Jaccard, James J.
The classic view of traits as dispositions was examined and a number of ambiguities noted. When clarified, implication for predicting social behaviors from personality variables were derived. (Editor)
Espino, Meritxell; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Vilches, Clara; Salido, Eduardo; Prat, Esther; López de Heredia, Miguel; Palacín, Manuel; Nunes, Virginia
Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months) and late stage (8-months) of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/-) present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/-) and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients. PMID:26359869
Full Text Available Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months and late stage (8-months of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/- present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/- and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients.
one family) (Dello Strologo et al. 2002). We report here a rare digenic inheritance in a patient with cystinuria type AA (B) with mild clinical characteristics (sin- gle urinary stone) and with a family amino acid excretion of a mixed heterozygous type. Materials and methods. The proband is an 11 year–old boy who was born in a ...
Serafin, Ana Gil
This paper examines the charismatic behaviors and traits entering graduate students bring to their training as future educational leaders and explores the differences in gender, age, marital status, position held, and sibling ranks of entering graduate students regarding charismatic behaviors and traits. The exploratory descriptive study examined…
Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung
Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.
Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry
Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments.
Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF, developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010, was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the individual level of trait emotional intelligence and its four components (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability. A questionnaire was sent to local entrepreneurs to verify whether trait emotional intelligence act as a predictor of proactive networking behavior. Theoretical foundation – We will be using Petrides and Furnham’s (2001 trait EI definition and EI will be studied within a personality framework (Petrides, 2001, Petrides & Furnham, 2001, 2006, 2014. Findings – Final findings partially confirms research hypothesis, with some components of EI (well-being and self-control factors showing a significant positive correlation with proactive networking behavior. This indicates that entrepreneurs’ ability to regulate emotions influences their networking behavior helping them to succeed in their business relationships. Practical implications – The present study provides a clear direction for further research by focusing on how trait emotional intelligence affects social networking behavior amongst entrepreneurs, thus demonstrating the utility of using trait EI to evaluate high potential entrepreneurs.
Newman, Leonard S.
The dispositionist bias manifests itself when behavior is overattributed to dispositions, and when contextual factors are underused when predicting behavior. Psychological processes underlying the former bias have been most thoroughly examined. Three studies support the hypothesis that trait implications of past behavior function as heuristics…
Akee, Randall; Copeland, William; Costello, E Jane; Simeonova, Emilia
We examine the effects of a quasi-experimental unconditional household income transfer on child emotional and behavioral health and personality traits. Using longitudinal data, we find that there are large beneficial effects on children's emotional and behavioral health and personality traits during adolescence. We find evidence that these effects are most pronounced for children who start out with the lowest initial endowments. The income intervention also results in improvements in parental relationships which we interpret as a potential mechanism behind our findings.
Teresa Torres-Coronas; María-Arántzazu Vidal-Blasco
Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF), developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010), was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the indivi...
Mcneill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.
Past research suggests that indecisiveness and trait anxiety may both decrease the likelihood of performing risk-mitigating preparatory behaviors (e.g., preparing for natural hazards) and suggests two cognitive processes (perceived control and worrying) as potential mediators. However, no single...... control over wildfire-related outcomes. Trait anxiety did not uniquely predict preparedness or perceived control, but it did uniquely predict worry, with higher trait anxiety predicting more worrying. Also, worry trended toward uniquely predicting preparedness, albeit in an unpredicted positive direction...
McCarthy, Randy J
Three studies (total N = 1777 parents) examined whether harsh parenting behaviors would increase when parents experienced an instigation and whether this increase would be especially pronounced for parents who were high in trait aggression. These predictions were tested both when parents' experience of an instigation was manipulated (Studies 1 and 2) and when parents' perceptions of their child's instigating behavior was reported (Study 3). Further, these predictions were tested across a variety of measures of parents' harsh behaviors: (1) asking parents to report their likelihood of behaving harshly (Study 1), (2) using proxy tasks for parents' inclinations to behave harshly (Study 2), and (3) having parents report their past child-directed behaviors, some of which were harsh (Study 3). Both child instigations and parents' trait aggression were consistently associated with parents' child-directed harsh behaviors. However, parents' trait aggression only moderated the extent to which the instigation was associated with their harsh parenting for self-reported physical harsh behaviors (Study 1). The results of the current studies demonstrate that both situational factors, such as experiencing an instigation, and individual difference variables, such as trait aggression, affect parents' likelihood to exhibit harsh behaviors, but found little evidence these factors interact.
Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi
The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Holmes, Millicent; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn
The relationship between self-report trait level restriction and daily engagement in restriction behaviors is not well understood, and as a result the usefulness of such trait level measures is unclear. The present study aimed both to examine the validity of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors, and to examine the respective relationships among self-reported trait dietary restraint intentions and behaviors and both restrained and disinhibited eating at the daily level. A sample of 109 women (M age = 24.72, SD = 4.15) completed a self-report trait level measure of dietary restraint before providing EMA data on their daily engagement in dietary restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors, as well as mood, over a period of 7 days. Multilevel hurdle models were used to test the relationship between trait levels of dietary restraint, and daily level reports of restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors. Trait restraint behavior was a consistent predictor of daily presence and frequency of restraint behaviors. In contrast, trait restraint intentions was not a predictor of daily restraint behaviors, however it did predict daily frequency of overeating. In addition, daily negative affect emerged as a predictor of comfort eating, but was not predictive of restraint behaviors. Findings confirm the usefulness of assessments of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors as a method of capturing dieting behaviors. In contrast, trait level dietary restraint intentions was a poor predictor of eating outcomes and more research on the way that restraint intentions affect eating behaviors is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LAY, CH; SCHOUWENBURG, HC
Fifty-five female and 10 male university students enrolled in a three-week Summer course completed a personality questionnaire. They also indicated their study and work intentions, completed a dilatory behavior scale concerning their non-task-related behavior on each of four course tasks, indicated
Full Text Available The Byzantine epic Digenes Akrites has similarities with ancient and medieval Iranian traditions that, in consideration of the epic’s Eastern settings, suggest Iranian influences. Digenes resembles dragon-slaying heroes of other Indo-European traditions. He also resembles the Irish hero Cú Chulainn in that he is not psychologically fit to live in the midst of the community that depends on his protection. Freudian readings of Digenes’ encounters with the dragon and the Amazon Maximou are proposed.
Full Text Available The study investigated the impact of personality traits on intrapreneurial behavior. Data was collected from 306 employees working in higher education institutions. Structural equation modeling technique was utilized with the help of SmartPLS software. The findings of the study revealed a positive association of extroversion, openness to experiences and emotional stability with intrapreneurial behavior, while a negative impact of conscientiousness, agreeableness on intrapreneurial behavior was recorded. The findings of this study have several implications in the context of HEIs. To enhance the intrapreneurial behavior in the higher educational institutes, the management of the institutions should take positive steps to ensure that employees have personality traits which have shown a significant impact on the intraprenuerial behavior in this study. One strategy top management could consider is that, at the time of recruitment, preference should be given to candidates with higher levels of extroversion, openness to experience and emotional stability. However, among all the traits, the most indicative marker is extroversions followed by emotional stability. Therefore, hiring employees with high levels of extroversion and emotional stability could facilitate more intraprenuerial behavior, which ultimately, will help improve the performance of HEIs. This study with its focus on the micro level foundations of intrapreneurial behavior is one of the first studies in the domain of intrapreneurship.
Oostrom, J.K.; Born, M.Ph.; Serlie, A.W.; Van der Molen, H.T.
To explain why situational judgment tests are often correlated with personality measures, Motowidlo, Hooper, and Jackson (2006a, 2006b) developed the implicit trait policy theory. Implicit trait policies are beliefs about causal relationships between personality traits and behavioral effectiveness.
Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi
We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was
Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Hudziak, J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.
Our objective was to examine the overlap between autistic traits and other behavioral problems in a general population sample, and explore the extent to which this overlap is due to genetic or environmental factors. Youth Self Report (YSR) data were collected in a general population sample of 424
Salihovic, Selma; Kerr, Margaret; Ozdemir, Metin; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
The present study examined the directions of effects between adolescent psychopathic traits and parental behaviors. The data are from a community-based cohort-sequential study. Data were collected annually over 4 years. Participants were 875 adolescents, aged 13-15 at Time 1, and we analyzed their reports of negative and positive parental…
Katt, James; Miller, Ann Neville; Brown, Tim
This study investigated the reliability and validity of Myers and colleagues' Classroom Citizenship Behavior scale, as well as the relationship between student personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and communication apprehension) and CCBs. Two hundred and thirteen students completed…
Full Text Available The existence of epistasis in humans was first predicted by Bateson in 1909. Epistasis describes the non-linear, synergistic interaction of two or more genetic loci, which can substantially modify disease severity or result in entirely new phenotypes. The concept has remained controversial in human genetics because of the lack of well-characterized examples. In humans, it is only possible to demonstrate epistasis if two or more genes are mutated. In most cases of epistasis, the mutated gene products are likely to be constituents of the same physiological pathway leading to severe disruption of a cellular function such as antibody production. We have recently described a digenic family, who carry mutations of TNFRSF13B/TACI as well as TCF3 genes. Both genes lie in tandem along the immunoglobulin isotype switching and secretion pathway. We have shown they interact in an epistatic way causing severe immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the digenic proband. With the advent of next generation sequencing, it is likely other families with digenic inheritance will be identified. Since digenic inheritance does not always cause epistasis, we propose an epistasis index which may help quantify the effects of the two mutations. We also discuss the clinical implications of digenic inheritance and epistasis in humans with primary immunodeficiency disorders.
Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers ( n = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts ( n = 103, 26.9%) to those with no criminal record ( n = 279, 73.1%). Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states) and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one's goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.
Full Text Available Gambling disorder (GD is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382 and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26.9% to those with no criminal record (n = 279, 73.1%. Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one’s goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.
Jonas, I.; Schubert, K. A.; Reijne, A. C.; Scholte, J.; Garland, T.; Gerkema, M. P.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; Nyakas, C.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.; Maxson, Stephen
Voluntary physical activity may be related to personality traits. Here, we investigated these relations in two mouse lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior and in one non-selected control line. Selection lines were more explorative and "information gathering" in the
Full Text Available Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements. Further analysis revealed new relations between previously neglected eye movement characteristics and personality. Our findings demonstrate a considerable influence of personality on everyday eye movement control, thereby complementing earlier studies in laboratory settings. Improving automatic recognition and interpretation of human social signals is an important endeavor, enabling innovative design of human–computer systems capable of sensing spontaneous natural user behavior to facilitate efficient interaction and personalization.
Jiang, Donghong; Zhang, Dandan; Chen, Yuming; He, Zhenhong; Gao, Qiufeng; Gu, Ruolei; Xu, Pengfei
Anxiety is a negative emotion that affects various aspects of people's daily life. To explain why individuals with high anxiety tend to make suboptimal decisions, we suggest that their learning ability might play an important role. Regarding that anxiety modulates both outcome expectation and attention allocation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the function of feedback learning should be sensitive to individual level of anxiety. However, previous studies that directly examined this hypothesis were scarce. In this study, forty-two Chinese participants were assigned to a high-trait anxiety (HTA) group or a low-trait anxiety (LTA) group according to their scores in the Trait form of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). Both groups finished a reward learning task in which two options were associated with different winning probabilities. The event-related potential (ERP) elicited by outcome feedback during the task was recorded and analyzed. Behavioral results revealed that, when the winning probability was 80% for one option and 20% for another, the HTA group chose the 80% winning option less often than the LTA group at the initial stage (i.e., first 20 trials) of the task, but there was no between-group difference in total number of choice. In addition, HTA participants took more time to make decisions in the 80/20 condition than in the 50/50 condition, but this effect was insignificant in the LTA group. ERP results indicated that anxiety affects learning in two ways. First, compared to their LTA counterparts, HTA participants showed a smaller feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to negative feedback, indicating the impact of anxiety on outcome expectation. Second, HTA participants showed a larger P3 component in the 80/20 condition than in the 50/50 condition, indicating the impact of anxiety on attention allocation. Accordingly, we suggest that individuals' ability of feedback learning could be negatively modulated by anxiety
Na, Jinkyung; Kitayama, Shinobu
People with an independent model of the self may be expected to develop a spontaneous tendency to infer a personality trait from another person's behavior, but those with an interdependent model of the self may not show such a tendency. We tested this prediction by assessing the cumulative effect of both trait activation and trait binding in a diagnostic task that required no trait inference. Participants first memorized pairings of facial photos with trait-implying behavior. In a subsequent lexical decision task, European Americans showed clear evidence of spontaneous trait inference: When they were primed with a previously studied face, lexical decision for the word for the implied trait associated with that face was facilitated, and the antonym of the implied trait elicited an electrophysiological sign associated with processing of semantically inconsistent information (i.e., the N400). As predicted, however, neither effect was observed for Asian Americans. The cultural difference was mediated by independent self-construal.
Arata, Sayaka; Momozawa, Yukihide; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji
Guide dogs for the blind help blind people physically and mentally in their daily lives. Their qualifications are based on health, working performance and temperament; approximately 70% of dogs that fail to qualify are disqualified for behavioral reasons. In order to achieve early prediction of qualification, it would be essential as the first step to identify important temperament traits for guide dogs. Therefore, we administered a questionnaire consisting of 22 temperament items to experienced trainers to assess candidate dogs at the Japan Guide Dog Association after three months of training, which was at least three months prior to the final success (qualified as a guide dog) or failure (disqualified for behavioral reasons) judgment. Factor analyses of question items stably extracted three factors with high internal consistency, Distraction, Sensitivity and Docility. When we compared factor points between successful dogs and failed dogs, the successful dogs showed significantly and consistently lower Distraction points and higher Docility points. Additionally, Distraction points could predict qualification with 80.6% accuracy and detect 28.2% of the failed dogs that had higher Distraction points than any of the successful dogs. Of the nine question items not included in the three factors, two items (;Aggression' and ;Animal interest') were consistently associated with qualification. These results suggest that Distraction is stably assessable and has the strongest impact on success or failure judgment; therefore, it will be the first target to establish a behavioral test that may lead to early prediction of guide dog qualification.
Cohn, M.D.; Popma, A.; van den Brink, W.; Pape, L.E.; Kindt, M.; van Domburgh, L.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Veltman, D.J.
Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain
Reginia H Y Yan
Full Text Available The ratio of the length of the second digit (index finger divided by the fourth digit (ring finger tends to be lower in men than in women. This 2D:4D digit ratio is often used as a proxy for prenatal androgen exposure in studies of human health and behavior. For example, 2D:4D ratio is lower (i.e. more "masculinized" in both men and women of greater physical fitness and/or sporting ability. Lab mice have also shown variation in 2D:4D as a function of uterine environment, and mouse digit ratios seem also to correlate with behavioral traits, including daily activity levels. Selective breeding for increased rates of voluntary exercise (wheel running in four lines of mice has caused correlated increases in aerobic exercise capacity, circulating corticosterone level, and predatory aggression. Here, we show that this selection regime has also increased 2D:4D. This apparent "feminization" in mice is opposite to the relationship seen between 2D:4D and physical fitness in human beings. The present results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that 2D:4D is an effective proxy for prenatal androgen exposure; instead, it may more accurately reflect effects of glucocorticoids, or other factors that regulate any of many genes.
Krysinska, Karolina; Lester, David; Lyke, Jennifer; Corveleyn, Jozef
Despite the progress of positive psychology, current knowledge regarding suicide protective factors is limited. Trait gratitude (a tendency to experience gratitude in daily life) may protect against suicidal ideation and behavior. The study tested a model of causal effects among gratitude, religiosity, reasons for living, coping, and social support as predictors of suicidal ideation, suicide threats, and suicide attempts after controlling for depression and stressful life events. A sample of 165 college students were administered measures of gratitude, religiosity, reasons for living, social support, coping skills, stress, and depression. The study assessed lifetime and current suicidal ideation as well as lifetime suicide threat and attempt. Both gratitude and religiosity, along with social support, coping skills, and reasons for living, correlated negatively with prior suicidal ideation, but not with prior attempted suicide. After controlling for risk factor (depression and stress), the impact of gratitude and religiosity was no longer statistically significant. Further research could help understand the role of positive emotions and human strengths, such as gratitude, in preventing and alleviating suicidal ideation and behavior.
Dijksterhuis, Ap; Knippenberg, Ad van
Tests the assumption that organization in memory of behavior information and recall depends on the descriptive relatedness of consistent information with inconsistent information. Subjects read stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent behavioral descriptions implying the same trait dimension or different trait dimensions. Predictions were…
Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, such as lacking empathy and emotional insensitivity, predict the onset, severity, and persistence of antisocial behavior. CU traits are heritable, and genetic influences on CU traits contribute to antisocial behavior. This study examines genetic overlap between CU traits and general domains of personality. We measured CU traits using the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) and Big Five personality using the Big Five Inventory in a sample of adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. Genetic influences on the Big Five personality dimensions could account for the entirety of genetic influences on CU traits. Item Response Theory results indicate that the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits is better at detecting clinically relevant personality variation at lower extremes of personality trait continua, particularly low agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The proximate biological mechanisms that mediate genetic liabilities for CU traits remain an open question. The results of the current study suggest that understanding the development of normal personality may inform understanding of the genetic underpinnings of callous and unemotional behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Matheson, S M; Bünger, L; Dwyer, C M
Poor neonatal survival constrains productivity and good welfare. The heritability of survival in sheep is very low, suggesting that genetic progress will be slow. Previously we have shown that a difficult birth and low neonatal lamb vigor are important predictors of future survival. In this study we investigated the heritability of these traits, and their relationship to production traits, as an alternative indirect route to improve lamb survival. Neonatal lamb data from 11,092 animals were collected over 2 years from 290 commercial sheep flocks, using previously developed methods to rapidly assess three traits (birth assistance, lamb vigor, sucking ability) on farm. Heritabilities for neonatal traits were moderate: birth assistance (mean ± standard error; 0.26 ± 0.03), lamb vigor (0.40 ± 0.04) and sucking ability (0.32 ± 0.03). Genetic correlations between neonatal traits were moderate to high, and positive. Heritabilities for production traits were also moderate: 8-week weight (0.27 ± 0.06), 20-week weight (0.39 ± 0.07), ultrasound muscle depth (0.37 ± 0.06). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the neonatal traits and production traits were not significantly different from zero. However, lambs that were scored as of poor vigor at birth were less likely to be recorded at 8 or 20 weeks, indicating that they may have died. The data demonstrate that the neonatal survival traits of birth assistance, lamb vigor and sucking assistance are moderately heritable when treated as a lamb trait, indicating that selection to target these lamb traits would successfully, and efficiently, improve survival without influencing productivity.
Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert
Background Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. W...
Lewis, Gary J.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert
Background:\\ud Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying trait...
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Jašarević, Eldin; Geary, David C.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.
Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic-based mechanisms contribute to various aspects of sex differences in brain and behavior. The major obstacle in establishing and fully understanding this linkage is identifying the traits that are most susceptible to epigenetic modification. We have proposed that sexual selection provides a conceptual framework for identifying such traits. These are traits involved in intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating pa...
Murray, Laura; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W
Individuals involved in antisocial behavior often engage in excessive reward-driven behavior even in the face of severe punishments including incarceration. However, the neural mechanisms of reward processing in antisocial behavior have not been examined while considering the heterogeneity of antisocial behavior and specific phases of reward and loss processing. In this study, we investigate the relationship between antisocial behavior, callous-unemotional traits, and neural activity during the anticipation and receipt of rewards and losses. A community sample of 144 low income, racially diverse, urban males at risk for antisocial behavior completed self-report measures, a clinical interview, and an fMRI scan at age 20. Neural response during the anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards and losses was linked to antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits using a priori ventral striatum region of interest analyses and exploratory whole brain analyses. Antisocial behavior, but not callous-unemotional traits, was related to less ventral striatum response during reward anticipation. There were no significant relationships between neural reactivity and antisocial behavior or callous-unemotional traits during reward or loss outcomes. Antisocial behavior was also related to less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex reactivity during reward and loss anticipation. These findings support a hypo-reactivity model of reward and loss anticipation in antisocial behavior. Lower striatal reactivity to cues of reward and lower prefrontal-regulatory recruitment during reward and loss anticipation may contribute to maladaptive reward-related behavior found in antisocial behavior.
The present study aimed to investigate the role of pedestrian attitudes and personality traits (social conformity and empathy) on pedestrian behaviors in a Turkish sample. An equally important aim of the study was to examine the association between pedestrian and driver behaviors. The sample included 289 road users including pedestrians and drivers (169 females and 120 males). The participants' age ranged from 15 to 78 years (M = 32.00, SD = 13.89). Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. A regression analysis showed that increased age, high level of satisfaction with traffic infrastructure and environment, safer attitudes toward pedestrian violations, and empathy were negatively related to risky pedestrian behaviors, whereas social conformity was positively related. Attitudes were the strongest predictor of pedestrian behaviors. In addition, bivariate correlation analysis showed that all dimensions of pedestrian and driver behaviors were positively correlated with each other, which indicates that a tendency to take risks remains the same regardless of the road user role (i.e., driver vs. pedestrian). Attitudes are strong predictors of pedestrian behaviors. A tendency to take risks as a pedestrian and as a driver is correlated. Results are discussed for their implications to traffic safety campaigns targeting increased pedestrian safety.
Heynen, Martina; Bunnefeld, Nils; Borcherding, Jost
Predation is thought to be one of the main structuring forces in animal communities. However, selective predation is often measured on isolated traits in response to a single predatory species, but only rarely are selective forces on several traits quantified or even compared between different predators naturally occurring in the same system. In the present study, we therefore measured behavioral and morphological traits in young-of-the-year Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and compared their selective values in response to the 2 most common predators, adult perch and pike Esox lucius . Using mixed effects models and model averaging to analyze our data, we quantified and compared the selectivity of the 2 predators on the different morphological and behavioral traits. We found that selection on the behavioral traits was higher than on morphological traits and perch predators preyed overall more selectively than pike predators. Pike tended to positively select shallow bodied and nonvigilant individuals (i.e. individuals not performing predator inspection). In contrast, perch predators selected mainly for bolder juvenile perch (i.e. individuals spending more time in the open, more active), which was most important. Our results are to the best of our knowledge the first that analyzed behavioral and morphological adaptations of juvenile perch facing 2 different predation strategies. We found that relative specific predation intensity for the divergent traits differed between the predators, providing some additional ideas why juvenile perch display such a high degree of phenotypic plasticity.
Quaynor, Samuel D.; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Cappello, Elizabeth M.; Williams, Tiera; Chorich, Lynn P.; Bick, David P.; Sherins, Richard J.; Layman, Lawrence C.
Objective To determine the prevalence of digenic mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS). Design Molecular analysis of DNA in IHH/KS patients. Setting Academic medical center. Patient(s) Twenty-four IHH/KS patients with a known mutation (group 1) and 24 IHH/KS patients with no known mutation (group 2). Intervention(s) DNA from IHH/KS patients was subjected to polymerase chain reaction–based DNA sequencing of the 13 most common genes (KAL1, GNRHR, FGFR1, KISS1R, TAC3, TACR3, FGF8, PROKR2, PROK2, CHD7, NELF, GNRH1, and WDR11). Main Outcome Measure(s) The identification of mutations absent in ≥188 ethnically matched controls. Both SIFT (sorting intolerant from tolerant) and conservation among orthologs provided supportive evidence for pathologic roles. Result(s) In group 1, 6 (25%) of 24 IHH/KS patients had a heterozygous mutation in a second gene, and in group 2, 13 (54.2%) of 24 had a mutation in at least one gene, but none had digenic mutations. In group 2, 7 (29.2%) of 24 had a mutation considered sufficient to cause the phenotype. Conclusion(s) When the 13 most common IHH/KS genes are studied, the overall prevalence of digenic gene mutations in IHH/KS was 12.5%. In addition, approximately 30% of patients without a known mutation had a mutation in a single gene. With the current state of knowledge, these findings suggest that most IHH/KS patients have a monogenic etiology. PMID:22035731
Denis, Dan; Akhtar, Reece; Holding, Benjamin C; Murray, Christina; Panatti, Jennifer; Claridge, Gordon; Sadeh, Avi; Barclay, Nicola L; O'Leary, Rachael; Maughan, Barbara; McAdams, Tom A; Rowe, Richard; Eley, Thalia C; Viding, Essi; Gregory, Alice M
Sleep quality is associated with different aspects of psychopathology, but relatively little research has examined links between sleep quality and externalizing behaviors or callous-unemotional traits. We examined: (1) whether an association exists between sleep quality and externalizing behaviors; (2) whether anxiety mediates this association; (3) whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with sleep quality. Data from two studies were used. Study 1 involved 1556 participants of the G1219 study aged 18-27 years (62% female). Questionnaire measures assessed sleep quality, anxiety, externalizing behaviors, and callous-unemotional traits. Study 2 involved 338 participants aged 18-66 years (65% female). Questionnaires measured sleep quality, externalizing behaviors, and callous-unemotional traits. In order to assess objective sleep quality, actigraphic data were also recorded for a week from a subsample of study 2 participants (n = 43). In study 1, poorer sleep quality was associated with greater externalizing behaviors. This association was partially mediated by anxiety and moderated by levels of callous-unemotional traits. There was no significant relationship between sleep quality and callous-unemotional traits. In study 2, poorer sleep quality, as assessed via self-reported but not objective measures, was associated with higher levels of externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, in study 2, better sleep quality (indicated in both questionnaires and actigraphy measures: lower mean activity, and greater sleep efficiency) was associated with higher levels of callous-unemotional traits. Self-reports of poorer sleep quality are associated with externalizing behaviors, and this association is partially mediated by anxiety. Callous-unemotional traits are not associated with poor sleep and may even be related to better sleep quality. This is an exceptional finding given that poor sleep quality appears to be a characteristic of most psychopathology. © Sleep Research
Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H
Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle.
Gillian A. McCabe
Full Text Available An alternative model of pathological personality traits was recently developed in an effort to address the challenges associated with the categorical model of personality disorder classification (e.g., high rates of comorbidity, minimal overlap with modern conceptualizations of personality structure. More specifically, this alternative model provides a dimensional framework through which personality disorders can be understood in terms of their level of impairment in personality functioning. The development of this alternative model led to the construction of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012 which assesses the presence and level of the following pathological personality traits: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. These pathological personality traits are considered to be maladaptive variants of the basic personality dimensions described by the Big Five model (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness; Thomas et al., 2013. We will focus our review on previous research concerning the interpersonal outcomes associated with the PID-5 pathological personality traits and suggest possible directions for future research.
Jennifer M Tsuruda
Full Text Available Honey bees display a complex set of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits that correlate with the colony storage of surplus pollen (pollen hoarding. We hypothesize that the association of these traits is a result of pleiotropy in a gene signaling network that was co-opted by natural selection to function in worker division of labor and foraging specialization. By acting on the gene network, selection can change a suite of traits, including stimulus/response relationships that affect individual foraging behavior and alter the colony level trait of pollen hoarding. The 'pollen-hoarding syndrome' of honey bees is the best documented syndrome of insect social organization. It can be exemplified as a link between reproductive anatomy (ovary size, physiology (yolk protein level, and foraging behavior in honey bee strains selected for pollen hoarding, a colony level trait. The syndrome gave rise to the forager-Reproductive Ground Plan Hypothesis (RGPH, which proposes that the regulatory control of foraging onset and foraging preference toward nectar or pollen was derived from a reproductive signaling network. This view was recently challenged. To resolve the controversy, we tested the associations between reproductive anatomy, physiology, and stimulus/response relationships of behavior in wild-type honey bees.Central to the stimulus/response relationships of honey bee foraging behavior and pollen hoarding is the behavioral trait of sensory sensitivity to sucrose (an important sugar in nectar. To test the linkage of reproductive traits and sensory response systems of social behavior, we measured sucrose responsiveness with the proboscis extension response (PER assay and quantified ovary size and vitellogenin (yolk precursor gene expression in 6-7-day-old bees by counting ovarioles (ovary filaments and by using semiquantitative real time RT-PCR. We show that bees with larger ovaries (more ovarioles are characterized by higher levels of
van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.
Although Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) has been associated with psychosocial difficulties, knowledge of the social behavioral phenotype is limited. We examined specific social abilities and autism traits in Klinefelter syndrome. Scores of 31 XXY men on the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior and the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire were compared to 24…
Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.
Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent
Cohn, Moran D.; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Popma, Arne
Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent
van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.
Although Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) has been associated with psychosocial difficulties, knowledge of the social behavioral phenotype is limited. We examined specific social abilities and autism traits in Klinefelter syndrome. Scores of 31 XXY men on the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior and the
Miller, Natalie V.; Haas, Sarah M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.; Helseth, Sarah A.; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coles, Erika K.; Pelham, William E.
The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional traits (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt/lack of caring behaviors) (CU) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), however reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (condition C), compared to a standard behavioral intervention (condition A). Interventions were delivered through a Summer Treatment Program over seven weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of eleven children (7–11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the seven weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. PMID:25022772
Miller, Natalie V; Haas, Sarah M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Willoughby, Michael T; Helseth, Sarah A; Crum, Kathleen I; Coles, Erika K; Pelham, William E
The conduct problems of children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., lack of empathy, lack of guilt/lack of caring behaviors) are particularly resistant to current behavioral interventions, and it is possible that differential sensitivities to punishment and reward may underlie this resistance. Children with conduct problems and CU (CPCU) are less responsive to behavioral punishment techniques (e.g., time-out), whereas reward techniques (e.g., earning points for prizes or activities) are effective for reducing conduct problems. This study examined the efficacy of modified behavioral interventions, which de-emphasized punishment (Condition B) and emphasized reward techniques (Condition C), compared with a standard behavioral intervention (Condition A). Interventions were delivered through a summer treatment program over 7 weeks with an A-B-A-C-A-BC-A design to a group of 11 children (7-11 years; 91% male). All children were diagnosed with either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in addition to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results revealed the best treatment response occurred during the low-punishment condition, with rates of negative behavior (e.g., aggression, teasing, stealing) increasing over the 7 weeks. However, there was substantial individual variability in treatment response, and several children demonstrated improvement during the modified intervention conditions. Future research is necessary to disentangle treatment effects from order effects, and implications of group treatment of CPCU children (i.e., deviancy training) are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fix, Rebecca L; Fix, Spencer T
Research focusing on individuals high on trait psychopathy remains limited. Higher trait psychopathy is associated with lower levels of emotional intelligence and increased participation in illegal behavior. Additionally, research has confirmed significantly higher levels of criminal thinking and lower levels of empathy in the incarcerated psychopathic population. However, the relationships between trait psychopathy and criminal thinking have not been researched in the community or college population. To test for such differences, questionnaires containing relevant measures were administered to 111 college students. Results indicated that higher levels of trait psychopathy were significantly related to less caring for others, intrapersonal understanding, and general mood, and greater interpersonal functioning and stress management. Furthermore, trait psychopathy was a strong predictor of violent, property, drug, and status offenses. Power-oriented criminal thinking was also predictive of violent behaviors, and entitlement predicted property offending. Results suggest emotional intelligence is important for predicting psychopathy, and trait psychopathy is a strong predictor of all types of illegal behaviors among the non-incarcerated population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.
This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would primarily exhibit relationships with alcohol use and problems through behavioral dysregulation occurring during extreme affective states. To evaluate these hypotheses, we tested a SEM with three alcohol–related outcomes: “Typical” alcohol use, “blackout” drinking,” and risk behavior. Results were complex, but generally supported the hypotheses. High trait negative affect and low tolerance for affective distress contribute to difficulty controlling behavior when negatively aroused and this is directly associated with increased risk behavior when drinking. In contrast, associations between positive urgency and risk behaviors are indirect via increased alcohol consumption. Positive affectivity exhibited both inverse and positive effects in the model, with the net effect on alcohol outcomes being insignificant. These findings contribute important information about the distinct pathways between affect, alcohol use, and alcohol-involved risk behavior among college students. PMID:22770825
Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Steimer, Thierry; Koolhaas, Jaap M.
The current theories of animal personality are based on the observation that individual variation in behavior and physiology appears to be consistent across contexts. Rats of the Roman selection lines have been originally selected for differences in shuttle-box behavior. Besides differences in
The present study developed and evaluated the Automatic Thoughts List following Dilatory Behavior (ATL-DB) to explore the mediation hypothesis and the content-specificity hypothesis about the automatic thoughts with trait procrastination and emotions. In Study 1, data from 113 Japanese college students were used to choose 22 items to construct the ATL-DB. Two factors were indentified, I. Criticism of Self and Behavior, II. Difficulty in Achievement. These factors had high degrees of internal consistency and had positive correlations to trait procrastination. In Study 2, the relationships among trait procrastination, the automatic thoughts, depression, and anxiety were examined in 261 college students by using Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that the influence of trait procrastination on depression was mainly mediated through Criticism of Self and Behavior only, while the influence of trait procrastination to anxiety was mediated through Criticism of Self and Behavior and Difficulty in Achievement. Therefore, the mediation hypothesis was supported and the content-specificity hypothesis was partially supported.
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Hesse, Morten
Background and aims Impulsivity is a risk factor for addictive behaviors. The UPPS-P impulsivity model has been associated with substance addiction and gambling disorder, but its role in other non-substance addiction-related behaviors is less understood. We sought to examine associations between...... problems to achieve a broad distribution of involvement in addiction-related behaviors. Participants completed the UPPS-P Questionnaire and standardized questionnaires assessing problematic use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs) and non-substances (Internet gaming, pornography, and food...
Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A
Trait mindfulness has been considered a protective factor against alcohol use behaviors; however, the specific trait mindfulness facets, the specific alcohol use behaviors, and the mechanism underlying this relationship remain unclear. The present study examined the relationship between specific trait mindfulness facets and specific alcohol use behaviors, and how cued alcohol cravings might mediate this relationship. High-risk, young adult, undergraduate social drinkers ( n = 240, 75% Caucasian, 70% female, mean age 19.4 years) completed a series of questionnaires and reported their level of alcohol cravings following alcohol pictorial cue exposure. Trait mindfulness was associated with less problematic alcohol use ( r = -0.19, p < 0.01), but was not associated with alcohol use quantity ( r = -0.07, p = 0.30) and duration ( r = -0.08, p = 0.21). Only acting with awareness was associated with all types of alcohol use behaviors-including less problematic alcohol use ( β = -0.18, p = 0.02), lower alcohol use quantity ( β = -0.16, p = 0.04), and shorter alcohol use duration ( β = -0.19, p = 0.02). Cued alcohol cravings mediated the negative associations of overall trait mindfulness ( b = -0.50, p < 0.05) and acting with awareness ( b = -0.32, p < 0.05) with problematic alcohol use, and the negative associations of acting with awareness with alcohol use quantity ( b = -1.24, p < 0.05) and alcohol use duration ( b = -0.34, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the protective effect of trait mindfulness likely operates through reducing cued alcohol cravings and might be most specific to acting with awareness among college students, thus suggesting a differential role of separate trait mindfulness facets in this high risk group.
Akee, Randall; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Simeonova, Emilia
We examine the effects of a quasi-experimental unconditional household income transfer on child emotional and behavioral health and personality traits. Using longitudinal data, we find that there are large beneficial effects on children’s emotional and behavioral health and personality traits during adolescence. We find evidence that these effects are most pronounced for children who start out with the lowest initial endowments. The income intervention also results in improvements in parental relationships which we interpret as a potential mechanism behind our findings. PMID:29568124
Saint-Martin, C; Chabrol, H
The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of psychopathic personality traits to delinquent behaviour after controlling for borderline personality traits, depressive symptomatology, dissociation and cannabis use in male adolescent delinquent behaviour. A sample of 155 young male participants (mean age=17+/-1.5) completed self-report questionnaires. Delinquent behaviour was assessed with the Antisocial behavior scales (ABS, Schawb-Stone et al., 1999) which include three subscales assessing behavior problems of different severity: conduct problems, assessing relatively mild behavior problems; less severe delinquency, assessing non-violent antisocial behavior; severe antisocial behavior, exploring relatively serious aggressive and antisocial behavior. The respondents were asked to report on a 5-point scale how many times (ranging from "0 times" to "5 or more times") they were involved in the described behaviors during the past year. In this study, only the two subscales assessing less severe delinquency and severe antisocial behavior were used. Personality psychopathic traits were assessed with the Youth psychopathic traits inventory (YPI; Andershed et al., 2002). It consists in three scales assessing interpersonal, affective (with callousness, which is considered as the core dimension of a psychopathy) and lifestyle traits of the psychopathic personality (alpha=0.90, alpha=0.81 and alpha=0.77, respectively). Other questionnaires assessed borderline personality traits (Borderline personality features scale for children), depression (Center for epidemiological studies-depression scale), dissociation (Adolescent dissociative experience scale) (alpha=0.83, 0.88 and 0.92 respectively) and cannabis use. In the present study, the frequency of antisocial behaviour was important (55%): 7% of the adolescents had stolen a bike or a car at least once, 11% had committed a theft at least once, 36% had started a fight at least once, and 25% had threatened someone
Mann, Frank D.; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Patterson, Megan W.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Strathan, Dixie B.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige
Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB. PMID:28824215
Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C
Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the
Lewis, Gary J; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert
Understanding the etiology of adolescent problem behavior has been of enduring interest. Only relatively recently, however, has this issue been examined within a normal personality trait framework. Research suggests that problem behaviors in adolescence and beyond may be adequately explained by the taxonomy provided by the basic dimensions of normal personality: Such problem behaviors are suggested to be extreme points on a distribution of the full range of the underlying traits. We extend work in this field examining the extent to which genetic factors underlying the five-factor model of personality are common with genetic influences on adolescent behavior problems (namely, anxiety, peer problems, conduct, hyperactivity, and low prosociality). A nationally representative twin sample (Twins Early Development Study) from the general population of England and Wales, including 2031 pairs of twins aged 16 years old, was used to decompose variation into genetic and environmental components. Behavioral problems in adolescence were assessed by self-report with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent behavior problems were moderately associated with normal personality: Specifically, a fifth to a third of phenotypic variance in problem behaviors was accounted for by five-factor model personality traits. Of central importance here, genetic influences underpinning personality were entirely overlapping with those genetic factors underlying adolescent behavior problems. These findings suggest that adolescent behavior problems can be understood, at least in part, within a model of normal personality trait variation, with the genetic bases of these behavior problems the same as those genetic influences underpinning normal personality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Jašarević, Eldin; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S
Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic-based mechanisms contribute to various aspects of sex differences in brain and behavior. The major obstacle in establishing and fully understanding this linkage is identifying the traits that are most susceptible to epigenetic modification. We have proposed that sexual selection provides a conceptual framework for identifying such traits. These are traits involved in intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating partners and generally entail a combination of male-male competition and female choice. These behaviors are programmed during early embryonic and postnatal development, particularly during the transition from the juvenile to adult periods, by exposure of the brain to steroid hormones, including estradiol and testosterone. We evaluate the evidence that endocrine-disrupting compounds, including bisphenol A, can interfere with the vital epigenetic and gene expression pathways and with the elaboration of sexually selected traits with epigenetic mechanisms presumably governing the expression of these traits. Finally, we review the evidence to suggest that these steroid hormones can induce a variety of epigenetic changes in the brain, including the extent of DNA methylation, histone protein alterations, and even alterations of noncoding RNA, and that many of the changes differ between males and females. Although much previous attention has focused on primary sex differences in reproductive behaviors, such as male mounting and female lordosis, we outline why secondary sex differences related to competition and mate choice might also trace their origins back to steroid-induced epigenetic programming in disparate regions of the brain.
Brammer, Whitney A; Jezior, Kristen L; Lee, Steve S
Although the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene is associated with externalizing behavior, its mediating pathways are unknown. Given their sensitivity to serotonin neurotransmission and unique association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), we tested callous-unemotional (CU) traits and narcissism as separate mediators of the association of 5-HTTLPR with ADHD and ODD. We evaluated 209 5-9 year-old children with and without ADHD at baseline; approximately 2 years later (i.e., Wave 2), parents and teachers separately rated ADHD and ODD symptoms and youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Controlling for race-ethnicity and baseline ADHD/ODD, narcissism uniquely mediated predictions of multi-informant rated Wave 2 ADHD and ODD from variation in 5-HTTLPR; CU traits mediated predictions of Wave 2 ADHD from variations in 5-HTTLPR, but did not mediate the associations of 5-HTTLPR with ODD or youth self-reported antisocial behavior. Specifically, the number of 5-HTTLPR long alleles positively predicted CU traits and narcissism; narcissism was positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD and ODD symptoms, whereas CU traits were positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD. Child sex also moderated indirect effects of CU traits and narcissism, such that narcissism mediated predictions of ADHD/ODD in girls but not boys. Psychopathic traits may represent a relevant pathway underlying predictions of prospective change in ADHD and ODD from 5-HTTLPR, particularly in girls. We consider the role of psychopathic traits as a potential intermediate phenotype in genetically sensitive studies of child psychopathology. Aggr. Behav. 42:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cohn, M D; Popma, A; van den Brink, W; Pape, L E; Kindt, M; van Domburgh, L; Doreleijers, T A H; Veltman, D J
Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain function in adult antisocial populations. In this study, we investigated the associations between the neural correlates of fear conditioning, persistence of childhood-onset DBD during adolescence and psychopathic traits. From a cohort of children arrested before the age of 12 years, participants who were diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder in previous waves (mean age of onset 6.5 years, s.d. 3.2) were reassessed at mean age 17.6 years (s.d. 1.4) and categorized as persistent (n=25) or desistent (n=25) DBD. Using the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and functional magnetic resonance imaging during a fear conditioning task, these subgroups were compared with 26 matched healthy controls from the same cohort. Both persistent and desistent DBD subgroups were found to show higher activation in fear processing-related brain areas during fear conditioning compared with healthy controls. In addition, regression analyses revealed that impulsive-irresponsible and grandiose-manipulative psychopathic traits were associated with higher activation, whereas callous-unemotional psychopathic traits were related to lower activation in fear-related areas. Finally, the association between neural activation and DBD subgroup membership was mediated by impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits. These results provide evidence for heterogeneity in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying psychopathic traits and antisocial behavior and, as such, underscore the need to develop personalized interventions.
Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina
To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Psychopathy is a group of personality traits that are associated with violations of social norms. Previous studies have suggested that people with psychopathic traits in subclinical populations do not necessarily display antisocial, self-defeating behaviors, and instead may strategically show adaptive behaviors in response to cues during reciprocal social interactions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether the association between psychopathic traits and unfair behavior can be moderated by a potential for punishment and social distance (anonymity, which are known to facilitate fair behavior. We focused on two psychopathic traits: primary and secondary psychopathy. Primary psychopathy is characterized by callousness, shallow affect, manipulation, and superficial charm. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is associated with impulsivity and lack of long-term goals, and is related to hostile behavior. A total of 348 undergraduate students determined the amounts of money that they would offer to strangers or friends at their university in hypothetical scenarios of the ultimatum game (UG and the dictator game (DG. While gender affected decisions in the hypothetical scenarios of the DG, it did not interact with psychopathic traits. The score for primary psychopathy on the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale predicted unfair monetary offers to strangers in the DG, where participants could not be punished. However, compared with their offers in the DG, individuals with higher scores for primary psychopathy made larger offers in the UG, where low offers could trigger punishment from the recipient. Moreover, primary psychopathy did not decrease the amounts of offers in either game when the participant considered the recipient to be a friend. On the other hand, secondary psychopathy was not associated with differences in behavioral fairness depending on a potential for punishment or social distance. Based on these findings, we discuss
Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J
The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this study, the Big Five factor model of personality traits theory was tested for its ability to predict or explain Employee Information Security Behavior (EISB), when Generational Cohort (GCOHORT) moderated the relationship between the five factors of personality and EISB. The independent variables (IVs) Extraversion, Agreeableness,…
Pijper, J.; de Wied, M.A.; van Goozen, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.
This chapter first examines the nature of empathy problems in clinically referred disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) youth with callous unemotional (CU) traits. It then examines whether a lack of empathy contributes to a differentiation between DBD subtypes. The chapter also explores whether the
Chiaburu, Dan S.; Oh, In-Sue; Berry, Christopher M.; Li, Ning; Gardner, Richard G.
Using meta-analytic tests based on 87 statistically independent samples, we investigated the relationships between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits and organizational citizenship behaviors in both the aggregate and specific forms, including individual-directed, organization-directed, and change-oriented citizenship. We found that…
Hung, Yu Hsin; Chang, Ray I.; Lin, Chun Fu
In recent decades, the rapid growth of technology has resulted in software being widely applied in various domains. Attitudes toward using software play an important role in every industry. This study aims to explore the software literacy of accounting students along with their personal traits, such as learning styles and user behavior. This was a…
Yalch, Matthew M.; Vitale, Erika M.; Ford, J. Kevin
Recent changes to the diagnosis of child antisocial behavior provide different methods of conceptualizing it (e.g., traditional symptom-based diagnoses and alternative trait-based methods). However, there is little research on how psychology students might use these different methods and what kind of instructional formats might be amenable to…
Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer
The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.
Gemma Mestre-Bach; Gemma Mestre-Bach; Trevor Steward; Trevor Steward; Roser Granero; Roser Granero; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Fernando Fernández-Aranda; María Teresa Talón-Navarro; Àngel Cuquerella; Marta Baño; Laura Moragas; Amparo del Pino-Gutiérrez; Neus Aymamí
Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and co...
Molapour, Tanaz; Lindstr?m, Bj?rn; Olsson, Andreas
In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0–2 shocks) with the same faces a...
Deol, Raman Kaur
Several studies have examined the relationship between emotion and political behavior while others have studied the effect of personality on political behavior, but neither subfield has interacted much with the other. Personality and emotion have an interactive relationship wherein personality influences how people experience emotions and emotions influence how people express their personality traits. This project is an attempt to bridge the gap between these two subfields of study and to c...
Giner, Lucas; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; De La Vega, Diego; Courtet, Philippe
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria). We included classic factors related to suicidal behavior such as cognitive, inflexibility, problem-solving, coping, rumination, thought suppression, decision-making, autobiographical memory, working memory, language fluency, burdensomeness, belongingness, fearless, pain insensitivity, impulsiveness, aggressiveness, and hopelessness. The personality correlates reported are mainly based on the personality theories of Cloninger, Costa and McCrae, and Eysenck. Moreover, it explores conceptual links to other new pathways in psychological factors, emptiness, and psychological pain as a possible origin and common end path for a portion of suicidal behaviors.
Oljača Milan V.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of personality traits and gender in violent interaction among middle school children (11-15 age range. The aim of the research presented here was to determine the contribution of personality traits and gender to various aspects of violent interaction, i.e. predisposition towards and exposure to peer violence. The sample consisted of 344 students from 5th to 8th grade, the majority of whom were girls (60.8%. The instruments used in the research were a questionnaire designed to assess violent behavior in primary school children (PRONA and the Big Five Plus Two inventory (the BF + 2 for children, designed to assess seven basic personality traits in primary school children. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance suggest that boys tend to perpetrate and be exposed to violent behaviour more than girls, and also that certain personality traits contribute to the manifestation of these constructs. Exposure to violence is determined by low Extraversion, as well as higher levels of Neuroticism and Negative Valence. The traits that contribute most significantly to the tendency towards abusive behaviour are high levels of Aggression and Negative Valence as well as lower levels of Positive Valence. The most effective means of abuse prevention among middle school children is the setting up of prevention programs along with the detection of specific vulnerable groups of students, and the adjustment of these programs to students' personological traits.
Lee, Soo Jin; Cloninger, C Robert; Chae, Han
The personality profiles of patients with eating disorder have been extensively investigated, but those of people in the general population with eating behavior problems need to be evaluated to assess the relationship between personality, health behavior and level of overall well-being in non-clinical samples. Temperament and character traits, reasons for over-eating, and the negative influence of functional dyspepsia on quality of life were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and Functional Dyspepsia Quality of Life (FDQOL) inventory, respectively, in 199 Korean medical students. The associations among TCI, FDQOL, DEBQ and body mass index (BMI) were examined by correlational analysis. Multiple regression analysis was carried out to measure how well personality (TCI) accounted for patterns of overeating (DEBQ) and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia (FDQOL). Individual differences in personality (especially harm-avoidance, self-transcendence, and self-directedness) were weakly associated with overeating and impaired quality of life from functional dyspepsia. Gender, social desirability and body mass index also played important roles in predicting eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population. We found that the personality traits observed in clinical patients with eating disorders are also found in people with eating behavior problems in the nonclinical population of Korea. The ways that personality traits affect eating behaviors were discussed along with recommendations for future studies in light of the limitations of available data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pettersson, Erik; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Horn, Erin E; Ford, Derek C; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) personality disorder trait model, maladaptive behavior is located at one end of continuous scales. Widiger and colleagues, however, have argued that maladaptive behavior exists at both ends of trait continua. We propose that the role of evaluative variance differentiates these two perspectives and that once evaluation is isolated, maladaptive behaviors emerge at both ends of nonevaluative trait dimensions. In Study 1, we argue that evaluative variance is worthwhile to measure separately from descriptive content because it clusters items by valence regardless of content (e.g., lazy and workaholic; apathetic and anxious; gullible and paranoid; timid and hostile, etc.), which is unlikely to describe a consistent behavioral style. We isolate evaluation statistically (Study 2) and at the time of measurement (Study 3) to show that factors unrelated to valence evidence maladaptive behavior at both ends. We argue that nonevaluative factors, which display maladaptive behavior at both ends of continua, may better approximate ways in which individuals actually behave.
Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Baaklini, Amal
This study investigates the relationship between Aggressive Behavior and individual factors, namely trait Emotional Intelligence, personality dimensions, emotion regulation and self-worth, as well as social factors, namely accepting/rejecting parenting styles and exposure to violence. The sample consisted of 252 university students in Lebanon (154 females), from 16 to 30 years old. Results from hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors) showed that the Self-control and Emotionality factors of trait Emotional Intelligence were significant negative predictors of Aggressive Behavior while controlling for age and gender and in the presence of social and individual predictors). Exposure to violence and openness to experience also predicted Aggressive Behavior. Implications for future research and limitations of the present study are discussed.
Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G
Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Pawliczek, Christina M; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Kohn, Nils; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute
Deficits in response inhibition and heightened impulsivity have been linked to psychiatric disorders and aggression. They have been investigated in clinical groups as well as individuals with trait characteristics, yielding insights into the underlying neural and behavioral mechanisms of response inhibition and impulsivity. The motor inhibition tasks employed in most studies, however, have lacked an emotional component, which is crucial given that both response inhibition and impulsivity attain salience within a socio-emotional context. For this fMRI study, we selected a group with high trait aggression (HA, n=17) and one with low trait aggression (LA, n=16) from 550 males who had completed an Aggression Questionnaire. Neural activation was compared to an emotional version (including angry and neutral faces) of the stop signal task. Behavioral results revealed impaired response inhibition in HA, associated with higher motor impulsivity. This was accompanied by attenuated activation in brain regions involved in response inhibition, including the pre-supplementary motor area (SMA) and motor cortex. Together, these findings offer evidence that a reduced inhibition capacity is present in HA. Notably, response inhibition improved during anger trials in both groups, suggesting a facilitation effect through heightened activation in the related brain regions. In both groups, inclusion of the anger stimuli enhanced the activation of the motor and somatosensory areas, which modulate executive control, and of limbic regions including the amygdala. In summary, the investigation of response inhibition in individuals with high and low trait characteristics affords useful insights into the underlying distinct processing mechanisms. It can contribute to the investigation of trait markers in a clinical context without having to deal with the complex mechanisms of a clinical disorder itself. In contrast, the mechanisms of emotional response inhibition did not differ between groups
Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa
We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vijay Kumar Saini
Full Text Available Context: Internet addiction is less researched entity in developing countries. There has been an explosive growth in the use of internet worldwide including India in the last decade. Aims: To study the relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality characteristics among medical students. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional observational study carried out on 140 medical students. Subjects and Methods: All the students were taken randomly. Assessment of sociodemographic details was done with the help of semi-structured pro forma, and internet addiction test and big five inventory were used to assess internet addictive behavior and personality traits. Statistical Analysis Used: For comparison of dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. Correlation and linear regression were applied to see association. Data analysis was done with the help of statistical software SPSS 23. 0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM Corporation. Results: Mean score of internet addiction scale among medical students was 33.94 (standard deviation 13.592. It was found that higher neuroticism (β =0.242, P = 0.004 and less extroversion (β = −0.210, P = 0.011 displayed significant associations with internet addictive behavior. Conclusions: Neurotic individuals tend to experience increased levels of stress and interpersonal conflict because of this personality trait. Internet addictive behavior was lower on extroversion traits because they are more in social activities, making friend easily, and cheerful.
Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Brislin, Sarah J; Venables, Noah C; Joiner, Thomas E; Patrick, Christopher J
The RDoC matrix framework calls for investigation of mental health problems through analysis of core biobehavioral processes quantified and studied across multiple domains of measurement. Critics have raised concerns about RDoC, including overemphasis on biological concepts/measures and disregard for the principle of multifinality, which holds that identical biological predispositions can give rise to differing behavioral outcomes. The current work illustrates an ontogenetic process approach to addressing these concerns, focusing on biobehavioral traits corresponding to RDoC constructs as predictors, and suicidal behavior as the outcome variable. Data were collected from a young adult sample (N=105), preselected to enhance rates of suicidality. Participants completed self-report measures of traits (threat sensitivity, response inhibition) and suicide-specific processes. We show that previously reported associations for traits of threat sensitivity and weak inhibitory control with suicidal behavior are mediated by more specific suicide-promoting processes-namely, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide. The sample was relatively small and the data were cross-sectional, limiting conclusions that can be drawn from the mediation analyses. Given prior research documenting neurophysiological as well as psychological bases to these trait dispositions, the current work sets the stage for an intensive RDoC-oriented investigation of suicidal tendencies in which both traits and suicide-promoting processes are quantified using indicators from different domains of measurement. More broadly, this work illustrates how an RDoC research approach can contribute to a nuanced understanding of specific clinical problems, through consideration of how general biobehavioral liabilities interface with distinct problem-promoting processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fleeson, William; Gallagher, M. Patrick
One of the fundamental questions in personality psychology is whether and how strongly trait standing relates to the traits that people actually manifest in their behavior, when faced with real pressures and real consequences of their actions. One reason this question is fundamental is the common belief that traits do not predict how individuals behave, which leads to the reasonable conclusion that traits are not important to study. However, this conclusion is surprising given that there is almost no data on the ability of traits to predict distributions of naturally occurring, representative behaviors of individuals (and that there are many studies showing that traits do indeed predict specific behaviors). This paper describes a meta-analysis of 15 experience-sampling studies, conducted over the course of eight years, amassing over 20,000 reports of trait manifestation in behavior. Participants reported traits on typical self-report questionnaires, then described their current behavior multiple times per day for several days, as the behavior was occurring. Results showed that traits, contrary to expectations, were strongly predictive of individual differences in trait manifestation in behavior, predicting average levels with correlations between .42 and .56 (approaching .60 for stringently restricted studies). Several other ways of summarizing trait manifestation in behavior were also predicted from traits. These studies provide evidence that traits are powerful predictors of actual manifestation of traits in behavior. PMID:19968421
Meins, W; Frey, A; Thiesemann, R
The purpose of this study was to examine whether premorbid personality traits predispose to noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Munich Personality Test was used to evaluate caregivers' perception of personality prior to symptom onset in 56 outpatients with probable AD. Caregivers also completed the "mood" and "disturbed behavior" scales of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients. A neuropsychiatrist rated depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale for Depression and the occurrence of personality change in four domains according to ICD-10. Under statistical control of confounding variables, results showed a moderate association between (high) premorbid neuroticism, subsequent troublesome behavior, and personality change, on the one hand, and (low) frustration tolerance and depression, on the other. Premorbid personality traits may indeed predispose to subsequent noncognitive symptoms in AD.
Catarina I Gonçalves
Full Text Available Objective: Normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH is a rare disorder characterised by lack of pubertal development and infertility, due to deficient production, secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and, unlike Kallmann syndrome, is associated with a normal sense of smell. Mutations in the GNRHR gene cause autosomal recessive nCHH. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GNRHR mutations in a group of 40 patients with nCHH. Design: Cross-sectional study of 40 unrelated patients with nCHH. Methods: Patients were screened for mutations in the GNRHR gene by DNA sequencing. Results: GNRHR mutations were identified in five of 40 patients studied. Four patients had biallelic mutations (including a novel frameshift deletion p.Phe313Metfs*3, in two families in agreement with autosomal recessive inheritance. One patient had a heterozygous GNRHR mutation associated with a heterozygous PROKR2 mutation, thus suggesting a possible role of synergistic heterozygosity in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Conclusions: This study further expands the spectrum of known genetic defects associated with nCHH. Although GNRHR mutations are usually biallelic and inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, the presence of a monoallelic mutation in a patient should raise the possibility of a digenic/oligogenic cause of nCHH.
Klimecki, Olga M; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Sander, David
In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG) as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports), arousal (by means of skin conductance responses), physical effort (force exertion), and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling) and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic traits can have
Olga M Klimecki
Full Text Available In the prevention and resolution of conflicts in social contexts, an important step is to understand how different emotions and empathic traits are linked to punishment behaviors. Unfortunately, few paradigms exist to study these phenomena. Here, we developed the Inequality Game (IG as an economic and verbal interaction paradigm in which participants are faced with an "unfair other" as opposed to a "fair other" and subsequently have the opportunity to engage in a range of social behaviors. These social behaviors include cooperative or competitive economic choices and nice or derogatory verbal behavior toward the unfair and fair other. Participants could thus engage in punishment or forgiveness behavior toward the unfair other as well as in cooperative or aggressive behavior toward the fair other. We validated the IG through multimodal measures comprising the assessment of personality traits, emotions (by means of facial expressions and self-reports, arousal (by means of skin conductance responses, physical effort (force exertion, and behavioral reactions. Second, we examined the influence of emotions and empathy-related traits on punishment behavior. With regard to emotions, we observed a positive relation between malicious joy and punishment behavior. This result highlights the role of reward-related mechanisms in favoring punishment behavior. In addition, different empathic traits had opposing effects on antisocial behavior. Whereas personal distress predicted aggressive verbal behavior, perspective taking and empathic concern predicted a reduction in punishment behavior. Empathic traits also modulated emotional experience and person evaluations, such that perspective taking was related to more positive affect (less frowning and more smiling and a more favorable evaluation of the unfair other. The current data validate the IG, reveal that malicious joy is positively related to punishment behavior, and show that different types of empathic
Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline
The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…
Fleeson, William; Wilt, Joshua
Individuals vary their behavior from moment to moment a great deal, often acting “out of character” for their traits. This article investigates the consequences for authenticity. We compared two hypotheses—trait consistency: individuals feel most authentic when acting in a way consistent with their traits; and state-content significance: some ways of acting feel more authentic because of their content and consequences, regardless of the actor’s corresponding traits. Three studies using experience-sampling methodology in laboratory and natural settings, with participants aged 18–51, strongly supported the state-content significance hypothesis and did not support the trait-consistency hypothesis. Authenticity was consistently associated with acting highly extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and intellectual, regardless of the actor’s traits. Discussion focuses on possible implications for within-person variability in behavior and for the nature of the self-concept. PMID:20545814
Garland, Theodore; Zhao, Meng; Saltzman, Wendy
Although behavior may often be a fairly direct target of natural or sexual selection, it cannot evolve without changes in subordinate traits that cause or permit its expression. In principle, changes in endocrine function could be a common mechanism underlying behavioral evolution because they are well positioned to mediate integrated responses to behavioral selection. More specifically, hormones can influence both motivational (e.g., brain) and performance (e.g., muscles) components of behavior simultaneously and in a coordinated fashion. If the endocrine system is often "used" as a general mechanism to effect responses to selection, then correlated responses in other aspects of behavior, life history, and organismal performance (e.g., locomotor abilities) should commonly occur because any cell with appropriate receptors could be affected. Ways in which behavior coadapts with other aspects of the phenotype can be studied directly through artificial selection and experimental evolution. Several studies have targeted rodent behavior for selective breeding and reported changes in other aspects of behavior, life history, and lower-level effectors of these organismal traits, including endocrine function. One example involves selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running, one aspect of physical activity, in four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of mice. Circulating levels of several hormones (including insulin, testosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine) have been characterized, three of which-corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin-differ between HR and control lines, depending on sex, age, and generation. Potential changes in circulating levels of other behaviorally and metabolically relevant hormones, as well as in other components of the endocrine system (e.g., receptors), have yet to be examined. Overall, results to date identify promising avenues for further studies on the endocrine basis of activity levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University
van Someren Gréve, Hans
Research on planktonic copepod ecology is vital to understand the factors controlling marine food web dynamics since copepods are the major components of zooplankton communities and the main link between trophic levels in marine environments. Despite their taxonomic diversity, copepods share...... certain phenotypic characteristics, or ´traits´, that are essential in determining trophic interactions and fitness. One important characteristic that decisively influences organism interactions is behavior. Copepods display two distinct behavioral strategies in terms of motility: ´active´ (feeding......-current and cruising feeding) or ´passive´ (ambush feeding). Differences in motile behavior between strategies imply different consequences for encounter rates with prey, sex partners, and potential predators. This thesis aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of how the different behavioral strategies...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether susceptibility to selected behavioral biases (overconfidence, mental accounting and sunk-cost fallacy is correlated with the Eysenck’s  personality traits (impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. This study was conducted on a sample of 90 retail investors frequently investing on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Participants filled out a survey made up of two parts: 1 three situational exercises, which assessed susceptibility to behavioral biases and 2 an Impulsiveness Questionnaire, which measures impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. The results demonstrated the relationship between venturesomeness and susceptibility to all behavioral biases explored in this study. We find that higher level of venturesomeness was linked with a lower probability of all behavioral biases included in this study.
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.
This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…
Dotterer, Hailey L; Hyde, Luke W; Swartz, Johnna R; Hariri, Ahmad R; Williamson, Douglas E
Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11-15; 49.5% female; 38.2% Hispanic), half of whom had a family history for depression and thus were at relatively elevated risk for late starting, emotionally dysregulated AB. We found that AB was significantly related to increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions independent of sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. CU traits were not related to fear- or anger-related amygdala reactivity. The present study further demonstrates that AB is related to increased amygdala reactivity to interpersonal threat cues in adolescents, and that this relationship generalizes across sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne
Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hailey L. Dotterer
Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB and callous-unemotional (CU traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11–15; 49.5% female; 38.2% Hispanic, half of whom had a family history for depression and thus were at relatively elevated risk for late starting, emotionally dysregulated AB. We found that AB was significantly related to increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions independent of sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. CU traits were not related to fear- or anger-related amygdala reactivity. The present study further demonstrates that AB is related to increased amygdala reactivity to interpersonal threat cues in adolescents, and that this relationship generalizes across sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression.
Ikematsu, Yuko; Egawa, Koji; Endo, Midori; Yokouchi, Mitsuko
Nursing students with tendencies toward developmental disorders or special educational needs could face difficulties while studying nursing. The study examined the behavioral traits of nursing students with special educational needs who graduated in Japan in March 2011. Nurse educators from 341 programs provided information concerning students who had been identified as difficult to teach while enrolled in nursing programs. Behavioral traits were examined in students with special educational needs (n = 139) and those who did not have special needs but were identified as difficult to teach by the nurse educators (n = 84). The most prevalent behaviors in students with special needs were "making excessive excuses" in unstressful situations and "lapsing into silence" under stressful circumstances. The number of students with special needs who were prone to "blaming others" and "disappearing" was higher relative to that of students without special needs under unstressful circumstances. Under stressful circumstances, "blaming others," "disappearing," and "staying at home" were reported more frequently for students with special needs than they were for students without special needs. Nurse educators should pay attention to these behaviors in students facing difficulties while studying nursing. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jespersen, Kristina Risom
As the complexity of problems and the speed of changes increase for companies, the accuracy of research relies on the measurement of behavior close to the real world of the respondents. Recent reviews within different research fields of the social sciences have pointed at the need for more...... interactive methods of collecting data [1, 2]. To collect real-time data as opposed to retrospective data, new methodological traits are needed. The paper proposes that a behavioral simulation supported by Web technology is a valid new research strategy to handle the collection of real-time data. Adapting...... the knowledge on agent-based modeling [3, 4], a behavioral simulation synergizes the benefits of self-administered questionnaires and the experimental design, and furthermore, introduces role-playing [5, 6] and scenario [7-11] strategies as very effective methods to ensure high interaction with the respondents...
Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea
This study investigated the unique and interactive effects of emotion-related personality traits (i.e., callousness and uncaring traits) and peer social standing (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) on cyberbullying behaviors in preadolescents. A total of 529 preadolescents (247 boys, 46.69%) were recruited from an Italian middle school (Mage=12 years and 7 months; SD=1 year and 2 months). The participants primarily consisted of Italian children (91.12%). A series of binary logistic regression analyses parted by gender were conducted to examine the main and interactive effects of self-reported emotion-related variables and peer-reported social standing in the prediction of self-reported cyberbullying behaviors, while controlling for cyber victimization and grade effects. In girls, an uncaring disposition was directly associated with cyberbullying behaviors, whereas in boys this association only emerged for those with low perceived popularity. Our results indicated that, in developing anti(cyber)bullying programs, school researchers and practitioners should jointly consider individual and contextual factors.
Edwards, Bethany G; Albertson, Emily; Verona, Edelyn
Given the high-level impact of crime, empirical work is needed to identify personality traits, or overarching factors of personality pathology, that may leave individuals more prone to engage in criminal behaviors. This study empirically tested the distinction between the dark personality and vulnerable dark personality spectra (Miller et al., 2010) in a large offender sample and aimed to test how these personality factors relate to criminal dimensions and individual types of crime. Self-report and public record data verified criminal behaviors for 493 (34.7% women) adult offenders, and features of the 2 personality spectra were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, and Personality Assessment Inventory: Borderline Scale. Factor analyses supported the distinction between dark and vulnerable dark personality spectra and 3 dimensions of crime (i.e., crimes against property and persons, and drug-related crimes). Findings broadly pointed to trait vulnerabilities within the dark spectra (e.g., callousness) as relevant for criminal versatility and violent crimes against persons (e.g., assault, murder), and impulsive/reactive tendencies within the dark spectra (vulnerable dark) appeared to be particularly important for impulsive property crimes (e.g., theft, robbery) and drug offenses. Results may lend themselves well to refining offender intervention techniques and warrant further examination of the extent to which dark personality spectra coalesce as expected or similarly predict high-impact behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric
This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Lai, Elisa; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Righini, Elisabetta; Masi, Gabriele
Several studies suggested that in addition to child-driven factors (i.e., temperamental style), parenting behavior can, at least in part, influence the maintenance of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in children; however, more information is needed to distinguish which styles (negative parenting or lack of positive parenting) predict increased levels of CU traits. The aim of the present treatment study was to examine which components of parenting are longitudinally associated with levels of CU traits in children with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. The current study examined cross-lagged reciprocal effects models between positive and negative parenting practices, and the levels of child CU traits over three time points, including both positive and negative dimensions of parenting in the same model. Participants were 126 Italian children with diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder (oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder), 113 boys and 13 girls, 110 Caucasian, 48 with conduct disorder, and 78 with oppositional defiant disorder, treated with a multi-component intervention, based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices. Participants were all 9-10 years of age at the beginning of the study, and were followed-up until the age of 11-12 years (24 months in total, the first 12 under treatment) using parent report (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Child Behavior Check List) and child report (Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) measures. No significant cross-lagged path was found between negative parenting and CU traits; these two variables were also unrelated when positive parenting was considered in the same model. In contrast, reciprocal effects between positive parenting and CU were found: higher levels of positive parenting predicted lower levels of CU traits. The current findings suggest that the positive dimension of parenting may need to be targeted in the treatment of DBD children with higher CU traits. Copyright © 2016
White, Stuart F.; Brislin, Sarah; Sinclair, Stephen; Fowler, Katherine A.; Pope, Kayla; Blair, R. James R.
Background: The presence of a large cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) has been previously associated with antisocial behavior/psychopathic traits in an adult community sample. Aims: The current study investigated the relationship between a large CSP and symptom severity in disruptive behavior disorders (DBD; conduct disorder and oppositional defiant…
Cohn, Moran D.; Veltman, Dick J.; Pape, Louise E.; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Popma, Arne
Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient
Cohn, M.D.; Veltman, D.J.; Pape, L.E.; van Lith, K.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; van den Brink, W.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Popma, A.
Background Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e.,
Talati, Ardesheer; Odgerel, Zagaa; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Norcini-Pala, Andrea; Skipper, Jamie L; Gingrich, Jay A; Weissman, Myrna M
The role of the serotonin transporter promoter-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in psychiatric disease remains unclear. Behavioral traits could serve as alternative outcomes that are stable, precede psychopathology, and capture more sub-clinical variation. We test associations between 5-HTTLPR and (1) behavioral traits and (2) clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression. Second and third generation participants (N=203, 34.2±13.8 years, 54% female) at high- or low- familial risk for depression (where risk was defined by the presence of major depression in the 1st generation) were assessed longitudinally using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-lifetime interview, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. High (but not low)-risk offspring with two risk (short, s) alleles had higher impulsivity (+13%), hostility (+31%) and neuroticism (+23%). SS was associated higher rates of panic (OR=7.05 [2.44, 20.38], p=0.0003) and phobic (OR=2.68[1.04, 6.93], p=0.04), but not other disorders. Impulsivity accounted for 16% of associations between 5-HTTLPR and panic, and 52% of association between 5-HTTLPR and phobias. We show that 5-HTTLPR predicts higher impulsivity, hostility, and neuroticism, and that impulsivity could serve as a useful independent outcome or intermediary phenotype in genetic studies of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rotenberry, John T; Swanger, Elizabeth; Zuk, Marlene
Alternative reproductive tactics may arise when natural enemies use sexual signals to locate the signaler. In field crickets, elevated costs to male calling due to acoustically orienting parasitoid flies create opportunity for an alternative tactic, satellite behavior, where noncalling males intercept females attracted to callers. Although the caller-satellite system in crickets that risk detection by parasitoids resembles distinct behavioral phenotypes, a male's propensity to behave as caller or satellite can be a continuously variable trait over several temporal scales, and an individual may pursue alternate tactics at different times. We modeled a caller-satellite-parasitoid system as a spatially explicit interaction among male and female crickets using individual-based simulation. Males varied in their propensity to call versus behave as a satellite from one night to the next. We varied mortality, density, sex ratio, and female mating behavior, and recorded lifetime number of mates as a function of a male's probability of calling (vs. acting as a satellite) along a gradient in parasitism risk. Frequently, the optimal behavior switched abruptly from being pure caller (call every night) to pure satellite (never call) as parasitism rate increased. However, mixed strategies prevailed even with high parasitism risk under conditions of higher background mortality rate, decreasing density, increasing female-biased sex ratio, and increasing female choosiness. In natural populations, high parasitoid pressure alone would be unlikely to yield fixation of pure satellite behavior.
Balconi, Michela; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni; Angioletti, Laura
Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only. Results indicates that gambling behavior in PD patients is strongly predictive of dysfunctional cognitive strategy; affecting anomalous cortical response with a left hemispheric unbalance in dorsal areas; and it is related to more reward sensitivity than impulsivity personality components. PDG patients differed from PDNG and CG from both behavioral and brain response to decision-making. Overall, these effects confirm a pathological condition related to cognitive and emotional aspects which makes the patients with PGD victims of their dysfunctional behavior.
Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Glenn, Andrea L; Ang, Rebecca P; Vanzetti, Stefania; Falcone, Tiziana; Gaab, Jens; Fung, Daniel Ss
A number of studies have identified discrepancies in informant ratings of externalizing behaviors in youth, but it is unclear whether similar discrepancies exist between informants when rating psychopathic traits. In this study, we examined parent-child agreement on ratings of both psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors, and examined the factors that influence agreement in both of these domains. A total of 282 children between 7 and 16 years (M = 10.60 years, SD = 1.91) from an outpatient child psychiatric clinic participated in this study. Our findings revealed low levels of parent-child agreement on these measures (ICC values ranging from .02 to .30 for psychopathic traits; ICC values ranging from .09 to .30 for externalizing behaviors). In addition, our findings did not support the moderating effects of child's age, gender, clinical diagnosis, informant, and parental conflict on the relationship between parent- and child-ratings of psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors. Further research is needed to better understand how parents and child reports of child's externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits are similar and/or different from one another and factors that influence these agreements.
Cohn, Moran D; Veltman, Dick J; Pape, Louise E; van Lith, Koen; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Popma, Arne
Children with early-onset disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), especially those with callous-unemotional traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe adult antisocial behavior. One possible underlying mechanism for persistence is deficient reward and loss sensitivity, i.e., deficient incentive processing. However, little is known about the relation between deficient incentive processing and persistence of antisocial behavior into adulthood or its relation with callous-unemotional and other psychopathic traits. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the neural correlates of incentive processing and both DBD persistence and psychopathic traits. In a sample of 128 adolescents (mean age 17.7) with a history of criminal offending before age 12, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during a monetary incentive delay task designed to assess neural responses during incentive processing. Neural activation during incentive processing was then associated with DBD persistence and psychopathic traits, measured with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory. Compared with both healthy control subjects and youths who had desisted from DBD, persistent DBD subjects showed lower neural responses in the ventral striatum during reward outcomes and higher neural responses in the amygdala during loss outcomes. Callous-unemotional traits were related to lower neural responses in the amygdala during reward outcomes, while other psychopathic traits were not related to incentive processing. In the current study, aberrant incentive processing is related to persistence of childhood antisocial behavior into late adolescence and to callous-unemotional traits. This mechanism may underlie treatment resistance in a subgroup of antisocial youth and provide a target for intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marie-Orleach, Lucas; Vogt-Burri, Nadja; Mouginot, Pierick; Schlatter, Aline; Vizoso, Dita B; Bailey, Nathan W; Schärer, Lukas
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this in a series of experiments in the simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found strong evidence for IGEs on both morphological and behavioral reproductive traits. Partner genotype had a significant impact on the testis size of focal individuals-varying up to 2.4-fold-suggesting that IGEs could mediate sexual conflicts that target the male sex function. We also found that time to first copulation was affected by a genotype × genotype interaction between mating partners, and that partner genotype affected the propensity to copulate and perform the postcopulatory suck behavior, which may mediate conflicts over the fate of received ejaculate components. These findings provide clear empirical evidence for IGEs on multiple behavioral and morphological reproductive traits, which suggests that the evolutionary dynamics of these traits could be altered by genes contained in the social environment. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Steven Charles Hertler
Full Text Available Freud noted that the obsessive traits of orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy incontestably belonged together. This observation has been unfailingly justified, but unsatisfactorily explained. Being a highly heritable pattern essentially unaffected by parental influence, it is counterfactual to continue to explain the obsessive trait constellation as a pathological signature of harsh, authoritarian parenting. Alternatively, the present paper, building upon a previously promulgated evolutionary etiological model, describes how obsessive traits work in unison to enable survival within harsh northerly climates. What appears to be a loosely federated inventory of pathology, after the application of evolutionary reasoning, becomes a coherent behavioral package, adaptive suite, or behavioral syndrome. All three of these terms, taken from behavioral biology, suggest that traits strategically covary, such that the adaptive value of each trait is enhanced by the presence of the others. In this vein, the union of anxious tension and conscientiousness drives the obsessive personality to labor incessantly. The fruits of obsessive labor are then conserved through parsimoniousness, hoarding, vigilance, and niggardliness. And so, obsessive personality is a coherent behavioral package in that the drive to work towards the acquisition of necessities is paired with the drive to conserve and defend them.
Raymond, Nancy C; Coleman, Eli; Miner, Michael H
In recent years there has been an increase in identifying and treating a clinical syndrome that has been given many different names, including compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a sample of individuals with CSB, as evaluated by a structured psychiatric interview. A secondary focus of this research was to determine if individuals with CSB exhibit obsessive-compulsive characteristics or exhibit impulse control problems. Participants were 23 men and two women who responded to newspaper advertisements and met criteria for CSB according to diagnostic criteria established and assessed by expert clinicians. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III, patient version (SCID-P) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) were used to interview all participants. To study compulsive or impulsive traits the authors developed a semistructured interview. Standardized rating scales were also administered. Eighty-eight percent of the sample met diagnostic criteria for an axis I disorder at the time of the interview, and 100% of the sample met criteria for an axis I disorder at some time in their lives. The most common diagnoses were mood and anxiety disorders. The sample exhibited more traits of impulsivity than compulsivity. The data are consistent with the suggestion proposed by others that argues for conceptualizing these disorders as impulsive/compulsive spectrum disorders. Attention must be given to addressing these traits, as well as to the treatment of other axis I and axis II disorders, when treating CSB.
Seo, Ho-Jun; Jung, Young-Eun; Jeong, Seunghee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn
The aim of the current study was to identify personality traits associated with suicidal behavior in patients with depression. Of the 1183 patients screened for an observational cohort study of depression, 334 (28.2%) who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were included in these analyses. To minimize the effect of current mood state, the TCI was performed 12 weeks after initiation of treatment, and we adjusted for the severity of depression. Of the 344 participants, 59 had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, 37 had a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and 5 attempted suicide during the 12-week study period. At baseline, patients with a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt, a lifetime history of multiple suicide attempts, and a suicide attempt during the study period expressed more serious current suicidal ideation than did those without such a history, despite the absence of differences among the groups in the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Of the seven personality scales of the TCI, lower scores on the self-directedness scale of the character dimension were associated with a history of at least one suicide attempt (OR [95% CI], 0.91 [0.87-0.96]; ppersonality traits, especially the character dimension of self-directedness. It is noteworthy that this result emerged after controlling for the effect of current mood state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Graepel, Thore
We show that easily accessible digital records of behavior, Facebook Likes, can be used to automatically and accurately predict a range of highly sensitive personal attributes including: sexual orientation, ethnicity, religious and political views, personality traits, intelligence, happiness, use of addictive substances, parental separation, age, and gender. The analysis presented is based on a dataset of over 58,000 volunteers who provided their Facebook Likes, detailed demographic profiles, and the results of several psychometric tests. The proposed model uses dimensionality reduction for preprocessing the Likes data, which are then entered into logistic/linear regression to predict individual psychodemographic profiles from Likes. The model correctly discriminates between homosexual and heterosexual men in 88% of cases, African Americans and Caucasian Americans in 95% of cases, and between Democrat and Republican in 85% of cases. For the personality trait "Openness," prediction accuracy is close to the test-retest accuracy of a standard personality test. We give examples of associations between attributes and Likes and discuss implications for online personalization and privacy.
Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.
Lüdtke, Janine; Weizenegger, Benedict; Rauber, Rachel; Contin, Brigitte; In-Albon, Tina; Schmid, Marc
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among adolescents and associated with various mental health problems and suicidality. Previous studies have found that certain personality traits are related to NSSI behavior, however only few studies examined personality traits in adolescents with NSSI. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between personality traits and emotional and behavioral problems in predicting repetitive NSSI among adolescents from a school sample. Four hundred and forty-seven students (M=14.95years, SD=0.74, 52% male) completed self-report measures on NSSI, personality traits, and emotional and behavioral problems. The past year prevalence of occasional and repetitive NSSI was 4.9% and 6.3% respectively. Repetitive NSSI was significantly associated with female gender, higher levels of age, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, antisocial behavior, and positive self and lower levels of persistence and self-directedness in univariate analyses. However, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only high levels of antisocial behavior and low levels of self-directedness significantly predicted repetitive NSSI. The association between a lack of self-directedness and NSSI emphasizes the significance of targeting self-directedness in psychotherapy by strengthening self-awareness, affect tolerance and emotion regulation, as well as establishing and pursuing long-term goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yu-Jie; Dou, Kai; Tang, Zhi-Wen
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is important to the development of an organization. Research into factors that foster OCB and the underlying processes are therefore substantially crucial. The current study aimed to test the association between trait self-control and OCB and the mediating role of consideration for future consequence. Four hundred and ninety-four Chinese employees (275 men, 219 women) took part in the study. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures online that assessed trait self-control, tendencies of consideration of future consequence, and organizational citizenship behavior. Path analysis was conducted and bootstrapping technique (N = 5000), a resampling method that is asymptotically more accurate than the standard intervals using sample variance and assumptions of normality, was used to judge the significance of the mediation. Results of path analysis showed that trait self-control was positively related to OCB. More importantly, the "trait self-control-OCB" link was mediated by consideration of future consequence-future, but not by consideration of future consequence-immediate. Employees with high trait self-control engage in more organizational citizenship behavior and this link can be partly explained by consideration of future consequence-future.
Masi, Gabriele; Milone, Annarita; Brovedani, Paola; Pisano, Simone; Muratori, Pietro
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking. Recently, research suggests that youth with CU traits, similarly to adults with psychopathy, can present a low-anxious "primary" and high-anxious "secondary" variants. Our aim is to critically review the main measures of psychopathic traits, including the three main dimensions (with specific emphasis on CU traits), and the "primary/secondary" distinction, focusing on the assessment in clinical settings. An assessment procedure is proposed, based on previous literature and personal clinical experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lotze, Geri M.; Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Children with incarcerated mothers are at high risk for developing problem behaviors. Fifty children (6-12 years; 62% girls) participated in summer camps, along with adult mentors. Regression analyses of child and adult measures of child's emotion self-regulation and callous-unemotional traits, and a child measure of moral emotions, showed that…
Smith, Lois J.; Chenoweth, John D.
Many business schools designate leadership as a learning outcome for their undergraduates, but the question of how to teach leadership is challenging. Results of this study showed that students who were engaged in extracurricular student organizations rated themselves higher on both leadership traits and behaviors than those who were not involved…
Bell, G. Ronald; Crothers, Laura M.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Parys, Kristen
The authors examined the degree to which callous-unemotional traits and narcissism predict relational aggression, social aggression, and prosocial skills in a sample of 79 adolescent offenders (13-18 years old; 26% girls; 74% boys) attending a school for youth with behavior disorders in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Narcissism made a significant…
Chang, Wei-Lung; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Lin, Tai-An; Wen, Yung-Sung
The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between family communication structure, vanity trait, and related consumption behavior. The study used an empirical method with adolescent students from the northern part of Taiwan as the subjects. Multiple statistical methods and the SEM model were used for testing the hypotheses. The…
Besnoy, Kevin D.; Dantzler, John; Besnoy, Lisa R.; Byrne, Caitlin
This study evaluated the construct validity of the Traits, Aptitudes, and Behaviors Scale (TABS). Data for this study were collected from two separate school districts across three different academic years in the Southeastern United States. Of the total sample (N = 2,330), 64.6% of the children were identified as African American, 29.0% as…
Full Text Available Malin Axelsson,1,2 Christina Cliffordson,2 Bo Lundbäck,1 Jan Lötvall11Krefting Research Centre, Institute of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, SwedenBackground: There is evidence that both personality traits and personal beliefs about medications affect adherence behavior. However, limited research exists on how personality and beliefs about asthma medication interact in influencing adherence behavior in people with asthma. To extend our knowledge in this area of adherence research, we aimed to determine the mediating effects of beliefs about asthma medication between personality traits and adherence behavior.Methods: Asthmatics (n=516 selected from a population-based study called West Sweden Asthma Study completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to Experience Five-Factor Inventory, the Medication Adherence Report Scale, and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.Results: Three of the five investigated personality traits – agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism – were associated with both concerns about asthma medication and adherence behavior. Concerns functioned as a partial mediator for the influencing effects of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on adherence behavior.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality traits could be used to identify individuals with asthma who need support with their adherence behavior. Additionally, targeting concerns about asthma medication in asthmatics with low levels of agreeableness or conscientiousness or high levels of neuroticism could have a favorable effect on their adherence behavior.Keywords: adherence, individual differences, medication concerns, health behavior
Mudallal, Rola H.; Othman, Wafa’a M.; Al Hassan, Nahid F.
Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses’ energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses’ feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses’ demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model–exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses’ work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses’ feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care. PMID:28844166
Pond, Richard S; Dewall, C Nathan; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Deckman, Timothy; Bonser, Ian M; Fincham, Frank D
Many models of aggression include negatively valenced emotions as common elicitors of aggressive behavior. Yet, the motivational direction of these emotions is not taken into account. The current work explored whether sensitivity to a negative emotion associated with behavioral avoidance-disgust-will predict lower levels of aggression. Five studies tested the hypothesis that disgust sensitivity predicts less aggression. In Study 1 (N = 92), disgust sensitivity predicted less trait physical and verbal aggression. In Study 2 (N = 268), participants high in disgust sensitivity were less likely to behave aggressively towards a stranger on a reaction-time task. In Study 3 (N = 51), disgust sensitivity was associated with less intimate partner violence inclinations. Study 4 (N = 247) replicated this effect longitudinally. In Study 5 (N = 166), each domain of disgust (i.e., moral, sexual, and pathogen disgust) had a buffering effect on daily aggression when daily experiences activated those specific domains. These results highlight the usefulness of considering the motivational direction of an emotion when examining its influence on aggression.
Bollatti, Fedra; Diaz, Virginia Garcia; Peretti, Alfredo V.; Aisenberg, Anita
Mating partners need to recognize, assess each other, and exchange information through behavioral events that occur before, during, and after mating. Sexual signals, as well as life history traits, are influenced by selective pressures and environmental factors that can vary across distant geographical areas. Allocosa senex is a sand-dwelling wolf spider which constructs burrows along the sandy coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Females are the mobile sex that searches for males and initiates courtship. They prefer males which construct longer burrows, and males prefer virgin females in good body condition. The objective of this study was to compare sexual behavior patterns, as well as body characteristics and burrow dimensions, between two geographically distant locations of A. senex, one in Uruguay (Uruguayan location) and the other from central Argentina (Argentinean location). We found differences in the number of male abdominal vibrations, male and female touches during mating, and number of erections of male leg spines, which all were higher in matings of Argentinean pairs. On the other hand, male body mass and female body condition were higher in Uruguayan individuals. The wide distribution of A. senex could be determining variations in the biotic and abiotic features that affect the species, generating differences in the strength of selective forces acting on individuals from the two studied locations.
Mudallal, Rola H; Othman, Wafa'a M; Al Hassan, Nahid F
Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses' energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses' feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses' demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model-exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses' work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses' feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care.
Romanova, Irina M.; Noskova, Elena V.; Trotsenko, Anastasiya N.
Development of academic mobility of students from different countries requires evaluating the influence of their cultural traits on the behavior on the educational products market. The subject of present study is the development of methodic approach towards evaluating the cross-cultural traits influence on students' behavior on the higher…
Ehrler, David J.; McGhee, Ron L.; Evans, J. Gary
Investigation conducted to link Big-Five personality traits with behavior problems identified in childhood. Results show distinct patterns of behavior problems associated with various personality characteristics. Preliminary data indicate that identifying Big-Five personality trait patterns may be a useful dimension of assessment for understanding…
Raskin, Maryna; Fosse, Nathan E; Easterbrooks, M Ann
Research on father involvement has shown positive effects on child development. Because fathers in high social risk samples may be hard to recruit or retain in studies, the literature often has relied on maternal report of father involvement. A major limitation of this approach is that unobserved traits of the reporting mothers may distort the real associations between father involvement and children's development. Using maternal data from a large, longitudinal sample (N = 704) of low-income, young mothers, we evaluated the degree to which a stable depressive trait affected the link between mother-reported measures of father involvement and child problems. Three waves of maternal depression data were used to fit a latent state-trait model of depression, allowing for separate estimates of occasion-specific symptoms and stable depressive trait. A latent regression analysis which did not control for this trait revealed a link between father involvement and child problems similar in magnitude to the links reported in the literature. However, this association disappeared once we accounted for the effect of maternal depressive trait. Results suggest that studies using maternal reports of both father and child behaviors should control for such confounding effects. We elaborate on these findings in the conclusion and offer suggestions for future research on the role of fathers in child development. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Fanti, Kostas A
Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N = 1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age = 12.12) and middle (Mean age = 14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support.
Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL
Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.
Muratori, Pietro; Milone, Annarita; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Lambruschi, Furio; Masi, Gabriele; Lochman, John E
Multi-component interventions based on cognitive behavioral principles and practices have been found effective in reducing behavioral problems in children with disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder). However, it is still unclear if these interventions can affect children's callous-unemotional traits, which are predictive of subsequent antisocial behavior. Furthermore, it could be important to identify empirically supported treatment protocols for specific disorders addressed by child mental health services. The present study aimed to test the following two hypotheses: first, the Coping Power (CP) treatment program is able to reduce externalizing behaviors in children with disruptive behavior disorders treated in a mental health care unit; second, the CP program can reduce children's callous unemotional traits. The sample included 98 Italian children, 33 treated with the CP program; 37 with a less focused multi-component intervention, and 28 with child psychotherapy. The results showed that the CP program was more effective than the other two treatments in reducing aggressive behaviors. Furthermore, only the CP program was associated with a decrease in children's callous unemotional traits. The CP program was also associated with lower rate of referrals to mental health services at one-year follow-up. These findings support the importance of disseminating manualized and focused intervention programs in mental health services.
Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F
Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.
Full Text Available Earlier studies have revealed that the more the preference to schedule daily activities towards the evening hours is, the higher the odds for a range of health hazards are. Therefore, we wanted to analyze, whether the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness is associated with articular and spinal diseases or those with musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n = 6089, as part of the National FINRISK 2007 Study, were derived from the general population, aged 25 to 74 years, living in Finland. Chronotype was assessed based on six items from the original Horne-Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Information about risk factors and the diagnoses of articular and spinal diseases were based on the self-reported information. Our results suggest that Evening-types have higher odds for articular and spinal diseases as compared with Morning-types, and this risk is heightened especially regarding spinal disease and backache (odds ratios of 1.8 to 2.1, and 1.6 to 1.8, respectively and remains significant after controlling for the sex, age, education, civil status, physical activity, alcohol use, and smoking, and additionally for the body-mass index, insufficient sleep, or depressive symptoms.
Tang, Wai Yen; Fox, Jesse
Online video games afford co-play and social interaction, often anonymous, among players from around the world. As predicted by the social identity model of deindividuation effects, undesirable behavior is not uncommon in online gaming environments, and online harassment has become a pervasive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits and game-related variables predicted two types of online aggression in video games: general harassment (e.g., skill-based taunting, insulting others' intelligence) and sexual harassment (e.g., sexist comments, rape threats). Men who play online video games (N = 425) participated in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and hostile sexism predicted higher levels of both sexual harassment and general harassment in online games. Game involvement and hours of weekly gameplay were additional predictors of general harassment. We discuss implications of online social aggression and online sexual harassment for online gaming. We also apply our findings to the broader understanding of online harassment, cyberaggression, cyberbullying, and other forms of online hostility in computer-mediated communication contexts. Aggr. Behav. 42:513-521, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I
To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.
Krajden, M; Shankaran, P; Bourke, C; Lau, W
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality; however, only 0.4 to 12% of the blood products obtained from seropositive blood donors transmit infection. The effects of three commercially available whole-blood sample preparation kits on the detection of CMV PCR products by a semiquantitative adaptation of the Digene SHARP Signal System Assay (DSSSA) in samples from volunteer blood donors was assessed. Of 101 samples from seropositive blood donor...
Ali Gohary; Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
This study examines the relationship between Big Five personality traits with shopping motivation variables consisting of compulsive and impulsive buying, hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Two hundred forty seven college students were recruited to participate in this research. Bivariate correlation demonstrates an overlap between personality traits; consequently, canonical correlation was performed to prevent this phenomenon. The results of multiple regression analysis suggested consci...
Eaves, Lindon; Verhulst, Brad
Conclusions about the genetic architecture of a phenotype relating to the contributions of genetic additivity, dominance, epistasis or genotype × environment interaction, depend upon the statistical and distributional properties of the measured trait. This dependence is frequently ignored in contemporary genetic studies and can radically change the conclusions that may be drawn from the data. The interdependence of the conclusions about genetic architecture and instruments used for behavioral measurement is explored by simulated studies of the interaction between candidate genes and measured environment in psychiatric genetics. Trait values are simulated (N = 100,000) under several commonly encountered scenarios and subjected to two simulated 20-item psychological tests each comprising items with different patterns of difficulty and sensitivity to variation (discriminating power) in the latent trait. Test scores are generated for each test by summing the binary responses across all items. The full model for digenic additive and non-additive genetic effects and G × E is fitted to the trait values and test scores under a range of different simulated genetic architectures. Untransformed test scores show complex patterns of epistasis and G × E even when the underlying effects of genes and environment are purely additive and the transformation of symptom counts does not fully recover the simulated underlying genetic architecture. Accordingly, failing to allow for the theory of measurement when analyzing details of genetic architecture may frequently lead to replicable over-reporting of interactions and mislead potential investigators and funding agencies.
Happer, Kaitlin; Brown, Elissa J; Sharma-Patel, Komal
Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baumeister, Roy F; Gailliot, Matthew; DeWall, C Nathan; Oaten, Megan
Self-regulation is a highly adaptive, distinctively human trait that enables people to override and alter their responses, including changing themselves so as to live up to social and other standards. Recent evidence indicates that self-regulation often consumes a limited resource, akin to energy or strength, thereby creating a temporary state of ego depletion. This article summarizes recent evidence indicating that regular exercises in self-regulation can produce broad improvements in self-regulation (like strengthening a muscle), making people less vulnerable to ego depletion. Furthermore, it shows that ego depletion moderates the effects of many traits on behavior, particularly such that wide differences in socially disapproved motivations produce greater differences in behavior when ego depletion weakens the customary inner restraints.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS. In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII criteria, aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (−10.2% of initial weight was associated with increased cognitive restraint (p < 0.0001 and with reduced disinhibition (p = 0.02 and susceptibility to hunger (p = 0.01. Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
Carbonneau, Élise; Royer, Marie-Michelle; Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lemieux, Simone; Lamarche, Benoît
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions. This was followed by a 20-week caloric restriction weight loss period in free-living conditions, without specific recommendations towards adhering to the principles of the MedDiet. Participants were finally subjected to a final five-week MedDiet phase under isoenergetic controlled-feeding conditions. The MedDiet before weight loss had no impact on eating behavioral traits. Body weight reduction by caloric restriction (-10.2% of initial weight) was associated with increased cognitive restraint ( p < 0.0001) and with reduced disinhibition ( p = 0.02) and susceptibility to hunger ( p = 0.01). Feeding the MedDiet for five weeks under isoenergetic conditions after the weight loss phase had no further impact on eating behavioral traits. Results of this controlled-feeding study suggest that consumption of the MedDiet per se has no effect on eating behavioral traits as measured by TFEQ, unless it is combined with significant weight loss.
Clark, Julia E; Frick, Paul J
The current study tested the associations of both positive (i.e., warm and responsive) and negative (i.e., harsh and inconsistent) aspects of parenting with callous-unemotional (CU) traits and conduct problems. Caregivers and teachers of 92 ethnically diverse (33% African American) kindergarten students (61% female) were recruited to complete a series of survey measures. Students' average age was 6.2 (SD = 0.42) years. Parent report of positive parenting practices, but not negative parenting practices, was associated with teacher report of conduct problems. Further, positive parenting interacted with CU traits in their association with conduct problems. Parental use of positive reinforcement was more strongly negatively related to conduct problems for youth with high levels of CU traits, whereas parent-child cooperation was positively related to conduct problems only for youth with low levels of CU traits. Finally, only parental warmth was negatively correlated with CU traits after controlling for level of conduct problems. Results were generally not moderated by the child's gender or ethnicity. These findings highlight the importance of positive parenting practices for understanding CU traits and as potential targets in clinical interventions to treat children who show elevated levels of these traits.
Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; McWilliams, Shannon K; Raymond, Kristen M; Crowley, Thomas J
Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE) specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation) was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue). The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE) and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game. All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1) money taken for self (p = 0.02); (2) money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03); and, (3) costly helping (p = 0.047). Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005). Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation. The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.
Joseph T Sakai
Full Text Available Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5's "with limited prosocial emotions" (LPE specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn's game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another's act of virtue.The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn's game.All AlAn's game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1 money taken for self (p = 0.02; (2 money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03; and, (3 costly helping (p = 0.047. Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005. Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn's game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation.The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related to blunting of positive emotional responses.
Gönülateş, Emre; Kortemeyer, Gerd
Homework is an important component of most physics courses. One of the functions it serves is to provide meaningful formative assessment in preparation for examinations. However, correlations between homework and examination scores tend to be low, likely due to unproductive student behavior such as copying and random guessing of answers. In this study, we attempt to model these two counterproductive learner behaviors within the framework of Item Response Theory in order to provide an ability measurement that strongly correlates with examination scores. We find that introducing additional item parameters leads to worse predictions of examination grades, while introducing additional learner traits is a more promising approach.
Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Garofano, L; Ciusa, F; Moi, G; Avanzini, P; Talarico, E; Gardini, F; Brambilla, F; Manfredini, M; Donnini, C
Low parental care during childhood, a pattern characteristic of an "affectionless control" rearing style was frequently reported in the history of addicted individuals. Parents' childrearing regimes and children's genetic predispositions, with their own behavioral characteristics, have been seen to be closely interwoven, probably affecting children's development and addictive behavior susceptibility. In the present study, parents care perception, aggressive personality traits, and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter gene--5-HTTLPR) have been investigated in cocaine users and healthy control subjects. PBI scores (maternal and paternal care) were lower and BDHI scores (aggressiveness) higher in cocaine users in comparison with controls and significant differences in the perception of either paternal or maternal care were observed between cocaine users and non-users. The short-short (SS) genotype frequency was significantly higher among cocaine users compared with control subjects (P = 0.04). Logistic regression proves that persons bearing the SS genotype have a risk of becoming cocaine user almost three times higher than those having the LL genotype. Estimations of the effects of other factors potentially affecting the risk of being cocaine addicted clearly prove the significant impact of aggressiveness: the highest the score, the highest the risk of becoming cocaine user. Moreover, paternal and maternal care perception significantly improve the fit of the model (the log likelihood decreases passing from -105.9 to -89.8, LR test = 32.17, P-value = 0.0000). Each unit increase in the PBI score yields a significant 12% and 10% decrease of the risk of becoming cocaine user, respectively for paternal and maternal care. Interestingly, once controlled for the PBI score, the relative risk associated to the SS genotype drops strikingly and becomes no longer statistically significant. On the whole, our preliminary data suggest that the association between 5-HT transporter
Sabuncuoglu, Kübra Melis; Korkmaz, Firdevs; Gürcan, Eser Kemal; Narinç, Dogan; Saml X, Hasan Ersin
Lighting is crucial in poultry rearing and the subjects with light intensity, source, and color having been addressed in numerous studies. Numerous studies with monochromatic light from light-emitting diode (LED) bulbs have been reported. In the current study, fertile Japanese quail eggs were exposed to a dark environment (Control) or monochromatic green (560 nm) and blue (480 nm) lighting throughout incubation. There were no significant differences in hatch weight, hatchability, total embryonic mortality, hatch time, growth performance, and slaughter-carcass traits in the study (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the lowest mean in terms of early embryonic mortalities (12.37%) was determined in the group treated with green LED lighting (P < 0.05), whereas it was discovered that the lowest mean in terms of late embryonic mortalities (13.59%) was in the group treated with blue LED lighting (P < 0.05). During the test time, the green LED group showed higher averages in terms of the number of peeps and first defecation time as response to environmental stimuli (P < 0.05). The highest mean for jumping (7.6 times) was detected in the group treated with blue LED lighting (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it was revealed that the blue and green LED lighting applied to the Japanese quail eggs in incubation had no effects on incubation traits, growth, and slaughter-carcass traits but had positive effects on some behavioral traits.
Jacobs, Ingo; Wollny, Anna; Sim, Chu-Won; Horsch, Antje
In the present study, we tested a serial mindfulness facets-trait emotional intelligence (TEI)-emotional distress-multiple health behaviors mediation model in a sample of N = 427 German-speaking occupational therapists. The mindfulness facets-TEI-emotional distress section of the mediation model revealed partial mediation for the mindfulness facets Act with awareness (Act/Aware) and Accept without judgment (Accept); inconsistent mediation was found for the Describe facet. The serial two-mediator model included three mediational pathways that may link each of the four mindfulness facets with multiple health behaviors. Eight out of 12 indirect effects reached significance and fully mediated the links between Act/Aware and Describe to multiple health behaviors; partial mediation was found for Accept. The mindfulness facet Observe was most relevant for multiple health behaviors, but its relation was not amenable to mediation. Implications of the findings will be discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Taylor, Charles T; Knapp, Sarah E; Bomyea, Jessica A; Ramsawh, Holly J; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is empirically supported for the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, not all individuals achieve recovery following CBT. Positive emotions serve a number of functions that theoretically should facilitate response to CBT - they promote flexible patterns of information processing and assimilation of new information, encourage approach-oriented behavior, and speed physiological recovery from negative emotions. We conducted a secondary analysis of an existing clinical trial dataset to test the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait positive emotions would predict CBT response for anxiety. Participants meeting diagnostic criteria for panic disorder (n = 28) or generalized anxiety disorder (n = 31) completed 10 weekly individual CBT sessions. Trait positive emotionality was assessed at pre-treatment, and severity of anxiety symptoms and associated impairment was assessed throughout treatment. Participants who reported a greater propensity to experience positive emotions at pre-treatment displayed the largest reduction in anxiety symptoms as well as fewer symptoms following treatment. Positive emotions remained a robust predictor of change in symptoms when controlling for baseline depression severity. Initial evidence supports the predictive value of trait positive emotions as a prognostic indicator for CBT outcome in a GAD and PD sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The detrimental effects of job insecurity on individual and organizational well-being are well documented in recent literature. Job insecurity as a stressor is generally associated with a higher presence of negative attitudes toward the organization. In this article, the moderating role of Honesty-Humility personality trait was investigated. It was assumed that Honesty-Humility would function as a psychological moderator of the job insecurity impact on counterproductive work behaviors. Participants were 203 workers who were administered a self-reported questionnaire. Results confirmed that job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors whereas Honesty-Humility was negatively associated to them. More importantly, Honesty-Humility moderated this relationship, even after controlling for gender, age, type of contract, and the other HEXACO personality traits. For individuals with low Honesty-Humility, job insecurity was positively related to counterproductive work behaviors, whereas for individuals with high Honesty-Humility, job insecurity turned out to be unrelated to counterproductive work behaviors.
Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Price, Julie C
Impulsivity and aggressiveness are personality traits associated with a vulnerability to suicidal behavior. Behavioral expression of these traits differs by gender and has been related to central serotonergic function. We assessed the relationships between serotonin-2A receptor function, gender, and personality traits in borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder characterized by impulsive-aggression and recurrent suicidal behavior. Participants, who included 33 BPD patients and 27 healthy controls (HC), were assessed for Axis I and II disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination, and with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-Revised for BPD. Depressed mood, impulsivity, aggression, and temperament were assessed with standardized measures. Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]altanserin as ligand and arterial blood sampling was used to determine the binding potentials (BPND) of serotonin-2A receptors in 11 regions of interest. Data were analyzed using Logan graphical analysis, controlling for age and non-specific binding. Among BPD subjects, aggression, Cluster B co-morbidity, antisocial PD, and childhood abuse were each related to altanserin binding. BPND values predicted impulsivity and aggression in BPD females (but not BPD males), and in HC males (but not HC females.) Altanserin binding was greater in BPD females than males in every contrast, but it did not discriminate suicide attempters from non-attempters. Region-specific differences in serotonin-2A receptor binding related to diagnosis and gender predicted clinical expression of aggression and impulsivity. Vulnerability to suicidal behavior in BPD may be related to serotonin-2A binding through expression of personality risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes
The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and
Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between Big Five personality traits with shopping motivation variables consisting of compulsive and impulsive buying, hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Two hundred forty seven college students were recruited to participate in this research. Bivariate correlation demonstrates an overlap between personality traits; consequently, canonical correlation was performed to prevent this phenomenon. The results of multiple regression analysis suggested conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness as predictors of compulsive buying, impulsive buying and utilitarian shopping values. In addition, the results showed significant differences between males and females on conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, compulsive buying and hedonic shopping value. Besides, using hierarchical regression analysis, we examined sex as moderator between Big Five personality traits and shopping variables, but we didn’t find sufficient evidence to prove it.
Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van der Bruggen, C.O.; Bögels, S.M.; Zeilst, N.
The relative contribution of child and parent trait anxiety on paternal and maternal controlling behaviour was examined. Thirty-seven children, aged 8-11 years, completed two difficult Tangram puzzles, one with their father and one with their mother. Videotapes of the parent-child interactions were
Crum, Kathleen I.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Willoughby, Michael T.
Mental health research demonstrates that children with conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits differ in important ways from children with CP alone, including differences in primary caregiver attachment quality. This research suggests CU may also influence the quality of attachment between children with CP and their teachers.…
Saleem, S.; Kashif, M.
The development of drought tolerant and high yielding varieties/germplasm is the major objective of any wheat breeding program. In the present study genetic architecture of physiological traits, yield and yield related parameters were studied using the generation mean analysis to improve grain yield under drought stress. A drought tolerant line, 9877 and a drought susceptible line, NR371 were crossed to develop six generations (P/sub 1/, P/sub 2/, F/sub 1/, BC/sub 1/, BC/sub 2/, and F/sub 2/). Results revealed additive, dominant and epistatic effects involved in the inheritance of characters which varied with trait and stress. Additive gene action was observed for canopy temperature, Chlorophyll a and turgor potential. Although narrow sense heritability estimates for some traits were low but canopy temperature, chlorophyll a and turgor potential expressed reasonably high heritability that supports the results of gene action providing an opportunity for early generation selection to use in a breeding program. The estimation of heritability for leaf carotenoids and turgor potential along with gene action for leaf carotenoids is a new work in wheat. The findings of present study suggested that physiological and bio-chemical traits are the indicators of stress tolerance and their utilization in developing high yielding drought tolerant wheat germplasm can expedite the breeding for stress tolerance. (author)
Boone,Christophe; Olffen,Woody,van; Witteloostuijn,Arjan,van
In this study, we relate the individual locus-of-control personality trait of team members to the team’s information gathering and processing behavior. We adopt a team information-processing approach arguing that a team’s information-processing capacity is a function of its composition with respect to the members’ locus of control and the leadership structure of the group. We develop models that go beyond analyzing simple main effects of differences in team locus-of-control composition. We hy...
Kennealy, Patrick J; Skeem, Jennifer L; Walters, Glenn D; Camp, Jacqueline
The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance interacts with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already high) risk of violence among disinhibited individuals with a dense history of misbehavior? This meta-analysis of 32 effect sizes (N = 10,555) tested whether an interaction between the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) Interpersonal-Affective and Social Deviance scales predicted violence beyond the simple additive effects of each scale. Results indicate that Social Deviance is more uniquely predictive of violence (d = .40) than Interpersonal-Affective traits (d = .11), and these two scales do not interact (d = .00) to increase power in predicting violence. In fact, Social Deviance alone would predict better than the Interpersonal-Affective scale and any interaction in 81% and 96% of studies, respectively. These findings have fundamental practical implications for risk assessment and theoretical implications for some conceptualizations of psychopathy.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chronic diseases are among the most important causes of mortality. The aim of the current study was to compare the Brain/behavioral systems and Dark personality traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy in cancer, cardiovascular female patients and normal women. Methods: In this study, 60 individuals were selected using available sampling in three groups of 20 cancer patients, cardiovascular patients, and normal subjects. Finally, in order to test the goals and hypotheses of the research, the participants were studied based on Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System, and Dark Triad traits. Data analysis was performed using multivariate ANOVA, univariate ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Results: In this study, there was a significant difference among the three groups in Brain/behavioral systems and traits of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, so that the cancer and cardiovascular patients had higher score in dark triad traits compared to normal individuals. Also, the cancer patients had a higher score in Machiavellianism trait compared to the cardiovascular patients. In the brain/behavioral systems, cardiovascular and cancer patients had higher score in behavioral inhibition system (BIS component compared to the normal individuals in the of behavioral inhibition system (BIS. Also, in the reward seeking subscale of behavioral activation system (BAS-f, cancer patients had a higher score compared to cardiovascular patients, which was significantly different. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cancer and cardiovascular patients, have greater extent of social disgusting personality traits as well as behavioral inhibition system as anxiety-predisposing factor.
Wade, Jordan L.; Cox, Neill Broderick; Reeve, Ronald E.; Hull, Michael
Using data from the Simons Simplex Collection, the present study examined the impact of child externalizing behavior and parental broad autism phenotype traits on substance use among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 2,388). For both fathers and mothers, child externalizing behaviors predicted tobacco use (OR = 1.01 and OR =…
Ip, Grace Wai-man; Chiu, Chi-yue; Wan, Ching
Entitativity perception refers to the perception of a collection of individuals as a group. The authors propose 2 perceptual-inferential bases of entitativity perception. First, perceivers would expect a collection of individuals with similar physical traits to possess common psychological traits. Second, perceivers watching a group of individuals engage in concerted behavior would infer that these individuals have common goals. Thus, both similarity in physical traits (e.g., same skin color) and concerted collective behavior (e.g., same movement) would evoke perception of group entitativity. Results from 5 experiments show that same group movement invariably leads to common goal inferences, increased perceived cohesiveness, and increased perceived entitativity. Moreover, same skin color evokes inferences of group traits and increases perceived homogeneity and perceived entitativity but only when skin color is diagnostic of group membership. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Heller, Katharina; Bullerjahn, Claudia; von Georgi, Richard
Most of the existing studies on musical practice are concerned with instrumentalists only. Since singers are seldom considered in research, the present study is based on an online-sample of amateur vocal students (N = 120; 92 female, 28 male). The study investigated the correlations between personality traits, flow-experience and several aspects of practice characteristics. Personality was represented by the three personality dimensions extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism, assessed by Eysenck's Personality Profiler as well as the trait form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. 'Flow-experience,' 'self-congruence' and 'fear of losing control over concentration,' assessed by the Practice Flow Inventory, served as variables for flow-experience. The practice motivation was measured by the Practice Motivation Questionnaire in four categories ('self,' 'group,' 'audience,' 'teacher'). In addition, the Practice Behavior Questionnaire was used to provide an insight into the practice situation and behavior of singing students. The results show significant correlations: participants with high extraversion-scores experience significantly more flow than less extraverted persons, whereas lesser flow-experience seems to be related to high neuroticism-scores. Nevertheless, there is no influence in flow-experience concerning singing style ('classical' or 'popular'). The longer the practicing time, the more likely students are to achieve flow-experience. However, older singers tend to have less flow-experience. Consequently, singers seem to differ in their personality and practice behavior compared to other musicians. Most of the findings show that having control over one's instrument is decisive for achieving a performance of high quality, especially for singers. On the other hand, certainty in handling an instrument is essential to arouse a flow-feeling. However, flow-experience seems to be common mainly with amateur singers. In conclusion, this offers a starting
Full Text Available Human behaviour normally depends on the environment of the incident and the time of its occurrence. The behaviour of people depends on many factors and these behaviour traits are an important aspect in the Library and Information Science (LIS field. Hence in this paper an attempt has been made to examine the behaviour traits of LIS students in South India. Out of 400 questionnaires distributed 367 have responded and the response rate is 91.75%. In this survey three aspects comprising student behaviour have been analysed such as Work Environment, Natural Environment, and Social Environment. In the case of Work Environment the respondents were grouped as Workaholic, Impatience, Achievement oriented, Rash nature, and Punctuality. Further, in respect to Natural environment, the respondents are grouped as Complacent, Patience, Easygoing, and Relaxed. Last, the respondents were grouped in the Social Environment as Balancing nature, Magnanimity, Naturalistic, Assertive nature, Dependency, Lucrative, Lonely nature, and Time Based personality. Finally the authors conclude that LIS students need to possess these qualities and behaviours to work in different environments.
Dellazizzo, Laura; Dugré, Jules R; Berwald, Marieke; Stafford, Marie-Christine; Côté, Gilles; Potvin, Stéphane; Dumais, Alexandre
High rates of violence are found amid offenders with severe mental illnesses (SMI), substance use disorders (SUDs) and Cluster B personality disorders. Elevated rates of comorbidity lead to inconsistencies when it comes to this relationship. Furthermore, overlapping Cluster B personality traits have been associated with violence. Using multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, this study was designed to differentiate profiles of 728 male inmates from penitentiary and psychiatric settings marked by personality traits, SMI and SUDs following different violent patterns. Six significantly differing clusters emerged. Cluster 1, "Sensation seekers", presented recklessness with SUDs and low prevalence's of SMI and auto-aggression. Two clusters committed more sexual offenses. While Cluster 2, "Opportunistic-sexual offenders", had more antisocial lifestyles and SUDs, Cluster 6, "Emotional-sexual offenders", displayed more emotional disturbances with SMI and violence. Clusters 3 and 4, representing "Life-course-persistent offenders", shared early signs of persistent antisocial conduct and severe violence. Cluster 3, "Early-onset violent delinquents", emerged as more severely antisocial with SUDs. Cluster 4, "Early-onset unstable-mentally ill delinquents", were more emotionally driven, with SMI and auto-aggression. Cluster 5, "Late-start offenders", was less severely violent, and emotionally driven with antisocial behavior beginning later. This study suggests the presence of specific psychopathological organizations in violent inmates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, Gray (1987 described three hypothetical biological brain systems, assumed to represent underpinnings of the stable patterns of experience and behaviour. Most research has been devoted to studying behavioural inhibition system (BIS and behavioural activation system (BAS, which have shown relatively stable associations with neuroticism and extroversion, respectively. BIS/BAS scale (Carver & White, 1994 is one of the most frequently used instruments for measuring these constructs. The questionnaire contains one scale of BIS sensitivity that captures reactions to appearance or anticipation of punishment, and three subscales of BAS sensitivity which are aimed to assess distinct but related constructs: BAS – Drive, that relate to persistence in achieving desired goals; BAS - Fun seeking, that relates to desire for new rewarding experiences and indicates person's readiness to engage in potentially rewarding situation, and BAS – Reward sensitivity, that measures positive reactions to appearance or anticipation of reward.The aim of the current study was to explore to what extent individual differences in personality traits can be predicted based on measures of BIS and BAS sensitivity. In this paper we analysed the data of 284 female students, that completed translated and adapted Croatian version of BIS/BAS scales, as well as International Personality Item Pool (IPIP 50 which measures the Big-Five personality domains. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of Croatian version of BIS/BAS scale was comparable to the original instrument. Results of the regression analysis revealed that BIS scale was a significant predictor of emotional instability, while BAS subscales showed different patterns of relationships with measured personality traits. These results indicate the importance of measuring distinct aspects of BAS sensitivity.
Mozley, Michaela M; Modrowski, Crosby A; Kerig, Patricia K
Research has demonstrated an association between childhood trauma exposure and adolescent aggression. This association may be explained by rejection sensitivity, defined as anger, or anxiety in the anticipation of rejection, which can be a consequence of trauma exposure. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits also are associated with trauma exposure and aggressive behavior; however, research has not yet investigated the interactive roles that rejection sensitivity and CU traits play in the relation between trauma exposure and aggression. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the role of rejection sensitivity in the association between trauma exposure and aggression, and whether this indirect effect was moderated by CU traits. Participants included 380 detained youth (98 girls, 282 boys) who completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, angry, and anxious rejection sensitivity, CU traits, and aggression. Results of moderated mediation demonstrated that the relation between trauma exposure and aggression exhibited an indirect effect through angry rejection sensitivity, but only at moderate or high levels of CU traits. This pattern was not found for anxious rejection sensitivity. Results suggest that interventions aimed to decrease aggressive behavior in traumatized adolescents may benefit from considering how youth respond to rejection, as well as whether youth endorse CU traits, as this may help to limit further involvement in the juvenile justice system after release. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Herpers, Pierre C M; Klip, Helen; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Taylor, Mark J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have mainly been studied in relation to conduct disorder (CD), but can also occur in other disorder groups. However, it is unclear whether there is a clinically relevant cut-off value of levels of CU traits in predicting reduced quality of life (QoL) and clinical symptoms, and whether CU traits better fit a categorical (taxonic) or dimensional model. Parents of 979 youths referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic rated their child's CU traits on the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU), QoL on the Kidscreen-27, and clinical symptoms on the Child Behavior Checklist. Experienced clinicians conferred DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of ADHD, ASD, anxiety/mood disorders and DBD-NOS/ODD. The ICU was also used to score the DSM-5 specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions' (LPE) of Conduct Disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the predictive accuracy of the ICU and LPE regarding QoL and clinical symptoms was poor to fair, and similar across diagnoses. A clinical cut-off point could not be defined. Taxometric analyses suggested that callous-unemotional traits on the ICU best reflect a dimension rather than taxon. More research is needed on the impact of CU traits on the functional adaptation, course, and response to treatment of non-CD conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is a key component of the ability of organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. Fish have been shown to exhibit a substantial level of phenotypic plasticity in response to abiotic and biotic factors. In the present study, we investigate the link between environmental sensitivity assessed globally (revealed by phenotypic variation in body weight and more targeted physiological and behavioral indicators that are generally used to assess the sensitivity of a fish to environmental stressors. We took advantage of original biological material, the rainbow trout isogenic lines, which allowed the disentangling of the genetic and environmental parts of the phenotypic variance. Ten lines were characterized for the changes of body weight variability (weight measurements taken every month during 18 months, the plasma cortisol response to confinement stress (3 challenges and a set of selected behavioral indicators. This study unambiguously demonstrated the existence of genetic determinism of environmental sensitivity, with some lines being particularly sensitive to environmental fluctuations and others rather insensitive. Correlations between coefficient of variation (CV for body weight and behavioral and physiological traits were observed. This confirmed that CV for body weight could be used as an indicator of environmental sensitivity. As the relationship between indicators (CV weight, risk-taking, exploration and cortisol was shown to be likely depending on the nature and intensity of the stressor, the joint use of several indicators should help to investigate the biological complexity of environmental sensitivity.
Zhao, Kun; Smillie, Luke D
Economic games are well-established experimental paradigms for modeling social decision making. A large body of literature has pointed to the heterogeneity of behavior within many of these games, which might be partly explained by broad interpersonal trait dispositions. Using the Big Five and HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience) personality frameworks, we review the role of personality in two main classes of economic games: social dilemmas and bargaining games. This reveals an emerging role for Big Five agreeableness in promoting cooperative, egalitarian, and altruistic behaviors across several games, consistent with its core characteristic of maintaining harmonious interpersonal relations. The role for extraversion is less clear, which may reflect the divergent effects of its underlying agentic and affiliative motivational components. In addition, HEXACO honesty-humility and agreeableness may capture distinct aspects of prosocial behavior outside the bounds of the Five-Factor Model. Important considerations and directions for future studies are discussed within the emerging personality-economics interface. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
This article reports the findings of a study, conducted among 227 foreign tourists who visited Cyprus, that aimed to identify the relationships between the Big Five personality dimensions and tourists’ environmentalism. Structural equation modeling revealed that Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism are positively associated with pro-environmental tourist behavior. In contrast, no significant relationship was observed between Openness and ecological action.
Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.
A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.
Ramadan D.M. EL-Shoukary
Full Text Available The experiment was done to determine the effects of feeding heat stressed broilers (Ross308 diets contain Nigella Sativa seeds or coriander seeds on Ingestive, panting behaviors, feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio, live body weight, slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage, corticosterone, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4. Three groups were used; the first one is the control group, which fed on basal diet only and the second fed diet contains 1% Nigella Sativa seeds (black seed while the third group fed diet contain 2% coriander seeds. The previous parameters were recorded daily or weekly during the experiment or after slaughtering to collecting blood parameters. The results explained that, there was a significant increase in feeding behavior, feed consumption, weight gain and dressing percentage while there was a significant decrease in panting behavior, water to feed ratio, T3 level and corticosterone level. Moreover, there was no significance difference in drinking behavior live body weight, slaughter weight, feed conversion rate and T4 level (P<0.05. It could be concluded that, black seeds and coriander seeds can be used to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress in broiler during summer seasons in Egypt.
Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Tonge, Natasha A; Weisman, Jaclyn S; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C; Bogdan, Ryan
Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions. In a separate visit, friends (n = 88) also came to the lab and rated participants on vindictiveness. Interpersonal vindictiveness was associated with reduced initial and overall giving to simulated friends. SAD predicted a lack of increased giving to a simulated friend, and attenuated an increase in giving to simulated known versus unknown players compared to participants without SAD. Friend-reported vindictiveness predicted in the same direction as diagnosis. However, the findings for SAD were less robust than those for vindictiveness. SAD is perhaps weakly related to behavioral constraint in economic tasks that simulate interpersonal interactions, whereas vindictiveness is strongly related to lower overall generosity as well as (via friend report) behavioral constraint. Further study is needed to better characterize the construct of vindictiveness. Our findings dovetail with the suggestion that SAD is related to impairment in the proposed affiliation and attachment system, but further suggest that direct study of that system may be more fruitful than focusing on disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, Stuart F; Marsh, Abigail A; Fowler, Katherine A; Schechter, Julia C; Adalio, Christopher; Pope, Kayla; Sinclair, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James R
Amygdala dysfunction has been reported to exist in youths and adults with psychopathic traits. However, there has been disagreement as to whether this dysfunction reflects a primary emotional deficit or is secondary to atypical attentional control. The authors examined the validity of the contrasting predictions. Participants were 15 children and adolescents (ages 10–17 years) with both disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits and 17 healthy comparison youths. Functional MRI was used to assess the response of the amygdala and regions implicated in top-down attentional control (the dorsomedial and lateral frontal cortices) to emotional expression under conditions of high and low attentional load. Relative to youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits, healthy comparison subjects showed a significantly greater increase in the typical amygdala response to fearful expressions under low relative to high attentional load conditions. There was also a selective inverse relationship between the response to fearful expressions under low attentional load and the callous-unemotional component (but not the narcissism or impulsivity component) of psychopathic traits. In contrast, the two groups did not differ in the significant recruitment of the dorsomedial and lateral frontal cortices as a function of attentional load. Youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala responses to fearful expressions under low attentional load but no indications of increased recruitment of regions implicated in top-down attentional control. These findings suggest that the emotional deficit observed in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits is primary and not secondary to increased top-down attention to nonemotional stimulus features.
Weisker, S M; Barkley, M
The behavioral performance of mice that differ in regularity of the estrous cycle and litter size was studied after female exposure to a male of the same or a different strain. Emotional reactivity was measured using the pole, straightaway and open field tests. Factor interpretations of emotionality included motor discharge, autonomic imbalance and acrophobia. Mice characterized by regular estrous cycles and large litters (line E) were more explorative and emotionally reactive with respect to motor discharge and autonomic imbalance. In contrast, mice with less regular estrous cycles and small litter size (line CN-) were more acrophobic. These strain differences in behavioral performance were influenced by the genotype of the female rather than the cohabitating male.
Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro
The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that
Aldemir, Ceyhan; Bayraktaroğlu, Gül
The researchers have used four sub-dimensions (rule obedience, innovativeness, reactiveness and self confidence) of the five factor personality inventory redeveloped and modified by Somer, Korkmaz and Tatar (2002) for Turkish citizens to analyze the interactions of personality and voter behavior. The intentions are examined as intentions for certain groups of parties: left, right, new, new and religious. Rule obedience is found to create significant differences among respondent’s intentions t...
Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Zuanon, Sophia; Perini, Laura; Balestrieri, Matteo; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G; Brambilla, Paolo
Affect can have a significant influence on decision-making processes and subsequent choice. One particularly relevant type of negative affect is anxiety, which serves to enhance responses to threatening stimuli or situations. In its exaggerated form, it can lead to psychiatric disorders, with detrimental consequences for quality of life, including the ability to make choices. This study investigated, for the first time, how pathological anxiety affects risk-taking behavior. In this study, 20 anxious participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for either generalized anxiety disorder (n = 10) and for panic attack disorder (n = 10), as well as 20 matched nonanxious controls, performed a gambling task. To investigate the tendency toward either a risk-seeking or a risk-averse behavior, we employed a task that did not allow for learning from outcomes. Anxious participants made significantly fewer risky choices than matched nonanxious participants. Specifically, they become risk-avoidant after gains. Moreover, anxious participants not only were less happy after gains but were also less sad after losses, and they also evinced less desire to change their choices after losses than did nonanxious participants. Importantly, whereas the desire to switch choice was followed by actual choice switch for all participants, happiness directly predicted subsequent risky choices, particularly in the nonanxious participants. Further analyses revealed that the anxious participants' risk-avoidance behavior was independent of different types of anxiety disorder (panic attack disorder and generalized anxiety disorder) as well as of the effects of psychotropic drugs treatment. This study demonstrates a specific role for anxiety in individual decision making. In particular, hypersensitivity to potential threats and pessimistic evaluation of future events reduced risk-taking behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights
Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio
Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We...
Full Text Available Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT knockout (KO and heterozygous (HET mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1. Here, we provide a phenotypic characterization of reward sensitivity and compulsive choice by adult rats born from DAT–HET dams bred with DAT–HET males, in order to further validate DAT KO rats as an animal model for preclinical research. We first tested DAT KO rats’ sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, provided by highly appetitive food or sweet water; then, we tested their choice behavior with an Intolerance-to-Delay Task (IDT. During these tests, DAT KO rats appeared less sensitive to rewarding stimuli than wild-type (WT and HET rats: they also showed a prominent hyperactive behavior with a rigid choice pattern and a wide number of compulsive stereotypies. Moreover, during the IDT, we tested the effects of amphetamine (AMPH and RO-5203648, a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 partial agonist. AMPH accentuated impulsive behaviors in WT and HET rats, while it had no effect in DAT KO rats. Finally, we measured the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor 2 (D2, serotonin transporter, and TAAR1 mRNA transcripts in samples of ventral striatum, finding no significant differences between WT and KO genotypes. Throughout this study, DAT KO rats showed alterations in decision-making processes and in motivational states, as well as prominent motor and oral stereotypies: more studies are warranted to fully characterize and efficiently use them in preclinical research.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of ~4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g. through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1+/- females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1+/- mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1+/- females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.
Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Lisboa, Patrícia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Claudio-Neto, Sylvio; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C
The most frequently used animal models of early weaning (EW) in rodents, maternal deprivation and pharmacological inhibition of lactation, present confounding factors, such as high stress or drug side effects, that can mask or interact with the effects of milk deprivation per se. Given these limitations, the development of new models of EW may provide useful information regarding the impact of a shortened period of breastfeeding on the endocrine and nervous systems, both during development and at adulthood. Using a model of EW in which lactating Wistar rat dams are wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last three days of lactation, we have recently shown that the adult offspring presented higher body mass, hyperphagia, hyperleptinemia, leptin as well as insulin resistance, and higher adrenal catecholamine content at adulthood. Here, we used this EW model, which involves no pharmacological treatment or maternal separation, to analyze anxiety-like, novelty-seeking and memory/learning behavioral traits in the adult male offspring. To that end, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, in the hole board arena and in the radial arm water maze. Except for an increased number of rearing events (a measure of vertical activity), no other behavioral differences were observed between EW and control animals. The contrasting behavioral results between the three EW models may be associated with differences in HPA axis function in the offspring at weaning, since it has been observed that bandaging does not affect corticosteronemia while maternal separation and pharmacological EW increase it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dere, Ekrem; Dahm, Liane; Lu, Derek; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Ju, Anes; Tantra, Martesa; Kästner, Anne; Chowdhury, Kamal; Ehrenreich, Hannelore
Autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental conditions affecting around 0.5% of the population across cultures, with a male/female ratio of approximately 4:1. Phenotypically, ASD are characterized by social interaction and communication deficits, restricted interests, repetitive behaviors, and reduced cognitive flexibility. Identified causes converge at the level of the synapse, ranging from mutation of synaptic genes to quantitative alterations in synaptic protein expression, e.g., through compromised transcriptional or translational control. We wondered whether reduced turnover and degradation of synapses, due to deregulated autophagy, would lead to similar phenotypical consequences. Ambra1, strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, is a positive regulator of Beclin1, a principal player in autophagosome formation. While homozygosity of the Ambra1 null mutation causes embryonic lethality, heterozygous mice with reduced Ambra1 expression are viable, reproduce normally, and lack any immediately obvious phenotype. Surprisingly, comprehensive behavioral characterization of these mice revealed an autism-like phenotype in Ambra1 (+/-) females only, including compromised communication and social interactions, a tendency of enhanced stereotypies/repetitive behaviors, and impaired cognitive flexibility. Reduced ultrasound communication was found in adults as well as pups, which achieved otherwise normal neurodevelopmental milestones. These features were all absent in male Ambra1 (+/-) mice. As a first hint explaining this gender difference, we found a much stronger reduction of Ambra1 protein in the cortex of Ambra1 (+/-) females compared to males. To conclude, Ambra1 deficiency can induce an autism-like phenotype. The restriction to the female gender of autism-generation by a defined genetic trait is unique thus far and warrants further investigation.
Full Text Available In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ – olfactory bulb (OB system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells. At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to
Hillje, Anna-Lena; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Pavlou, Maria A S; Jaeger, Christian; Pacheco, Maria P; Sauter, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C; Lewejohann, Lars
In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory, and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine, or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to mood disorders.
Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson
This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the associations of behavioral temperamental traits, comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and bullying involvement with anxiety and depression among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged 11–18 years diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severities of anxiety and depression were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of anxiety and depression. The results show that adolescents with ADHD who reported a higher behavioral inhibition system (BIS score, had comorbid ASD, and were bullying victims, reported more severe anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD who bullied others reported more severe depressive symptoms than those who did not bully. The results of this study indicated that behavioral temperamental traits on the BIS, comorbid ASD, and bullying involvement were significantly associated with anxiety and depression among the adolescents with ADHD.
Coutts, Shaun R; Yokomizo, Hiroyuki; Buckley, Yvonne M
Management of damaging invasive plants is often undertaken by multiple decision makers, each managing only a small part of the invader's population. As weeds can move between properties and re-infest eradicated sites from unmanaged sources, the dynamics of multiple decision makers plays a significant role in weed prevalence and invasion risk at the landscape scale. We used a spatially explicit agent-based simulation to determine how individual agent behavior, in concert with weed population ecology, determined weed prevalence. We compared two invasive grass species that differ in ecology, control methods, and costs: Nassella trichotoma (serrated tussock) and Eragrostis curvula (African love grass). The way decision makers reacted to the benefit of management had a large effect on the extent of a weed. If benefits of weed control outweighed the costs, and either net benefit was very large or all agents were very sensitive to net benefits, then agents tended to act synchronously, reducing the pool of infested agents available to spread the weed. As N. trichotoma was more damaging than E. curvula and had more effective control methods, agents chose to manage it more often, which resulted in lower prevalence of N. trichotoma. A relatively low number of agents who were intrinsically less motivated to control weeds led to increased prevalence of both species. This was particularly apparent when long-distance dispersal meant each infested agent increased the invasion risk for a large portion of the landscape. In this case, a small proportion of land mangers reluctant to control, regardless of costs and benefits, could lead to the whole landscape being infested, even when local control stopped new infestations. Social pressure was important, but only if it was independent of weed prevalence, suggesting that early access to information, and incentives to act on that information, may be crucial in stopping a weed from infesting large areas. The response of our model to both
Full Text Available Background : The prevalence of obesity has increased all over the world, putting people under serious health risks. Research on psychological factors involved in obesity can be an effective step to prevent and treat obesity. Thus, the present research investigated the relationship between personality traits and eating behavior among individuals with high and normal body mass index. Materials and Methods: The present study was causal-comparative and the population were included women referring to hospitals and clinics in Districts 1 and 2 in Tehran as well as women with normal weight living in these two districts. Of these, 150 women (75 overweight and 75 normal weights were selected using convenience sampling. They were asked to complete NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ the data obtained were analyzed using independent t-test. Results: The results of the study showed that Openness to Experience and Cognitive Restraint in obese individuals were significantly less than those who had a normal weight. Inversely, Emotional Eating and Uncontrolled Eating among obese individual were significantly higher than what was observed for individuals with a normal weight. Conclusion: Openness to Experience, Cognitive Restraint, Emotional Eating, and Uncontrolled Eating can play a significant role in obesity.That needs more attention.
Milen L. Radell
Full Text Available Decisions based on trust are critical for human social interaction. We judge the trustworthiness of partners in social interactions based on a number of partner characteristics as well as experiences with those partners. These decisions are also influenced by personality. The current study examined how the personality trait of behavioral inhibition, which involves the tendency to avoid or withdraw from novelty in both social and non-social situations, is related to explicit ratings of trustworthiness as well as decisions made in the trust game. In the game, healthy young adults interacted with three fictional partners who were portrayed as trustworthy, untrustworthy or neutral through biographical information. Participants could choose to keep $1 or send $3 of virtual money to a partner. The partner could then choose to send $1.5 back to the participant or to keep the entire amount. On any trial in which the participant chose to send, the partner always reciprocated with 50% probability, irrespective of how that partner was portrayed in the biography. Behavioral inhibition was assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Finally, a reinforcement learning computational model was fit to the behavior of each participant. Self-reported ratings of trust confirmed that all participants, irrespective of behavioral inhibition, perceived differences in the moral character of the three partners (trustworthiness of good > neutral > bad partner. Decisions made in the game showed that inhibited participants tended to trust the neutral partner less than uninhibited participants. In contrast, this was not reflected in the ratings of the neutral partner (either pre- or post-game, indicating a dissociation between ratings of trustworthiness and decisions made by inhibited participants. Computational modeling showed that this was due to lower initial trust of the neutral partner rather than a higher learning rate associated with loss, suggesting an implicit bias
Radell, Milen L; Sanchez, Rosanna; Weinflash, Noah; Myers, Catherine E
Decisions based on trust are critical for human social interaction. We judge the trustworthiness of partners in social interactions based on a number of partner characteristics as well as experiences with those partners. These decisions are also influenced by personality. The current study examined how the personality trait of behavioral inhibition, which involves the tendency to avoid or withdraw from novelty in both social and non-social situations, is related to explicit ratings of trustworthiness as well as decisions made in the trust game. In the game, healthy young adults interacted with three fictional partners who were portrayed as trustworthy, untrustworthy or neutral through biographical information. Participants could choose to keep $1 or send $3 of virtual money to a partner. The partner could then choose to send $1.5 back to the participant or to keep the entire amount. On any trial in which the participant chose to send, the partner always reciprocated with 50% probability, irrespective of how that partner was portrayed in the biography. Behavioral inhibition was assessed through a self-report questionnaire. Finally, a reinforcement learning computational model was fit to the behavior of each participant. Self-reported ratings of trust confirmed that all participants, irrespective of behavioral inhibition, perceived differences in the moral character of the three partners (trustworthiness of good > neutral > bad partner). Decisions made in the game showed that inhibited participants tended to trust the neutral partner less than uninhibited participants. In contrast, this was not reflected in the ratings of the neutral partner (either pre- or post-game), indicating a dissociation between ratings of trustworthiness and decisions made by inhibited participants. Computational modeling showed that this was due to lower initial trust of the neutral partner rather than a higher learning rate associated with loss, suggesting an implicit bias against the
Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Hui Han
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an enduring pattern of instability across affective, behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal domains. Individuals with BPD are known to be particularly vulnerable to experiences of social rejection, but little work has examined strategies that may moderate their reactivity to social rejection. Using a laboratory experimental approach, this study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) inductions on emotional and behavioral responses to social rejection in a sample of adults with high BPD traits. One hundred and eighteen participants were randomly assigned to receive 10 min of mindful breathing practice, LKM, or a no-instruction control condition, prior to exposure to a social rejection manipulation. Participants rated their emotions and completed a competitive reaction time task, which provided a proxy measure of aggression. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness group demonstrated significantly quicker recovery in negative affect and feelings of rejection after social rejection. The mindfulness group also reported significantly quicker recovery in negative affect compared to the LKM group. Whereas baseline trait mindfulness negatively predicted aggressive behaviors across all participants, groups did not differ in immediate emotional reactivity or aggressive behavior following social rejection. The findings suggest that mindfulness training may be a promising strategy in alleviating negative emotional effects of social rejection among individuals with high borderline personality traits, and highlight the limited utility of brief LKM practice in buffering the effects of social rejection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vitale, Jennifer E.; Newman, Joseph P.; Bates, John E.; Goodnight, Jackson; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.
Socialization is the important process by which individuals learn and then effectively apply the rules of appropriate societal behavior. Response modulation is a psychobiological process theorized to aid in socialization by allowing individuals to utilize contextual information to modify ongoing behavior appropriately. Using Hare's (1991)…
McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Dmitrieva, Julia; Shin, Sunny; Hitti, Stephanie A; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Ascione, Frank R; Williams, James Herbert
Children exposed to intimate partner violence are at increased risk for concomitant exposure to maltreatment of companion animals. There is emerging evidence that childhood exposure to maltreatment of companion animals is associated with psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. However, few studies have explored developmental factors that might help to explain pathways from animal maltreatment exposure to children's maladjustment. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining relations between children's exposure to animal maltreatment, callous/unemotional traits (i.e., callousness, uncaring traits, and unemotional traits), and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. A sample of 291 ethnically diverse children (55% Latino or Hispanic) between the ages of 7 and 12 was recruited from community-based domestic violence services. A meditational path model indicated that child exposure to animal maltreatment was associated with callousness (β=0.14), which in turn was associated with greater internalizing (β=0.32) and externalizing problems (β=0.47). The effect of animal maltreatment exposure on externalizing problems was mediated through callousness. Results suggest that callous/unemotional traits are a potential mechanism through which childhood exposure to animal maltreatment influences subsequent behavior problems. Future research is needed to evaluate the extent to which exposure to animal maltreatment affects children's adjustment over time in the context of other co-occurring adverse childhood experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
A considerable gap exists between the behavioral paradigm of choice set formation in route choice and its representation in route choice modeling. While travelers form their viable choice set by retaining routes that satisfy spatiotemporal constraints, existing route generation techniques do not ...... spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in route choice models, and (iii) the linkage between spatiotemporal constraints and time saving, spatial and mnemonic abilities....
Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz
Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Lappenschaar, Martijn G A; Hartman, Catharina A; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD are assumed to be the extreme manifestations of continuous heterogeneous traits that frequently co-occur. This study aims to identify subgroups of children with distinct ASD-ADHD trait profiles in the general population, using measures sensitive across both trait continua, and show how these subgroups differ in cognitive functioning. We examined 378 children (6-13 years) from a population-based sample. Latent class analyses (LCA) detected three concordant classes with low (10.1%), medium (54.2%), or high (13.2%) scores on both traits, and two discordant classes with more ADHD than ASD characteristics (ADHD > ASD, 18.3%) and vice versa (ASD > ADHD, 4.2%). Findings suggest that ASD and ADHD traits usually are strongly related in the unaffected population, and that a minority of children displays atypical discordant trait profiles characterized by differential visual-spatial functioning. This dissociation suggests that heterogeneity in ASD and ADHD is rooted in heterogeneity in the lower unaffected end of the distribution.
Brennan, M M
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.
Bogg, Tim; Fukunaga, Rena; Finn, Peter R; Brown, Joshua W
Guided by the prediction of response-outcome theory of cognitive control (Alexander and Brown, 2010a), the present study examined reward-seeking medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity as a common neuro-functional marker of excessive alcohol consumption, trait disinhibition, and reduced cognitive capacity; all of which have shown consistent patterns of covariation in previous psychometric research (e.g., Bogg and Finn, 2010). A sample of 18-23-year-old university students with a heterogeneous prevalence of alcohol dependence was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing a version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002). A follow-back typical weekly alcohol consumption interview, self-report measures of trait disinhibition and IQ, and a complex span working memory task also were administered. Correlational region-of-interest analyses showed greater typical weekly alcohol consumption, greater trait disinhibition, and lower IQ were associated with greater reductions in mPFC activity during reward-seeking behaviors (successive inflation choices). The results also showed greater typical weekly alcohol consumption, greater trait disinhibition, and lower IQ were associated with greater increases in mPFC activity during reward-seeking outcomes (successive successful inflation outcomes). No significant relations with the measure of working memory were found. The findings suggest mPFC activity during risk/reward appraisal and performance monitoring is a common neuro-functional feature of co-varying expressions of excessive alcohol consumption, trait disinhibition, and lower IQ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deslauriers, Jessica; Belleville, Karine; Beaudet, Nicolas; Sarret, Philippe; Grignon, Sylvain
Schizophrenia patients show a high rate of premature mortality due to suicide. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these suicidal behaviors in schizophrenia do not appear to involve serotonergic neurotransmission as found in the general population. Our aim was to develop an in vivo model of schizophrenia presenting suicide-trait-related behaviors such as aggressiveness, impulsivity, anxiety and helplessness. We opted for a two-hit model: C57BL/6 dams were injected with polyI:C on gestational day 12. The pups were submitted to social isolation for 4weeks after weaning. During the last week of social isolation and 30min before behavioral testing, the mice received vehicle, lithium chloride or clozapine. Lithium chloride is well known for its suicide preventive effects in the non-schizophrenic population, while clozapine is the antipsychotic with the best-established suicide preventive effect. The two-hit model induced several schizophrenia-related and suicide-trait-related behaviors in male, but not female, mice. Additionally, lithium chloride improved prepulse inhibition, aggressiveness, impulsivity and anxiety-like behavior in socially isolated mice only, whereas clozapine prevented behavioral abnormalities mainly in mice prenatally exposed to polyI:C and submitted to isolated rearing. The distinct effects of lithium chloride and clozapine suggested that mice prenatally exposed to polyI:C and submitted to social isolation presented a distinct phenotype from that of mice submitted to social isolation only. Because diagnosing suicidal risk in patients is a challenge for psychiatrists given the lack of specific clinical predictors, our in vivo model could help in gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying suicidal behavior in the context of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaya, Sinem; Avci, Rasit
Problem Statement: Future Anxiety (FA) and Trait Anxiety (TA) have negative effects on individuals' productivity, which can lead them to feelings of insecurity and eventually depression. Knowing more about future anxiety helps people feel more secure and produce more effectively for themselves, and eventually for society. This research examined…
Full Text Available Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male-male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male-male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male-male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection.
Julia K Pinsonneault
Full Text Available Genetic variants of ESR1 have been implicated in multiple diseases, including behavioral disorders, but causative variants remain uncertain. We have searched for regulatory variants affecting ESR1 expression in human brain, measuring allelic ESR1 mRNA expression in human brain tissues with marker SNPs in exon4 representing ESR1-008 (or ESRα-36, and in the 3'UTR of ESR1-203, two main ESR1 isoforms in brain. In prefrontal cortex from subjects with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and controls (n = 35 each; Stanley Foundation brain bank, allelic ESR1 mRNA ratios deviated from unity up to tenfold at the exon4 marker SNP, with large allelic ratios observed primarily in bipolar and schizophrenic subjects. SNP scanning and targeted sequencing identified rs2144025, associated with large allelic mRNA ratios (p = 1.6E10-6. Moreover, rs2144025 was significantly associated with ESR1 mRNA levels in the Brain eQTL Almanac and in brain regions in the Genotype-Tissue Expression project. In four GWAS cohorts, rs2104425 was significantly associated with behavioral traits, including: hypomanic episodes in female bipolar disorder subjects (GAIN bipolar disorder study; p = 0.0004, comorbid psychological symptoms in both males and females with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (GAIN ADHD, p = 0.00002, psychological diagnoses in female children (eMERGE study of childhood health, subject age ≥9, p = 0.0009, and traits in schizophrenia (e.g., grandiose delusions, GAIN schizophrenia, p = 0.0004. The first common ESR1 variant (MAF 12-33% across races linked to regulatory functions, rs2144025 appears conditionally to affect ESR1 mRNA expression in the brain and modulate traits in behavioral disorders.
The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.
Full Text Available The understanding of individual diversity and its link to brain functions is a fundamental issue in neurobiology. Studies in mice have mainly focused on the investigation of behavior traits in adulthood, whereas longitudinal analyses are largely uninvestigated. Here we have conducted systematic behavior tests in individual mice (C57BL6/J, male, comparing phenotypes at early postnatal stages and in adulthood. Each animal showed different scores in individual behavior tests. However, we observed an inverse correlation between repetitive behavior in the Morris water maze test and sociability in the 3-chamber social interaction test; an increase in repetitive behaviors was associated with poor sociability. In longitudinal analyses, the emission of ultrasonic vocalization during maternal separation at postnatal day 6 in pups was correlated positively with sociability and negatively with spatial memory. Our results show a possibility that individual differences in communication between pups and their mother in infancy is a predictive indicator for sociability and cognitive performance as an adult.
Laura C. Thornton
Full Text Available Atypical amygdala responses to emotional stimuli have been consistently reported in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder. However, responding to animacy stimuli has not been systematically investigated. Yet, the amygdala is known to be responsive to animacy stimuli and impairment in responsiveness to animacy information may have implications for social cognitive development. Twenty-nine youth with DBDs and 20 typically developing youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage = 14.45, SD = 2.05 and gender, completed a dot probe task during fMRI. Stimuli consisted of negative/faces, negative/objects, neutral/faces and neutral/objects images. Youth with DBDs, relative to typically developing youth, showed: i reduced amygdala and lateral temporal cortex responses to faces relative to objects. Moreover, within the group of youth with DBDs, increasing callous-unemotional traits were associated with lesser amygdala responses to faces relative to objects. These data suggest that youth with DBDs, particularly those with high levels of CU traits exhibit dysfunction in animacy processing in the amygdala. This dysfunction may underpin the asociality reported in these youth.
Full Text Available A comparative study on functional leaf treats and the diurnal dynamics of photosynthetic processes was conducted on 2-year-old potted plants of two grape (Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Aleatico, ALE, and Trebbiano giallo, TRE, exposed under controlled conditions to realistic concentrations of the pollutant gas ozone (80 ppb for 5 h day(-1, 8:00-13:00 h, + 40 ppb for 5 h day(-1, 13:00-18:00 h. At constitutive levels, the morphological functional traits of TRE improved leaf resistance to gas exchange, suggesting that TRE is characterized by a potential high degree of tolerance to ozone. At the end of the treatment, both varieties showed typical visible injuries on fully expanded leaves and a marked alteration in the diurnal pattern of photosynthetic activity. This was mainly due to a decreased stomatal conductance (-27 and -29% in ALE and TRE, in terms of daily values in comparison to controls and to a reduced mesophyllic functioning (+33 and +16% of the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration. Although the genotypic variability of grape regulates the response to oxidative stress, similar detoxification processes were activated, such as an increased content of total carotenoids (+64 and +30%, in ALE and TRE, enhanced efficiency of thermal energy dissipation within photosystem II (+32 and +20% closely correlated with the increased de-epoxidation index (+26 and +22% and variations in content of some osmolytes. In summary, we can conclude that: the daily photosynthetic performance of grapevine leaves was affected by a realistic exposure to ozone. In addition, the gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements revealed a different quali-quantitative response in the two varieties. The genotypic variability of V. vinifera and the functional leaf traits would seem to regulate the acclimatory response to oxidative stress and the degree of tolerance to ozone. Similar photoprotective mechanisms were activated in the two varieties, though to a
Bejarano, Hernán D; Green, Ellen P; Rassenti, Stephen J
In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects' cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS), which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these differences are not systematic and difficult to interpret. These results indicate a need for more comprehensive theory explaining how combinations of different individual characteristics impact behavior is needed.
Auerbach, Randy P; Gardiner, Casey K
Past research has largely focused on examining self-esteem as an independent as opposed to a dependent variable. At the same time, research suggests that during adolescence, self-esteem is subject to yearly, monthly, as well as daily change, and consequently, it is important to identify underlying vulnerability factors and behaviors, which shape self-esteem lability. In the current multi-wave, longitudinal study, 142 adolescents between the ages of 12-18 completed monthly assessments across 4 months. At the initial assessment, adolescents provided self-report data pertaining to impulsiveness, maladaptive coping, risky behavior engagement, and self-esteem. At each of the follow-up assessments, adolescents provided information about risky behavior engagement and self-esteem. Results of time-lagged, idiographic multilevel mediation analyzes indicated that risky behavior engagement mediated the relationship between impulsiveness/maladaptive coping and subsequent low self-esteem. Critically, when included in the same model, impulsiveness was significant above and beyond maladaptive coping. Additionally, the reverse model with self-esteem as the predictor and risky behavior included as the dependent variable was not significant suggesting that our effect was unidirectional. As a whole, these findings suggest that impulsive youth may engage in behaviors, which ultimately precipitate negative self-evaluations and transient declines in self-esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oury, François-Xavier; Lasme, P; Michelet, C; Dubat, A; Gardet, O; Heumez, E; Rolland, B; Rousset, M; Abecassis, J; Bar L'Helgouac'h, C; Lullien-Pellerin, V
Genetic (Pinb-D1 alleles) and environment (through vitreousness) have important effects on bread wheat milling behavior. SKCS optimal values corresponding to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains were defined to obtain the highest total flour yield. Near-isogenic lines of bread wheat that differ in hardness, due to distinct puroindoline-b alleles (the wild type, Pinb-D1a, or the mutated forms, Pinb-D1b or Pinb-D1d), were grown in different environments and under two nitrogen fertilization levels, to study genetic and environmental effects on milling behavior. Milling tests used a prototype mill, equipped with two break steps, one sizing step, and two reduction steps, and this enabled 21 individual or aggregated milling fractions to be collected. Four current grain characters, thousand grain weight, test weight, grain diameter, and protein content, were measured, and three characters known to influence grain mechanical resistance, NIRS hardness, SKCS hardness index, and grain vitreousness (a character affecting the grain mechanical behavior but generally not studied). As expected, the wild type or mutated forms of Pinb-D1 alleles led to contrasted milling behavior: soft genotypes produced high quantities of break flour and low quantities of reduction flour, whereas reverse quantities were observed for hard genotypes. This different milling behavior had only a moderate influence on total flour production. NIRS hardness and vitreousness were, respectively, the most important and the second most important grain characters to explain milling behavior. However, contrary to NIRS hardness, vitreousness was only involved in endosperm reduction and not in the separation between the starchy endosperm and the outer layers. The highest flour yields were obtained for SKCS values comprised between 30 and 50, which corresponded either to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains. Prediction equations were defined and showed a good accuracy estimating break and reduction flours portions, but
Association of puppies' behavioral reaction at five months of age assessed by questionnaire with their later 'Distraction' at 15 months of age, an important behavioral trait for guide dog qualification.
Kobayashi, Natsuko; Arata, Sayaka; Hattori, Ai; Kohara, Yui; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji
Guide dogs help visually impaired persons both physically and psychologically. More than half of all candidate dogs do not qualify, mainly for behavioral reasons. Improved training efficacy is desirable, and earlier prediction of qualification-related traits would be beneficial. In a previous study, we identified 'Distraction', assessed during the training period, as an important behavioral trait for judging the qualification of guide dogs at the Japan Guide Dog Association. As a second step, we aimed to develop an index that can predict during the puppy period. In this study, candidate guide dogs, 5-month-old Labrador retrievers, were assessed by puppy raisers using a newly developed questionnaire that consisted of 20 items. The same dogs were assessed later, at 15 months, by trainers to determine 'Distraction'. In principal components analysis, nine items, including excitability toward strangers, initiative while out for a walk, and exploration, composed the first principal component (PC1). When we compared PC1 points with 'Distraction' points, the two categories were positively correlated (n=110, r(s)=0.31, P=0.0009). Although the accuracy of the questionnaire should be increased, the results of the present study suggest that it may be possible to assess and predict 'Distraction', which is associated with disqualification for guide dogs, early in the puppy-raising period.
Jamie S. Churchyard
Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.
Chromosomal assignment of quantitative trait loci influencing modified hole board behavior in laboratory mice using consomic strains, with special reference to anxiety-related behavior and mouse chromosome 19.
Laarakker, Marijke C; Ohl, Frauke; van Lith, Hein A
Male mice from a panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSS, also called consomic strains or lines)--in which a single full-length chromosome from the A/J inbred strain has been transferred onto the genetic background of the C57BL/6J inbred strain--and the parental strains were examined in the modified hole board test. This behavioral test allows to assess for a variety of different motivational systems in parallel (i.e. anxiety, risk assessment, exploration, memory, locomotion, and arousal). Such an approach is essential for behavioral characterization since the motivational system of interest is strongly influenced by other behavioral systems. Both univariate and bivariate analyses, as well as a factor analysis, were performed. The C57BL/6J and A/J mouse parental inbred strains differed in all motivational systems. The chromosome substitution strain survey indicated that nearly all mouse chromosomes (with the exception of chromosome 2) each contain at least one quantitative trait locus (QTL) that is involved in modified hole board behavior. The results agreed well with previous reports of QTLs for anxiety-related behavior using the A/J and C57BL/6J as parental strains. The present study confirmed that mouse chromosomes 5, 8, 10, 15, 18 and 19 likely contain at least one anxiety QTL. There was also evidence for a novel anxiety QTL on the Y chromosome. With respect to anxiety-related avoidance behavior towards an unprotected area, we have special interest for mouse chromosome 19. CSS-19 (C57BL/6J-Chr19(A)/NaJ) differed in avoidance behavior from the C57BL/6J, but not in locomotion. Thus pleiotropic contribution of locomotion could be excluded.
Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B
Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Worbes, Martin; Blanchart, Sofie; Fichtler, Esther
Drought tolerance is a key factor for the establishment and survival of tree species in tropical ecosystems. Specific mechanisms of drought resistance can be grouped into four functional ecotypes based on differences in leaf fall behavior: deciduous, brevi-deciduous, stem succulent and evergreen. To identify the key factors influencing phenology and cambial activity and thus drought tolerance, we tested the stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and stable carbon isotopes in the leaves and wood of 12 species from a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. With wood anatomical techniques, we further studied seasonal cambial activity and a suite of wood traits related to water transport for each of the functional ecotypes. Using a principal component analysis, we identified two groups of variables that can be related to (i) hydraulic conductivity and (ii) control of transpiration and water loss. Hydraulic conductivity is controlled by vessel size as the limiting variable, water potential as the driving force and wood density as the stabilizing factor of the anatomical structure of an effective water transport system. Stomatal control plays a major role in terms of water loss or saving and is the dominant factor for differences in phenological behavior. Stem succulent species in particular developed a rarely identified but highly effective strategy against drought stress, which makes it a successful pioneer species in tropical dry forests.
Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.
This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…
Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1 is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Previously, we demonstrated that BALB/c-npc1nihNpc1−/− mice treated with miglustat, cyclodextrin and allopregnanolone generally performed better than untreated Npc1−/− animals. Unexpectedly, they also seemed to accomplish motor tests better than their sham-treated wild-type littermates. However, combination-treated mutant mice displayed worse cognition performance compared to sham-treated ones. To evaluate effects of these drugs in healthy BALB/c mice, we here analyzed pharmacologic effects on motor and cognitive behavior of wild-type mice. For combination treatment mice were injected with allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin weekly, starting at P7. Miglustat injections were performed daily from P10 till P23. Starting at P23, miglustat was embedded in the chow. Other mice were treated with miglustat only, or sham-treated. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of accelerod, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, open field and hot-plate tests. Motor capabilities and spontaneous motor behavior were unaltered in both drug-treated groups. Miglustat-treated wild-type mice displayed impaired spatial learning compared to sham- and combination-treated mice. Both combination- and miglustat-treated mice showed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze compared to sham-treated mice. Additionally, combination treatment as well as miglustat alone significantly reduced brain weight, whereas only combination treatment reduced body weight significantly. Our results suggest that allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin ameliorate most side effects of miglustat in wild-type mice.
M Mar eGámez-del-Estal
Full Text Available Current research indicates that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. To date, several works have associated ASDs with mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in neuronal synapses; however other factors and the way they can interact with the development of the nervous system remain largely unknown. Some studies have established a direct relationship between risk for ASDs and the exposure of the fetus to high testosterone levels during the prenatal stage. In this work, in order to explain possible mechanisms by which this androgenic hormone may interact with the nervous system, C. elegans was used as an experimental model. We observed that testosterone was able to alter the behavioral pattern of the worm, including the gentle touch response and the pharyngeal pumping rate. This impairment of the behavior was abolished using specific RNAi against genes orthologous to the human androgen receptor gene. The effect of testosterone was eliminated in the nhr-69 (ok1926 deficient mutant, a putative ortholog of human AR gene, suggesting that this gene encodes a receptor able to interact with the hormone. On the other hand the testosterone effect remained in the gentle touch response during four generations in the absence of the hormone, indicating that some epigenetic mechanisms could be involved. Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was able to abolish the effect of testosterone. In addition, the lasting effect of testosterone was eliminated after the dauer stage. These results suggest that testosterone may impair the nervous system function generating transgenerational epigenetic marks in the genome. This work may provide new paradigms for understanding biological mechanisms involved in ASDs.
Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping
Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. Copyright © 2016 Shang et al.
Aristides I. Ferreira
Full Text Available The personality traits that mediate risky driving and accidents among university students drivers were investigated. Study 1 (N=132 tested for the relation between risky behaviors and personality (16PF-5 second order dimensions. Three factors were extracted concerning risky driving: driving errors of commission, distraction, and driving errors of omission. Individuals with low self-control and high levels of anxiety were more prone to commit distractive behavior and driving errors of omission. Low self-control and high independence levels were associated with driving errors of commission. In study 2 (N=540, we tested if the number of road accidents for which an individual has been responsible was related to risky driving behavior. Drivers who committed more accidents presented higher scores in three new risky driving factors obtained: reckless driving, impaired concentration and division of attention.
Key words: Risky driving, personality, accidents, behavior.
En este estudio se investigaron los rasgos de personalidad relacionados con la conducción de riesgo y los accidentes en estudiantes universitarios. El primer estudio (N=132 evaluó la relación entre los comportamientos de riesgo y la personalidad (16PF-5 dimensiones de segundo orden. Tres factores fueron extraídos en relación con la conducción de riesgo: cometer errores de conducción, distracción, errores de omisión en la conducción. Los individuos con bajo autocontrol y altos niveles de ansiedad eran más propensos a tener comportamientos distractores y cometer errores de omisión en la conducción. Mientras que sujetos con bajo autocontrol y altos niveles de independencia se asociaron con el factor cometer errores de conducción. En el segundo estudio (N=540 evaluamos si el número de accidentes de tráfico, de los que una persona ha sido responsable, está relacionado con el comportamiento de riesgo en la conducción. Los resultados muestran que los conductores
Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and
Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Krakau, Andrej; de Jong, Peter J.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and
Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J
This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.
Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological
Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample
Vo, Phuong T.; Bogg, Tim
Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model– is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement. PMID:26300811
Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample.
Vo, Phuong T; Bogg, Tim
Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957), the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions), Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies), and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change), and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks - the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model - termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model- is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.
Testing Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory models of trait activity, industriousness, exercise social cognitions, exercise intentions, and physical activity in a representative U.S. sample
Phuong Thi Vo
Full Text Available Prior research identified assorted relations between trait and social cognition models of personality and engagement in physical activity. Using a representative U.S. sample (N = 957, the goal of the present study was to test two alternative structural models of the relationships among the extraversion-related facet of activity, the conscientiousness-related facet of industriousness, social cognitions from the Theory of Planned Behavior (perceived behavioral control, affective attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, Social Cognitive Theory (self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the Transtheoretical Model (behavioral processes of change, and engagement in physical activity. Path analyses with bootstrapping procedures were used to model direct and indirect effects of trait and social cognition constructs on physical activity through two distinct frameworks – the Theory of Planned Behavior and Neo-Socioanalytic Theory. While both models showed good internal fit, comparative model information criteria showed the Theory-of-Planned-Behavior-informed model provided a better fit. In the model, social cognitions fully mediated the relationships from the activity facet and industriousness to intentions for and engagement in physical activity, such that the relationships were primarily maintained by positive affective evaluations, positive expected outcomes, and confidence in overcoming barriers related to physical activity engagement. The resultant model – termed the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model – is proposed as a useful framework for organizing and integrating personality trait facets and social cognitions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate the expression of health-related behaviors, such as physical activity. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of extending the application of the Disposition-Belief-Motivation model to longitudinal and intervention designs for physical activity engagement.
Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K
Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.
Full Text Available To study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its components in sesame (Sesamum indicum L. we carried out generation mean analysis using the following four crosses of different sesame cultivars: VS 9510 x Co1; NIC 7907 x TMV 3; Cianno 13/10x VRI 1; and Si 1115/1 x TMV 3. The P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these generations were studied for seven quantitative traits. The analysis showed the presence of additive, dominance and epistatic gene interactions. The additive dominance model was adequate for plant height in the NIC 7907 x TMV3 and Si 1115/1x TMV 3 crosses and for capsule length in the VS 9510 x Co1, NIC 7907 x TMV 3 and Si 1115/1 x TMV 3 crosses. An epistatic digenic model was assumed for the remaining crosses. Duplicate-type epistasis played a greater role than complementary epistasis. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene action for all the traits studied.
Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90
Abu Hussain, Jamal; Abu Hussain, Nadia
The present research examined the personality traits prevalent among Arab teachers as a minority in the Arab educational system in Israel. Personality traits has much significance in the prediction of human behavior in various situations. Personality traits affect a person's behavior. Usually personality traits do not change, and they are…
Gadau, J.; Pietsch, C.; Beukeboom, L.W.; Rifkin, S.A.
This article describes QTL analyses for solitary (Nasonia, a parasitoid wasp) and social hymenopteran species (honeybee and bumblebee). These exemplar QTL analyses determined the genetic basis of morphological, behavioral, and colony level traits. Mapping populations were derived either from lab
Bleidorn, Wiebke; Hopwood, Christopher J; Lucas, Richard E
Theory and research have emphasized the impact of life events on personality trait change. In this article, we review prospective research on personality trait change in response to nine major life events in the broader domains of love and work. We expected to find that life events lead to personality trait change to the extent that they have a lasting influence on individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behavior. Moreover, we predicted that love-related life events such as marriage or parenthood would be more strongly related to changes in traits that emphasize affective content, whereas work-related life events would be more likely to lead to change in traits that reflect behavioral or cognitive content. The current state of research provided some evidence that life events can lead to changes in personality traits and that different life events may be differently related to specific trait domains. A more general conclusion emerging from this review is that the evidence for the nature, shape, and timing of personality trait change in response to life events is still preliminary. We discuss the implications of the results for theory and research and provide directions for future studies on life events and personality trait change. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W
Many morphological, behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits covary across the biological scales of individuals, populations, and species. However, the processes that cause traits to covary also change over these scales, challenging our ability to use patterns of trait covariance to infer process. Trait relationships are also widely assumed to have generic functional relationships with similar evolutionary potentials, and even though many different trait relationships are now identified, there is little appreciation that these may influence trait covariation and evolution in unique ways. We use a trait-performance-fitness framework to classify and organize trait relationships into three general classes, address which ones more likely generate trait covariation among individuals in a population, and review how selection shapes phenotypic covariation. We generate predictions about how trait covariance changes within and among populations as a result of trait relationships and in response to selection and consider how these can be tested with comparative data. Careful comparisons of covariation patterns can narrow the set of hypothesized processes that cause trait covariation when the form of the trait relationship and how it responds to selection yield clear predictions about patterns of trait covariation. We discuss the opportunities and limitations of comparative approaches to evaluate hypotheses about the evolutionary causes and consequences of trait covariation and highlight the importance of evaluating patterns within populations replicated in the same and in different selective environments. Explicit hypotheses about trait relationships are key to generating effective predictions about phenotype and its evolution using covariance data.
K. W. Müller
Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.
Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K
Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.
Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica; Rojahn, Johannes; Hess, Julie
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In addition to these core deficits, individuals with ASD also experience co-occurring conditions such as problem behaviors. Problem behaviors are common to this…
The DiaS trial: dialectical behavior therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality on self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and borderline personality disorder traits - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Rosenbaum, Bent; Gluud, Christian; Jobes, David A; Nordentoft, Merete
In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personality disorder. The majority of patients (70% to 75%) with borderline personality disorder have a history of deliberate self-harm and 10% have a lifetime risk to die by suicide. The DiaS trial is comparing dialectical behavior therapy with collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, for the risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and personality traits within the spectrum of borderline personality disorder. Both treatments have previously shown effects in this group of patients on suicide ideation and self-harm compared with treatment as usual. The trial is designed as a single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. We will recruit 160 participants with a recent suicide attempt and at least two traits of the borderline personality disorder from the Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention, Capital Region of Denmark. Randomization will be performed though a centralized and computer-generated approach that conceals the randomization sequence. The interventions that are offered are a modified version of a dialectical behavior therapy program lasting 16 weeks versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, where the duration treatment will vary in accordance with established methods up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the ratio of deliberate self-harming acts including suicide attempts measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger, and duration of respective
Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping
As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed
Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation (MRC) in examining the relationship between student personality (personal factors), student-perceived teacher interpersonal behavior (environment), and Mathematics achievement (behavior), with the simultaneous investigation of mediating effects…
Feeding behavior is an important component of growth and feed efficiency in swine. Acyl ghrelin is a peptide produced in the stomach that is orexigenic. The role of ghrelin in regulating feeding behavior in swine under commercial conditions is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine th...
Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal
The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…
... cell trait toolkit » Sickle cell trait fact sheet » SCT and Athletes Some people with SCT have been ... ill. Recommendations on Screening of Student Athletes for SCT Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders ...
Fluoxetine normalizes disrupted light-induced entrainment, fragmented ultradian rhythms and altered hippocampal clock gene expression in an animal model of high trait anxiety- and depression-related behavior.
Schaufler, Jörg; Ronovsky, Marianne; Savalli, Giorgia; Cabatic, Maureen; Sartori, Simone B; Singewald, Nicolas; Pollak, Daniela D
Disturbances of circadian rhythms are a key symptom of mood and anxiety disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) - commonly used antidepressant drugs - also modulate aspects of circadian rhythmicity. However, their potential to restore circadian disturbances in depression remains to be investigated. The effects of the SSRI fluoxetine on genetically based, depression-related circadian disruptions at the behavioral and molecular level were examined using mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related and co-segregating depression-like behavior (HAB) and normal anxiety/depression behavior mice (NAB). The length of the circadian period was increased in fluoxetine-treated HAB as compared to NAB mice while the number of activity bouts and light-induced entrainment were comparable. No difference in hippocampal Cry2 expression, previously reported to be dysbalanced in untreated HAB mice, was observed, while Per2 and Per3 mRNA levels were higher in HAB mice under fluoxetine treatment. The present findings provide evidence that fluoxetine treatment normalizes disrupted circadian locomotor activity and clock gene expression in a genetic mouse model of high trait anxiety and depression. An interaction between the molecular mechanisms mediating the antidepressant response to fluoxetine and the endogenous regulation of circadian rhythms in genetically based mood and anxiety disorders is proposed.
Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge
Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.
Full Text Available Aggregation is a social behavior that varies between and within species, providing a model to study the genetic basis of behavioral diversity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, aggregation is regulated by environmental context and by two neuromodulatory pathways, one dependent on the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1 and one dependent on the TGF-β family protein DAF-7. To gain further insight into the genetic regulation of aggregation, we characterize natural variation underlying behavioral differences between two wild-type C. elegans strains, N2 and CB4856. Using quantitative genetic techniques, including a survey of chromosome substitution strains and QTL analysis of recombinant inbred lines, we identify three new QTLs affecting aggregation in addition to the two known N2 mutations in npr-1 and glb-5. Fine-mapping with near-isogenic lines localized one QTL, accounting for 5%-8% of the behavioral variance between N2 and CB4856, 3' to the transcript of the GABA neurotransmitter receptor gene exp-1. Quantitative complementation tests demonstrated that this QTL affects exp-1, identifying exp-1 and GABA signaling as new regulators of aggregation. exp-1 interacts genetically with the daf-7 TGF-β pathway, which integrates food availability and population density, and exp-1 mutations affect the level of daf-7 expression. Our results add to growing evidence that genetic variation affecting neurotransmitter receptor genes is a source of natural behavioral variation.
study has primarily focused on three areas: traits, behaviors, and situational approaches.2 Traits Leadership trait theory addresses specific traits...behavior theory has been prominent for thirty years5; however, more recently situational leadership theories have received primary attention... leadership traits, skills, or behaviors which are relevant.7 This theory is useful to this study because the situation may translate to where one’s level
Kikkert, M. J.; Driessen, E.; Peen, J.; Barber, J. P.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Schalkwijk, F.; Dekker, J.; Dekker, J. J. M.
BACKGROUND: Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of
Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.
Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of
Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors.
Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A
Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282.
before [16, 19]. The N15 generation of F344.WKY-Stresp10 congenic male animals 96 (approximately 3 months old) were used for experimentation . After 15...regulatory complex subunit 1) paralleled that of WKY in the 36 F344.WKY-Stresp10 strain matching the behavioral profiles of WKY as opposed to F344 parental 37...the F344, suggest that the SVs within these genes 81 might contribute to the Stresp10 QTL. 82 83 Materials and methods 84 Animal care and treatment
Jae Kyu Myung; Yoon Hyuk Choi; Jong Dae Kim
The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR), there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employ...
Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M
Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression. We found no evidence indicating that avoidant patients may benefit more from CBT compared to short-term psychodynamic supportive therapy (SPSP). Our results indicate that treatment effect does not depend on the level of avoidance, or obsessive-compulsiveness personality disorders further examine the influence of personality disorders on the effectiveness of CBT or psychodynamic therapy in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina
were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. RESULTS: At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14......BACKGROUND: Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. METHODS/DESIGN: The DiaS trial was designed...... behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes...
Reti, I M; Samuels, J F; Eaton, W W; Bienvenu, O J; Costa, P T; Nestadt, G
To investigate the role of parenting in the development of adult antisocial personality traits. A total of 742 community-based subjects were assessed for adult DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder traits and for measures of parental behavior experienced as children, including by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Three fundamental dimensions of parental behavior - care, behavioral restrictiveness and denial of psychological autonomy - were derived by factor analysis from the PBI. These dimensions significantly correlated with measures of parental behavior considered influential in later antisocial behavior. Adult antisocial traits in males were associated with low maternal care and high maternal behavioral restrictiveness, and in females, antisocial traits were associated with low paternal care and high maternal denial of psychological autonomy. These dimensions did not, however, explain all variance parental behavior has on adult antisocial personality traits. Adult antisocial personality traits are associated with experiences of low parental care and maternal overprotection.
Digenetic trematode parasites of Loricariichthys platymetopon (Loricariidae, Siluriformes of the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil = Trematódeos digenéticos parasitas de Loricariichthys platymetopon (Loricariidae, Siluriformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil
Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli
Full Text Available Two species of digenetic trematodes were found to parasitizeLoricariichthys platymetopon Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1979, collected at the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Crocodilicola pseudostoma was found in the digestive tract and Clinostomum complanatum occurred on the surface of the body. This is the first record of Crocodilicola pseudostoma in this host.Este trabalho apresenta o registro de duas espécies de trematódeos digenéticos parasitas de Loricariichthys platymetopon Isbrücker and Nijssen, 1979, coletados na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, Brasil. Foi registrada a presença de Crocodilicola pseudostoma no trato intestinal e Clinostomum complanatum encontrado na superfície do corpo. Crocodilicola pseudostoma é registrado pela primeira vez neste hospedeiro.
Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini
Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.
CLARKIN, JOHN F.; HULL, JAMES; YEOMANS, FRANK; KAKUMA, TATSUYUKI; CANTOR, JENNIFER
The relationship of antisocial traits to treatment response in 35 female inpatients with borderline personality disorder was studied. Antisocial traits were measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory. Treatment response was measured by weekly ratings on the Symptom Checklist-90—Revised over 25 weeks of hospitalization. Treatment course was found to be significantly associated with the level of antisocial behavior reported at admission.
Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Thomson, Nicholas D; Kwok, Angela H
Psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are associated with coercion and manipulation within relationships. The authors investigated whether BPD traits were uniquely associated with manipulation for emotional closeness whereas psychopathy was used for the purpose of attaining physical closeness. A community sample (N = 164) reported on mating behaviors, psychopathic traits, and BPD traits. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to predict mating behaviors that would account for the overlap between psychopathy and BPD. Total psychopathic traits were associated with lower levels of relationship exclusivity, greater use of partner poaching, and perpetration of sexual coercion. Specifically, callousness and egocentricity were related to lower relationship exclusivity. BPD traits were associated with the use of mate retention strategies, mate poaching, and victimization in sexual coercion. These findings indicate that manipulative mating behaviors encompass tools to achieve sex and intimacy. Those with BPD traits use these tools for emotional closeness, whereas those with psychopathic traits use them to obtain physical closeness and gratification.
Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua
According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment......, but situationist critiques suggest that character traits, and environmental virtues, are not as behaviorally robust as is typically supposed. Their views present a dilemma. Because ethicists cannot rely on virtues to produce pro-environmental behaviors, the only real way of salvaging environmental virtue theory...... positive results. However, because endorsing behaviorally ineffective virtues, for whatever reason, entails that environmental ethicists are abandoning the goal of helping and protecting the environment, environmental ethicists should consider looking elsewhere than virtues and focus instead on the role...
The present study investigated whether personality traits may influence the outcome of collage works. In this study, 60 undergraduates were asked to fill Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and generate collage works. The relations between the five factors of the NEO-PI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and some evaluation measures of collage works (constructional features of collage works and characteristic behavior patterns in the process of their generation) were examined. Results indicated that several subscales of personality traits were substantially correlated with some indices of both two measures. These findings suggest that collage work may be a useful tool for psychological assessment.
Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Adalio, Christopher J.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Schechter, Julia C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Decety, Jean; Blair, R. J. R.
Background: Psychopathic traits are associated with increases in antisocial behaviors such as aggression and are characterized by reduced empathy for others' distress. This suggests that psychopathic traits may also impair empathic pain sensitivity. However, whether psychopathic traits affect responses to the pain of others versus the self…
EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER-A RANDOMIZED OBSERVER-BLINDED CLINICAL TRIAL.
Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina; Jessen, Helle K L; Krakauer, Kristine; Gluud, Christian; Thomsen, Rasmus R; Randers, Lasse; Nordentoft, Merete
Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. The DiaS trial was designed as a pragmatic single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded, randomized clinical superiority trial. The participants had at least two criteria from the borderline personality disorder diagnosis and a recent suicide attempt (within a month). The participants were offered 16 weeks of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14). When assessing the effect of DBT versus CAMS treatment on the individual components of the primary outcome, we observed no significant differences in the number of NSSI (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.70-3.90; P = .31) or number of attempted suicides (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 0.80-7.50; P = .12). In adults with borderline personality traits and disorder and a recent suicide attempt, DBT does not seem superior compared with CAMS for reduction of number of self-harm or suicide attempts. However, further randomized clinical trials may be needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The research was conducted with six parental genotypes: varieties Anno, Gold, Joel, Junior, PF-G1 and Shawnee with aim to improve the dry pea breeding for higher grain yield. Objectives of the research were to investigate: a the inheritance of grain yield per plant and its components; b to determination of the combining ability of parents and their cross-combinations; c the interrelationships among grain yield, its components and morphological traits; d choosing the primary selection criteria; e choosing the best cross-combinations in order to achieve the highest selection response of grain yield; f simple and digenic epistatic gene-effects in the chosen cross-combinations which determ the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; g the genetic components of variation in the chosen cross-combinations of the trait chosen as a primary selection criterion; h the anticipation of genetic gain of grain yield per plant of the chosen cross-combinations. The research was conducted on experimental fields and laboratories of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. Parental lines were chosen in 2006, the first series of crossings in a diallel fashion were performed in 2007, and the second series in 2008, in a diallel fashion plus back-crossing. The obtained generation material (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 i BC2 of 15 biparental combinations was seeded in the field trial in 2009. Measurement of the yield, its components and morfological traits was done at the end of vegetation. The inheritance of investigated traits was estimated using Hayman’s approach to diallel analysis, combining abilities were determined using Griffing’s approach to diallel analysis, interrelationships among investigated traits were determined using correlation analysis, the primary selection criterion was chosen according to the inheritance of the investigated traits and their interrelationships, best cross-combinations were chosen upon Griffing’s analysis results and two principles: a
M.Sc.(Agric)-tesis,. Univ. van Stellenbosch. FAHMY, M.M., 1985. The accumulative effect of Finnsheep breeding in crossbreeding schemes: growth and carcass traits. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65, 811. GREEFF, J.e., & HOFMEYR, J.H., 1988. Finnsheep and their utilization in crosses with the Merino under range conditions in South ...
Kwong, Jessica Y. Y.; Cheung, Fanny M.
Data from the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory for 187 Hong Kong supervisors showed that personality traits related to interpersonal orientation better predicted interpersonal versus personal contextual behaviors. Traits associated with moral obligation and group loyalty predicted personal but not interpersonal contextual behaviors.…
Park, Kira; Woo, Sungbum; Park, Kibok; Kyea, Jina; Yang, Eunjoo
This study investigated trait anxiety, career exploration behaviors, and career indecision. Using longitudinal data, career exploration behavior was examined as a mediator in the relationship between trait anxiety and career indecision. Five hundred and one Korean college students completed online questionnaires at three different time points with…
May 2, 2011 ... quantitative and nine morphological traits were recorded for each individual in the F2 population and F3 families (Table 1). Traits were assessed as the mean of three measurements when all flowers on the first three inflorescences measured were in full flower. Nine morphological traits were stem, petiole, ...
Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P
The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...
Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W; Michael Furr, R; Dougherty, Donald M
Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to test if the relationships of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with adjustment differed between girls and boys at risk for antisocial behavior. The sample was composed of children whose biological father had past or current alcohol or drug problems. A total of 234 children (116 boys, 118 girls; ages 10-12) were rated by their parent or guardian on CU traits and overall adjustment. Boys were generally rated higher on measures of CU traits; however, these traits were more prominently related to adjustment problems among girls. These results suggest that expression of psychopathic traits may have more negative effects on adjustment for girls than boys. One possible mechanism by which CU traits could be impacting adjustment in girls is by impairing interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Colins, Olivier F; Fanti, Kostas; Larsson, Henrik; Andershed, Henrik
The aim was to further test the reliability and validity of a newly developed instrument designed to assess psychopathic personality traits in children, the Child Problematic Traits Inventory (CPTI). Data from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden were used, a national general population study of 5-year-old twins ( n = 1,188, 50.3% girls). Both preschool teachers and parents were used as informants. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the intended three-factorial structure of the 28 items of the CPTI. Overall, our findings demonstrated good internal consistency and convergent validity, with all the teacher-rated CPTI scores being associated with teacher and parent ratings of externalizing psychopathology, aggressive behavior, fearlessness, and prosocial peer involvement. In conclusion, the CPTI hold promise as a teacher-rated tool for assessing psychopathic traits in childhood, though more research is needed to see if these findings can be generalized to other countries, settings, and older children.
Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J
Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.
Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir
Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Jowon; Song, Yosep; Teng, Ching-I
The present study explores the links between personality traits and motivations to play online games. We identified the underlying dimensions of motivations to play online games, examined how personality traits predict motivation, and investigated how personality traits predict online gaming behavior (i.e., playing time and preference for game genres). Factor analyses identified five motivational factors: relationships, adventure, escapism, relaxation, and achievement. The regression analyses indicated that two personality traits, extraversion and agreeableness, predicted various motivations; however, personality traits did not affect the playing time and game genre preference.
WHO/ISBRA Study on State and Trait Markers of Alcohol Use and Dependence: analysis of demographic, behavioral, physiologic, and drinking variables that contribute to dependence and seeking treatment. International Society on Biomedical Research on Alcoholism.
Glanz, Jason; Grant, Bridget; Monteiro, Maristela; Tabakoff, Boris
Discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society on Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) identified the need for a multiple-center international study on state and trait markers of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. The reasoning behind the generation of such a project included the need to understand the alcohol use characteristics of diverse populations and the performance of biological markers of alcohol use in a variety of settings throughout the world. A second major reason for initiating this study was to collect DNA for well-structured and stratified association studies between genetic markers and/or "candidate" genes and behavioral/physiological phenotypes of importance to predisposition to alcohol dependence. An extensive interview instrument was developed with leadership from the U.S. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The instrument was translated from English to Finnish, French, German, Japanese, and Portuguese (Brazilian). One thousand eight hundred sixty-three subjects were recruited at five clinical centers (Montreal, Canada; Helsinki, Finland; Sapporo, Japan; São Paulo, Brazil; and Sydney, Australia). The subjects responded to the structured interview and provided blood and urine samples for biochemical analysis. This article focuses on the demographic characteristics of the study subjects, their drinking habits, alcohol-dependence characteristics, comorbid psychiatric and other drug variables, and predictors for seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed and used to explore variables that contribute to various levels of alcohol consumption, to a diagnosis of alcohol dependence, and to seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. ANOVA with post hoc comparisons, chi2, and Pearson moment calculations were used as necessary to assess additional relationships between variables. A number of factors previously noted in disparate studies
Wilkinson, Simon; Waller, Rebecca; Viding, Essi
Children and adolescents with callous unemotional (CU) traits are at risk of severe and persistent antisocial behavior. It is commonly assumed that these children are difficult to treat but it has been proposed that they may benefit from being involved in interventions that go beyond typical parent training programs. This systematic review sought to answer two previously unanswered questions: do interventions involving young people reduce levels of CU traits? Do CU traits predict the effectiveness of interventions for antisocial behavior involving young people? Studies were included that adopted an randomized controlled trial, controlled or open trial design and that had examined whether treatment was related to reductions in CU traits or whether CU traits predicted or moderated treatment effectiveness. Treatments used a range of approaches, including behavioral therapy, emotion recognition training, and multimodal interventions. 4/7 studies reported reductions in CU traits following treatment. There was a mixed pattern of findings in 15 studies that examined whether CU traits predicted treatment outcomes following interventions for antisocial behavior. In 7/15 studies, CU traits were associated with worse outcomes, although three of these studies did not provide data on baseline antisocial behavior, making it difficult to evaluate whether children with high CU traits had shown improvements relative to their own behavioral baseline, despite having the worst behavioral outcomes overall. CU traits did not predict outcomes in 7/15 studies. Finally, a single study reported that CU traits predicted an overall increased response to treatment. Overall, the evidence supports the idea that children with CU traits do show reductions in both their CU traits and their antisocial behavior, but typically begin treatment with poorer premorbid functioning and can still end with higher levels of antisocial behavior. However, there is considerable scope to build on the current
Marie J Haskell
Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.
Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580
Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad
The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.
Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura
Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aug 1, 2015 ... the other hand are intended for milk production which can influence their carcass quality traits (lean-to-fat ratio, dressing percentage and conformation) and consequently their meat quality traits (taste, colour and texture). However, at this abattoir it was mentioned that farmers raise dairy cattle specifically for ...
In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...
Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A
The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait
Breeden, A L; Cardinale, E M; Lozier, L M; VanMeter, J W; Marsh, A A
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent a significant risk factor for severe and persistent conduct problems in children and adolescents. Extensive neuroimaging research links CU traits to structural and functional abnormalities in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, adults with psychopathy (a disorder for which CU traits are a developmental precursor) exhibit reduced integrity in uncinate fasciculus, a white-matter (WM) tract that connects prefrontal and temporal regions. However, research in adolescents has not yet yielded similarly consistent findings. We simultaneously modeled CU traits and externalizing behaviors as continuous traits, while controlling for age and IQ, in order to identify the unique relationship of each variable with WM microstructural integrity, assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to evaluate fractional anisotropy, an index of WM integrity, in uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis in 47 youths aged 10-17 years, of whom 26 exhibited conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits. Whereas both CU traits and externalizing behaviors were negatively correlated with WM integrity in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis/fornix, simultaneously modeling both variables revealed that these effects were driven by CU traits; the severity of externalizing behavior was not related to WM integrity after controlling for CU traits. These results indicate that WM abnormalities similar to those observed in adult populations with psychopathy may emerge in late childhood or early adolescence, and may be critical to understanding the social and affective deficits observed in this population.
Walters, Caroline E; Kendal, Jeremy R
Epidemiological models have been applied to human health-related behaviors that are affected by social interaction. Typically these models have not considered conformity bias, that is, the exaggerated propensity to adopt commonly observed behaviors or opinions, or content biases, where the content of the learned trait affects the probability of adoption. Here we consider an interaction of these two effects, presenting an SIS-type model for the spread and persistence of a behavior which is transmitted via social learning. Uptake is controlled by a nonlinear dependence on the proportion of individuals demonstrating the behavior in a population. Three equilibrium solutions are found, their linear stability is analyzed and the results are compared with a model for unbiased social learning. Our analysis focuses on the effects of the strength of conformity bias and the effects of content biases which alter a conformity threshold frequency of the behavior, above which there is an exaggerated propensity for adoption. The strength of the conformity bias is found to qualitatively alter the predictions regarding whether the trait becomes endemic within the population and the proportion of individuals who display the trait when it is endemic. As the conformity strength increases, the number of feasible equilibrium solutions increases from two to three, leading to a situation where the stable equilibrium attained is dependent upon the initial state. Varying the conformity threshold frequency directionally alters the behavior invasion threshold. Finally we discuss the possible application of this model to binge drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fajkowska, Małgorzata; Kreitler, Shulamith
This special issue of Journal of Personality addresses one of the cardinal concerns of personality psychology, namely, the status of traits in contemporary personality science. Trait theory is a major scientific model for personality explanation and research. Although there have been critiques of traits, typically formulated from the point of view of the social-cognitive perspective, the trait approach can be viewed as a continuously developing paradigm. However, personality psychology persists in tackling burning questions concerning the status of traits that need to be answered. Modern trait approaches confront problems such as constructing an objective personality traits assessment, connecting the descriptive traits with explanatory processes, applying traits for understanding the individual person, clarifying the relation of traits to behavior, and using traits for solving cardinal concerns of personality psychology (e.g., personality organization). This special issue presents examples of contemporary trait theories that attempt to provide possible solutions to these issues and/or delineate other main issues to be resolved by future research and theorizing. We have asked contributors to portray their approach and describe in what way their trait theory continues a historic tradition and in what respect it breaks with the past and moves trait models to more mature scientific levels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ronald, Angelica; Happe, Francesca; Price, Thomas S.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Plomin, Robert
Objective: To investigate children selected from a community sample for showing extreme autistic-like traits and to assess the degree to which these individual traits--social impairments (SIs), communication impairments (CIs), and restricted repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs)--are caused by genes and environments, whether all of them are…
Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.J.
Research supports the validity of the dimensional approach to psychopathy in both children and adults. The occurrence of severe aggressive and antisocial behavior in combination with callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) designates a group of children that is particularly at risk to develop
Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…
Abdellaoui, Abdel; Nivard, Michel G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Fedko, Iryna; Verweij, Karin J H; Baselmans, Bart M L; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cacioppo, John T
Loneliness is a heritable trait that accompanies multiple disorders. The association between loneliness and mental health indices may partly be due to inherited biological factors. We constructed polygenic scores for 27 traits related to behavior, cognition, and mental health and tested their
Bakker-Pieper, A.; de Vries, R.E.
Personality traits and communication styles are interlinked, as evidenced by high convergent correlations. Nevertheless, communication styles may have a stronger conceptual link to leader outcomes than broad personality traits do, as they are represented by a subset of behavior that is specifically
Kajonius, Petri J.; Dåderman, Anna M.
Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive…
Van Overwalle, Frank; Ma, Ning; Baetens, Kris
This study investigates to what extent social and competence traits are represented in a similar or different neural trait code. To localize these trait codes, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging repetition suppression, which is a rapid reduction of neuronal responses upon repeated presentation of the same implied trait. Participants had to infer an agent's trait from brief trait-implying behavioral descriptions. In each trial, the critical target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence that implied the same trait or a different competence-related trait which was also opposite in valence. The results revealed robust repetition suppression from prime to target in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) given a similar (social) as well as a dissimilar (competence) prime. The suppression given a similar prime confirms earlier research demonstrating that a trait code is represented in the ventral mPFC. The suppression given a dissimilar prime is interpreted as indicating that participants categorize a combination of competence and social information into novel subcategories, reflecting nice (but incompetent) or nerdy (but socially awkward) traits. A multi-voxel pattern analysis broadly confirmed these results, and pinpointed the inferior parietal cortex, cerebellum, temporo-parietal junction and mPFC as areas that differentiate between social and competence traits.
Full Text Available Background: Drug taking behavior and drug dependence is a multi-factorial disorder. Personality is a very important determining factor of drug dependence. Objectives: To find out the possible relationship between personality traits and substance use disorders. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional and case-control study conducted in the department of Psychiatry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Dhaka for a period of one year (January 2005 to December 2005. From five hundred respondents, 250 had the history of substance use disorders selected as case, and equal number were age, sex, habitat and economic background matched controls were taken. Personality traits of both cases and control were measured by applying Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: Mean ± SD psychoticism (8.42±3 vs 4.33±1.8, Neuroticism (11.89±2.3 vs 9.83±2 were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cases than controls. It was found that psychoticism was 2.3 times and neurticism was 1.7 times higher in substance users than that of controls. There were no significant differences of mean distribution of extroversion and lie scales among the cases & controls. This study also revealed that, there was no significant relationship between personality traits and different variables related to substance use except that psychoticism was significantly higher in those substance users who had have positive history of troubles with law than those having no history of trouble with law (8.82±3.2 & 7.95±2.7 respectively. Conclusion: Personality traits may have an influence on persons with substance use disorder which detoriates quality of life. Key words: Drug dependence; Personality; Psychoticism; Neuroticism; Extraversion; Lie scale. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v3i2.7056BSMMU J 2010; 3(2: 76-81
Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey
Many ecologists believe that there is a lack of foraging theory that works in community contexts, for populations of unique individuals each making trade-offs between food and risk that are subject to feedbacks from behavior of others. Such theory is necessary to reproduce the trait-mediated trophic interactions now recognized as widespread and strong. Game theory can...
Miller, Paul J. E.; Caughlin, John P.; Huston, Ted L.
Examines the processes that underlie the association between trait expressiveness and marital satisfaction. Analyses suggested that expressiveness promotes satisfaction by leading spouses to engage in affectionate behavior and by leading them to idealize their partner. Extends previous research by providing a plausible explanation of the…
Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively
Yeh, Michelle T; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A; Jacobson, Kristen C
Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative parenting. Moderating effects of child psychopathic traits on positive dimensions of parenting have not been explored. We applied multi-level regression models to test for interactions between child psychopathic traits and both positive and negative parental affect on individual differences in both reactive and proactive aggression, in a community-based sample of 1,158 children aged 9 through 10 years of age. There were significant associations between child psychopathic traits and positive and negative parental affect with both forms of aggression. Child psychopathic traits also moderated effects of positive and negative parental affect. Children low on psychopathic traits showed decreasing reactive aggression as positive parental affect increased, and increasing levels of reactive aggression as negative parental affect increased, but children high on psychopathic traits showed more stable levels of reactive aggression regardless of levels of parental affect. Proactive aggression was more strongly associated with negative parental affect among children with higher levels of psychopathic traits. In a community sample of preadolescent children, child psychopathic traits were shown to moderate the effects of parental affect on aggression. Reactive aggression in children high on psychopathic traits appears less responsive to variations in either positive or negative parenting. In contrast, child psychopathic traits may exacerbate the effects of high levels of negative parental effect on proactive aggression. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A
Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.
Steyer, Rolf; Mayer, Axel; Geiser, Christian; Cole, David A
We present a revision of latent state-trait (LST-R) theory with new definitions of states and traits. This theory applies whenever we study the consistency of behavior, its variability, and its change over time. States and traits are defined in terms of probability theory. This allows for a seamless transition from theory to statistical modeling of empirical data. LST-R theory not only gives insights into the nature of latent variables but it also takes into account four fundamental facts: Observations are fallible, they never happen in a situational vacuum, they are always made using a specific method of observations, and there is no person without a past. Although the first fact necessitates considering measurement error, the second fact requires allowances for situational fluctuations. The third fact implies that, in the first place, states and traits are method specific. Furthermore, compared to the previous version of LST theory (see, e.g., Steyer et al. 1992 , 1999 ), our revision is based on the notion of a person-at-time-t. The new definitions in LST-R theory have far-reaching implications that not only concern the properties of states, traits, and the associated concepts of measurement errors and state residuals, but also are related to the analysis of states and traits in longitudinal observational and intervention studies.
Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Isoma, Zachary; Donoghue, Kathleen
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in youth are believed to be a developmental precursor to adult psychopathy, tapping its affective dimension. There is growing support for the existence of variants of psychopathy that can be distinguished based on the presence of anxiety, maltreatment histories, and comorbid psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether primary and secondary variants of CU traits could be differentiated according to their experiences of distinct types of childhood maltreatment among a sample of 227 incarcerated adolescent boys. Results indicated that variants of youth scoring high on CU traits could be identified which were consistent with theory and prior research. Greater sexual abuse histories, violent and property delinquency, and a sexually motivated index offense distinguished secondary variants, whereas greater neglect distinguished primary variants of youth with CU traits. Psychopathy variants were behaviorally indistinguishable with respect to their levels of aggression and drug delinquency, although they differed in several important ways from youth scoring low on CU traits. Variants also showed distinct patterns of scores on the measure of CU traits. These findings are important to informing developmental theories of psychopathy and have practical and policy implications for intervening with maltreated and antisocial youth.
Hunter Threadgill, A; Gable, Philip A
Based on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray and McNaughton 2000), human behavior is influenced by systems of approach motivation, avoidance motivation, and a third regulatory system presiding over the other two. These systems mediate action and are likely related to neurophysiological markers of motor-action preparation. Previous research has found that lower levels of beta activity over the motor cortex are associated with greater motor-action preparation. The current study sought to test whether trait approach, avoidance, and regulatory control would relate to resting beta activity over the motor cortex, a measure of motor-action preparation. One hundred twenty-eight individuals completed measures of trait behavioral approach motivation and trait behavioral avoidance motivation (BIS/BAS; Carver and White 1994), as well as regulatory control (UPPS-P Impulsive Behaviour Scale; Whiteside et al. 2005). Then, resting EEG was recorded. Greater trait approach was negatively associated with resting beta activity. In contrast, greater trait impulsivity was associated with greater resting beta activity. Lower levels of resting beta activity in the motor cortex appear to be associated with traits related to deliberate motivated motor behaviors. Trait motor-action preparation seems to be an indicator of tendencies towards planful motivated behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Recoquillay, Julien; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic; Bertin, Aline; Pitel, Frédérique; Gourichon, David; Vignal, Alain; Beaumont, Catherine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Arnould, Cécile
The social behavior of animals, which is partially controlled by genetics, is one of the factors involved in their adaptation to large breeding groups. To understand better the relationships between different social behaviors, fear behaviors and production traits, we analyzed the phenotypic and genetic correlations of these traits in Japanese quail by a second generation crossing of two lines divergently selected for their social reinstatement behavior. Analyses of results for 900 individuals showed that the phenotypic correlations between behavioral traits were low with the exception of significant correlations between sexual behavior and aggressive pecks both at phenotypic (0.51) and genetic (0.90) levels. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between emotional reactivity toward a novel object and sexual (0.89) or aggressive (0.63) behaviors. The other genetic correlations were observed mainly between behavioral and production traits. Thus, the level of emotional reactivity, estimated by the duration of tonic immobility, was positively correlated with weight at 17 and 65 days of age (0.76 and 0.79, respectively) and with delayed egg laying onset (0.74). In contrast, a higher level of social reinstatement behavior was associated with an earlier egg laying onset (-0.71). In addition, a strong sexual motivation was correlated with an earlier laying onset (-0.68) and a higher number of eggs laid (0.82). A low level of emotional reactivity toward a novel object and also a higher aggressive behavior were genetically correlated with a higher number of eggs laid (0.61 and 0.58, respectively). These results bring new insights into the complex determinism of social and emotional reactivity behaviors in birds and their relationships with production traits. Furthermore, they highlight the need to combine animal welfare and production traits in selection programs by taking into account traits of sociability and emotional reactivity. PMID:24324761
Buck, Katharine Ann
Psychopathic traits reflect deficits in behavioral, affective, and interpersonal functioning (Cooke & Michie, 2001). Children with poor inhibitory control may display these traits. Maternal sensitivity and attachment have been implicated in psychopathic traits, but whether they may reduce the likelihood of psychopathic trait expression in adolescence for uninhibited children is largely unknown. The current study attempted to shed light on this issue. Data came from 957 adolescents, followed from 54 months through 15 years. Findings demonstrated that maternal sensitivity was associated with a reduced likelihood of psychopathic traits for males with low inhibitory control. For females, secure attachment mediated the interaction of sensitivity and inhibitory control to psychopathic traits. The current study offers insight into the temperamental traits, parenting, and relational processes involved in psychopathic trait expression during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thakur Mohan Shrestha
Full Text Available Recently, the role of leadership has been considered as one of the crucial factors for the success of any organization. However, what constitutes the effective leaders and what is the status of leaderships is still a subject of study. Hence, this research article is carried out with a mixed method. Based on the evaluation of 7 leadership styles, Bass and Avolio (1994's "5Is" behaviors, 49 traits, and 28 affecting elements for the development of police officers in Nepal, this study has used a survey questionnaire from 1111(N and in-depth interview from 21(N respondents from all the districts of Nepal. The findings of the study display that people are expecting a lot from police administration for adaptation of transformational leadership followed by participative/democratic, authentic and strategic models which were rated with highest ratings respectively. The trait status does not seem sound since the negative traits seem dominant with highest rating-' moderately to mostly', whereas the majority of positive traits are rated with 'a little to moderately'. Moreover, the transformational leadership behaviour is dealt with 'a little to moderately', which needs to be improved. Keywords: Leadership Styles, Leadership Traits, Transformational Behavior, Security Concern Functions of the country
Christ, Shawn E; Kanne, Stephen M; Reiersen, Angela M
Recent research has documented increased psychosocial difficulties in individuals who report higher-than-typical autistic traits but without an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Less is known, however, regarding the cognitive profile of individuals with subthreshold autism symptomatology. The objective of the present study was to provide additional insight into this issue and examine whether young adults who report higher degrees of autism traits also report experiencing increased difficulties with executive control. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was utilized to evaluate behavioral aspects of executive functioning in 66 and 28 individuals who endorsed high and low subthreshold levels of autism symptomatology, respectively. After accounting for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptomatology at both the group and individual participant levels, we found that autism traits continued to explain a significant amount of variance in participants' overall level of executive function (Global Executive Composite) as well as within most individual executive domains. Interestingly, the high and low trait groups did not differ on the inhibitory control and organization of materials scales, areas of functioning that appears to be largely spared in individuals with ASD as well. Findings from the present study are consistent with past research linking ASD and executive control impairment. In addition, ASD and ADHD traits were associated with unique contributions to the executive control profile of individuals with subthreshold autism symptomatology. This finding underscores the importance of accounting for ADHD symptomatology in studying ASD. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey
The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower
Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S
A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...
Full Text Available On the sample of 637 participants (358 women and 279 men we explored the relationshipbetween Dark Triad traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism and Narcissism and various healthindicators including subjective (positive and negative mood and perceived physical symptoms,protective health behaviors as well as some more objective health indicators (number ofhospitalizations, number of diseases, having specific chronic diseases, injuries and addictions.Because of the moderate relations between Dark Triad and broad personality traits that also exerttheir influence on various health-related indices, we examined the unique effects of Dark Triad traitson health indicators above and beyond five-factor personality traits as well as sociodemographicvariables related to health (gender, age and education.When sociodemographic variables, as well as five-factor personality traits were controlled inhierarchical regression analyses, Dark Triad traits significantly improved the prediction of almostall subjective health indicators, protective health behaviors, number of hospitalizations and numberof diseases. The effect sizes obtained were relatively low, and psychopathy was the most consistentpredictor.Regarding chronic diseases, injuries and addictions, the results of hierarchical binary logisticregressions showed that when sociodemographic variables were controlled, psychopathy was apositive predictor of the risk of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries, Machiavellianismnegatively predicted the risk of injuries, while Narcissism negatively predicted the risk of skindiseases and tobacco use. When five-factor personality traits were controlled, psychopathy was alsoa positive predictor of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries. Machiavellianism was a positivepredictor of high blood pressure, and negative predictor of cancer, spine and back diseases andinjuries, while Narcissism was a negative predictor of skin diseases.The results obtained are discussed
Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…
Grunst, Andrea S; Grunst, Melissa L; Thys, Bert; Raap, Thomas; Daem, Natasha; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel
Anthropogenic contaminants could alter traits central to animal behavioral types, or personalities, including aggressiveness, boldness and activity level. Lead and other toxic metals are persistent inorganic pollutants that affect organisms worldwide. Metal exposure can alter behavior by affecting neurology, endocrinology, and health. However, the direction and magnitude of the behavioral effects of metal exposure remain equivocal. Moreover, the degree to which metal exposure simultaneously affects suites of correlated behavioral traits (behavioral syndromes) that are controlled by common mechanisms remains unclear, with most studies focusing on single behaviors. Using a model species for personality variation, the great tit (Parus major), we explored differences in multiple behavioral traits across a pollution gradient where levels of metals, especially lead and cadmium, are elevated close to a smelter. We employed the novel environment exploration test, a proxy for variation in personality type, and also measured territorial aggressiveness and nest defense behavior. At polluted sites birds of both sexes displayed slower exploration behavior, which could reflect impaired neurological or physiological function. Territorial aggression and nest defense behavior were individually consistent, but did not vary with proximity to the smelter, suggesting that metal exposure does not concurrently affect exploration and aggression. Rather, exploration behavior appears more sensitive to metal pollution. Effects of metal pollution on exploration behavior, a key animal personality trait, could have critical effects on fitness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bui, Ngoc H
The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier
We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but n...
Sobhani, Mona; Baker, Laura; Martins, Bradford; Tuvblad, Catherine; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa
Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF)) between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala-VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala-VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits.
Christopher J Winrow
Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene-e...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms.......Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...
Raymond, James G.; Steele, J. Douglas; Seriès, Peggy
Computational methods are increasingly being applied to the study of psychiatric disorders. Often, this involves fitting models to the behavior of individuals with subclinical character traits that are known vulnerability factors for the development of psychiatric conditions. Anxiety disorders can be examined with reference to the behavior of individuals high in “trait” anxiety, which is a known vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety and mood disorders. However, it is not clear how this self-report measure relates to neural and behavioral processes captured by computational models. This paper reviews emerging computational approaches to the study of trait anxiety, specifying how interacting processes susceptible to analysis using computational models could drive a tendency to experience frequent anxious states and promote vulnerability to the development of clinical disorders. Existing computational studies are described in the light of this perspective and appropriate targets for future studies are discussed. PMID:28167920
Jayawickreme, Eranda; Meindl, Peter; Helzer, Erik G.; Furr, R. Michael; Fleeson, William
A major objection to the study of virtue asserts that the empirical psychological evidence implies traits have little meaningful impact on behavior, as slight changes in situational characteristics appear to lead to large changes in virtuous behavior. We argue in response that the critical evidence is not these effects of situations observed in…
Sergei A. Shchebetenko
Full Text Available The research considers attitudes toward personality traits in online social network (OSN Vkontakte users’ behaviour. Users’ friends’ activity on a given user’s profile was supposed to be affected by attitudes toward traits of the latter. Within a broader context, the role of metacognitive type of characteristic adaptations as a key element of the five-factor theory of personality is studied. Accordingly, along with attitudes toward traits, other metacognitive characteristic adaptations are examined (e.g. dispositional efficiency, reflected trait, and reflected attitude toward a trait. 1030 undergraduates participated in the study. The research results confirm that extraversion is the most important predictor of OSN behavior among other personality traits. The information presented in this research is obtained using behavioural data instead of more convenient self-reports. Moreover, these behavioural data characterise other users’ (friends’ behaviour while addressing a certain user’s profile. Positive attitudes toward each Big Five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience separately affected the number of “Likes” of the avatars representing users’ photographs. Furthermore, revealed correlations between traits and “Likes” were subsequently eliminated by the attitudes toward respective traits. Positive attitudes toward conscientiousness predicted the increase of friends’ number unlike trait conscientiousness. Positive attitude toward agreeableness predicted the increase of the number of posts written by friends on user’s wall unlike trait agreeableness. Attitudes toward traits are argued to affect social environment governed by an individual: one may select those social relationships and partners that fit better one’s attitudes toward traits. This, in turn, may affect actions of other people towards the given individual including those of online behaviour.
Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio
The seasonal forcing of pelagic communities invokes a succession of the dominant phytoplankton and zooplankton species. Here, we characterize the seasonal succession of the plankton traits and their interactions using observations and model simulations of the plankton community in the western...... acquisition and photosynthesis, it also depends on grazing which couples feeding and motility traits across trophic guilds. Despite interannual variations in the species dominating the protist plankton community, the seasonal trait distribution reveals robust and repeatable seasonal patterns, changing between...... non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...
Ippolito, A; Todeschini, R; Vighi, M
Assessing the sensitivity of different species to chemicals is one of the key points in predicting the effects of toxic compounds in the environment. Trait-based predicting methods have proved to be extremely efficient for assessing the sensitivity of macroinvertebrates toward compounds with non specific toxicity (narcotics). Nevertheless, predicting the sensitivity of organisms toward compounds with specific toxicity is much more complex, since it depends on the mode of action of the chemical. The aim of this work was to predict the sensitivity of several freshwater macroinvertebrates toward three classes of plant protection products: organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. Two databases were built: one with sensitivity data (retrieved, evaluated and selected from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ECOTOX database) and the other with biological traits. Aside from the "traditional" traits usually considered in ecological analysis (i.e. body size, respiration technique, feeding habits, etc.), multivariate analysis was used to relate the sensitivity of organisms to some other characteristics which may be involved in the process of intoxication. Results confirmed that, besides traditional biological traits, related to uptake capability (e.g. body size and body shape) some traits more related to particular metabolic characteristics or patterns have a good predictive capacity on the sensitivity to these kinds of toxic substances. For example, behavioral complexity, assumed as an indicator of nervous system complexity, proved to be an important predictor of sensitivity towards these compounds. These results confirm the need for more complex traits to predict effects of highly specific substances. One key point for achieving a complete mechanistic understanding of the process is the choice of traits, whose role in the discrimination of sensitivity should be clearly interpretable, and not only statistically significant.
allowed feed and water ad–libitum. The experimental design required three animal cohorts. Specifically, one cohort of control F344 and WKY rats were not...Drc1 (Dynein regulatory complex subunit 1) paralleled that of WKY in the F344. WKY-Stresp10 strain matching the behavioral profiles of WKY as opposed ...that the sequence variations within these genes might contribute to the Stresp10 QTL. Materials and methods Animal care and treatment All animal
Elliot, Andrew J; Jury, Mickaël; Murayama, Kou
Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and we tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance-based goals and performance attainment. In Studies 1a (N = 387 U.S. undergraduates) and 1b (N = 322 U.S. undergraduates), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates. In Study 2 (N = 434 MTurk workers), we sought to replicate and extend Study 1 by adding reports of performance-based goal pursuit. In Study 3 (N = 403 U.S. undergraduates), we sought to replicate and extend Study 2 by adding real-world performance attainment. The studies focused on both the classroom and the workplace. Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness were shown to be positively related and to positively predict separate variance in performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal pursuit. Perceived environmental competitiveness and performance-based goal pursuit were shown to be sequential mediators of the indirect relation between trait competitiveness and performance attainment. These studies highlight the importance of attending to the interplay of the person and the (perceived) situation in analyses of competitive striving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jae Kyu Myung
Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.
Kahn, Rachel E.; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; 1) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; 2). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in high risk youth were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits. PMID:26779640
Although the term psychopathy is embedded with negativity, evidence points to the existence of another form of psychopathy, which involves adaptive traits such as stress and anxiety immunity, remarkable social skills, noteworthy leadership ability, and an absence of fear. The newly developed Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ) aims to assess adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Validation of the questionnaire among 765 individuals from the community gave support to a 9-factor solution: Leadership, Logical Thinking, Composure, Creativity, Fearlessness, Money Smart, Focus, Extroversion, and Management. The DAPTQ and its 9 subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability in a community sample (.68-.88). Convergent validity and divergent validity were supported by administering the DAPTQ alongside established measures of the psychopathic personality. Overall, these findings support the potential of the DAPTQ as an instrument for measuring psychopathy-associated adaptive traits. Limitations of this study and potential directions for future research are also discussed. Further studies are needed to validate the DAPTQ and its subscales against a wider range of personality traits and behaviors.
Kahn, Rachel E; Ermer, Elsa; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions and to use this information to guide thinking and behavior adaptively. Youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits demonstrate a variety of affective deficits, including impairment in recognition of emotion and reduced emotional responsiveness to distress or pain in others. We examined the association between ability EI and CU traits in a sample of incarcerated adolescents (n = 141) using an expert-rater device (Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV; Manual for the Hare psychopathy checklist: Youth version. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, 2003) and self-report assessments of CU traits. EI was assessed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test-Youth Version, Research Version (MSCEIT-YV-R; MSCEIT YV: Mayer-Salovey-Caruso emotional intelligence test: Youth version, research version 1.0. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ontario, 2005). Similar to findings in adult forensic populations, high levels of CU traits in incarcerated adolescents were associated with lower EI, particularly higher order EI skills. Identifying impairment on EI abilities may have important implications for emerging treatment and intervention developments for youth with high levels of CU traits.
Barnea, Royi; Bekker, Liza; Zifman, Noa; Marco, Asaf; Yadid, Gal; Weller, Aron
Binge eating (BE) and drug seeking share similar behavioral features, including loss of control over consumption and compulsive seeking of the craved substance. Previous studies in animal models have demonstrated a complex interaction between 'state' BE, produced by intermittent access to a palatable diet, and 'trait' BE, a phenotypical proneness towards overeating. In the present study, we examined the relationship between state and trait BE and cocaine seeking. We used Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, a genetic model for obesity that demonstrates BE-like behavior, and Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka controls. They received a schedule of limited access to a palatable diet (3 days/week or 5 days/week access to Ensure for a month). Next, they underwent cocaine self-administration training (1 mg/kg, 1 hour/day for 10 days) followed by extinction sessions (7 days). We found that the degree of BE-like behavior and the state and trait BE combination predicted cocaine craving patterns. Lower levels of dopamine D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex were correlated with increased drug craving. Moreover, restricted access to an attractive diet was found to be a risk factor for heightened cocaine craving, particularly in trait binge eaters, as rats on the 3 days/week access schedule persistently failed to cease cocaine seeking throughout extinction. Hence, we postulate a joint role of state and trait BE as risk factors for heightened cocaine craving. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F
This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahn, Rachel E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age=13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age=42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Van Zalk, Nejra
Evidence for the risks of psychopathic personality traits for adolescent antisocial behavior are well documented in the literature. Little is known, however, about who the peers of adolescents with these traits are and to what extent they influence one another. In the current study, three dimensions of psychopathic traits were distinguished: grandiose-manipulative traits, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsive-irresponsible traits. A dynamic social network approach was used with three waves of longitudinal data from 1,772 adolescents (51.1% girls, M age = 13.03 at first measurement). Results showed that adolescents with grandiose-manipulative and callous-unemotional traits formed peer relationships with adolescents who had low self-esteem. Furthermore, peers' violence predicted stronger increases in violence for adolescents with low self-esteem than for other adolescents, and peers' violence predicted stronger increases in adolescent violence for peers with high psychopathic traits than for other peers. Thus, findings indicate that adolescents with low self-esteem are vulnerable to deviant peer influence from peers with psychopathic traits.
Chuang, John S
Without cell-to-cell communication, the organization and regulation of specialized cell types that underpin the development and physiology of multicellular organisms would be impossible. In nature, unicellular microbes have also been shown to display multicellular-like traits, such as intercellular communication, division of labor, and cooperative coordination of cellular activities. Likewise, the incorporation of artificial cell-to-cell communication into genetic circuit designs is enabling synthetic biologists to move from programming single cells towards the engineering of population-level behaviors and functions, such as diversification, spatial organization, synchronization, and coordinated information processing. The disciplined engineering goal of routinely building complex genetic circuits from well-characterized modules still poses challenges, owing to reusability and input-output matching problems resulting from information transfer being mediated through diffusible molecules. Optogenetic interfaces between circuits are considered as a possible solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Holly A; Bouffard, Jeffrey A; DeHaan, Cassidy A
Researchers have consistently found a relationship between psychopathy and the use of sexual coercion in samples of males with and without previous sexual arrests (Abbey, Jacques-Tiura, & LeBreton, 2011; Hare, 1991; Hersh & Gray-Little, 1998; Seto & Lalumiere, 2000). Although there is growing recognition that females also engage in sexually coercive behavior, current understanding of female coercion is limited (Bouffard, Bouffard, & Miller, 2015; Cortoni, Hanson, & Coache, 2010; Muñoz, Khan, & Cordwell, 2011). This study examined the relationship between psychopathic traits and sexual coercion tactics among a sample of 558 undergraduate females. Results indicate that the use of any previous sexual coercion tactic (coax, lie, get drunk, and assault) and higher endorsement of primary psychopathy traits significantly predict whether the females state that they will engage in future sexually coercive behaviors.
Railsback, Steven F; Harvey, Bret C
Many ecologists believe that there is a lack of foraging theory that works in community contexts, for populations of unique individuals each making trade-offs between food and risk that are subject to feedbacks from behavior of others. Such theory is necessary to reproduce the trait-mediated trophic interactions now recognized as widespread and strong. Game theory can address feedbacks but does not provide foraging theory for unique individuals in variable environments. 'State- and prediction-based theory' (SPT) is a new approach that combines existing trade-off methods with routine updating: individuals regularly predict future food availability and risk from current conditions to optimize a fitness measure. SPT can reproduce a variety of realistic foraging behaviors and trait-mediated trophic interactions with feedbacks, even when the environment is unpredictable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piccolo, R.F.; Buengeler, C.; Griffin, R.W.
After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.
Georg G. von Polier
Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.
Full Text Available This chapter focuses on identification of managerial traits (defined in 4E+P principles of the managers in a bakery and confectionery as well as in administration of steelworks. Existence of elements which prove two styles of management used by the managers was observed.
3Department of Biology, Dezhou University, Dezhou, Shandong 253023, People's Republic of China. [Xu Y., Liu J., ... paired box 7 gene (Pax7) on growth traits. .... Population genetic parameters, namely, gene homozygosity (Ho) and effec- tive allele numbers (Ne) were calculated using the Pop-. Gene software version 3.2 ...
postnatal skeletal muscle development (Kuang et al. 2006). It has been reported that the ... gene for growth traits due to its fundamental roles in muscle development. ..... BW6, ADG6 and CG6 represent body weight, average daily gain and chest girth of cattle aged six months; BW12, ADG12 and CG12 represent body weight ...
Bachmanov Alexander A
Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.
Female (33 y). MEFV: p.[Met694Val];[=]. Mild periorbital swelling, short. Mediocre response to colchicine. TNFRSF1A: p.[Arg121Gln];[=] duration of fever episodes from. 24–48 h, abdominal and chest pain for an MEFV mutation. The only objective tool that confirms. HRFs is MEFV, MVK, TNFRSF1A and NLRP3 sequencing.
syndrome to the cloning of the pyrin gene. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 27, 92–97. Richards S., Aziz N., Bale S., Bick D., Das S., Gastier-Foster J. et al. 2015 Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American col- lege of medical genetics and genomics and the ...
In the present study, an extensive search for possiblemutations in three hereditary recurrent fever (HRF) genes was performed in 128 MEFV heterozygous Greek–Cypriots clinically diagnosed based on their phenotype with FMF-like disease from a previous study. Sequence analysis was performedfor MVK, TNFRSF1A and ...
for acute abdominal pain and lower diffuse lower abdominal tenderness. In her adolescence and later she had no recur- rent episodes apart from lower abdominal pains especially during menstruation. She was never treated with colchicine and by far, she has not developed any systemic complications associated with FMF.
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) has traditionally been considered as a monogenic autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the MEFV gene with highest incidence among Mediterranean populations. In a considerable number of patients with typical FMF, only one MEFV mutation was identified and the ...
Alexandra PERJU-MITRAN; Andreea E. BUDACIA
Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitiv...
Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne
Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon referring to nonequivalent expression of alleles depending on their parental origins, has been widely observed in nature. It has been shown recently that the epigenetic modification of an imprinted gene can be detected through a genetic mapping approach. Such an approach is developed based on traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping focusing on single trait analysis. Recent studies have shown that most imprinted genes in mammals play an important role in controlling embryonic growth and post-natal development. For a developmental character such as growth, current approach is less efficient in dissecting the dynamic genetic effect of imprinted genes during individual ontology. Results Functional mapping has been emerging as a powerful framework for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying complex traits showing developmental characteristics. To understand the genetic architecture of dynamic imprinted traits, we propose a mapping strategy by integrating the functional mapping approach with genomic imprinting. We demonstrate the approach through mapping imprinted QTL controlling growth trajectories in an inbred F2 population. The statistical behavior of the approach is shown through simulation studies, in which the parameters can be estimated with reasonable precision under different simulation scenarios. The utility of the approach is illustrated through real data analysis in an F2 family derived from LG/J and SM/J mouse stains. Three maternally imprinted QTLs are identified as regulating the growth trajectory of mouse body weight. Conclusion The functional iQTL mapping approach developed here provides a quantitative and testable framework for assessing the interplay between imprinted genes and a developmental process, and will have important implications for elucidating the genetic architecture of imprinted traits.
de Bello, Francesco; Carmona, C. P.; Mason, N. W. H.; Sebastia, M.-T.; Lepš, Jan
Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 807-819 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biodiversity * Environmental filtering * Functional traits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.372, year: 2013
Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F
loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes...... were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level...... will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs...
Nierstrasz, Oscar; Ducasse, Stéphane; Reichhart, Stefan; Schärli, Nathanael
Traits offer a fine-grained mechanism for composing classes in object-oriented languages from reusable components, while avoiding the fragility problems introduced by multiple inheritance and mixins. Although traits were developed in the context of dynamically typed languages, they would also offer clear benefits for statically typed languages like Java and C#. This report summarizes the issues raised when integrating traits into such languages. We examine traits in the context of the statica...
Ellers, J.; Kiers, E.T.; Currie, C.R.; McDonald, B.R.; Visser, B.
Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species
There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…
Graziano, Paulo A; Fabiano, Gregory; Willoughby, Michael T; Waschbusch, Daniel; Morris, Karen; Schatz, Nicole; Vujnovic, Rebecca
This study examined the extent to which positive and negative parenting relates to conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits among 172 adolescents (72 % males; M age = 16.91 years, SD = .67) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and whether CU traits moderate the link between parenting and CP. Mothers reported on their adolescents' CP, CU traits, and their own parenting practices. Maternal behaviors were observed during a problem-solving communication task. Parents who engaged in more positive parenting (self-reported and observed) reported their adolescents as having lower levels of CU traits. No effect was found for negative parenting. Moderation analyses indicated that lower levels of positive maternal behavior was only associated with higher CP in the presence of higher levels of CU traits. Negative parenting was positively related to CP regardless of CU traits. Positive parenting, irrespective of measurement approach, uniquely relates to adolescents' CU traits while both positive and negative parenting relate to CP.
Hopwood, Christopher J; Zanarini, Mary C
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is related to five-factor model (FFM) traits and can be characterized as involving psychological and behavioral instability. A previous study comparing the FFM trait stability across individuals with borderline and other personality disorders found that the BPD group tended to have lower stability, particularly on neuroticism and conscientiousness and the overall configuration of FFM profiles over 6 years, suggesting that associated psychological and behavioral variability may be due to trait variability. The current study was designed to test the degree to which these findings replicate in another sample using different diagnostic and trait measures and extending the measurement period to 10 years. Results are consistent with previous findings in showing lower differential (rank-order) stability on conscientiousness, greater mean-level decreases on neuroticism, lower individual-level stability on conscientiousness, and lower ipsative stability of trait profile configurations among those with BPD. However, unlike the previous study, no differences were observed for differential or individual-level neuroticism or mean-level conscientiousness. Overall, findings show that the instability characteristic of BPD extends into typically stable personality traits, and that it does so with some specificity in terms of which traits are affected and how instability manifests.
Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kim, J.S.; Shen, Shuxing; Pino del Carpio, D.; Song, Xiaofei; Jin, M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Wang, Xiaowu; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.
Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Brassica rapa and the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. Here is a report on quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flowering time, seed and pod traits, growth-related traits, leaf morphology, and turnip formation in
March, Evita; Wagstaff, Danielle L
Modern dating platforms have given rise to new dating and sexual behaviors. In the current study, we examine predictors of sending unsolicited explicit images, a particularly underexplored online sexual behavior. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of dark personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism) and self-rated mate value in predicting attitudes toward and behavior of sending unsolicited explicit images. Two hundred and forty participants (72% female; M age = 25.96, SD = 9.79) completed an online questionnaire which included a measure of self-rated mate value, a measure of dark personality traits, and questions regarding sending unsolicited explicit images (operationalized as the explicit image scale). Men, compared to women, were found to have higher explicit image scale scores, and both self-rated mate value and trait Machiavellianism were positive predictors of explicit image scale scores. Interestingly, there were no significant interactions between sex and these variables. Further, Machiavellianism mediated all relationships between other dark traits and explicit image scale scores, indicating this behavior is best explained by the personality trait associated with behavioral strategies. In sum, these results provide support for the premise that sending unsolicited explicit images may be a tactic of a short-term mating strategy; however, future research should further explore this claim.
Full Text Available Modern dating platforms have given rise to new dating and sexual behaviors. In the current study, we examine predictors of sending unsolicited explicit images, a particularly underexplored online sexual behavior. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of dark personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism and self-rated mate value in predicting attitudes toward and behavior of sending unsolicited explicit images. Two hundred and forty participants (72% female; Mage = 25.96, SD = 9.79 completed an online questionnaire which included a measure of self-rated mate value, a measure of dark personality traits, and questions regarding sending unsolicited explicit images (operationalized as the explicit image scale. Men, compared to women, were found to have higher explicit image scale scores, and both self-rated mate value and trait Machiavellianism were positive predictors of explicit image scale scores. Interestingly, there were no significant interactions between sex and these variables. Further, Machiavellianism mediated all relationships between other dark traits and explicit image scale scores, indicating this behavior is best explained by the personality trait associated with behavioral strategies. In sum, these results provide support for the premise that sending unsolicited explicit images may be a tactic of a short-term mating strategy; however, future research should further explore this claim.
Conclusion: Individuals with paranoid personality traits have more biases than normal individuals in terms of interpreting vague faces. The results of this study indicated the importance of attention to cognitive biases among individuals with paranoid personality traits or paranoid personality disorder because such biases can significantly influence behavioral patterns in individuals, and consequently degrade their functioning. Also, bias towards the processing of negative signs appears to be the most important cognitive element is involved in interpersonal relationships.
Firoozi, Mahbobe; Azmoude, Elham; Asgharipoor, Negar
Background: Women's sexual self-esteem is one of the most important factors that affect women's sexual satisfaction and their sexual anxiety. Various aspects of sexual life are blended with the entire personality. Determining the relationship between personality traits and self-concept aspects such as sexual self-esteem leads to better understanding of sexual behavior in people with different personality traits and helps in identifying the psychological variables affecting their sexual perfor...
Pappas, Christoforos; Fatichi, Simone; Burlando, Paolo
Plant trait diversity in many vegetation models is crudely represented using a discrete classification of a handful of 'plant types' (named plant functional types; PFTs). The parameterization of PFTs reflects mean properties of observed plant traits over broad categories ignoring most of the inter- and intraspecific plant trait variability. Taking advantage of a multivariate leaf-trait distribution (leaf economics spectrum), as well as documented plant drought strategies, we generate an ensemble of hypothetical species with coordinated attributes, rather than using few PFTs. The behavior of these proxy species is tested using a mechanistic ecohydrological model that translates plant traits into plant performance. Simulations are carried out for a range of climates representative of different elevations and wetness conditions in the European Alps. Using this framework we investigate the sensitivity of ecosystem response to plant trait diversity and compare it with the sensitivity to climate variability. Plant trait diversity leads to highly divergent vegetation carbon dynamics (fluxes and pools) and to a lesser extent water fluxes (transpiration). Abiotic variables, such as soil water content and evaporation, are only marginally affected. These results highlight the need for revising the representation of plant attributes in vegetation models. Probabilistic approaches, based on observed multivariate whole-plant trait distributions, provide a viable alternative. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
Alcázar-Olán, Raúl J; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Hernández Guzmán, Laura; Jurado Cárdenas, Samuel
This research had two goals: (1) it tested hypotheses of the State-Trait Model of anger, and (2) it explored characteristics that may distinguish individuals with high trait anger who recognize problems with their anger from those who do not recognize anger problems. Regarding the first goal, findings supported three hypotheses tested. In particular, compared to those low in trait anger, individuals with high trait anger reported: (a) more intense anger (intensity hypothesis), p thoughts involving pejorative labeling/denigration, p thoughts of revenge, p thoughts of self-control, p positive coping hypothesis). For the second goal we employed two types of individuals, both with high trait anger: those who identified anger as a personal problem and wanted help, and those who did not identify anger as a personal issue. As a result, compared to those who did not report anger problems, those who reported anger problems demonstrated a higher overall propensity to experience anger (i.e., higher trait anger), p thoughts of self-control, p < .05, η(2) = .015, and attempts to control their angry feelings (anger-control-in), p < .05, η(2) = .016, and behavior (anger-control-out), p < .001, η(2) = .054. Gender was not associated with trait anger or anger problem recognition. Findings were discussed in terms of State-Trait Theory and implications for anger interventions.
Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Peters, Jessica R.; Pond, Richard S.; DeWall, C. Nathan
Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, predicts lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates state mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and state increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and state mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and state mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and state mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and state levels. Mindfulness facets predicted anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger. PMID:27429667
Wray, N R; Visscher, P M
John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line
Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit....... In this preliminary study, we compared these models using groups with high and low autistic trait scores (AQ). We found evidence supporting the cognitive bias model, and no evidence for the enhanced sensory precision model....
Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio
Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.
Jabeen, T.; Kazmi, S. F.; Rehman, A. U.; Ahmed, S.
Background: It is believed that the study of personality has the potentials to enhance our prognostic abilities and can better to expose the etiology of mental illness through the relationship of revealed mechanisms. The focus of this study was to investigate and compare the habitual patterns of behavior, thought and emotions of upper and lower limb physically disabled students in terms of personality traits. Methods: This cross sectional study consisted of 100 upper limbs and lower limbs disabled students taken from Kingston school Inclusive Education System Abottabad, Mashal special education system Haripur, Syed Ahmed Shaheed special education center Abottabad, Al-Munir Foundation Mansehra and Hera Special Education System Haripur and 100 normal students taken from Islamic International School Abottabad, Falcon Public School Haripur, Iqra Academy Mansehra and Alhamd International School Haripur of Hazara Division by purposive sampling technique. This study was conducted during the month of June 2013 to May 2014. Goldberg five big personality scale was used for measuring personality traits of physically disabled and normal students. Results: The significant difference of personality traits scores between physically disabled students (M = 139.2, SD=12.0) and normal students (M=184.5, SD=13.2), t (198) =25.3, p<.05 was observed. Conclusion: Normal students have high scores as compared to physically disabled students on big five traits, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience. (author)
Yang, Junyi; Yin, Ping; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yongmei; Qiu, Jiang
The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear. Thus in current study, first, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in depression-related personality traits, as measured by the revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory, in a large sample of young healthy adults. Second, we use mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between parenting behavior and neural basis of depression-related personality traits. The results revealed that depression-related personality traits were positively correlated with gray matter volume mainly in medial frontal gyrus (MFG) that is implicated in the self-referential processing and emotional regulation. Furthermore, parental emotional warmth acted as a mediational mechanism underlying the association between the MFG volume and the depression-related personality trait. Together, our findings suggested that the family environment might play an important role in the acquisition and process of the depression-related personality traits.
Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex
Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be predictive of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors. In this study, we investigated to what extent functional brain connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) could predict the variance left unexplained by age and behavior (follow-up latency and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores) in two measures of outcome--adaptive behaviors and autistic traits at least 1 y postscan (mean follow-up latency = 2 y, 10 mo). We found that connectivity involving the so-called salience network (SN), default-mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal task control network (FPTCN) was highly predictive of future autistic traits and the change in autistic traits and adaptive behavior over the same time period. Furthermore, functional connectivity involving the SN, which is predominantly composed of the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate, predicted reliable improvement in adaptive behaviors with 100% sensitivity and 70.59% precision. From rs-fcMRI data, our study successfully predicted heterogeneity in outcomes for individuals with ASD that was unaccounted for by simple behavioral metrics and provides unique evidence for networks underlying long-term symptom abatement.
Full Text Available Negative urgency (NU and positive urgency (PU are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. In addition, trait urgency measures showed significant correlations with the functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus seed with the thalamus and midbrain region. These findings suggest an association between intrinsic brain activity and impulsive behaviors in healthy humans.
Composição e sazonalidade dos moluscos do alto rio Paraná, Brasil, e sua potencialidade como hospedeiros intermediários de digenéticos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5018 Composition and seasonality of mollusks from the upper Paraná river, Brazil, and their potentiality as intermediate hosts for digeneans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5018
Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli
Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a composição e a sazonalidade das espécies de moluscos potenciais hospedeiros intermediários de trematódeos digenéticos, bem como fornece informações a respeito das possíveis infecções por diplostomídeos nesta comunidade, em ambientes lênticos da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná. Foram coletadas e analisadas dez espécies de moluscos, e houve nítida sazonalidade na densidade e abundância dos moluscos, correlacionada significativamente com a temperatura da água. Os maiores valores observados foram entre os meses de novembro de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003. Apenas Biomphalaria peregrina caracterizou-se como hospedeiro para Diplostomidae, pois nesta espécie foram encontradas 32 cercárias de Hysteromorpha triloba em março de 2003.This study analyzes the composition and seasonality of mollusk species as potential intermediate hosts for digenean trematodes, and also supplies information regarding the possible infections by diplostomidae in that community, in lentic environments of the upper Paraná river floodplain. Ten species of mollusks were collected and analyzed, with noticeable seasonality in the density and abundance of mollusks, significantly correlated with water temperature. The highest values observed were in the period between November 2002 and February 2003. Only Biomphalaria peregrina was characterized as a host for diplostomidae, given that 32 cercariae of Hysteromorpha triloba were found in this species in March 2003.
Moore, David S
Why do we grow up to have the traits we do? Most 20th century scientists answered this question by referring only to our genes and our environments. But recent discoveries in the emerging field of behavioral epigenetics have revealed factors at the interface between genes and environments that also play crucial roles in development. These factors affect how genes work; scientists now know that what matters as much as which genes you have (and what environments you encounter) is how your genes are affected by their contexts. The discovery that what our genes do depends in part on our experiences has shed light on how Nature and Nurture interact at the molecular level inside of our bodies. Data emerging from the world's behavioral epigenetics laboratories support the idea that a person's genes alone cannot determine if, for example, he or she will end up shy, suffering from cardiovascular disease, or extremely smart. Among the environmental factors that can influence genetic activity are parenting styles, diets, and social statuses. In addition to influencing how doctors treat diseases, discoveries about behavioral epigenetics are likely to alter how biologists think about evolution, because some epigenetic effects of experience appear to be transmissible from generation to generation. This domain of research will likely change how we think about the origins of human nature. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1333. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1333 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Horback, K M; Parsons, T D
The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.
Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Hoffmann, Henry; Vitz, Martina; Oertli, Daniel; Hahnloser, Dieter
Surgeons' personalities have been described as different from those of the general population, but this was based on small descriptive studies limited by the choice of evaluation instrument. Furthermore, although the importance of the human factor in team performance has been recognized, the effect of personality traits on technical performance is unknown. This study aimed to compare surgical residents' personality traits with those of the general population and to evaluate whether an association exists between their personality traits and technical performance using a virtual reality (VR) laparoscopy simulator. In this study, 95 participants (54 residents with basic, 29 with intermediate laparoscopic experience, and 12 students) underwent personality assessment using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and performed five VR tasks of the Lap Mentor™ basic tasks module. The residents' personality traits were compared with those of the general population, and the association between VR performance and personality traits was investigated. Surgical residents showed personality traits different from those of the general population, demonstrating lower neuroticism, higher extraversion and conscientiousness, and male residents showed greater openness. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for gender and surgical experience, none of the personality traits was found to be an independent predictor of technical performance. Surgical residents present distinct personality traits that differ from those of the general population. These traits were not found to be associated with technical performance in a virtual environment. The traits may, however, play an important role in team performance, which in turn is highly relevant for optimal surgical performance.
Barton, Andrew D; Pershing, Andrew J; Litchman, Elena; Record, Nicholas R; Edwards, Kyle F; Finkel, Zoe V; Kiørboe, Thomas; Ward, Ben A
Changes in marine plankton communities driven by environmental variability impact the marine food web and global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other elements. To predict and assess these community shifts and their consequences, ecologists are increasingly investigating how the functional traits of plankton determine their relative fitness along environmental and biological gradients. Laboratory, field and modelling studies are adopting this trait-based approach to map the biogeography of plankton traits that underlies variations in plankton communities. Here, we review progress towards understanding the regulatory roles of several key plankton functional traits, including cell size, N2 -fixation and mixotrophy among phytoplankton, and body size, ontogeny and feeding behaviour for zooplankton. The trait biogeographical approach sheds light on what structures plankton communities in the current ocean, as well as under climate change scenarios, and also allows for finer resolution of community function because community trait composition determines the rates of significant processes, including carbon export. Although understanding of trait biogeography is growing, uncertainties remain that stem, in part, from the paucity of observations describing plankton functional traits. Thus, in addition to recommending widespread adoption of the trait-based approach, we advocate for enhanced collection, standardisation and dissemination of plankton functional trait data. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja
The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.
Full Text Available With the pervasive increase in social media use, the explosion of users’ generated data provides a potentially very rich source of information, which plays an important role in helping online researchers understand user’s behaviors deeply. Since user’s personality traits are the driving force of user’s behaviors, hence, in this paper, along with social network features, we first extract linguistic features, emotional statistical features, and topic features from user’s Facebook status updates, followed by quantifying importance of features via Kendall correlation coefficient. And then, on the basis of weighted features and dynamic updated thresholds of personality traits, we deploy a novel adaptive conditional probability-based predicting model which considers prior knowledge of correlations between user’s personality traits to predict user’s Big Five personality traits. In the experimental work, we explore the existence of correlations between user’s personality traits which provides a better theoretical support for our proposed method. Moreover, on the same Facebook dataset, compared to other methods, our method can achieve an F1-measure of 80.6% when taking into account correlations between user’s personality traits, and there is an impressive improvement of 5.8% over other approaches.
Jezior, Kristen L; McKenzie, Meghan E; Lee, Steve S
Although narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are separable facets of psychopathy, their independent prediction of conduct problems (CP) among young children is not well known. In addition, above-average IQ was central to the original conceptualization of psychopathy, yet IQ is typically inversely associated with youth CP. We examined narcissism and CU traits as independent and prospective predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and youth self-reported antisocial behavior, as well as their moderation by IQ. At baseline, parents and teachers separately rated narcissism and CU traits in 188 6-to-10-year-old children (47.9% non-White; 69.1% male; M = 7.34 years, SD = 1.09) with (n = 99) and without (n = 89) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Approximately 2 years later, parents and teachers separately rated youth ODD and CD symptoms, and youth self-reported antisocial behavior. With control of baseline ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms, narcissism and CU traits independently and positively predicted ODD and CD symptoms at follow-up. IQ did not moderate any CP predictions from baseline narcissism or CU traits. These preliminary findings suggest that individual differences in narcissism and CU traits, even relatively early in development, are uniquely associated with emergent CP. Findings are considered within a developmental framework and the multiple pathways underlying the heterogeneity of CP are discussed.
López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Villar, Paula
Previous research has shown the relevance of psychopathic traits as predictors of severe and persistent antisocial behavior. Given that personality traits refer to developmental constructs, the main purposes of this study were to analyze the stability of psychopathic traits from childhood to adolescence, and to examine differential outcomes derived from distinctive pathways of stability and change. Data was collected in a Spanish sample of 138 children aged 6-11 at the onset of the study (T1), and 12-17 in the subsequent follow-up conducted 6 years later (T2). The stability of psychopathic traits was assessed in terms of differential continuity (rank-order), absolute stability (mean-level) and individual-level change (Reliable Change Index). Results confirmed that psychopathic traits remained moderately to highly stable from childhood to adolescence (p psychopathic traits were related with severe adolescent behavioral and psychosocial problems (ŋ² = .10-.36). These results support the usefulness of youth psychopathic personality as a developmental construct, and highlight its relevance as a predictor of long-lasting maladjustment, with relevant implications in terms of prevention and treatment.
Yoder, Jeremy B; Smith, Christopher Irwin; Pellmyr, Olle
The origins of obligate pollination mutualisms, such as the classic yucca-yucca moth association, appear to require extensive trait evolution and specialization. To understand the extent to which traits truly evolved as part of establishing the mutualistic relationship, rather than being preadaptations, we used an expanded phylogenetic estimate with improved sampling of deeply-diverged groups to perform the first formal reconstruction of trait evolution in pollinating yucca moths and their non-pollinating relatives. Our analysis demonstrates that key life history traits of yucca moths, including larval feeding in the floral ovary and the associated specialized cutting ovipositor, as well as colonization of woody monocots in xeric habitats, may have been established before the obligate mutualism with yuccas. Given these preexisting traits, novel traits in the mutualist moths are limited to the active pollination behaviors and the tentacular appendages that facilitate pollen collection and deposition. These results suggest that a highly specialized obligate mutualism was built on the foundation of preexisting interactions between early Prodoxidae and their host plants, and arose with minimal trait evolution.
Takase, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Masako; Sato, Yoko
A good fit between an individual's personality traits and job characteristics motivates employees, and thus enhances their work behavior. However, how nurses' personality traits and their environmental characteristics relate to nurses' engagement in workplace learning, which improves their competence, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate how nurses' personality traits, environmental characteristics, and workplace learning were related to nursing competence. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to 1167 Japanese registered nurses. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between nurses' personality traits, the environmental characteristics, the nurses' engagement in workplace learning, and their competence. A total of 315 nurses returned questionnaires (i.e., a return rate of 27.0%). The results showed that both the personality traits (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience) and environmental characteristics (autonomy at work and feedback given) were related to workplace learning and self-rated nursing competence. The results also showed that the relationship between extraversion (active, adventurous and ambitious dispositions of an individual) and self-rated nursing competence was moderated by environmental characteristics, and partially mediated by workplace learning. Positive personality traits, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience could enhance workplace learning and nursing competence. Moreover, environmental characteristics that allow nurses to express their personality traits have the potential to improve their learning and competence further. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Steele, Vaughn R.; Maurer, J. Michael; Bernat, Edward M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder characterized by dysfunctional affective and behavioral symptoms. In incarcerated populations, elevated psychopathic traits have been linked to increased rates of violent recidivism. Cognitive processes related to error processing have been shown to differentiate individuals with high and low psychopathic traits and may contribute to poor decision making that increases the risk of recidivism. Error processing abnormalities related to psychopathy may be due to error-monitoring (error detection) or post-error processing (error evaluation). A recent ‘bottleneck’ theory predicts deficiencies in post-error processing in individuals with high psychopathic traits. In the current study, incarcerated males (n = 93) performed a Go/NoGo response inhibition task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Classic time-domain windowed component and principal component analyses were used to measure error-monitoring (as measured with the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) and post-error processing (as measured with the error positivity [Pe]). Psychopathic traits were assessed using Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). PCL-R Total score, Factor 1 (interpersonal-affective traits), and Facet 3 (lifestyle traits) scores were positively related to post-error processes (i.e., increased Pe amplitude) but unrelated to error-monitoring processes (i.e., ERN/Ne). These results support the attentional bottleneck theory and further describe deficiencies related to elevated psychopathic traits that could be beneficial for new treatment strategies for psychopathy. PMID:26479259
Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Miller, Joshua D
The goal of the present study was to investigate whether having higher scores on maladaptive personality traits was related to rating these traits as more likable. Two studies were conducted, one with personality disorder traits (N = 219; M age = 19.4; 63.8% female; 76.6% Caucasian) and one with general personality traits (N = 198; M age = 19.5; 69.7% female; 77.3% Caucasian). In each study, participants self-rated their own personality and separately provided ratings of how "likable" they considered those personality traits. As expected, participants rated maladaptive traits more favorably if they considered themselves to possess those traits as well. Also as expected, individuals with higher Antagonism scores (including self-rated Dark Triad constructs of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) rated Antagonism and its related facets as "tolerable"-not necessarily likable, but as less unlikable than the average participant. These findings have implications for the ways that individuals with personality pathology perceive the people around them, which may in turn impact their expectations and behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miskovich, Tara A.; Pedersen, Walker S.; Belleau, Emily L.; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Larson, Christine L.
Dispositional anxiety is a stable personality trait that is a key risk factor for internalizing disorders, and understanding the neural correlates of trait anxiety may help us better understand the development of these disorders. Abnormal cortical folding is thought to reflect differences in cortical connectivity occurring during brain development. Therefore, assessing gyrification may advance understanding of cortical development and organization associated with trait anxiety. Previous liter...
Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto
The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.
Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto
The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.
Full Text Available We develop methods to compare the positions of quantitative trait loci (QTL with a set of genes selected by other methods, such as microarray experiments, from a sequenced genome. We apply our methods to QTL for addictive behavior in mouse, and a set of genes upregulated in a region of the brain associated with addictive behavior, the nucleus accumbens (NA. The association between the QTL and NA genes is not significantly stronger than expected by chance. However, chromosomes 2 and 16 do show strong associations suggesting that genes on these chromosomes might be associated with addictive behavior. The statistical methodology developed for this study can be applied to similar studies to assess the mutual information in microarray and QTL analyses.
Tsai Chi Kuo
Full Text Available Scholars who aim to solve problems with poverty and a lack of resources often focus on bottom of pyramid (BOP consumer groups. They propose that the traditional TOP (top of pyramid business strategies are not suitable for BOP populations, and that it is crucial to determine and satisfy BOP consumption demands. The purpose of this study is to find out which factors influence BOP consumption, and to explore BOP integrated products. The concepts of “national cultural traits” and sustainable product design are also used. The findings will help enterprises learn how to make profits in BOP markets (addressing economic goals, while helping the poor get out of poverty (addressing social goals. Two different areas concerning BOP consumers are used to illustrate the results.
Mønsted, Bjarke; Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim
traits. Based on phone usage patterns, earlier studies have reported surprisingly high predictability of all Big Five personality traits. We predict personality trait tertiles (low, medum, high) from a set of behavioral variables extracted from the data, and find that only extraversion can be predicted......Basic personality traits are believed to be expressed in, and predictable from, smart phone data. We investigate the extent of this predictability using data (n = 636) from the Copenhagen Network Study, which to our knowledge is the most extensive study concerning smartphone usage and personality...... significantly better (35.6%) than by a null model. Finally, we show that the higher predictabilities in the literature are likely due to overfitting on small datasets....
Ray, James V; Jones, Shayne
The extent and impact of white-collar offending has drawn the attention of many researchers. However, despite its association with both general and violent criminal behavior, the role that psychopathic traits plays in white-collar crime has been researched less. In an effort to better understand this relationship, psychopathic personality traits were assessed among a sample of 265 undergraduate students using the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised, along with attitudes supportive of environmental offending and intentions to engage in a specific form of environmental offending (toxic dumping). The current study assessed if psychopathic traits were associated with intentions to engage in toxic dumping, as well as the extent to which attitudes supportive of environmental offending would mediate this relationship. Results suggest that both attitudes and certain traits associated with psychopathy uniquely explain intention to engage in toxic dumping. However, a mediating effect was not found. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W
Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.
Sargeant, Marsha N.; Daughters, Stacey B.; Curtin, John J.; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C.W.
Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis. PMID:21668082
Full Text Available Most forms of risky behavior reach their peak during adolescence. A prominent line of research is exploring the relationship between people’s emotional self-efficacy and risk taking, but little is known about this relationship in the cognitive-deliberative domain among adolescents. The main aim of the present study consists in investigating whether trait EI (Emotional Intelligence is positively related to risk taking under predominantly cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Ninety-four adolescents played the cold version of the Columbia Card Task one month following an assessment of their trait EI. Results showed that trait EI is associated with risk taking under cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Moreover, the present research showed that trait EI is related to risk taking through the decision makers’ self-motivation. These results provide novel insights into research investigating the connections between emotional intelligence, decision science and adolescence research.
Khoynezhad, Gholamreza; Rajaei, Ali Reza; Sarvarazemy, Ahmad
Spiritual beliefs can help people find meaning of life, and can also influence their feelings, behaviors and mental health. The present research studied the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence and God) and five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. One hundred seventy eight students of Islamic Azad University in Torbat-jam were randomly selected and completed the basic religious beliefs and NEO Questionnaires. Data showed that basic religious beliefs have a significant negative correlation with neuroticism (r=-0.29),and a significant positive relationship with extraversion(r=0.28),openness(r=0.14),agreeableness (r=0.29),and conscientiousness (r=0.48). Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that basic religious beliefs can anticipate neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but they cannot anticipate the openness factor significantly. The findings of this study demonstrate that basic religious beliefs have a positive relationship with good characteristics that help people resolve the challenges of their lives and identity crisis. Thus, the results of this study support the idea of Religious Cognitive-Emotional Theory that religiosity is correlated with positive personality traits.
Raschle, Nora Maria; Menks, Willeke Martine; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Steppan, Martin; Smaragdi, Areti; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Rogers, Jack; Clanton, Roberta; Kohls, Gregor; Martinelli, Anne; Bernhard, Anka; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Freitag, Christine M; Fairchild, Graeme; De Brito, Stephane A; Stadler, Christina
Callous-unemotional traits are characterized by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others' feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. Neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits have been demonstrated in clinical samples (i.e., adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders). However, it is unknown whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with neuroanatomical correlates within normative populations without clinical levels of aggression or antisocial behavior. Here we investigated the relationship between callous-unemotional traits and gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry in a large sample of typically-developing boys and girls ( N = 189). Whole-brain multiple regression analyses controlling for site, total intracranial volume, and age were conducted in the whole sample and in boys and girls individually. Results revealed that sex and callous-unemotional traits interacted to predict gray matter volume when considering the whole sample. This interaction was driven by a significant positive correlation between callous-unemotional traits and bilateral anterior insula volume in boys, but not girls. Insula gray matter volume explained 19% of the variance in callous-unemotional traits for boys. Our results demonstrate that callous-unemotional traits are related to variations in brain structure beyond psychiatric samples. This association was observed for boys only, underlining the importance of considering sex as a factor in future research designs. Future longitudinal studies should determine whether these findings hold over childhood and adolescence, and whether the neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits are predictive of future psychiatric vulnerability. This study suggests that callous-unemotional traits have a neuroanatomical correlate within typically developing boys, but not girls. Bilateral anterior insula volume explains up to 19% of the variance in callous
Pawliczek, Christina M; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.
Christina M Pawliczek
Full Text Available Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21 and one reporting low (n=18 trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.
Pawliczek, Christina M.; Derntl, Birgit; Kellermann, Thilo; Gur, Ruben C.; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21) and one reporting low (n=18) trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression. PMID:24205247
In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits ...
Keywords. flag leaf length; yield traits; quantitative trait locus; residual heterozygous line; rice (Oryza sativa L.). ..... Effects of the QTLs located in interval RM4923-RM402 on the number of spikelets per panicle. (NSP), number of grains per panicle (NGP) and grain weight per panicle (GWP). Genotypic mean. NIL set. Trait. Z.
Feb 5, 2014 ... Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in sunflower. J. Vanitha*, N. Manivannan and ... improvement, plant breeders deal with several qualitative traits. However, the most difficult problem is the ... Characteristics of parental lines. Character. TNHSF239-68-1-1-1 (female). 17B (male).
Bergmann, Joana; Ryo, Masahiro; Prati, Daniel; Hempel, Stefan; Rillig, Matthias C
Root traits are often thought to be analogues of leaf traits along the plant economics spectrum. But evolutionary pressures have most likely shaped above- and belowground patterns differentially. Here, we aimed to identify the most important aboveground traits for explaining root traits without an a priori focus on known concepts. We measured morphological root traits in a glasshouse experiment on 141 common Central European grassland species. Using random forest algorithms, we built predictive models of six root traits from 97 aboveground morphological, ecological and life history traits. Root tissue density was best predicted by leaf dry matter content, whereas traits related to root fineness were best predicted by diaspore mass: the heavier the diaspore, the coarser the root system. Specific leaf area (SLA) was not an important predictor for any of the root traits. This study confirms the hypothesis that root traits are more than analogues of leaf traits within a plant economics spectrum. The results reveal a novel ecological pattern and highlight the power of root data to close important knowledge gaps in trait-based ecology. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George
Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04-0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.
We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…
Guilé, Jean-Marc; Huynh, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; De La Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Berthiaume, Claude; St-Georges, Marie; Labelle, Réal
Chart review is a low-cost, but highly informative, method to describe symptoms, treatment, and risk factors associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to adapt screening and intervention to clinical reality. Previous chart review studies report more aggressiveness/anger and psychotic features in youths with BPD. They show that adverse family environment and parental psychopathology constitute important factors for BPD pathology. To examine clinical characteristics of depressed BPD adolescents (12-17 years old) outpatients according to gender and to explore variables which are associated with BPD traits. A retrospective chart review using the child and adolescent version of the retrospective diagnostic instrument for borderlines was conducted on 30 depressed adolescents with BPD traits and 28 depressed patients without BPD traits. Participants who reached the retrospective diagnostic instrument for borderlines threshold for BPD were included in the BPD traits group. Comparison analyses were performed using Pearson's Chi-square test. Associated factors were determined using regression analyses. BPD traits participants were characterized by higher family problems (parental psychopathology, parent disagreement/argument, and parent-child relational problem), more aggressive symptoms, and higher rates of family intervention and hospitalization. A number of familial factors (parental history of delinquency, substance use, personality disorders, having siblings, or parental disagreement/argument in boys) were associated with BPD traits. Attention seeking and problematic functioning (does not adapt well to group activities) were also associated with BPD traits. Our study stresses the need to assess BPD traits in adolescent psychiatric evaluation, especially in the presence of aggressive behaviors, family problems and attention seeking. Our results also highlight the importance of exploring family characteristics intervention in adolescents with BPD traits.
Luciana R Podgaiski
Full Text Available Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to
Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell
Few studies have investigated the impact of the psychopathic traits on the EEG of teenagers with conduct disorder (CD). To date, there is no other research studying low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) technique using quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis in adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits. To find electrophysiological differences specifically related to the psychopathic traits. The current investigation compares the QEEG and the current source density measures between adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits and adolescents with CD without psychopathic traits. The resting EEG activity and LORETA for the EEG fast spectral bands were evaluated in 42 teenagers with CD, 25 with and 17 without psychopathic traits according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device. All adolescents were assessed using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The EEG visual inspection characteristics and the use of frequency domain quantitative analysis techniques (narrow band spectral parameters) are described. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of beta activity excess on the bilateral frontal-temporal regions and decreases of alpha band power on the left central-temporal and right frontal-central-temporal regions in the psychopathic traits group. Current source density calculated at 17.18 Hz showed an increase within fronto-temporo-striatal regions in the psychopathic relative to the nonpsychopathic traits group. These findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among teenagers with CD and psychopathic traits, which was not obvious to visual inspection. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormalities in a fronto-temporo-striatal network play a relevant role in the neurobiological basis of psychopathic behavior.
Podgaiski, Luciana R; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S; Pillar, Valério D
Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change
Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.
Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.
Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.
Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier
We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated ratings of core ASD traits (ADHD+) not accounted for by ADHD or behavioral symptoms. Further, analyses revealed greater oppositional behaviors, but not ADHD severity or anxiety, in the ADHD+ subgroup compared to those with ADHD only. These results highlight the importance of specifically examining autistic traits in children with ADHD for better characterization in studies of the underlying physiopathology and treatment. PMID:21108041
Ponge, Jean-François; Zuccon, Dario; Elias, Marianne; Pavoine, Sandrine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Théry, Marc; Guilbert, Éric
Species traits have been hypothesized by one of us (Ponge, 2013) to evolve in a correlated manner as species colonize stable, undisturbed habitats, shifting from "ancestral" to "derived" strategies. We predicted that generalism, r-selection, sexual monomorphism, and migration/gregariousness are the ancestral states (collectively called strategy A) and evolved correlatively toward specialism, K-selection, sexual dimorphism, and residence/territoriality as habitat stabilized (collectively called B strategy). We analyzed the correlated evolution of four syndromes, summarizing the covariation between 53 traits, respectively, involved in ecological specialization, r-K gradient, sexual selection, and dispersal/social behaviors in 81 species representative of Fringillidae, a bird family with available natural history information and that shows variability for all these traits. The ancestrality of strategy A was supported for three of the four syndromes, the ancestrality of generalism having a weaker support, except for the core group Carduelinae (69 species). It appeared that two different B-strategies evolved from the ancestral state A, both associated with highly predictable environments: one in poorly seasonal environments, called B1, with species living permanently in lowland tropics, with "slow pace of life" and weak sexual dimorphism, and one in highly seasonal environments, called B2, with species breeding out-of-the-tropics, migratory, with a "fast pace of life" and high sexual dimorphism.
Christoph W Korn
Full Text Available Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others' character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin (functional magnetic resonance imaging and in Beijing (behavior. We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more. Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback. Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step towards a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture.
Keuthen, Nancy J; Tung, Esther S; Altenburger, Erin M; Blais, Mark A; Pauls, David L; Flessner, Christopher A
To examine whether personality traits have predictive validity for trichotillomania (TTM) diagnosis, pulling severity and control, and hair pulling style. In study 1, logistic regression was used with TTM cases (n=54) and controls (n=25) to determine if NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) personality domains predicted TTM case vs. control classification. In study 2, hierarchical multiple regression was used with TTM cases (n=164) to determine whether NEO-FFI personality domains predicted hair pulling severity and control as well as focused and automatic pulling styles. TTM case vs. control status was predicted by NEO-FFI neuroticism. Every 1-point increase in neuroticism scores resulted in a 10% greater chance of TTM diagnosis. Higher neuroticism, higher openness, and lower agreeableness were associated with greater pulling severity. Higher neuroticism was also associated with less control over hair pulling. Higher neuroticism and lower openness were associated with greater focused pulling. None of the personality domains predicted automatic hair pulling. Personality traits, especially neuroticism, can predict TTM diagnosis, hair pulling severity and control, and the focused style of pulling. None of the personality traits predicted automatic pulling. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether personality variables predispose to TTM onset, impact disorder course, and/or result from hair pulling behavior.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations of white matter (WM connectivity suggest an important role of the uncinate fasciculus (UF, connecting anterior temporal areas including the amygdala with prefrontal-/orbitofrontal cortices, for anxiety-related processes. Volume of the UF, however, has rarely been investigated, but may be an important measure of structural connectivity underlying limbic neuronal circuits associated with anxiety. Since UF volumetric measures are newly applied measures, it is necessary to cross-validate them using further neural and behavioral indicators of anxiety. Results In a group of 32 subjects not reporting any history of psychiatric disorders, we identified a negative correlation between left UF volume and trait anxiety, a finding that is in line with previous results. On the other hand, volume of the left amygdala, which is strongly connected with the UF, was positively correlated with trait anxiety. In addition, volumes of the left UF and left amygdala were inversely associated. Conclusions The present study emphasizes the role of the left UF as candidate WM fiber bundle associated with anxiety-related processes and suggests that fiber bundle volume is a WM measure of particular interest. Moreover, these results substantiate the structural relatedness of UF and amygdala by a non-invasive imaging method. The UF-amygdala complex may be pivotal for the control of trait anxiety.
Arpaci, A H; Işik, B; Cura, N; Kaplan, B; Bozkurt, P
Maternal personality traits affect child dental behaviour and have a potential link with dental treatment methods. This study aims to evaluate which maternal personality traits affect child dental behaviour. Research was carried out upon 60 children aged between 3-12 years, who had been admitted to our clinic for tooth extraction. All children were evaluated by means of the Frankl Behavior Scale (FBS): degrees I and II represent negative behaviours, while III and IV positive behaviour. Thirty children with FBS degree III and IV were assigned to Group I and 30 children with FBS degree I and II were assigned to Group II. Children in Group I underwent tooth extraction with local anaesthesia. Children in Group II underwent tooth extraction under deep sedation. During the first visit, the mothers were tested with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to evaluate personality traits. All mothers in Group I and half the mothers in Group II filled a complete and valid test. Group I and II mothers were compared according to the test results: scores of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test were significantly higher in Group II (pchildren with negative dental behaviour and positive dental behaviour are different and affect child dental behaviour.
Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Baker, Laura A.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.
Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy. PMID:25676553
Braams, Olga; Schappin, Renske; Meekes, Joost; van Rijen, Peter C; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Braun, Kees P; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag
We studied how children with epilepsy (CWE) who are candidates for epilepsy surgery, perceive themselves with respect to overarching personality traits and whether the traits change after surgery. We explored influences of demographic and illness variables. A total of 23 CWE [mean age at inclusion 12.8 (sd 2.3); 12 girls] participated. Using the Dutch Personality Questionnaire Juniors (DPQ-J), we assessed 20 of the CWE shortly before epilepsy surgery and compared the results to those of 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, we obtained follow-up scores 6, 12 and 24 months after epilepsy surgery from the clinical group. CWE who were candidates for epilepsy surgery scored above average in inadequacy, perseverance, social inadequacy and recalcitrance, whereas healthy peers scored average. Over the two years' period after epilepsy surgery we found no changes, apart from a decrease of social inadequacy. Sporadic illness and demographic variables were related to some personality traits. However, neither post-surgical seizure freedom nor cessation of AEDs did noticeably change the self-evaluations of CWE. Asking CWE to evaluate their personality themselves may offer a shared basis for individually tailored behavior intervention in order to help them adapting to their ameliorated circumstances after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Korn, Christoph W.; Fan, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Chenbo; Han, Shihui; Heekeren, Hauke R.
Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others') character traits. Here, participants of either German or Chinese origin engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Consequently, they updated their self- and other-ratings of 80 character traits (e.g., polite, pedantic) after receiving feedback from their interaction partners. To exclude potential confounds, we obtained data from German and Chinese participants in Berlin [functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)] and in Beijing (behavior). We tested cultural influences on social conformity, positivity biases, and self-related neural activity. First, Chinese conformed more to social feedback than Germans (i.e., Chinese updated their trait ratings more). Second, regardless of culture, participants processed self- and other-related feedback in a positively biased way (i.e., they updated more toward desirable than toward undesirable feedback). Third, changes in self-related medial prefrontal cortex activity were greater in Germans than in Chinese during feedback processing. By investigating conformity, positivity biases, and self-related activity in relation to feedback obtained in a real-life interaction, we provide an essential step toward a unifying framework for understanding the diversity of human culture. PMID:24772075
Kaam, van J.T.
This dissertation deals with the development and application of methods for the detection of genes with a substantial influence on quantitative traits, so called quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in broilers. For the purpose of detection of QTLs, an experiment was initiated. A three generation
Background: The human dermatoglyphic traits present variations within and between populations and could be used for estimating the genetic distances between populations. Aim: This study aims to characterize the dermatoglyphic traits in the Tunisian population and to analyze eventual differences between men and ...
Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits associated with salt tolerance in barley at the seedling stage. ... The phenotypic traits under study included: chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv, Fv/Fm), proline and carbohydrate rates, relative water content (RWC) and dry and wet weight of ...
Abstract – Background: The human dermatoglyphic traits present variations within and between populations and could be used for estimating the genetic distances between populations. Aim: This study aims to characterize the dermatoglyphic traits in the. Tunisian population and to analyze eventual differences between ...
Katherine M Morrison
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging
Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas
in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some......; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios......Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...
Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Chris
Social and communicative deficits, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the relationship between autistic characteristics and schizophrenia-spectrum traits as well as between autistic characteristics and obsessive-compulsive traits in typically…
Ray, James V.; Frick, Paul J.; Thornton, Laura C.; Wall Myers, Tina D.; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Research has only recently begun to examine how callous-unemotional (CU) traits interact with contextual factors to predict delinquent behavior. The current study attempts to explain the well-established link between CU traits and offending by testing the potential mediating and moderating roles of 2 critical contextual factors: peer delinquency…
Background: Delinquent youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits may have a unique social-cognitive processing pattern that perpetuates their violent behavior. The current study examined the association between CU traits and the endorsement of deviant social goals during peer conflicts as well as expectancies and values regarding victim suffering…
Discussion: These findings were according to the previous studies about abnormal emotional processing and behavioral inhibition failures reported in subjects with genetic risk for violence, as well as with studies about neuropsychological performance in psychopaths. Further the MAOA genotype moderates the relationship between orbitofrontal functioning and antisocial traits of psychopathy which is a risk factor for violence.
Fetchenhauer, Detlef; Groothuis, Ton; Pradel, Julia
Humans behave altruistically in one-shot interactions under total anonymity. In search of explanations for such behavior, it has been argued that at least some individuals have a general tendency to behave altruistically independent of profitability. In fact, a stable altruistic trait would be
Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne
The objective of the study is to assess the relationships between personality traits, lifetime psychosocial functioning, and crime scene behavior. Thirty-five male offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden (1996-2001) and assigned a main diagnosis of either antisocial personality disorder (APD) or autism spectrum disorder…
A diallel cross involving five Virginian tobacco genotypes were evaluated to determine the genetic behavior of tobacco genotypes across the environments. The experimental material was planted under irrigated as well as drought stress conditions. The data collected on yield and related traits revealed highly significant ...
McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; McCracken, James T.; Dang, Jeffery; Clark, Shaunna; Nelson, Stanley F.; Smalley, Susan L.
The pediatric bipolar disorder profile of the Child Behavior checklist is used to differentiate patterns of comorbidity and to search for quantitative trait loci in multiple affected ADHD sibling pairs. The CBCL-PBD profiling identified 8 percent of individuals with severe psychopathology and increased rates of oppositional defiant, conduct and…
McCauley, Katherine Long; Shadur, Julia Madeline; Hoffman, Elana Michelle; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is common and results in many negative consequences. The present study investigated longitudinal predictors of adolescents' likelihood of engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse. Parental knowledge, or the extent to which parents know about their children's activities, whereabouts, and friendships, is a robust predictor of youth risk behavior, including risky sexual behavior. However, parenting practices are typically less potent as predictors of subsequent behavior among youth with high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We conducted three logistic regression models, each of which examined parental knowledge in a different way (through child report, parent report, and a discrepancy score), allowing us to examine parental knowledge, CU traits, and their interaction as predictors of adolescents' subsequent engagement in sex without a condom. Results indicated that adolescents who perceived their parents to possess greater knowledge were less likely to engage in unprotected sex. Higher parent report of parental knowledge was also related to decreased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with high levels of CU traits. In addition, greater discrepancy between parent and adolescent reports of parental knowledge was related to increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex, but only for adolescents with low levels of CU traits. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and adolescent perceptions of parental knowledge and have important implications for prevention and intervention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pérez-Harguindeguy, N.; Díaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Jaureguiberry, P.; Poorter, L.; Steege, ter H.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.
Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait
Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Diaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Lavorel, S.; Poorter, H.; Jaureguiberry, P.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Gurvich, D.E.; Urcelay, C.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Reich, P.B.; Poorter, L.; Wright, I.J.; Ray, P.; Enrico, L.; Pausas, J.G.; de Vos, A.C.; Buchmann, N.; Funes, G.; Quetier, F.; Hodgson, J.G.; Thompson, K.; Morgan, H.D.; ter Steege, H.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Sack, L.; Blonder, B.; Poschlod, P.; Vaieretti, M.V.; Conti, G.; Staver, A.C.; Aquino, S.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.
Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait
Vries, de A.G.
Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations
Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is
David C Geary
Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.
Geary, David C
Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species. I provide a review of these dynamics and illustrate associated vulnerabilities in nonhuman species. The age- and sex-specific vulnerability of such traits is then illustrated for stressor-related disruptions of boys' and girls' physical growth and play behavior, as well as for aspects of boys' and girls' and men's and women's personality, language, and spatial abilities. There is much that remains to be determined, but enough is now known to reframe trait sensitivity in ways that will allow scientists and practitioners to better identify and understand vulnerable human traits, and eventually ameliorate or prevent their expression. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.
Danes Jaya Negara
Full Text Available Prior research has presented the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between the impulsive buying trait and consumers’ buying behaviors. In this article the authors show that consumer tendency to buy something spontaneous, unreflectively and immediately can be perceived as a factor which describes buying impulsiveness. This article also shows conceptual and empirical evidence that there is some support for the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulse buying behaviors. Significance occurs when consumers believe that act on impulse is suitable. The result suggests that consumers’ normative evaluation can moderate the link between the trait and behavioral aspects of impulse buying.
Padilha, Alessandro Haiduck; Sattler, Aroni; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; McManus, Concepta Margaret
Heritability and genetic correlations for honey (HP) and propolis production (PP), hygienic behavior (HB), syrup-collection rate (SCR) and percentage of mites on adult bees (PMAB) of a population of Africanized honeybees were estimated. Data from 110 queen bees over three generations were evaluated. Single and multi-trait models were analyzed by Bayesian Inference using MTGSAM. The localization of the hive was significant for SCR and HB and highly significant for PP. Season-year was highly significant only for SCR. The number of frames with bees was significant for HP and PP, including SCR. The heritability estimates were 0.16 for HP, 0.23 for SCR, 0.52 for HB, 0.66 for PP, and 0.13 for PMAB. The genetic correlations were positive among productive traits (PP, HP and SCR) and negative between productive traits and HB, except between PP and HB. Genetic correlations between PMAB and other traits, in general, were negative, except with PP. The study permitted to identify honeybees for improved propolis and honey production. Hygienic behavior may be improved as a consequence of selecting for improved propolis production. The rate of syrup consumption and propolis production may be included in a selection index to enhance honeybee traits. PMID:23885203
Full Text Available The display of the reproductive behavior in most noctuid Lepidoptera follows a diel periodicity and is limited to a precise period of either the day or the night. These behavioral traits and the sex pheromone chemistry can be species specific and thus might be linked to the phylogeny. The objective of this study was to test the relationship of these reproductive traits with phylogeny. The study was undertaken using eight closely related species of noctuid stem borers, which are easy to rear under artificial conditions, namely, Busseola fusca, B. nairobica, B . sp. nr. segeta, Manga melanodonta, M . sp. nr. nubifera, Pirateolea piscator, Sesamia calamistis , and S. nonagrioides . For each species, the adult emergence period, the mating time, and the oviposition period were estimated, referred as biological traits. The components of the sex pheromones emitted by the females of each species were also analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the biological traits measured, only those linked to the oviposition pattern (timing and egg loads per night were significantly correlated with the phylogeny of these species. For the sex pheromone components, among the 13 components identified in all species, only four, namely, Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-TDA, Z11-TDA, E11-TDA, and Z11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-HDA, showed the highest significant correlations with the phylogeny. These results suggest that among the different reproductive traits evaluated, only few are phylogenetically constrained. Their involvement in the reinforcement of ecological speciation in noctuid stem borers is discussed.
Gerson, J.; Plagnol, A.; Corr, P. J.
The purpose of the study was to explore whether personality traits moderate the association between social comparison on Facebook and subjective well-being, measured as both life satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being. Data were collected via an online questionnaire which measured Facebook use, social comparison behavior and personality traits for 337 respondents. The results showed positive associations between Facebook intensity and both measures of subjective well-being, and negative assoc...
Baardewijk, Joost van
The aim of this thesis was to enhance our understanding of the concept of psychopathic traits in preadolescent children. It did so by investigating a new assessment tool providing a previously unexplored perspective on psychopathic traits in preadolescent children: that of the child itself. This is important because children are in the unique position to report on feelings, attitudes and behaviors across a range of situations, including the home, the classroom and the playground. Furthermore,...
Floeter, Sergio R; Bender, Mariana G; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Cowman, Peter F
Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a
Christopher Fowler, J; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison; Madan, Alok; Clapp, Joshua; Allen, Jon G; Christopher Frueh, B; Oldham, John M
This study compared a dimensional, trait domain approach to characterizing personality pathology with the traditional polythetic approach with respect to their associations with interpersonal functioning and personality traits from the five factor model. Psychiatric inpatients (N=1476) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders. Dimensional representations of trait domains were derived from reorganizing DSM-IV criteria into personality trait domains from DSM-5 Alternative Model. Dimensional scores and personality disorder (PD) total criterion scores served as independent variables in predicting interpersonal profile clusters, as well as extraversion, agreeableness conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness from the five factor model traits. Trait domain scores and PD criteria totals were significantly correlated with submissive interpersonal style yet none proved significant in regression analyses. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with a normative interpersonal style. Combined trait domain of detachment and avoidant PD total criteria predicted a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style. The trait domain of detachment was negatively associated with five factor traits of extroversion, whereas borderline PD total criteria were negatively associated with conscientiousness. Avoidant and borderline PD total criteria were positively associated with neuroticism. The cross-cutting dimensional approach provided useful information in predicting a hostile/withdrawn interpersonal style as well as extroversion. Importantly, PD criterion scores and dimensional trait scores combined to predict this interpersonal style providing support to the alternative model of personality diagnosis in DSM-5. Clinicians are encouraged to assess dimensions of personality traits as these are related to interpersonal problems frequently encountered in psychiatric settings. While potentially useful, the dimensional
Woodman, Richard W.; Schoenfeldt, Lyle F.
An interactionist model of creative behavior is proposed, combining elements of the personality, cognitive, and social psychology perspectives on creativity. The model considers the interplay of factors including antecedent conditions, creative behavior, consequences, the individual, cognitive style/ability, personality traits, contextual…
Goldstein, R.M.; Meador, M.R.
To examine the relations between fish community function and stream size, we classified 429 lotic freshwater fish species based on multiple categories within six species traits: (1) substrate preference, (2) geomorphic preference, (3) trophic ecology, (4) locomotion morphology, (5) reproductive strategy, and (6) stream size preference. Stream size categories included small streams, small, medium, and large rivers, and no size preference. The frequencies of each species trait category were determined for each stream size category based on life history information from the literature. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of covarying groups of species trait categories. One cluster (RUN) included the traits of planktivore and herbivore feeding ecology, migratory reproductive behavior and broadcast spawning, preferences for main-channel habitats, and a lack of preferences for substrate type. The frequencies of classifications for the RUN cluster varied significantly across stream size categories (P = 0.009), being greater for large rivers than for small streams and rivers. Another cluster (RIFFLE) included the traits of invertivore feeding ecology, simple nester reproductive behavior, a preference for riffles, and a preference for bedrock, boulder, and cobble-rubble substrate. No significant differences in the frequency of classifications among stream size categories were detected for the RIFFLE cluster (P = 0.328). Our results suggest that fish community function is structured by large-scale differences in habitat and is different for large rivers than for small streams and rivers. Our findings support theoretical predictions of variation in species traits among stream reaches based on ecological frameworks such as landscape filters, habitat templates, and the river continuum concept. We believe that the species trait classifications presented here provide an opportunity for further examination of fish species' relations to physical, chemical, and biological factors
Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F. H.; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Gardarsdottir, Helga
Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality traits. Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed
Wouters, Hans; Amin, Darya F H; Taxis, Katja; Heerdink, Eibert R; Egberts, Toine; Gardarsdottir, Helga
Treatment with antidepressants is often compromised by substantial nonadherence. To understand nonadherence, specific medication-related behaviors and beliefs have been studied, but less is known about broader and temporally stable personality "traits." Furthermore, adherence has often been assessed
Wang, H.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.; Peng, C.; Yang, Y.
A widely accepted core set of leaf traits describes key aspects of plant function including the coupling among carbon, nitrogen and water cycles at the leaf, plant and ecosystem scales. Our current research focuses on two questions: (1) what dimensions of correlated variation among traits apply across all vascular plants irrespective of environment; (2) how, and to what extent, can variations in community mean values of leaf traits be predicted along environmental gradients? Based on a large quantitative trait data set covering the major environmental gradients across China, we are tackling these questions via two complementary approaches: multivariate analysis of trait-trait, trait-site, and trait-environment relationships, and the development of conceptual models and testable hypotheses for the dependencies of each trait on other traits and/or specific environmental predictors. Preliminary multivariate analyses suggest the existence of at least two independent axes of variation in leaf traits, and show robust relationships between trait syndromes and growing-season climate variables. A minimal conceptual model then considers nitrogen per unit leaf area (Narea) as a function of leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and carboxylation capacity (Vcmax); LMA as a function of irradiance, temperature and water and/or nutrient stress; Vcmax as a function of irradiance, temperature and the long-term ci:ca ratio (indexed by δ13C); and the ci:ca ratio as a function of vapour pressure deficit, temperature and atmospheric pressure. Each of these dependencies has support from observations, pointing the way towards a comprehensive set of equations to predict community-mean values of core traits in next-generation terrestrial ecosystem models.
McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA
Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.
The characteristics and frequency of micro-mutations induced in quantitative traits by radiation treatment and the extent of heterozygotic effects of different recessive chlorophyll-mutant-genes on quantitative trait has been presented. Mutagenic treatments increased the variance for quantitative traits in all cases although the magnitude of increase varied depending on the treatment and the selection procedure adopted. The overall superiority of the chlorophyll-mutant heterozygotes over the corresponding wild homozygotes, as noted in consecutive two seasons, was not observed when these were grown at a high level of nitrogen fertiliser. (author)
Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.
Schoenleber, Michelle; Sippel, Lauren M; Jakupcak, Matthew; Tull, Matthew T
Given the theoretical and empirical associations among posttraumatic stress, shame, and interpersonal aggression, this study examined whether trait shame accounts for the associations between posttraumatic stress and aggressive behavior in a sample of 103 men with a history of interpersonal trauma. Results indicated that trait shame accounted for the associations of posttraumatic stress with the variety of both physically and psychologically aggressive behavior, as well as with the frequency of physical aggression. This study also examined trait guilt, given its conceptual relationship to both shame and posttraumatic stress; unlike trait shame, trait guilt did not account for the association between posttraumatic stress and the variety of physically aggressive acts. Additionally, although trait guilt reduced the association between posttraumatic stress and the frequency of physical aggression, the indirect path including guilt was nonsignificant. Taken together, the present study supports existing theories suggesting that shame, but not guilt, may contribute to aggressive behavior, especially among individuals with histories of traumatic exposure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mill, Aire; Kööts-Ausmees, Liisi; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu
The main aim of the current study was to examine the role of co-occurring emotions and their interactive effects with the Big Five personality traits in anger expression. Everyday anger expression (“anger-in” and “anger-out” behavior) was studied with the experience-sampling method in a group of 110 participants for 14 consecutive days on 7 random occasions per day. Our results showed that the simultaneously co-occurring emotions that buffer against anger expression are sadness, surprise, disgust, disappointment, and irritation for anger-in behavior, and fear, sadness and disappointment for anger-out reactions. While previous studies have shown that differentiating one's current affect into discrete emotion categories buffers against anger expression (Pond et al., 2012), our study further demonstrated the existence of specific interactive effects between the experience of momentary emotions and personality traits that lead to higher levels of either suppression or expression of anger behavior (or both). For example, the interaction between the trait Openness and co-occurring surprise, in predicting anger-in behavior, indicates that less open people hold their anger back more, and more open people use less anger-in behavior. Co-occurring disgust increases anger-out reactions in people low in Conscientiousness, but decreases anger-out reactions in people high in Conscientiousness. People high in Neuroticism are less likely to engage in anger-in behavior when experiencing disgust, surprise, or irritation alongside anger, but show more anger out in the case of co-occurring contempt. The results of the current study help to further clarify the interactions between the basic personality traits and the experience of momentary co-occurring emotions in determining anger behavior. PMID:29479333
Garde-Perik, E. van de; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Eggen, B.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.
This article presents an experimental study of privacy-related attitudes and behaviors regarding a music recommender service based on two types of user modeling: personality traits and musical preferences. Contrary to prior expectations and attitudes reported by participants, personality traits are
Jackson, Nora Mary; Center, David B.
A study involving 84 participants (ages 11-18) who were suspended from school for disciplinary reasons found that participants who scored low on extraversion and neuroticism traits identified in Eysenck's theory of personality scored significantly lower on self-reported behavior problems than those scoring high on the two traits. (Contains…
Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.
Amygdalus communis L.) and more positive traits than the standard varieties that were cultivated, were identified. Over the period of three years, phenological and pomological research was conducted in situ, along with the observation of vegetative ...
Voesenek, Laurentius A C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074850849; Bailey-Serres, Julia
Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial
Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavoreli, S.; Prentice, I.C.; Leadly, P.; Bonisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P.B.; Wright, I.J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Violekk, C.; Harisson, S.P.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Ackerly, D.D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T.R.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C.C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D.E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chamber, J.Q.; Chapin, F.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Dobrin, B.H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W.F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G.T.; Fyllas, N.M.; Gallagher, R.V.; Green, W.A.; Gutierrez, A.G.; Hicler, T.; Higgins, S.I.; Hodgson, J.G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C.A.; Kerkhoff, A.J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knop, J.M.H.; Kramer, K..; Kuhn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laghlin, D.; Lee, T.D.; Leishman, W.M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S.L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Mak, S.; Mahecha, M.D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B.E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A.T.; Muller, S.C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, U.; Nollert, S.; Onoda, W.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W.A.; Patino, S.; Pala, S.; Pausas, J.G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O.L.; Pilar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Saldago-Negret, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinsky, E.; Soussana, J.-F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; Wright, S.J.; Ygeul, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A.E.; Wirth, C.
Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from
Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, C.; Leadley, P.; Boenisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Ackerly, D. D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T. R.; Baldocchi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C. C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D. E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Chapin, F. S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Craine, J. M.; Dobrin, B. H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W. F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G. T.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gallagher, R. V.; Green, W. A.; Gutierrez, A. G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hodgson, J. G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C. A.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Kramer, K.; Kuehn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T. D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M. D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B. E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A. T.; Mueller, S. C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ue.; Noellert, S.; Nueske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez, J.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W. A.; Patino, S.; Paula, S.; Pausas, J. G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Pillar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poorter, L.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Salgado-Negre, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinski, E.; Soussana, J. -F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; White, S.; Wright, S. J.; Yguel, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A. E.; Wirth, C.
Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from
Sarah R. Moore
Full Text Available Neurobehavioral models of personality suggest that the salience assigned to particular classes of stimuli vary as a function of traits that reflect both the activity of neurobiological encoding and relevant social experience. In turn, this joint influence modulates the extent that salience influences attentional processes, and hence learning about and responding to those stimuli. Applying this model to the domain of social valuation, we assessed the differential effects on attentional guidance by affiliative cues of (i a higher-order temperament trait (Social Closeness, and (ii attachment style in a sample of 57 women. Attention to affiliative pictures paired with either incentive or neutral pictures was assessed using camera eye-tracking. Trait social closeness and attachment avoidance interacted to modulate fixation frequency on affiliative but not on incentive pictures, suggesting that both traits influence the salience assigned to affiliative cues specifically.
In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phe- notypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits ...
Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.
Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania
The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...
Dijksterhuis, A; Spears, R; Postmes, T; Stapel, DA; Koomen, W; van Knippenberg, A; Scheepers, D
Research on automatic behavior demonstrates the ability of stereotypes to elicit stereotype-consistent behavior. Social judgment research proposes that whereas traits and stereotypes elicit assimilation, priming of exemplars can elicit judgmental contrast by evoking social comparisons. This research
Just, A; Wellmann, R; Bennewitz, J
Breeding traits are usually combined in a total merit index according to their economic weights to maximize genetic gain based on economic merit. However, this maximization may not always be the aim of the selection decisions by farm managers. A discrete choice experiment was used to evaluate the importance of traits in terms of the selection decisions of farm managers operating in different environments. Six trait complexes, the semen price, the interactions between these traits, and significant characteristics of the farms were included in a conditional logit model to estimate relative economic weights and the marginal willingness to pay for all traits. Milk value, conformation/udder, and fitness were the most important traits for the farmers, and significant interactions indicated that fitness is of greater importance on organically managed farms than on conventional farms. Farm managers with an advanced education placed more weight on the milk value trait than farm managers without advanced education. On conventional farms, managers weighted the traits milk value and conformation/udder highly. The conformation/udder and fitness trait complexes were important on organic farms. A new trait called perinatal sucking behavior of newborn calves should be included in the total merit index. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In response to the basic concept of this session - 'the optimality principle proposes that organisms adjust to environmental variations so as to maximize measures that impinge on fitness, and are thereby subject to natural selection' - we propose that observable characteristics of individual plant organisms - plant traits - are the product of optimality principles and thus provide a first level to validate implementations of optimality principles in vegetation models. On the long term, the application of optimality principles may thus lead to a shift of paradigm in vegetation modeling, where plant traits were traditionally used for model parameterization, but in the future may provide the first step in a hierarchical cascade of model validation at multiple scales. However, so far the value of plant traits is obscured by two roadblocks: ecological research produces a tremendous amount of trait data, but the diversity in topics covered and the ways in which studies are carried out result in large numbers of small, idiosyncratic data sets using heterogeneous terminologies. Such heterogeneity can be attributed, in part, to a lack of standards for acquiring, organizing and describing data. We here present recent progress in consolidating the plant trait data domain by standardized terminology (TOP thesaurus of plant characteristics: top-thesaurus.org) and data integration (TRY database: try-db.org) - and we report current limits. Nevertheless, we suggest that consolidated trait data are a valuable tool for optimality driven vegetation model development and validation.
Sun, Lidan; Wu, Rongling
Despite increasing emphasis on the genetic study of quantitative traits, we are still far from being able to chart a clear picture of their genetic architecture, given an inherent complexity involved in trait formation. A competing theory for studying such complex traits has emerged by viewing their phenotypic formation as a "system" in which a high-dimensional group of interconnected components act and interact across different levels of biological organization from molecules through cells to whole organisms. This system is initiated by a machinery of DNA sequences that regulate a cascade of biochemical pathways to synthesize endophenotypes and further assemble these endophenotypes toward the end-point phenotype in virtue of various developmental changes. This review focuses on a conceptual framework for genetic mapping of complex traits by which to delineate the underlying components, interactions and mechanisms that govern the system according to biological principles and understand how these components function synergistically under the control of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to comprise a unified whole. This framework is built by a system of differential equations that quantifies how alterations of different components lead to the global change of trait development and function, and provides a quantitative and testable platform for assessing the multiscale interplay between QTLs and development. The method will enable geneticists to shed light on the genetic complexity of any biological system and predict, alter or engineer its physiological and pathological states.
Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne
Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value.
Full Text Available Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.
LeBreton, James M; Baysinger, Michael; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J
This paper reports the relative contributions of several facets of subclinical psychopathy (i.e., callous affect, erratic lifestyle, interpersonal manipulation), subclinical narcissism (i.e., entitlement, exploitation), and trait aggression (i.e., anger) to the prediction of four enduring attitudes towards women and sexual assault (i.e., hostility towards women, negative attitudes regarding women, sexual dominance, impersonal sex) and a behavioral indicator of an impersonal sexual behavior (i.e., number of one-night stands). Survey data were collected from 470 single men living in the Detroit Metropolitan area. The importance of personality traits varied as a function of the outcome with anger most predictive of hostility toward women; erratic lifestyle most predictive of impersonal sexual attitudes and behavior, and entitlement most predictive of sexual dominance and negative attitudes toward women. These outcome-specific findings are interpreted and directions for future research are discussed.
Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study examines how trait information inferred from behaviors is associated with person names. In linguistic discourses, person names were associated with descriptions of either positive or negative behaviors. In a subsequent explicit evaluation task, the previously described person names were presented in isolation, and the participants were asked to judge the emotional valence of these names. We found that the names associated with positive descriptions elicited a larger positivity in the ERP than the names associated with negative descriptions. The results indicate that the emotional valence of person names attached to person perception can be dynamically influenced by short descriptions of the target person, probably due to trait inference based on the provided behavioral descriptions.
Höglund, Erik; Silva, Patricia Isabel da Mota E.; Vindas, Marco A.
Individual variation in the ability to modify previously learned behavior is an important dimension of trait correlations referred to as coping styles, behavioral syndromes or personality. These trait clusters have been shaped by natural selection, and underlying control mechanisms are often cons...
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.
Background: The relationship between parenting and the development of antisocial behavior in children is well established. However, evidence for associations between dimensions of parenting and callous-unemotional (CU) traits is mixed. As CU traits appear critical to understanding a subgroup of youth with antisocial behavior, more research…
Blader, Joseph C; Pliszka, Steven R; Kafantaris, Vivian; Foley, Carmel A; Crowell, Judith A; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Sauder, Colin L; Margulies, David M; Sinha, Christa; Sverd, Jeffrey; Matthews, Thomas L; Bailey, Brigitte Y; Daviss, W Burleson
Stimulant treatment improves impulse control among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Decreased aggression often accompanies stimulant pharmacotherapy, suggesting that impulsiveness is integral to aggressive behavior in these children. However, children with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits and proactive aggression may benefit less from ADHD pharmacotherapy, because their aggressive behavior seems more purposeful and deliberate. This study's objective was to determine whether pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression affect treatment outcomes among aggressive children with ADHD receiving stimulant monotherapy. We implemented a stimulant optimization protocol with 160 children 6 to 13 years of age (mean [SD] age of 9.31 [2.02] years; 78.75% male) with ADHD, oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, and significant aggressive behavior. Family-focused behavioral intervention was provided concurrently. The primary outcome was the Retrospective Modified Overt Aggression Scale. The Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Aggression Scale, also completed by parents, measured CU traits and proactive aggression, respectively. Analyses examined moderating effects of CU traits and proactive aggression on outcomes. In all, 82 children (51%) experienced remission of aggressive behavior. Neither CU traits nor proactive aggression predicted remission (CU traits: odds ratio [OR] = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.11; proactive aggression, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.86-1.29). Children whose overall aggression remitted showed decreases in CU traits (effect size = -0.379, 95% CI = -0.60 to -0.16) and proactive aggression (effect size = -0.463, 95% CI = -0.69 to -0.23). Findings suggest that pretreatment CU traits and proactive aggression do not forecast worse outcomes for aggressive children with ADHD receiving optimized stimulant pharmacotherapy. With such treatment, CU traits and proactive aggression may decline alongside other behavioral improvements