Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Manage.,.