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Sample records for diffusion zum methantransport

  1. The contribution of diffusion to methane transport in deep underground gas deposits; Der Beitrag der Diffusion zum Methantransport in tiefliegenden Gas-Lagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, W. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Optimisation of gas production necessitates accurate knowledge of gas transport mechanisms. In view of the extreme temperatures, pressures, and permeability conditions of underground gas deposits, linear transfer of existing knowledge will be inappropriate. The author therefore uses a simple capillary bundle model with exemplary pressures, temperatures and permeabilities in order to assess the contribution of transport by diffusion. The diffusion coefficients, which are required for this and so far could not be measured under pressure, were determined by a new experimental method whose results will permit a better interpretation of the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The velocity of methane inflow and outflow in the water-filled pore space may provide knowledge on problems of gas storage in the pore space. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer den Foerderprozess und insbesondere seine Optimierung ist eine genaue Kenntnis der Transportmechanismen wesentlich. Unter den drastischen Bedingungen fuer Temperatur, Druck und Permeabilitaet tiefliegender Gas-Lagerstaetten mag die Uebertragung der bisherigen Vorstellungen ueber den Transport in der Lagerstaette zu einer unvollstaendigen Beschreibung fuehren. Unter Anwendung eines einfachen Kapillarbuendelmodells wird mit Beispielen fuer Druck, Temperatur und Permeabilitaet der moegliche Beitrag des Transports durch Diffusion abgeschaetzt. Zur Bestimmung der hierfuer notwendigen und bisher unter Druckbeaufschlagung nicht gemessenen Diffusionskoeffizienten wurde eine neue experimentelle Methode angewandt, deren Ergebnisse eine weiterfuehrende Interpretation der Konzentrationsabhaengigkeit des Diffusionskoeffizienten ermoeglichen. Auch fuer Fragestellungen der Speicherung von Gas im Porenraum kann die Geschwindigkeit der Ein- und Ausloesung von Methan im wasserhaltigen Porenraum von Interesse sein. (orig.)

  2. Handbuch der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf

    CERN Document Server

    Bennewitz, Hedda; Rothland, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Die große Bedeutung, die dem Lehrerberuf in der Öffentlichkeit, aber auch in den Bildungswissenschaften für die Qualität von Schule und Unterricht zugemessen wird, stand bislang in deutlichem Kontrast zu Umfang und Intensität der Forschung, die auf den Lehrerberuf gerichtet war. Diese immer wieder beklagte Situation hat sich jedoch gewandelt. Seit etwa einem Jahrzehnt ist eine deutliche Intensivierung und allmähliche Verstetigung der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf zu beobachten. Mit dem vorliegenden Handbuch wird erstmalig eine repräsentative Übersicht über den aktuellen Stand der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf vermittelt. Unter intensiver Berücksichtigung der internationalen Fachdiskussion informieren die 45 Beiträge des Handbuchs über Forschung zu folgenden Themenfeldern: Geschichte des Lehrerberufs, Charakteristika und Rahmenbedingungen des Lehrerberufs, Konzepte der Forschung zum Lehrerberuf, Berufsbiographien von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern, Lehrerbildung, Kognitionen, Emotionen und Kompetenzen von Lehrern...

  3. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  4. RANK und RANKL - Vom Knochen zum Mammakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigl V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RANK („Receptor Activator of NF-κB“ und sein Ligand RANKL sind Schlüsselmoleküle im Knochenmetabolismus und spielen eine essenzielle Rolle in der Entstehung von pathologischen Knochenveränderungen. Die Deregulation des RANK/RANKL-Systems ist zum Beispiel ein Hauptgrund für das Auftreten von postmenopausaler Osteoporose bei Frauen. Eine weitere wesentliche Funktion von RANK und RANKL liegt in der Entwicklung von milchsekretierenden Drüsen während der Schwangerschaft. Dabei regulieren Sexualhormone, wie zum Beispiel Progesteron, die Expression von RANKL und induzieren dadurch die Proliferation von epithelialen Zellen der Brust. Seit Längerem war schon bekannt, dass RANK und RANKL in der Metastasenbildung von Brustkrebszellen im Knochengewebe beteiligt sind. Wir konnten nun das RANK/RANKLSystem auch als essenziellen Mechanismus in der Entstehung von hormonellem Brustkrebs identifizieren. In diesem Beitrag werden wir daher den neuesten Erkenntnissen besondere Aufmerksamkeit schenken und diese kritisch in Bezug auf Brustkrebsentwicklung betrachten.

  5. Verfahren zum Herstellen einer Beschichtung eines Substrats

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Martin; Töpper, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The method involves applying coating material (7) on surface (2) of recess (3) formed in substrate (1). A liquid auxiliary agent (6) is applied on substrate surface, such that recess is filled with auxiliary agent. The coating material is subsequently applied to auxiliary agent on substrate. A coating material portion in auxiliary agent is transported by coating material diffusion. The agent is subsequently separated from coating material, such that coating material on substrate surface is le...

  6. Kurz zum Klima: Zu viel Salz verdirbt den Boden

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Markus; Lippelt, Jana; Frank, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Der zunehmende Einsatz von Anlagen zur Bewässerung sowie mangelnde Erfahrungswerte und Unkenntnis über den richtigen Einsatz der künstlichen Bewässerung haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer massiven Zunahme der Versalzung des Bodens geführt. Durch diese Bodenversalzung werden weite Flächen für die Landwirtschaft unbrauchbar. Sie sind nur durch hohen Aufwand und Kosten wieder renaturierbar. Der Beitrag in der Reihe »Kurz zum Klima« gibt einen Überblick über die Versalzung in Anbaugebiet...

  7. Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Neeme Järvi / Joachim Salau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salau, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Auszüge aus Das Märchen von der steinernen Blume. Gennadij Roshdestwenskij (Sprecher), Philharmonia Chorus, Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9095

  8. [Karin Hallas. Das Tallinner Mietshaus. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Karin Hallas. Das Tallinner Mietshaus. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil. In: Architektur und bildende Kunst im Baltikum um 1900. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Wien: Lang 1999. S. 173-192.

  9. Das migrationspolitische Feld der Schweiz: eine politikwissenschaftliche Analyse der Vernehmlassung zum Arbenzbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnig, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Der Bericht, vom Bundesamt für Flüchtlinge (BFF) in Auftrag gegeben, stellt eine politikwissenschaftliche Analyse der Vernehmlassung zum Bericht Arbenz vom Mai 1995 dar, welche parallel zur Auswertung durch das BFF selbst unternommen wurde. Er hat zum Ziel, die zentralen Konflikt- und Konsensfelder in der gegenwärtigen migrationspolitischen Auseinandersetzung der Schweiz herauszuarbeiten. Die wichtigsten Resultate der Analyse sind die folgenden: Die Internationale Flüchtlingspolitik und die A...

  10. KidSmart - Medienkompetent zum Schulübergang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Deutschland zeichnet sich bereits vor Schuleintritt im Bereich der literarischen und medialen Sozialisation eine Bildungsbenachteiligung ab. Vor allem Kinder aus bildungsfernen Milieus und mit Migrationshintergrund sind hiervon betroffen (vgl. Becker/Lauterbach 2004; Diefenbach 2007; Rabe-Kleberg 2010. An dieser Einsicht knüpft das Forschungs- und Interventionsprojekt KidSmart – Medienkompetent zum Schulübergang an. Medienpädagogische Arbeit steht hier im Kontext der Vorbereitung auf den Schulübergang. Durch kreative Medienarbeit soll ein Gegengewicht zur eher passiven Mediennutzung geschaffen werden. Ziel ist es Bildungsunterschiede von Kindern bereits vor Schulbeginn auszugleichen.Already before starting school educational disadvantages in the part of reading and media socialization can be identified within Germany. Generally affected are children of less educated families and children with migration background (Becker/Lauterbach 2004; Diefenbach 2007; Rabe-Kleberg 2010. Therefore, an exceptional intervention and research project KidSmart – media competence by entering school was initiated in the area of early childhood education. Within this project media-pedagogical work is corresponding with preparation of entering school. The intention is to create a counterbalance to passive media use by creative media work. The scope of the project is to fight against early educational disadvantages.

  11. Landeskundeunterricht zum Nationalsozialismus. Ein Praxisbericht aus der Mongolei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Heimrath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In einer Umfrage bei den fortgeschrittenen Studierenden an der Deutschen Abteilung der Nationaluniversität der Mo n- golei wurde festgestellt, dass der Name Hitler sehr bekannt und mit e iner positiven Konnotation verbunden ist. Dagegen gab es keine Kenntnisse über die Zeit des Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland. Mehrere weitere Beobachtungen lassen darüber hinaus in der Mongolei und in anderen Ländern eine bestimmte Hitler - Verehrung erken nen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde im Jahr 2012 an der Deutschen Abteilung der Nationaluniversität der Mongolei eine Unterricht s- sequenz zum Thema Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland durchgeführt. Die wichtigsten Themen sind dabei die Persönlichkeit des Dikt ators, der Werdegang der NSDAP während der Weimarer Republik und das Schicksal der jüdischen Bevölkerung in Deutschland vor und insbesondere nach der Machtergreifung Hitlers. Die Sequenz dient der Relativierung des Hitler - Bildes im Bewusstsein der Studiere nden und der Vermittlung von Kenntnissen zur Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts als Grundlage einer Entwicklung, die zu zwei deutschen Staaten und ihrer späteren Vereinigung führte. Die Sequenz ist auf vergleichbare Unterrichtssituationen in anderen Ländern übertragbar.

  12. Teilchen, Felder, Quanten von der Quantenmechanik zum Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik

    CERN Document Server

    Ecker, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dieses Buch bietet Ihnen eine Einführung in den aktuellen Stand unseres Wissens über die Struktur der Materie. Gerhard Ecker beschreibt verständlich die Entwicklung der modernen Physik vom Beginn des Quantenzeital­ters bis zum Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik, der umfassenden Theorie der fundamentalen Wechselwir­kungen des Mikrokosmos. Dabei wird der Schwerpunkt auf die wichtigsten Entdeckungen und Entwicklungen, beispielsweise der Quantenfeldtheorie, der Eichtheorien und die Zukunft der Teilchenphysik, gelegt. Besonders hebt der Autor auch das Wechselspiel zwischen Theorie und Experiment hervor, die uns helfen, die tiefsten Rätsel der Natur zu ergründen. Teilchen, Felder, Quanten ist für alle geschrieben, die Freude an der Physik haben. Es bietet Abitu­rienten und Studierenden der Physik in den ersten Semestern einen Ansporn, die Physik tiefer zu verstehen. Lehrer und andere an der Phy­sik Interessierte werden darin nützliche Einblicke in die Welt der Teilchenphysik finden. Für Studierende in ...

  13. Zum Entwicklungsstand und zu Entwicklungsproblemen unserer Jugend - 1987 : Forschungsergebnisse - Beobachtungen - Überlegungen in 10 Thesen

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Walter

    1987-01-01

    Dieser Bericht gibt in zehn Thesen einen Überblick über Forschungsergebnisse, Beobachtungen und Überlegungen zum Entwicklungsstand der DDR-Jugend im Jahre 1987. Diese sei "in ihrer großen Mehrheit durch ein hohes Niveau ihrer sozialistischen Persönlichkeitsentwicklung charakterisiert". Kritisiert wird die Rolle der FDJ, die die Interessenvertretung der Jugend nicht ausreichend wahrnehme. Weiterhin nehme die Rezeption westlicher Rundfunk- und Fernsehsendungen immer mehr zu, jedoch sei es verbo...

  14. Pädagogik als Kulturwissenschaft. Programmatische Überlegungen zum Status der Allgemeinen Erziehungswissenschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Ausgehend von einer schlaglichtartigen Charakterisierung gegenwärtiger Transformationsprozesse, die nicht nur zu grundlegenden Wandlungen in den gesellschaftlichen Verhältnissen und im kulturellen Selbstverständnis geführt haben, sondern auch die Prämissen ihrer begrifflichen Identifizierbarkeit und einer reflexiven Selbstvergewisserung erschüttern, wird die interne Situation der Erziehungswissenschaft skizziert, die sich ebenfalls dilemmatisch darstellt. Denn zum einen haben neuere Theorieen...

  15. Wie man Elementarteilchen entdeckt vom Zyklotron zum LHC : ein Streifzug durch die Welt der Teilchenbeschleuniger

    CERN Document Server

    Freytag, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Dieses Buch erklärt die physikalischen Grundlagen und die Technologien der Elementarteilchenforschung und beschreibt allgemeinverständlich Teilchenbeschleuniger und -detektoren sowie ihr Zusammenspiel. An einigen Meilensteinen der Forschung – von der Erzeugung von Transuranen über die Entdeckung exotischer Mesonen bis zum Higgs-Boson – zeigen die Autoren den Weg von der Theorie über das Experiment zum Forschungsergebnis auf. Gravitonen, Higgs-Teilchen, Neutrinos und Quarks – das Interesse an den kleinsten uns bekannten Teilchen ist seit Jahrzehnten ungebrochen und rückt damit auch die Laboratorien in den Blick, die an die Grenzen der Physik vorstoßen: Neben dem größten Experimentierfeld, das wir haben – dem Universum selbst - sind es die gigantischen Maschinen der Elementarteilchenphysik in Großforschungseinrichtungen wie dem CERN und dem DESY. Mit ihnen versuchen Forscher weltweit unter Einsatz extrem hoher Energien Zustände zu simulieren, wie sie zum Beginn unseres Universums kurz nach d...

  16. Zum Erleben von Thrills und anderen starken emotionalen Reaktionen beim Musikhören

    OpenAIRE

    Schönberger, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Obwohl unbestritten ist, dass Musik in der Lage ist, starke emotionale Reaktionen auszulösen, hat sich die Musikpsychologie wenig mit den Emotionen beschäftigt, die Menschen beim Musikhören erleben. Zwei mögliche Zugänge zum Erfassen solch starker emotionaler Reaktionen sind die Ansätze von John A. Sloboda und Alf Gabrielsson. Sloboda nutzt für seinen Ansatz das Phänomen der "Thrills" — physiologische Begleiterscheinungen starker emotionaler Reaktionen wie z.B. Gänsehaut, Schauer, die ü...

  17. Budke, Alexandra; Kanwischer, Detlef; Pott, Andreas (Hg.), Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / hrsg. von Alexandra Budke ... - Stuttgart : Steiner, 2004. - 192 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. - (Erdkundliches Wissen ; 136) ISBN 3-515-08506-8

  18. From traditional locomotive engineers to automated train control; Vom triebfahrzeugfuehrergefuehrten Zug zum Fahrautomaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohnecker, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Strassenbau und Eisenbahnwesen

    2000-07-01

    Profitability and capacity in public guided transport must be increased. One option is automatic, driverless train control. There are many questions surrounding the legal, technical and operational aspects of automated control which need to be answered. These intrinsic aspects of the system will be presented and discussed. The various options leading to automatic train control as well as the necessary technical measures will also be presented. (orig.) [German] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit und die Leistungsfaehigkeit im oeffentlichen spurgefuehrten Verkehr muessen erhoeht werden. Als Loesung bietet sich zukuenftig auch der automatische und fahrerlose Betrieb an. Das Fahren ohne Triebfahrzeugfuehrer wirft jedoch eine Vielzahl von Fragestellungen auf, die sowohl in juristischer, technischer und betrieblicher Hinsicht beantwortet werden muessen. Diese systemimmanenten Aspekte werden dargestellt und diskutiert. Anschliessend werden die Moeglichkeiten auf dem Weg zum Fahrautomaten aufgezeigt und die technischen Massnahmen zur Umsetzung des automatischen Fahrens erlaeutert. (orig.)

  19. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  20. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  1. Schule forscht Ansätze und Methoden zum forschenden Lernen

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Kinderunis, Science Center, Experimentierlabore – der Markt der außerschulischen Wissenschaftsvermittlung für Kinder und Jugendliche boomt. Doch in den Schulen findet forschendes Lernen noch wenig Beachtung. Dabei fördert die Methode wichtige Fähigkeiten der Schüler und bietet Chancen für eine zukunftsweisende Schulentwicklung. Die Jugendlichen erarbeiten in Forschungsprojekten eigenständig wissenschaftliche Fragestellungen, suchen Lösungswege, dokumentieren und präsentieren ihre Erkenntisse: Sie trainieren so wissenschaftliches Arbeiten, Eigenverantwortlichkeit, Teamfähigkeit und Zeitmanagement. Lehrer werden zu Lernbegleitern, Schulen öffnen sich für Kooperationen und entwickeln Alternativen zum 45-minütigen Unterrichtstakt. Die Fachbeiträge von Andreas Müller, Ilka Parchmann, Gerhard Roth u. a. untermauern die Praxisberichte aus lern- und entwicklungspsychologischer Sicht. Die Autoren sind sich einig: Wer bereits in der Schule forscht, ist in Studium und Beruf einen großen Schritt voraus....

  2. Procedure guideline for radioiodine test. Version; Verfahrensanweisung zum Radioiodtest. Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Dressler, J.; Leisner, B.; Reiners, C.; Schicha, H. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Eschner, W.; Lassmann, M. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin (DGN) (Germany); Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Medizinische Physik (DGMP) (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    The version 2 of the procedure guideline for radioiodine test is an update of the guideline published in 1999. The following statements were added or modified: The procedure guideline discusses the pros and cons of a single measurement or of repeated measurements of the iodine-131 uptake and their optimal timing. Different formulas are described when one, two or three values of the radioiodine kinetic are available. The probe with a sodium iodide crystal, alternative or additionally the gamma-camera using the ROI-technique are instrumentations for the measurement of iodine-131 uptake. A possible source of error is an inappropriate measurement (sonography) of the target volume. The patients' preparation includes the withdrawal of antithyroid drugs 2-3 days before radioiodine administration. The patient has to avoid iodine-containing medication and the possibility of additives of iodide in vitamin- or electrolyte-supplementation has to be considered. (orig.) [German] Mit der Version 2 der Verfahrensanweisung zum Radioiodtest wird die in 1999 publizierte Verfahrensanweisung aktualisiert. Ergaenzungen und Modifikationen betreffen die notwendige Anzahl und die Zeitintervalle der Iod-131-Uptake-Messungen. Diskutiert werden die Argumente fuer die ein- oder mehrmalige Uptake-Messung. Berechnungsformeln fuer ein, zwei und drei Messpunkte werden angegeben. Als Messgeraete koennen die Uptake-Messsonde, alternativ oder zusaetzlich die Gammakamera mit ROI-Technik zum Einsatz kommen. Fehler bei der Volumetrie (Sonographie) des Zielvolumens gehen unmittelbar in die Berechnung der Therapieaktivitaet ein. Zur Vorbereitung der Patienten wird ein Absetzen der thyreostatischen Medikation 2 bis 3 Tage vor dem Radioiodtest empfohlen. Moeglich Iod(id) zusaetze in Multivitamin- und Spurenelementkombinationen sollten bedacht werden. (orig.)

  3. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  4. Literature study: State of knowledge on pollutant decomposition and transport in natural soils; Literaturstudie zum Thema: Darstellung und Bewertung des Wissensstandes zum Schadstoffabbau und -transport in natuerlichen Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, R. (ed.); Hahn, M.; Koennemann, T.; Mangold, S.; Ouerfelli, I.; Preuss, V.; Schoepke, R.; Sonntag, B.

    2000-07-01

    The use of natural soils for low-cost removal of precipitated water and slightly polluted waste water has become an issue in legal procedures concerning water management. Although groundwater protection is given high priority, authorities do not have sufficient data on long-term effects and decomposition effects during passage to the soil. The Hydrology Department of Brandenburgische Technische Universitaet Cottbus, on behalf of the Thuringian Environmental Authority, investigated the state of the art of discharge of precipitated water into natural soils. The investigation is the first in a series of which the following effects are expected: Faster results by preliminary assessment of the applicability of the technique envisaged, use of this low-cost technology for waste water treatment in consideration of surface water protection. [German] Die Nutzung natuerlicher Boeden zur kostenguenstigen Beseitigung von Niederschlagswasser aber auch von schwachbelastetem Abwasser ist eine Variante der Abwasserbeseitigung, die zunehmend Antragsgegenstand in wasserrechtlichen Verfahren ist. Der Schutz des Grundwassers ist dabei in besonderem Masse zu beachten. Die Einschaetzung der Eignung dieser Variante ist Behoerden aufgrund unzureichender Aussagen zum Langzeitverhalten und zu Abbaueffekten waehrend der Bodenpassage derzeit nicht moeglich. Durch die THUeRINGER LANDESANSTALT FUeR UMWELT erhielt der Lehrstuhl Wassertechnik der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universitaet Cottbus den Auftrag, im Rahmen einer Literaturstudie, den gegenwaertigen Stand der schadlosen Versickerung von Niederschlagswasser in natuerlichen Boeden aufzuzeigen. Die Literaturrecherche bildet den ersten Schritt einer Untersuchungsreihe, von der folgende Wirkungen erwartet werden: Verfahrensbeschleunigung durch Bewertbarkeit der Eignung der Behandlungsvariante, Nutzung dieser kostenguenstigen Umwelttechnologie zur Behandlung von Abwasser unter Beachtung des Gewaesserschutzes. (orig.)

  5. Die Darstellung Rudolf Virchows in der Vossischen Zeitung im Zeitraum vom 1. Januar 1844 bis zum 31. Dezember 1865

    OpenAIRE

    Feddersen, Lars Harald

    2010-01-01

    DIE DARSTELLUNG RUDOLF VIRCHOWS IN DER VOSSISCHEN ZEITUNG IM ZEITRAUM VOM 1. JANUAR 1844 BIS ZUM 31. DEZEMBER 1865 Rudolf Virchow erforschte u.a. als Pathologe, Hygieniker, Anthropologe, Ethnologe und Prähistoriker bedeutende Grundlagen der modernen Wissenschaft. Diese vielschichtigen Tätigkeitsbereiche zeichnen ihn als einen der bedeutendsten Wissenschaftler v.a. der Medizingeschichte aus. Als Politiker engagierte sich Virchow in erster Linie im sozial- und gesellschaftspolitischen Bereich. ...

  6. Success in the protection of the ozone layer is at risk. An interview concerning the German view on CFC- and H-CFC-phaseout all over the world; Bisherige Erfolge zum Schutz der Ozonschicht sind gefaehrdet. Ein Fachgespraech ueber die deutsche Meinung zum FCKW- und H-FCKW-Phaseout ueberall in der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, H.W.; Weissenborn, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article repeats an interview with the commissioner of international measures for the protection of the ozone layer of the Federal Ministry of the Environment which took place in the run-up to the 7th conference of the signatory states of the Montreal Protocol. (BWI) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt ein Interview wieder, das mit dem Beauftragten fuer internationale Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht beim Bundesumweltministerium im Vorfeld der 7. Konferenz der Vertragsstaaten zum Montrealer Protokoll gefuehrt wurde. (BWI)

  7. Von der Pionierarbeit zum Nachschlagewerk From Pioneering Work to Reference Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Mieszkowski

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 1995 erschien der von Hadumod Bußmann und Renate Hof herausgegebene Sammelband Genus. Zur Geschlechterdifferenz in den Kulturwissenschaften. Zum 10jährigen Jubiläum haben sich die beiden Herausgeberinnen noch einmal mit dem Kröner Verlag zusammengetan, haben teils dieselben, teils neue Autorinnen um sich geschart und Genus einen neuen Auftritt verschafft. Der aktuelle Untertitel benennt die Erweiterung, die statt einer bloßen Aktualisierung des ersten Bandes vorgenommen wurde: Geschlechterforschung/Gender Studies in den Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften. Ein Handbuch.The collected volume Genus. On Gender Difference in Cultural Studies (Genus. Zur Geschlechterdifferenz in den Kulturwissenschaften, edited by Hadumod Bußmann and Renate Hof, was published in 1995. In honor of ten years of publication both editors came together with the publishing house Kröner Verlag once again, bringing with them some of the same as well as some new authors, in order to provide Genus a renewed appearance on the academic stage. Instead of merely revising the original volume, the editors planned its expansion. The subtitle points to the result: Gender Studies in Culture and Social Studies. A Handbook (Geschlechterforschung/Gender Studies in den Kultur- und Sozialwissenschaften. Ein Handbuch.

  8. Ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf NMR-Festkörperspektren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, W.; Freude, D.; Pfeifer, H.; Schmiedel, H.

    Es wird ein statistisches Modell zum Einfluß der thermischen Bewegung auf die NMR-Linienform vorgestellt, das die Verschmälerung von Festkörper-Spektren bei wachsender Temperatur beschreibt. Das Modell geht von der Annahme aus, daß nach einer Ortsveränderung eines Kerns infolge thermischer Bewegung jede beliebige Kernresonanzfrequenz mit der durch das Festkörperspektrum vorgegebenen Wahrscheinlichkeit angenommen werden kann. Am Beispiel der Festkörper-Gaußlinie wird der Unterschied zu dem bekannten Modell von ANDERSON und WEISS verdeutlicht.Translated AbstractA Statistical Model for the Influence of Thermal Motion on N. M. R. Spectra in SolidsA theory is proposed which allows to describe the narrowing of n. m. r.-line width in the presence of thermal motions of the spins. The model is based on the assumption, that the local resonance frequency of a given spin immediately after the jump is distributed according to the n. m. r.-line shape of the rigid lattice. The difference to the well-known ANDERSON-WEISS-model of spectral narrowing is demonstrated for a gaussian line shape.

  9. Akupunktur bei Sterilität und zum Schwangerschaftserhalt: Eine Übersicht mit Forschungsidee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ots T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Unterstützung der weiblichen Fertilität und der Schwangerschaft mittels Akupunktur hat während der vergangenen Dekade viele Anhänger gefunden. Dieser Artikel gibt eine Übersicht über die hierzu veröffentlichten wichtigsten Studien. Die Wirkung der Akupunktur wird als effektiv und effizient beschrieben. In einem zweiten Ansatz stellt der Autor eine vereinfachte Form der Akupunktur auf dem Boden der Segment-Anatomie vor. Dieser kuti-viszeralen, segmentalen Reizung der gynäkologischen Organe könnte innerhalb der gynäkologischen Praxis große Bedeutung zukommen, da sie leicht erlernbar (innerhalb eines Tages und einfach durchführbar ist. Die Zielvorstellung ist ein integratives Vorgehen in der Hand der Gynäkologen. Vorbereitend hierzu ist eine multizentrische randomisierte kontrollierte Studie notwendig, die diese beiden Ansätze innerhalb der Akupunktur als Komplement zum gynäkologischen Prozedere der IVF untersucht.

  10. PAH analysis in Leipzig allotment soils; Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Leipziger Kleingartenboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittrich, R.; Butze, B.; Mueller, S.; Prawalsky, R.; Stoye, H. [Umwelt-Consult e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Soils in 29 allotments were analyzed systematically with a view to the following aspects: Concentration ratios of the 16 components analyzed. Occurrence and classification of so-called PAH patterns. Interdependences between PAH patterns and soil features. PAH concentrations and soil-immanent buffer characteristics (humus concentration, pH, clay concentration, sesquioxide concentrations, exchange capacity). [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit konzentriert sich auf die Untersuchung der PAK-Belastung kleingaertnerisch genutzter Boeden. Die hier vorgestellten Ergebnisse resultieren aus Probjekten von Umwelt-Consult e.V. aus den Jahren 1995 bis 1997 im Auftrag der Stadt Leipzig und dem unter fachlicher Begleitung des Referates Geochemie der Abt. Boden/Geochemie vom LfUG gefoerderten Forschungsvorhaben 'Untersuchungen zum Gefaehrdungspotential polycyclischer aromatischer Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) in Boeden der Stadt Leipzig'. Hierbei wurden systematisch Boeden in 29 Kleingartenanlagen untersucht. Folgende Fragestellungen sollten beantwortet werden: Stehen die PAK-Konzentrationen der 16 analysierten Einzelkomponenten in bestimmten Groessenverhaeltnissen zueinander? Sind sogenannte PAK-Muster zu erkennen und lassen sich diese klassifizieren? Welche Beziehungen gibt es zwischen PAK-Mustern und Bodenmerkmalen? Korrespondieren die PAK-Konzentrationen (Gesamt-PAK, Einzelkomponenten) im Boden und deren bodenhorizont-bezogene Abfolge mit der Auspraegung bodenimmanenter Puffermerkmale (Humusgehalt, pH-Wert, Tongehalt, Gehalt an Sesquioxiden, Austauschkapazitaet)? (orig.)

  11. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  12. Practical experience with biodegradable biomass waste bags in several different German composting plants; Praxiserfahrungen zum Abbau kompostierbarer Bioabfallsaecke auf verschiedenen Kompostierungsanlagen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziermann, Andreas; Schmidt, Bettina [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The study intended to find out how fast biodegradable biomass waste bags are degraded in practical conditions in composting and fermentation plants. The plants differ with regard to the processes employed; further, rotting times may be much shorter in practice than the twelve weeks requested by DIN EN 13432 and DIN EN 14995. For the study, plant types were selected that are practically relevant for biomass waste utilisation in Germany. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, herauszufinden, wie schnell kompostierbare Bioabfallsaecke unter Praxisbedingungen in verschiedenen Kompost- und Vergaerungsanlagentypen abgebaut werden. Zum einen bestehen teilweise grosse verfahrenstechnische Unterschiede zwischen den Anlagentypen, zum anderen sind die Rottezeiten in der Praxis zum Teil wesentlich kuerzer, als die in der DIN EN 13432 und DIN EN 14995 geforderten zwoelf Wochen. Fuer die Studie wurden Anlagentypen ausgewaehlt, die fuer die Verwertung von Bioabfaellen in Deutschland praxisrelevant sind. (orig.)

  13. Genetische Veränderungen an primären Prostatakarzinom-Biopsien in Korrelation zum klinischen Verlauf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner T

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Die der Entstehung des Prostatakarzinoms zugrundeliegenden bzw. mit einem Progreß vergesellschafteten genetischen Veränderungen sind noch weitgehend unbekannt. Ziel der vorliegenden retrospektiven Untersuchung war die Erfassung genetischer Aberrationen an paraffineigebettetem Material primärer Prostatakarzinom-Biopsien und die Korrelation der Daten zum klinischen Verlauf. In 28 karzinomtragenden primären Prostatabiopsien wurden die Tumorareale gekennzeichnet. Nach Dissektion der Tumorzellen wurden die Proben mittels "comparative genomic hybridization" (CGH analysiert. Daten zum klinischen Verlauf der Patienten wurden erfaßt. Die mittlere Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 36 Monate, alle Patienten wurden hormonablativ behandelt. 11 Patienten (39 % wiesen unter laufender Therapie einen Tumorprogreß auf. In 25 (88 % der 28 untersuchten Tumorareale konnten genetische Aberrationen detektiert werden, im Mittel fanden wir 4,8 Aberrationen je Tumor. Das Verhältnis Verlust / Zugewinn betrug 1,3 / 1. Folgende chromosomale Veränderungen wurden häufig festgestellt: Verluste von 6q in 40 %; von 8p in 32 %; von 16q in 21 %; von 18q in 21 %; Zugewinne von 8q in 32 %; von 17 in 43 %. In Korrelation zum klinischen Verlauf fand sich ein Zugewinn von 8q signifikant häufiger bei Patienten, welche im Beobachtungszeitraum einen Tumorprogreß entwickelten (64 % vs. 12 %; p = 0,0001. In der primären Tumorbiopsie waren bei progredienten Patienten im Mittel 5,3, bei Patienten ohne Tumorprogreß 3,8 Aberrationen je Tumor nachzuweisen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, daß Veränderungen der Chromosomen 6q, 8, 16q, 17 und 18q regelmäßig beim Prostatakarzinom auftreten. Karzinome mit klinisch ungünstigem Verlauf weisen bereits in der primären Biopsie eine hohe genetische Instabilität auf.

  14. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  15. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  16. Firewall systems for protection of data communication in power stations; Firewall-Systeme zum Schutz der Datenkommunikation in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, P. [Siemens AG KWU (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Networking of power plant computer systems is becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, instrumentation and control systems are being connected with general power plant networks to make process information available to administrative personnel. This increases the risk of accidental or intentional access from outside the system (e.g. by hackers). Firewall systems are used to prevent such outside access. A firewall is the sole gateway between two networks which are to be kept separate, and is used to filter and control access to the protected network. Cryptography and personal chip cards are also used to provide additional protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rechnersysteme im Kraftwerk werden heute mehr und mehr vernetzt. Auch werden Rechnersysteme zum Messen, Steuern und Regeln (sogenannte Instrumentation and Control Systems) mit allgemeinen Kraftwerksnetzen verbunden, um Prozessinformationen auch in der Verwaltung zugaenglich zu machen. Damit waechst die Gefahr von zufaelligen oder beabsichtigten Eingriffen von aussen (z.B. Hacker). Zum Schutz vor solchen Eingriffen von aussen werden sogenannte Firewall-Systeme eingesetzt. Ein Firewall ist der alleinige Uebergang zwischen zwei zu trennenden Netzen und dient zur Filterung und Kontrolle der Zugriffe auf ein zu schuetzendes Netz. Ergaenzende Schutzmassnahmen sind der Einsatz kryptographischer Verfahren, sowie persoenlicher Chipkarten. (orig.)

  17. Firewall systems for protection of data communication in power stations; Firewall-Systeme zum Schutz der Datenkommunikation in Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, P [Siemens AG KWU (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    Networking of power plant computer systems is becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, instrumentation and control systems are being connected with general power plant networks to make process information available to administrative personnel. This increases the risk of accidental or intentional access from outside the system (e.g. by hackers). Firewall systems are used to prevent such outside access. A firewall is the sole gateway between two networks which are to be kept separate, and is used to filter and control access to the protected network. Cryptography and personal chip cards are also used to provide additional protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rechnersysteme im Kraftwerk werden heute mehr und mehr vernetzt. Auch werden Rechnersysteme zum Messen, Steuern und Regeln (sogenannte Instrumentation and Control Systems) mit allgemeinen Kraftwerksnetzen verbunden, um Prozessinformationen auch in der Verwaltung zugaenglich zu machen. Damit waechst die Gefahr von zufaelligen oder beabsichtigten Eingriffen von aussen (z.B. Hacker). Zum Schutz vor solchen Eingriffen von aussen werden sogenannte Firewall-Systeme eingesetzt. Ein Firewall ist der alleinige Uebergang zwischen zwei zu trennenden Netzen und dient zur Filterung und Kontrolle der Zugriffe auf ein zu schuetzendes Netz. Ergaenzende Schutzmassnahmen sind der Einsatz kryptographischer Verfahren, sowie persoenlicher Chipkarten. (orig.)

  18. Kino filmų titrai kaip kalbų mokymosi priemonė. Untertitel als Mittel zum Fremdsprachenerwerb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Baravykaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das in den letzten Jahren spürbare Bestreben der litauischen Gesetzgeber, Untertitelung von Fernsehfilmen zwecks Fremdsprachenerwerb gesetzlich anzuordnen, löste eine Auseinandersetzung in der Öffentlichkeit aus, die sich in der Presse sowie im Internet widerspiegelt und als Anstoß zum vorliegenden Beitrag dient. Diese Arbeit stellt den Versuch dar, die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Untertitelung als eines Mittels zum Fremdsprachenerwerb zu untersuchen. Auf Grund der fehlenden wissenschaftlichen Forschungen in diesem Bereich sollen dabei empirische Betrachtungen und die vergleichende Textanalyse von Original und Übersetzung als Hilfe dienen. Auch wenn die Relevanz der Untertitelung für den Fremdsprachenerwerb nicht bestreitbar ist, ist sie aber zugleich nicht zu überschätzen: Durch die lediglich für diese Form der audiovisuellen Übersetzung charakteristischen Merkmale (kurze Einblendezeit, kondensierte Sprache und begrenzte Übertragungsmöglichkeiten von Realia-Begriffen, Phraseologismen, Intertextualismen, dem Wortspiel etc. bleiben dem Zuschauer oft sprachliche Stilmittel vorenthalten und der in allen Übersetzungsbereichen vorkommende unausweichliche Sinn- und Wirkungsverlust des Originals wird erheblich verstärkt. Anbetracht der erwähnten Aspekte und der häufigen fehlerhaften Übersetzungen sollen Untertitel nur als Hilfsmittel beim Fremdsprachenerwerb angewendet werden, wobei herkömmliche Lehr- und Lernstrategien von Fremdsprachen in den Vordergrund treten müssen.

  19. Evaluation von E-Learning: Checklisten, Kriterienkataloge oder Evaluationskonzepte? Zum Stand der Bewertungsverfahren für E-Learning-Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf-Daniel Ehlers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualität in Bildungsmaßnahmen - als Legitimation oder aus wissenschaftlichem Interesse - ist ein Thema von hoher Bedeutung, auch - und gerade - im E-Learning. E-Learning, als eine noch relativ junge, nicht völlig etablierte, aber - so stellt sich immer häufiger heraus – kostenintensive Bildungsform, muss sich immer wieder der kritischen Frage nach der Qualität stellen, zumeist assoziiert mit Lernerfolg. Vielfältige Instrumente, um die Qualität zu überprüfen oder zu entwickeln, begleitend oder im Nachhinein, sind bislang konzipiert worden (vgl. Ehlers/Pawlowski/Goertz 2003. Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick zum derzeitigen Stand der Dinge in Bezug auf zwei dieser Verfahrensweisen: zum einen geht es dabei um die Beurteilungen anhand von Kriterienkatalogen bzw. Checklisten und zum anderen um Evaluationsverfahren. Obwohl vielfach bereits umfassendere Managementsysteme zum Einsatz kommen, die die Qualität bei Anbietern kontinuierlich verbessern sollen, haben beide Verfahren eine steigende Bedeutung - da auch Managementverfahren immer wieder auf Kriterien oder Evaluationsverfahren zurückgreifen.

  20. Keim, Karl-Dieter, Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Keim, Karl-Dieter: Das Fenster zum Raum : Traktat über die Erforschung sozialräumlicher Transformation / Karl-Dieter Keim. - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2003. - 171 S. : graph. Darst. - (Lehrtexte : Sozialwissenschaften) ISBN 3-8100-4050-9

  1. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  2. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  3. S2k-Leitlinie zum Gebrauch von Präparationen zur lokalen Anwendung auf der Haut (Topika).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlrab, Johannes; Staubach, Petra; Augustin, Matthias; Eisert, Lisa; Hünerbein, Andreas; Nast, Alexander; Reimann, Holger; Strömer, Klaus; Mahler, Vera

    2018-03-01

    Diese Leitlinie richtet sich an Assistenz- und Fachärzte der Dermatologie sowie an Kostenträger und politische Entscheidungsgremien. Die Leitlinie wurde im formellen Konsensusverfahren (S2k) von Dermatologen unter Einbindung von Apothekern erstellt. Die Leitlinie stellt allgemeine Aspekte der Pharmakokinetik sowie der regulatorischen Begrifflichkeiten dar. Es werden Empfehlungen zur Indikation von Magistralrezepturen sowie deren Qualitätssicherung gegeben. Die Bedeutung der galenischen Grundlagen und die Problematik bei einer Substitution gegeneinander verschiedener Grundlagen werden dargestellt. Die Leitlinie umfasst Kriterien zur Auswahl einer adäquaten Grundlage sowie spezifische Aspekte zur Therapieplanung. Die Leitlinie gibt Empfehlungen zum Management bei Unverträglichkeiten gegenüber Bestandteilen der Grundlagen oder Hilfsstoffe. © 2018 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  4. Der Weg zum Java-Profi Konzepte und Techniken für die professionelle Java-Entwicklung

    CERN Document Server

    Inden, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben bereits Einiges an Erfahrung mit Java und möchten Ihre Entwicklungstätigkeit nun professionalisieren? Oder sind Sie schon auf dem Weg zum Profi, benötigen aber ein Nachschlagewerk, das Ihnen die wichtigen Themen aus der Java-Welt kompakt und kompetent vermittelt? Dieses Buch bietet eine umfassende Einführung in die professionelle Entwicklung und vermittelt Ihnen das notwendige Wissen, um stabile und erweiterbare Softwaresysteme auf Java-SE-Basis zu bauen. Praxisnahe Beispiele helfen dabei, das Gelernte rasch umzusetzen. Neben der Praxis wird viel Wert auf das Verständnis zugrunde liegender Konzepte gelegt. Dabei kommen dem Autor Michael Inden seine umfangreichen Schulungs- und Entwicklererfahrungen zugute - und Ihnen als Leser damit ebenso. Diese Neuauflage wurde durchgehend überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. Natürlich darf das aktuelle Java 8 nicht fehlen. Verschiedene Kapitel sind Java 8 und seinen Neuerungen gewidmet. Dort wird ein fundierter Einstieg in die umfangreichen Erweit...

  5. Status seminar on BMBF-funded research projects in ecotoxicology. Proceedings; Statusseminar zum Foerderschwerpunkt `Oekotoxikologie` des BMBF. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M. [ed.; Bauer, H. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    Research projects in the field of ecotoxicology are presented, with particular regard to aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicology. The report covers pollutant effects on plancton and fish and pollutant monitoring in streams. The effects, distribution and mobility of PAH, PCB and other pollutants in soils and pollutant concentrations in microorganisms are gone into. (SR) [Deutsch] Vorgestellt werden die Forschungsvorhaben zum Thema Oekotoxikologie. Schwerpunkte hierbei sind die aquatische Oekotoxokologie und die terrestrische Oekotoxikologie. Berichtet wird ueber die Wirkung von Fremdstoffen auf Plankton und Fischen, sowie die Bewertung der Belastung von Fliessgewaessern.Ausserdem wird die Wirkung, Verteilung und die Mobilitaet von PAK, PCB und anderen Schadstoffen in Boeden dargestellt, sowie die Belastung von Mikroorganismen mit Schadstoffen. (SR)

  6. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  7. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  8. „… höher als die Liebe zur Wissenschaft steht die Treue zum eigenen Vaterland …“: Hallenser Romanisten im Ersten Weltkrieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Schiller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Die 1914 verbreitete Kriegsbegeisterung nahm auch die Romanisten nicht aus. Briefe und Tagebuchnotizen aus der Zeit zeigen, wie Lehrende und Studenten unseres Faches, deren gemeinsamer Bezug die Zugehörigkeit zum Romanischen Seminar Halle war, vom „Großen Krieg“ betroffen waren und führen uns die Situation und Geisteshaltung der Professoren und Studenten und die Rückwirkungen des Krieges auf das Fach vor Augen.

  9. Das Unsichtbare sichtbar machen. Zum vergessenen Beitrag der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohn- und Siedlungsreform im frühen 20. Jahrhundert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Wucherpfennig

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Wohnungs- und Städtebau der Moderne gilt weitgehend als eine „Männerdomäne”. In ihrer Schrift Die Wohnungsfrage ist Frauensache! zeigen Ulla Terlinden und Susanna von Oertzen demgegenüber die vielfältigen und einflussreichen Beiträge der alten deutschen Frauenbewegung zur Wohnungsreform des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts und zum Neuen Bauen auf.

  10. Feinkartierung von Loss of Heterozygosity-Intervallen auf Chromosom 11p und Untersuchungen zum Expressions- und Methylierungsstatus von FANCF beim Ovarialkarzinom

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Um Tumorsuppressorgene beim Ovarialkarzinom zu identifizieren wurde eine Kartierung von LOH-Intervallen der Region 11p15.5 - 11p11.2 mittels 11 Mikrosatellitenmarkern an 47 Ovarialtumorproben vorgenommen. Im Bereich des ST5- und AFM255/KAI1-Locus konnten potentielle Intervalle abgegrenzt werden. Das Fanconi Anämie Gen FANCF wurde für Untersuchungen zum Expressions- und Methylierungsstatus ausgewählt, da dessen Abschaltung mit einem besseren Ansprechen auf Cisplatin bei Ovarialkarzinompatienti...

  11. Diffusing diffusivity: Rotational diffusion in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-06-01

    We consider the problem of calculating the probability distribution function (pdf) of angular displacement for rotational diffusion in a crowded, rearranging medium. We use the diffusing diffusivity model and following our previous work on translational diffusion [R. Jain and K. L. Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016)], we show that the problem can be reduced to that of calculating the survival probability of a particle undergoing Brownian motion, in the presence of a sink. We use the approach to calculate the pdf for the rotational motion in two and three dimensions. We also propose new dimensionless, time dependent parameters, αr o t ,2 D and αr o t ,3 D, which can be used to analyze the experimental/simulation data to find the extent of deviation from the normal behavior, i.e., constant diffusivity, and obtain explicit analytical expressions for them, within our model.

  12. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  13. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial d...

  14. ‹Portale›, die zum Nachdenken anregen. Einblicke in eine Interfaceanalyse des Augmented Reality Spiels Ingress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality Spiele wie ‹Ingress› und ‹PokémonGo› stellen aktuell neue mediale Phänomene dar. Eine zentrale Differenz zu klassischen Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOs ist die Verzahnung von virtuellen und realen Objekten als konstitutive Spielelemente. In Anknüpfung an die Perspektive, digitale Spiele als Kultur- und Bildungsräume zu verstehen, widmet sich der Beitrag der Frage, inwiefern das Ingress-Spielen die Perspektive von Spieler/innen auf den öffentlichen Raum verändern kann. In erster Annäherung an diese Fragestellung wird auf Basis einer Interfaceanalyse gezeigt, wie ‹Portale› – virtueller Repräsentationen realer Objekte im Spiel – potenziell Irritationen und Differenz­erfahrungen ermöglichen. Diese können zum Ausgangspunkt weiterführender Reflexionen werden. Dafür werden exemplarisch ‹Portale› diskutiert, die (1. weiterführende Informationen zu realen Objekte bieten, die (2. Momentaufnahmen nicht mehr existierender kultureller Objekte darstellen und die (3. reale Objekte in ironischer Weise präsentieren.

  15. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  16. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  17. From the Social Contract to a Social Contract Law - Vom Contrat Social zum Gesellschaftsvertragsrecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abegg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking the viewpoint of the civil law tradition, which has traditionally assumed that the legitimacy of the administration is state-derived, this text recognises the constant decline of state sovereignty in modern times and consequently the increasing diffusion of the state into society. At the level of state theory, this reflects a shift from the great philosophical ‘social contract’ to many small legal contracts as its functional equivalent. Dealing with this phenomenon, administrative law needs to address the fundamental question of how law can sustainably support the unity of a society where the state administration and the various parts of society it has to govern are strange to each other and at the same time depending on mutual ad-hoc cooperation time and again.- Aus einer kontinentalen Sicht, gestützt auf die langen Erfahrungen mit einer staatlich angeleiteten Legitimation der Staatsverwaltung, erkennt diese Untersuchung den beständigen Niedergang staatlicher Souveränität in der Moderne und folglich die zunehmende Diffusion des Staates in die Gesellschaft. Auf der Ebene der Staatstheorie wird dies durch einen Wechsel vom großen philosophischen Sozialvertrag zu vielen einzelnen rechtlichen Verträgen als dessen funktionales Äquivalent gespiegelt. Mit diesem Phänomen erhält das Verwaltungsrecht eine grundsätzlich neue Perspektive: Es stellt sich die Frage, wie mit Recht die Einheit einer Gesellschaft hervorgebracht werden kann, in welcher die Staatsverwaltung und die von ihr zu regulierenden Sozialbereiche sich einerseits fremd geworden sind und doch andererseits auf wechselseitige Ad-hoc-Kooperationen immer wieder von Neuem angewiesen sind.

  18. Vom Contrat Social zum Gesellschaftsvertragsrecht / From the Social Contract to a Social Contract Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Abegg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Formen und Funktion des Verwaltungsvertrags in der fragmentierten Gesellschaft Aus einer kontinentalen Sicht, gestützt auf die langen Erfahrungen mit einer staatlich angeleiteten Legitimation der Staatsverwaltung, erkennt diese Untersuchung den beständigen Niedergang staatlicher Souveränität in der Moderne und folglich die zunehmende Diffusion des Staates in die Gesellschaft. Auf der Ebene der Staatstheorie wird dies durch einen Wechsel vom großen philosophischen Sozialvertrag zu vielen einzelnen rechtlichen Verträgen als dessen funktionales Äquivalent gespiegelt. Mit diesem Phänomen erhält das Verwaltungsrecht eine grundsätzlich neue Perspektive: Es stellt sich die Frage, wie mit Recht die Einheit einer Gesellschaft hervorgebracht werden kann, in welcher die Staatsverwaltung und die von ihr zu regulierenden Sozialbereiche sich einerseits fremd geworden sind und doch andererseits auf wechselseitige Ad-hoc-Kooperationen immer wieder von Neuem angewiesen sind. Forms and Function of Administrative Contracts in a Fragmented Society. Taking the viewpoint of the civil law tradition, which has traditionally assumed that the legitimacy of the administration is state-derived, this text recognises the constant decline of state sovereignty in modern times and consequently the increasing diffusion of the state into society. At the level of state theory, this reflects a shift from the great philosophical ‘social contract’ to many small legal contracts as its functional equivalent. Dealing with this phenomenon, administrative law needs to address the fundamental question of how law can sustainably support the unity of a society where the state administration and the various parts of society it has to govern are strange to each other and at the same time depending on mutual ad-hoc cooperation time and again.

  19. Diffusion in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Smirnov, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph contains a brief description of the principles underlying the theory of diffusion, as well as modern methods of studying diffusion. Data on self-diffusion and diffusion of impurities in a nuclear fuel and fissionable materials (uranium, plutonium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, hafnium, niobium, molybdenum, tungsten, beryllium, etc.) is presented. Anomalous diffusion, diffusion of components, and interdiffusion in binary and ternary alloys were examined. The monograph presents the most recent reference material on diffusion. It is intended for a wide range of researchers working in the field of diffusion in metals and alloys and attempting to discover new materials for application in nuclear engineering. It will also be useful for teachers, research scholars and students of physical metallurgy

  20. Diffusion in flowing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, K.W.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the back-diffusion method of calculating the mutual diffusion coefficient of two gases. The applicability of this method for measuring diffusion coefficients at temperatures up to 1300 K is considered. A further aim of the work was to make a contribution to the description of the interatomic potential energy of noble gases at higher energies as a function of the internuclear distance. This was achieved with the measured diffusion coefficients, especially with those for high temperatures. (Auth.)

  1. Diffusion Under Geometrical Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Naohisa

    2014-01-01

    Here we discus the diffusion of particles in a curved tube. This kind of transport phenomenon is observed in biological cells and porous media. To solve such a problem, we discuss the three dimensional diffusion equation with a confining wall forming a thinner tube. We find that the curvature appears in a effective diffusion coefficient for such a quasi-one-dimensional system. As an application to higher dimensional case, we discuss the diffusion in a curved surface with ...

  2. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  3. Discussion of the applicability of overdammed fixed-bed reactors in nitrification processes; Beitrag zum Einsatz von ueberstauten Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter, H.O.

    1996-12-31

    The investigation aimed at developing a dimensioning method for overdammed fixed bed nitrification reactors with plug flow which takes account of the reactor height. Further, information was to be obtained for assessing sudden loads and for comparing energy consumption with the data of conventional activated sludge plants. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, fuer ueberstaute, pfropfendurchstroemte Festbettreaktoren zur Nitrifikation einen Bemessungsansatz aufzustellen, welcher den Einfluss der Reaktorhoehe mit beruecksichtigt. Ferner sollten Erkenntnisse zur Beurteilung von Stossbelastungen sowie zum Energiebedarf im Vergleich zu herkoemmlichen Belebungsanlagen gewonnen werden. (orig./SR)

  4. Multimedia CD-Rom on hydrogen and fuel cells. 2. rev. ed.; Die Multimedia CD-Rom zum Thema Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-07-01

    This CD-Rom contains well-presented information with informative illustrations, as well as a large download section with publications, reports, and presentations in.pdf form for in-depth studies. There is also a list of links to selected websites, with short explanations. [German] Die CD zum Thema ''Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen'' bietet sowohl gut gegliederte Informationen mit anschaulichen Bildern fuer die Lektuere am Monitor als auch eine grosse Download-Rubrik, in der zahlreiche Publikationen, Fachberichte, Praesentationen als PDF-Dateien abgelegt sind und fuers Studium bereitstehen. Ausserdem gibt es ein Link-Verzeichnis mit Verweisen und Erlaeuterungen zu ausgewaehlten Internet-Seiten.

  5. Die ILO-Standards zum Schutz von Arbeitnehmerrechten : ein Begründungsversuch mit Hilfe der kantischen Position von Norman E. Bowie

    OpenAIRE

    Bäumlisberger, Damian; Brink, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "Der Beitrag ergründet die normativen Grundlagen der Standards zum Schutz der Arbeitnehmerrechte der International Labour Organization. Auf Basis der kantischen Position des US-amerikanischen Wirtschaftsethikers Norman E. Bowie zeigen die Autoren, dass sich Bowies Theorieansatz grundsätzlich dazu eignet, die vier Kernbereiche der ILO-Aktivitäten ethisch zu fundieren. Jedoch stößt Bowies Position bei der Begründung der ILO-Standards auch auf Grenzen, die nur teilweise mittels zusätzlicher, mit...

  6. Thermal diffusion (1963); Diffusion thermique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarechal, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [French] Ce rapport rassemble les principes essentiels de la diffusion thermique en phase liquide et en phase gazeuse. Les aspects macroscopique et moleculaire de la constante de diffusion thermique sont passes en revue ainsi que ses differentes methodes de mesure; mais les developpements les plus importants concernent le fonctionnement de ls colonne thermogravitationnelle de CLUSIUS et DICKEL et ses applications. (auteur)

  7. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  8. Dose management in radiology. Review of the technological status; Dosismanagement in der Radiologie. Ein Ueberblick zum Stand der Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verius, M. [LKH Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The Euratom directive 2013/59 (''EU directive for radiation protection'') has to be implemented into national law by spring 2018 and requires a complete recording of patient dosages and relevant parameters. Additionally, a medical physics expert has to be consulted for each radiological examination above a defined threshold. A complete recording of the dosage administered from all modalities and optimization of the radiological procedures should result in a reduction of the total dosage. This can be achieved by automated systems that incorporate not only the detection of the dose parameters but also the evaluation and analysis of these data. When provided with warning levels such a system should be able to inform or warn the operator when dose thresholds have been exceeded or even better inform the operator about possible excess dosages before an examination. Depending on the information provided by the modality, dose management systems can operate at different levels in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS), radiological and hospital information systems (RIS/HIS) or with the header information of a digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) image and evaluate and analyze this data. A practicable use of such systems is only possible by close cooperation of medical personnel, medical physicists and information technology (IT) administrators. Various systems are available commercially or free but an individual adaptation of these systems is useful and necessary, depending on the requirements of the radiology practice or hospital. (orig.) [German] Die Euratom-Richtlinie 2013/59 (''EU-Richtlinie zum Strahlenschutz'') besagt, dass sie bis zum Fruehjahr 2018 in nationales Recht der Mitgliedstaaten umgesetzt werden muss, d. h. eine lueckenlose Erfassung der Patientendosen zu erfolgen hat. Ausserdem muss zu jeder Modalitaet in einem bestimmten Ausmass ein Medizinphysikexperte hinzugezogen werden. Die

  9. Training to NDT construction experts (ZFPBau). Developments in recent years; Ausbildung zum ZfPBau-Experten. Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffe, Alexander [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany); Feistkorn, Sascha [SVTI Schweizerischer Verein fuer technische Inspektionen, Wallisellen (Switzerland). Nuklearinspektorat; Dauberschmidt, Christoph [Hochschule Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Classical destructive test methods are fixed part of industrial sectors for decades such as aerospace, automotive, railway and power plants. A high degree of standardization of procedures, and training in form of an ISO standard are present, but not in non-destructive testing of civil engineering (ZfPBau). Except for the rebound hammer NDT methods in civil engineering are not standardized. Also of personnel qualifications can be found in regulations very few requirements, although it is obvious that this is an indispensable prerequisite for the proper application of the procedures and reliable inspection results. In this contribution experiences with a presented training concept in which the construction inspector will trained to DIN 1076 in a two-day course. Here are the necessary conditions worked out, such as the creation of suitable test bodies or the definition of necessary course content for establishing training courses. [German] Klassische zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren sind seit Jahrzehnten fester Bestandteil industrieller Bereiche wie Luftfahrt, Automotive, Eisenbahn und Kraftwerke. Ein hoher Normungsgrad der Verfahren und Ausbildungsstandards in Form einer ISO-Norm liegen vor. Bei der zerstoerungsfreien Pruefung im Bauwesen (ZfPBau) ist das anders. Bis auf den Rueckprallhammer sind ZfPBau-Verfahren nicht genormt. Auch zur Personalqualifikation finden sich in Regelwerken nur sehr wenige Anforderungen, obwohl es offensichtlich ist, dass dies eine unverzichtbare Voraussetzung fuer die richtige Anwendung der Verfahren und zuverlaessige Pruefaussagen ist. In diesem Beitrag werden Erfahrungen mit einem Ausbildungskonzept vorgestellt, bei dem Bauwerkspruefer nach DIN 1076 in einem zweitaegigen Lehrgang ausgebildet werden. Dabei werden die notwendigen Voraussetzungen heraus gearbeitet, wie z.B. die Erstellung von geeigneten Testkoerpern oder die Festlegung notwendiger Kursinhalte, die zum Etablieren von Ausbildungskursen erforderlich sind.

  10. Futurelab Medienpädagogik: Qualitätsentwicklung – Professionalisierung – Standards. Thesenpapier zum Forum Kommunikationskultur 2017 der GMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Knaus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Das Forum Kommunikationskultur der Gesellschaft für Medienpädagogik und Kommunikationskultur (GMK steht im Jahr 2017 unter dem Anspruch, sich mit Fragen der Qualitätsentwicklung medienpädagogischen Handelns in Wissenschaft und Praxis auseinanderzusetzen. Dabei soll besonderes Augenmerk auf Fragen der Professionalisierung und der Entwicklung von Standards gelegt werden. Zu diesen Fragen stellen wir im Folgenden ausgewählte Thesen mit ergänzenden und erweiternden Erläuterungen im Sinne eines programmatischen Textes zur Diskussion. Die mit diesem Papier anzustossende Diskussion soll zunächst einer konstruktiv-weiterführenden internen Klärung wichtiger Fragen medienpädagogischer Praxis und Forschung dienen und dabei auch anzeigen, welche Positionen in der Community konsensfähig sind und welche möglicherweise strittig erscheinen. Zugleich sollen die Thesen und die Diskussion zu einer Positionsbestimmung der GMK bezüglich praktischer und wissenschaftlicher medienpädagogischer Arbeit nach aussen beitragen. Mit der Diskussion ist das Ziel verbunden, künftige Bedarfe für Handlungs- und Forschungsfelder der Medienpädagogik – jedoch ohne Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit – zu identifizieren. Um der Prägnanz und Kürze willen, wird der zu jeder These gehörende Hintergrund nur knapp angedeutet, ohne die damit verbundenen (teils sehr umfassenden Diskurse im Detail nachzuzeichnen. Angegebene Literaturbezüge sollen jeweils beispielhaft auf differenzierende und tiefergehende Ausführungen verweisen. Die Thesenfolge beginnt mit Überlegungen zum technikinduzierten gesellschaftlichen Wandel („Digitalisierung“ und seiner Bedeutung für die Medienbildung. Dies vorausschickend, gehen wir auf Fragen der Qualifizierung und Professionalisierung für praktisches Handeln sowie auf die Rolle der Medienpädagogik als Wissenschaft und schliessend auf den Stellenwert von Standards zur Orientierung und Reflexion ein.

  11. Diffusion in molybdenum disilicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, M.; Mehrer, H.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion behaviour of the high-temperature material molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) was completely unknown until recently. In this paper we present studies of Mo self-diffusion and compare our present results with our already published studies of Si and Ge diffusion in MoSi 2 . Self-diffusion of molybdenum in monocrystalline MoSi 2 was studied by the radiotracer technique using the radioisotope 99 Mo. Deposition of the radiotracer and serial sectioning after the diffusion anneals to determine the concentration-depth profiles was performed using a sputtering device. Diffusion of Mo is a very slow process. In the entire temperature region investigated (1437 to 2173 K), the 99 Mo diffusivities in both principal directions of the tetragonal MoSi 2 crystals obey Arrhenius laws, where the diffusion perpendicular to the tetragonal axis is faster by two to three orders of magnitude than parallel to it. The activation enthalpies for diffusion perpendicular and parallel to the tetragonal axis are Q perpendicular to = 468 kJ mol -1 (4.85 eV) and Q parallel = 586 kJ mol -1 (6.07 eV), respectively. Diffusion of Si and its homologous element Ge is fast and is mediated by thermal vacancies of the Si sublattice of MoSi 2 . The diffusion of Mo is by several orders of magnitude slower than the diffusion of Si and Ge. This large difference suggests that Si and Mo diffusion are decoupled and that the diffusion of Mo likely takes place via vacancies on the Mo sublattice. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel-cell-system for automotive transportation; Thermodynamische Analyse eines Brennstoffzellensystems zum Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Oliver

    2009-09-28

    inclination angle profile of the Grossglockner mountain is followed on the test stand with a speed of 55 km/h without overheating of the cooling system. After optimization of the cooler design and positioning, the new vehicle was able to meet the specifications while the first of the two vehicles only achieved 35 km/h without overheating of the cooling system. Finally, a theoretical investigation identified the measures that should be taken to achieve sufficient cooling in countries with hot climates, e.g. the USA. It was found that it would be sufficient to raise the coolant temperature from 90 C to about 110 C to ensure good performance in these climate zones. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die thermodynamische Analyse und Optimierung eines Brennstoffzellensystems zum Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen. Der Fokus ist im Wesentlichen auf die Kuehlung des Brennstoffzellenstapelmoduls gelegt, wobei aufgrund der Vielzahl an Schnittstellen zwischen der Kuehlung und den anderen Teilsystemen (Wasserstoff- und Luftversorgung) auch eine ganzheitlichere Betrachtung erforderlich ist. Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchungen ist ein bestehendes Brennstoffzellenfahrzeug, anhand dessen in einem ersten Schritt experimentelle Untersuchungen auf Systempruefstaenden und im Klimawindkanal durchgefuehrt werden. Die gewonnenen Messdaten dienen zum einen der Darstellung des Ist-Zustands und zur Ermittlung des Grenzbereichs der Waermeabfuhr an die Umgebung ueber das Brennstoffzellen-Kuehlsystem. Zum anderen werden sie zur Validierung eines dynamischen Kuehlsystemsimulationsmodells herangezogen. Mittels dieses Simulationsmodells werden anschliessend im Rahmen von Sensitivitaetsanalysen die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren zur Steigerung der Waermeabfuhr an die Umgebung ermittelt. Die daraufhin durchgefuehrten Optimierungen betreffen die Verschaltung der Systemkomponenten sowie deren Auslegung und Platzierung im Fahrzeugvorderwagen. Auf Basis dieser und weiterer Erkenntnisse wird ein weiteres

  13. Diffuser Haarausfall und klinische Endokrinologie: Neue Erkenntnisse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liptak J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuser Haarausfall ist ein häufiges Krankheitsbild in der täglichen Praxis, dessen Diagnostik allerdings oft eine Herausforderung darstellt. In den vergangenen 10 Jahren wurden große Fortschritte in der Erforschung der Effekte diverser Hormone erzielt. In murinen Haarfollikeln wird Corticoliberin (Corticotropin-releasing Hormone [CRH] mit einem Peak in der Anagenphase (Wachstumsphase exprimiert. Ein stressinduziert erhöhter CRH-Spiegel kann durch Aktivierung von Mastzellen zu erhöhtem Haarverlust führen. Melatonin wird ebenfalls im Haarfollikel exprimiert und wirkt dort auf unterschiedliche Rezeptoren. Besonders der nukleäre Retinoic Acid Receptor-(RAR- Related Orphan-Receptor alpha (RORα scheint regulatorisch auf haarzyklusabhängige Prozesse zu wirken und wird auch abhängig vom Haarzyklus exprimiert. Melatonin greift zudem in androgen- und östrogenvermittelte Signaltransduktionswege ein. Eine topische Anwendung von Melatonin kann zu einer Zunahme der Anagenhaare führen. Auch Leptin wird im Haarfollikel exprimiert und beeinflusst Haarwachstum und Hautregeneration durch Aktivierung von STAT3. Bei Mäusen konnte durch Leptin die Anagenphase induziert werden. Über den Zusammenhang zwischen androgenetischer Alopezie und Metabolischem Syndrom wurden zahlreiche widersprüchliche Daten veröffentlicht. Zuletzt wies eine große koreanische Studie eine positive Assoziation der Krankheitsbilder bei Frauen nach, jedoch nicht bei Männern. Prolaktin induziert den verfrühten Übergang zur Katagenphase, senkt die Proliferationsrate der Keratinozyten im Haarfollikel und steigert deren Apoptoserate. Eine zu Haarausfall führende Hyperprolaktinämie kann unter anderem durch diverse Medikamente, insbesondere typische und atypische Neuroleptika, hervorgerufen werden. Zahlreiche Studien an Mäusen konnten belegen, dass der Vitamin-D-Rezeptor (VDR eng mit dem Haarwachstum assoziiert ist. Dieser scheint den Haarzyklus unabhängig von seinen Liganden

  14. Foucault und das Recht: Besprechung von: Christian Schauer, Aufforderung zum Spiel. Foucault und das Recht, Böhlau (Weimar, Köln, Wien 2006, 383 Seiten.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Biebricher

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor rekonstruiert Foucaults Werk zwischen den Jahren 1961 und 1975 und integriert hierbei Perspektiven anderer Autoren (Derrida, Luhmann und Nietzsche, welche zu verwandten Themenkreisen arbeiten und/oder Foucaults Herangehensweise geprägt haben. Eigentliches Ziel der Arbeit ist es, Foucaults Beitrag zur Rechtsgeschichte und –soziologie zu beleuchten. Diese Thematik ist im deutschen Sprachraum bis jetzt kaum systematisch untersucht worden, und dementsprechend gebührt Schauers Studie besondere Beachtung. Der Autor betont Foucaults Ausführungen zum Verhältnis zwischen Recht und Psychiatrie. Dessen Diagnose hebt die “Kolonisierung” des Rechts durch forensisch psychiatrische Diskurse hervor, und Schauer gelingt es, die problematische Dimension dieser Tendenz mit Hinweis auf die schweizerische Rechtspraxis plausibel zu machen. Fluchtpunkt dieser Entwicklung wäre ein bis zum Extrem “vorbeugendes” Recht, das Gefahrenprävention und Risikoregulierung durch präemptive Verhaltensregulierung den Vorzug vor dem Legalitätsprinzip gewährt.

  15. Metric diffusion along foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Szymon M

    2017-01-01

    Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.

  16. [Dennis Hormuth. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tres : Studien zum mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1721)] / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Hormuth, Dennis. Livonia est omnis divisa in partes tres : Studien zum mental mapping der livländischen Chronistik in der Frühen Neuzeit (1558-1721) (Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, 79). Franz Steiner verlag. Stuttgart 2012

  17. Correlated diffusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Alexander; Glaister, Jeffrey; Cameron, Andrew; Haider, Masoom

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the male population. Fortunately, the prognosis is excellent if detected at an early stage. Hence, the detection and localization of prostate cancer is crucial for diagnosis, as well as treatment via targeted focal therapy. New imaging techniques can potentially be invaluable tools for improving prostate cancer detection and localization. In this study, we introduce a new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging, where the tissue being imaged is characterized by the joint correlation of diffusion signal attenuation across multiple gradient pulse strengths and timings. By taking into account signal attenuation at different water diffusion motion sensitivities, correlated diffusion imaging can provide improved delineation between cancerous tissue and healthy tissue when compared to existing diffusion imaging modalities. Quantitative evaluation using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, tissue class separability analysis, and visual assessment by an expert radiologist were performed to study correlated diffusion imaging for the task of prostate cancer diagnosis. These results are compared with that obtained using T2-weighted imaging and standard diffusion imaging (via the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)). Experimental results suggest that correlated diffusion imaging provide improved delineation between healthy and cancerous tissue and may have potential as a diagnostic tool for cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. A new form of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging called correlated diffusion imaging (CDI) was developed for the purpose of aiding radiologists in cancer detection and localization in the prostate gland. Preliminary results show CDI shows considerable promise as a diagnostic aid for radiologists in the detection and localization of prostate cancer

  18. Gaseous diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, G.A.; Shacter, J.

    1978-01-01

    A gaseous diffusion system is described comprising a plurality of diffusers connected in cascade to form a series of stages, each of the diffusers having a porous partition dividing it into a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, and means for combining a portion of the enriched gas from a succeeding stage with a portion of the enriched gas from the low pressure chamber of each stage and feeding it into one extremity of the high pressure chamber thereof

  19. Inpainting using airy diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorduy Hernandez, Sara

    2015-09-01

    One inpainting procedure based on Airy diffusion is proposed, implemented via Maple and applied to some digital images. Airy diffusion is a partial differential equation with spatial derivatives of third order in contrast with the usual diffusion with spatial derivatives of second order. Airy diffusion generates the Airy semigroup in terms of the Airy functions which can be rewritten in terms of Bessel functions. The Airy diffusion can be used to smooth an image with the corresponding noise elimination via convolution. Also the Airy diffusion can be used to erase objects from an image. We build an algorithm using the Maple package ImageTools and such algorithm is tested using some images. Our results using Airy diffusion are compared with the similar results using standard diffusion. We observe that Airy diffusion generates powerful filters for image processing which could be incorporated in the usual packages for image processing such as ImageJ and Photoshop. Also is interesting to consider the possibility to incorporate the Airy filters as applications for smartphones and smart-glasses.

  20. Diffusion in compacted betonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to collect the literature bearing on the diffusion in compacted betonite, which has been suggested as possible buffer material for the disposal of spent fuel. Diffusion in a porous, water-saturated material is usually described as diffusion in the pore-water where sorption on the solid matter can delay the migration in the instationary state. There are also models which take into consideration that the sorbed molecules can also move while being sorbed. Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been reported by many authors. Gases, anions, cations and actinides have been used as diffusing molecules. The report collects the results and the information on the measurement methods. On the basis of the results can be concluded that different particles possibly follow different diffusion mechanisms. The parameters which affect the diffusion seem to be for example the size, the electric charge and the sorption properties of the diffusing molecule. The report also suggest the parameters to be used in the diffusion calculation of the safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. (author)

  1. Editorial zum Tagungsband: Spannungsfelder und blinde Flecken. Medienpädagogik zwischen Emanzipationsanspruch und Diskursvermeidung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kommer

    2017-10-01

    und Selbstermächtigung orientierte Linie, die sich in ausserschulischen Settings subjekt- und ressourcenorientiert die Medien als Instrumente subversiver Strategien und/oder der Identitätskonstruktion angeeignet hat. Oft nur bedingt an diese anschlussfähig ist eine schulpädagogische Linie, die ihren Ausgang bei der ‹Film- und Medienerziehung› genommen hat und inzwischen stärker auf Kompetenzerwerb fokussiert. Daneben findet sich dann noch eine (vielfältig ausdifferenzierte ‹Mediendidaktik›, die immer wieder technologie-euphorisch innovatives Lernen versprochen hat. Positiv gewendet, zeigt bereits diese kleine Skizze, dass die Medienpädagogik als erziehungswissenschaftliche Disziplin darauf verweisen kann, wie intensiv Theoriebildung, Forschung und Praxis gegenwärtig in einem breiten Spektrum von Ansätzen, Forschungsschwerpunkten und ‹Schulen› vollzogen wird. Das Fach ist also sehr lebendig – erscheint aber aus der Perspektive externer Beobachter möglicherweise auch als diffus.

  2. Discrimination of thermal diffusivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Materials such as wood or metal which are at equal temperatures are perceived to be of different ‘coldness’ due to differences in thermal properties, such as the thermal diffusivity. The thermal diffusivity of a material is a parameter that controls the rate with which heat is extracted from the

  3. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  4. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  5. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  6. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  7. Thermal diffusion (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarechal, A.

    1963-01-01

    This report brings together the essential principles of thermal diffusion in the liquid and gaseous phases. The macroscopic and molecular aspects of the thermal diffusion constant are reviewed, as well as the various measurement method; the most important developments however concern the operation of the CLUSIUS and DICKEL thermo-gravitational column and its applications. (author) [fr

  8. Diffusion of Botulinum Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Brodsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally agreed that diffusion of botulinum toxin occurs, but the extent of the spread and its clinical importance are disputed. Many factors have been suggested to play a role but which have the most clinical relevance is a subject of much discussion.Methods: This review discusses the variables affecting diffusion, including protein composition and molecular size as well as injection factors (e.g., volume, dose, injection method. It also discusses data on diffusion from comparative studies in animal models and human clinical trials that illustrate differences between the available botulinum toxin products (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB.Results: Neither molecular weight nor the presence of complexing proteins appears to affect diffusion; however, injection volume, concentration, and dose all play roles and are modifiable. Both animal and human studies show that botulinum toxin products are not interchangeable, and that some products are associated with greater diffusion and higher rates of diffusion-related adverse events than others.Discussion: Each of the botulinum toxins is a unique pharmacologic entity. A working knowledge of the different serotypes is essential to avoid unwanted diffusion-related adverse events. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the factors influencing diffusion may range from properties intrinsic to the drug to accurate muscle selection as well as dilution, volume, and dose injected.

  9. Diffusion in Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion in Coulomb crystals can be important for the structure of neutron star crusts. We determine diffusion constants D from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that D for Coulomb crystals with relatively soft-core 1/r interactions may be larger than D for Lennard-Jones or other solids with harder-core interactions. Diffusion, for simulations of nearly perfect body-centered-cubic lattices, involves the exchange of ions in ringlike configurations. Here ions "hop" in unison without the formation of long lived vacancies. Diffusion, for imperfect crystals, involves the motion of defects. Finally, we find that diffusion, for an amorphous system rapidly quenched from Coulomb parameter Γ=175 to Coulomb parameters up to Γ=1750, is fast enough that the system starts to crystalize during long simulation runs. These results strongly suggest that Coulomb solids in cold white dwarf stars, and the crust of neutron stars, will be crystalline and not amorphous.

  10. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  11. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  12. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  13. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  14. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  15. Self diffusion in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundy, J.N.; Rothman, S.J.; Lam, N.Q.; Nowicki, L.J.; Hoff, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The lack of understanding of self-diffusion in Group VI metals together with the wide scatter in the measured values of tungsten self-diffusion has prompted the present measurements to be made over a wide temperature range (1/2Tsub(m) to Tsub(m)). The diffusion coefficients have been measured in the temperature range 1430-2630 0 C. The present measurements show non-linear Arrhenius behavior but a reliable two-exponential fit of the data should await further measurements. (Auth.)

  16. Technical and economic aspects of fuel cell applications in space HVAC systems; Technische und wirtschaftliche Aspekte zum Einsatz von Brennstoffzellen in der Gebaeudeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handke, J; Handschin, E

    1999-12-31

    There are two different types of fuel cells for small-scale applications, li.e. polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and high-termperature fuel cells with ceramic solid electrolytes (SOFC). Both types of fuel cells have different advantages and shortcomings. One of the main problems, however, is the fact that research is still going on and that commercial fuel cell systems for space HVAC applications are still not available. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach dem heutigen Stand werden zwei unterschiedliche Brennstoffzellen-Typen zum Einsatz in Kleinanlagen entwickelt. Neben der zu Klasse der Niedertemperatur-Brennstoffzellen gehoerenden Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzelle (PEMFC) ist dies die Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle auf der Basis eines keramischen Festelektrolyten (SOFC). Beide Brennstoffzellen-Typen haben unterschiedliche Vor- und Nachteile fuer den Einsatz zur Gebaeudeversorgung. Eines der Hauptprobleme, das allerdings beide Zellentypen gemeinsam haben, besteht in der noch nicht abgeschlossenen Entwicklung und - daraus resultierend - der fehlenden kommerziellen Verfuegbarkeit im Bereich der Gebaeudeversorgung. (orig./MM)

  17. Symposium Ecological construction - from half-timbered- to passive house: living yesterday - today - tomorrow; Symposium Oekologische Bauweisen - vom Umgebinde- zum Passivhaus: Wohnen Gestern - Heute - Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    While the first part of the symposium was dedicated to half-timbered buildings in the traditional style of Lausitz, Bohemia and Silesia, the second part discussed passive buildings. [German] Das Umgebindehaus ist ein weltweit einmaliger Haustyp und zum anderen ist es ein traditionelles Haus unserer Region der Oberlausitz und angrenzender Teile von Boehmen und Schlesien. Das Symposium behandelt das Umgebindehaus in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart und will Motivation und Ansaetze geben, dieses wunderschoene Baukulturgut zu erhalten und unter modernen Wohn-, Arbeits- und Lebensbedingungen zu nutzen. Der zweite Teil der Tagung ist nicht minder wichtig. Beim Passivhaus geht es im wesentlichen darum, Heizwaermeverluste im Winter so klein zu halten, dass sie von den Gewinnen (Sonnenenergie, inneres Waermeaufkommen u.a.) gedeckt werden koennen. Damit wird der Waermeschutz des Gebaeudes vielleicht bis an die Grenzen getrieben und es entstehen neue Anforderungen an das Energiemanagement und die Qualitaet der technischen Gebaeudeausruestung. (orig.)

  18. Proceedings on the seminar on small hydroelectric installations: Practice report and current development; Beitraege zum Seminar Kleinwasserkraft: Praxis und aktuelle Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This seminar on small hydroelectric installations informs on aspects of construction and administrative aspects. But above all, questions of machinery are dealt with. The book gives an overview of turbine types, topical recent developments in the sector of small hydroelectric power stations, and modern opportunities for fast and inexpensive design of power station components. Beyond the discussion of technical issues, the seminar wants to further contacts between science, turbine manufacturers, consultants and plant operators. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Seminar Kleinwasserkraft gibt eine Uebersicht ueber bauliche Gestaltung und behoerdliche Aspekte. Vorallem behandelt es aber maschinenbauliche Problemstellungen. Es zeigt einen Ueberblick ueber Turbinentypen, aktuelle Neuentwicklungen im Kleinwassersektor, sowie moderne Moeglichkeiten zum schnellen und preiswerten Design von Kraftwerkskomponenten. Neben dem technischen Teil dient das Seminar auch der Foerderung des Kontakts zwischen Wissenschaft, Turbinenherstellern, Consultants und Anlagenbetreibern. (orig.)

  19. The risk for cancer and genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism; Zum Krebs- und genetischen Risiko nach Radioiodtherapie der Hyperthyreose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-12-01

    According to recent studies, the risk for thyroid cancer is not increased after radioiodine treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism. Only the risk of cancer of the stomach seems to be increased slightly in patents treated with I-131 because of functional autonomy. However, the risk for gastric cancer is not increased after higher activities of I-131 because of thyroid cancer. There is no increased risk for genetic abnormalities after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aktuelle Studien zum Karzinomrisiko nach Radioiodtherapie wegen Hyperthyreose ergeben keinen Anhalt fuer eine erhoehte Inzidenz des Schilddruesenkarzinoms nach therapeutischer Gabe von I-131. Allenfalls scheint die Inzidenz von Magenkarzinomen bei Patienten nach Radioiodtherapie wegen funktioneller Autonomie geringfuegig erhoeht zu sein, obwohl diese Beobachtung bei Patienten nach hochdosierter Radioiodtherapie wegen eines Schilddruesenkarzinoms nicht gemacht wurde. Hinweise fuer ein erhoehtes genetisches Risiko nach Radioiodtherapie der Hyperthyreose ergeben sich nicht. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion of Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, A.M.; Lenz, F.; Thies, M.; Negele, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

  1. Diffusion between evolving interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juntunen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion in an evolving environment is studied by continuous-time Monte Carlo simulations. Diffusion is modeled by continuous-time random walkers on a lattice, in a dynamic environment provided by bubbles between two one-dimensional interfaces driven symmetrically towards each other. For one-dimensional random walkers constrained by the interfaces, the bubble size distribution dominates diffusion. For two-dimensional random walkers, it is also controlled by the topography and dynamics of the interfaces. The results of the one-dimensional case are recovered in the limit where the interfaces are strongly driven. Even with simple hard-core repulsion between the interfaces and the particles, diffusion is found to depend strongly on the details of the dynamical rules of particles close to the interfaces.

  2. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements

  3. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...... resulting from the design were two-day training workshops conceptually anchored to TBP. The design theory was evaluated through execution of eight diffusion workshops involving three different groups in the same company. The findings indicate that the match between the practice and the context materialized...... that the behavior will be effective). These two factors were especially critical if the source context of the best practice is qualitatively different from the target context into which the organization is seeking to diffuse the best practice....

  4. Detection of diffusible substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warembourg, M [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France)

    1976-12-01

    The different steps of a radioautographic technique for the detection of diffusible substances are described. Using this radioautographic method, the topographic distribution of estradiol-concentrating neurons was studied in the nervous system and pituitary of the ovariectomized mouse and guinea-pig. A relatively good morphological preservation of structures can be ascertained on sections from unfixed, unembedded tissues prepared at low temperatures and kept-under relatively low humidity. The translocation or extraction of diffusible substances is avoided by directly mounting of frozen sections on dried photographic emulsion. Since no solvent is used, this technique excludes the major sources of diffusion artifacts and permits to be in favourable conditions for the localization of diffusible substances.

  5. On Diffusion and Permeation

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen S. L.

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion and permeation are discussed within the context of irreversible thermodynamics. A new expression for the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is obtained which links the permeability to the diffusivity of a two-component solution and contains the poroelastic Biot-Willis coefficient. The theory is illustrated by predicting the concentration and pressure profiles during the filtration of a protein solution. At low concentrations the proteins diffuse independently while at higher concentrations they form a nearly rigid porous glass through which the fluid permeates. The theoretically determined pressure drop is nonlinear in the diffusion regime and linear in the permeation regime, in quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. © 2009 Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York.

  6. Recommendations for the use of bioindicators in the frame of Environmetnal Impact Assessment (EIA); Empfehlungen zum Einsatz von Bioindikationsverfahren im Rahmen des Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungsgesetzes (UVPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D. [Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) (Germany). Arbeitskreis Bioindikation]|[Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany). Fachbereich Umweltschutz; Debus, R. [Fachhochschule Wiesbaden (Germany). Fachbereich MND - Umwelttechnik; Franzaring, J. [AB-DLO Wageningen (Netherlands); Hoepker, K.A. [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz, Karlsruhe (Germany); Maier, W. [TUEV Ecoplan Umwelt GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany); Reiml, D. [TUEV Ecoplan Umwelt GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Finck, M. [Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) - Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft (RdL), Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The paragraph 2 of the German law on Environmental Impact Assessment (law on EIA) requires to determine, to record and to assess the effects which proposed major projects in the areas of industry, local government and transport have on man, animals, plants, soil, water, air, climate, landspace, assets and cultural heritage including the interactions between different media. For this purpose, bioindication is an effective tool. Up to now, the different methods of bioindication were not applied sufficiently although some of the methods have already been standardised in guidelines (VDI, DIN). Users and authorities might feel insecure which bioindication method should be applied when assessing the impacts of a given project. This paper gives recommendations which bioindication method should be applied for the different major projects listed in the law on EIA. A widespread set of data obtained by the use of bioindicators is necessary to meet the demands of paragraph 2. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungsgesetz (UVPG) verlangt in Paragraph 2 die Ermittlung, Beschreibung und Bewertung der Auswirkungen eines Vorhabens auf Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen, Boden, Wasser, Luft, Klima und Landschaft einschliesslich der jeweiligen Wechselwirkungen sowie auf Kultur- und sonstige Sachgueter. Die Bioindikation kann hier wesentliche Dienste leisten. Bislang kamen die verschiedenen, z.T. in Richtlinien (VDI, DIN) vereinheitlichten Verfahren noch zu selten zum Einsatz. Ein Grund hierfuer duerfte in der Unsicherheit der Anwender sowie der Genehmigungsbehoerden liegen, welches Bioindikationsverfahren fuer welches UVPG-Vorhaben eine geeignete Erfassungs- und Bewertungsmethode erlaubt. Zu diesem Zweck werden fuer ausgewaehlte, gemaess UVPG genehmigungsbeduerftige Vorhaben Empfehlungen zum Einsatz von Bioindikationsverfahren erteilt. Erst durch zahlreiche Untersuchungsergebnisse aus diesen Verfahren koennen die Forderungen nach Paragraph 2 UVPG aussagekraeftig erfuellt

  7. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo

    1998-01-01

    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  8. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  9. Now consider diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors want to talk about future work, but first he will reply to Stan Cowley's comment on his naivety in believing in the whole story to 99% confidence in '65, when he knew about Fairfield's results. Does it matter whether you make the right judgment about theories? Yes, it does, particularly for experimentalists perhaps, but also for theorists. The work you do later depends on the judgment you've made on previous work. People have wasted a lot of time developing on insecure or even wrong foundations. Now for future work. One mild surprise the authors have had is that they haven't heard more about diffusion, in two contexts. Gordon Rostoker is yet to come and he may talk about particles getting into the magnetosphere by diffusion. Lots of noise is observed and so diffusion must happen. If time had not been short, the authors were planning to discuss in a handwaving way what sort of diffusion mechanisms one might consider. The other aspect of diffusion he was going to talk about is at the other end of things and is velocity diffusion, which is involved in anomalous resistivity

  10. Zum Bildungspotenzial biblischer Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biblical education as a holistic process goes far beyond biblical learning. It must be understood as a lifelong process, in which both biblical texts and their understanders operate appropriating their counterpart in a dialogical way. – Neither does the recipient’s horizon of understanding appear as an empty room, which had to be filled with the text only, nor is the latter a dead material one could only examine cognitively. The recipient discovers the meaning of the biblical text recomposing it by existential appropriation. So the text is brought to live in each individual reality. Both scientific insights and subjective structures as well as the understanders’ community must be included to avoid potential one-sidednesses. Unfortunately, a special negative association obscures the approach of the bible very often: Still biblical work as part of religious education appears in a cognitively oriented habit, which is neither regarding the vitality and sovereignty of the biblical texts nor the students’ desire for meaning. Moreover, the bible is getting misused for teaching moral terms or pontifications. Such downfalls can be disrupted by biblical didactics which are empowerment didactics. Regarding the sovereignty of biblical texts, these didactics assist the understander with his/her individuation by opening the texts with focus on the understander’s otherness. Thus each the text and the recipient become subjects in a dialogue. The approach of the Biblical-Enabling-Didactics leads the Bible to become always new a book of life. Understanding them from within their hermeneutics, empowerment didactics could be raised to the principle of biblical didactics in general and grow into an essential element of holistic education.

  11. Herkommer zum Hinschauen

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Tagung: Moderne Architektur exemplarisch. Hans Herkommer (1887-1956). Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Lehrgebiet Geschichte und Theorie der Architektur. Prof. Dr. phil. Matthias Schirren. 28.-29. Oktober 2010

  12. Ein Experiment zum Anlegerverhalten

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Martin; Camerer, Colin F.

    1992-01-01

    Portfolio selection is one important example of decision making under risk. We empirically investigate how decision makers behave when making these decisions, As a baseline we compare this intuitive decision making with the optimal decision making described by Markowitz' portfolio theory. Our results show that intuitive behavior is quite different from optimal behavior. Especially, subjects did not hold the optimal risky portfolio and they trade much more than predicted by portfol...

  13. Zum Ökologieschwerpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Sammenfaldet mellem en økologisk og en økonomisk krise blev allerede diskuteret i Das Argument 93/1975 med dets destruktive følger i forhold til nødvendige økologiske forbedringer. I dag diskuteres en 'Grøn New Deal' som løsning for kapitalismen og for klimaproblemet. Dette problematiseres ud fra...

  14. Zum Studium der Anthroposophie

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Johann Wolfgang v. Goethe und Rudolf Steiner haben beide auf verschiedenen Wegen eine Denkungsart entwickelt, deren Quelle diese Anschauungskraft ist. Eine Denkungsart, die nicht dabei stehenbleibt über die Dinge und Wesen nachzudenken, sondern die sie vielmehr in Gedankenform erstehen und so ihr Wesen unmittelbar erlebbar werden lässt. Goethe wandte sich dabei den Naturreichen zu und gestaltete seine ‚gegenständliche' Denkungsart zu einer naturwissenschaftlichen Methode aus, die er für weit ...

  15. LED; Zum Thema LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This collection of articles on the subject of light emitting diodes (LED) provides technical information on LED technology, examines latest developments and provides examples of LED use in practice. An 'ABC' of LED technology is presented and fifteen common LED mistakes are noted. The chances and risks of LED use are discussed as is the retrofitting of lighting installations with LEDs. The use of LEDs in street lighting is examined. The journal also includes interviews with architects and a lighting designer. Practical examples of the use of LEDs include the refurbished parliamentary library in Berne, their use in the bird sanctuary headquarters in Sempach, Switzerland, as well as LED use in sales outlets. Also, the use of LED lighting in a spa gazebo in Lucerne is examined.

  16. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, E.

    2006-06-01

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  17. Diffusion Influenced Adsorption Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-27

    When the kinetics of adsorption is influenced by the diffusive flow of solutes, the solute concentration at the surface is influenced by the surface coverage of solutes, which is given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation. The diffusion equation with the boundary condition given by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption equation leads to the nonlinear integro-differential equation for the surface coverage. In this paper, we solved the nonlinear integro-differential equation using the Grünwald-Letnikov formula developed to solve fractional kinetics. Guided by the numerical results, analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the exact numerical results were obtained. The upper and lower bounds were close to the exact numerical results in the diffusion- and reaction-controlled limits, respectively. We examined the validity of the two simple analytical expressions obtained in the diffusion-controlled limit. The results were generalized to include the effect of dispersive diffusion. We also investigated the effect of molecular rearrangement of anisotropic molecules on surface coverage.

  18. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E

    1995-09-01

    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 microliters.min-1.cm-2 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  19. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of 137 Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of 137 Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000 0 C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ΔE of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon) 0 exp [-ΔE/RT] are about 4 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively

  20. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.; Pontius, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes is described which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane

  1. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  2. Distributed Control Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2007-01-01

    . Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular....... This approach allows the programmer to dynamically distribute behaviors throughout a robot and moreover provides a partial abstraction over the concrete physical shape of the robot. We have implemented a prototype of a distributed control diffusion system for the ATRON modular, self-reconfigurable robot......, self-reconfigurable robots, we present the concept of distributed control diffusion: distributed queries are used to identify modules that play a specific role in the robot, and behaviors that implement specific control strategies are diffused throughout the robot based on these role assignments...

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  4. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  5. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  6. The Trouble with Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. DeHoff

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenological formalism, which yields Fick's Laws for diffusion in single phase multicomponent systems, is widely accepted as the basis for the mathematical description of diffusion. This paper focuses on problems associated with this formalism. This mode of description of the process is cumbersome, defining as it does matrices of interdiffusion coefficients (the central material properties that require a large experimental investment for their evaluation in three component systems, and, indeed cannot be evaluated for systems with more than three components. It is also argued that the physical meaning of the numerical values of these properties with respect to the atom motions in the system remains unknown. The attempt to understand the physical content of the diffusion coefficients in the phenomenological formalism has been the central fundamental problem in the theory of diffusion in crystalline alloys. The observation by Kirkendall that the crystal lattice moves during diffusion led Darken to develop the concept of intrinsic diffusion, i.e., atom motion relative to the crystal lattice. Darken and his successors sought to relate the diffusion coefficients computed for intrinsic fluxes to those obtained from the motion of radioactive tracers in chemically homogeneous samples which directly report the jump frequencies of the atoms as a function of composition and temperature. This theoretical connection between tracer, intrinsic and interdiffusion behavior would provide the basis for understanding the physical content of interdiffusion coefficients. Definitive tests of the resulting theoretical connection have been carried out for a number of binary systems for which all three kinds of observations are available. In a number of systems predictions of intrinsic coefficients from tracer data do not agree with measured values although predictions of interdiffusion coefficients appear to give reasonable agreement. Thus, the complete

  7. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  8. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  9. Ambipolar diffusion in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L. da.

    1987-01-01

    Is this thesis, a numerical method for the solution of the linear diffusion equation for a plasma containing two types of ions, with the possibility of charge exchange, has been developed. It has been shown that the decay time of the electron and ion densities is much smaller than that in a plasma containing only a single type of ion. A non-linear diffusion equation, which includes the effects of an external electric field varying linearly in time, to describe a slightly ionized plasma has also been developed. It has been verified that the decay of the electron density in the presence of such an electric field is very slow. (author)

  10. Diffuse axonal injury: detection of changes in anisotropy of water diffusion by diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, J.H.M.; Tsui, E.Y.K.; Yuen, M.K.; Peh, W.C.G.; Fong, D.; Fok, K.F.; Leung, K.M.; Fung, K.K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Myelinated axons of white matter demonstrate prominent directional differences in water diffusion. We performed diffusion-weighted imaging on ten patients with head injury to explore the feasibility of using water diffusion anisotropy for quantitating diffuse axonal injury. We showed significant decrease in diffusion anisotropy indices in areas with or without signal abnormality on T2 and T2*-weighted images. We conclude that the water diffusion anisotropy index a potentially useful, sensitive and quantitative way of diagnosing and assessing patients with diffuse axonal injury. (orig.)

  11. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    Designing novel diffusion-weighted NMR and MRI pulse sequences aiming to probe tissue microstructure with techniques extending beyond the conventional Stejskal-Tanner family is currently of broad interest. One such technique, multidimensional diffusion MRI, has been recently proposed to afford...... model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...

  12. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Osmosis and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  14. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  15. Bronnen van diffuse bodembelasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijzen JPA; Ekelenkamp A; LBG; DGM/BO

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to support the policy on preventive soil protection with information on the diffuse (non-local) emissions to soil and the influence on future soil quality. This study is related to inventories on (potential) sources of local soil pollution (e.g. industrial areas,

  16. Diffusion in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubarak, A S

    1991-12-31

    Rutherford backscattering spectromertry technique (RBS) was used to characterize and investigate the depth distribution profiles of Ca-impurities of Ca-doped soda-time glass. The purposely added Ca-impurities were introduced inti the glass matrix by a normal ion exchange diffusion process. The measurements and analysis were performed using 2 MeV {sup 2}He{sup +} ions supplied from the University of Jordan Van de Graff acceierator (JOVAG). The normalized concetration versus depth profile distributions for the Ca-imourities were determined, both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical treatment was carried out by setting up and soiving the diffusion equation under the conditions of the experiment. The resulting profiles are characterized by a compiementary error function. the theoretical treeatment was extended to include the various methods of enhancing the diffusion process, e.g. using an electric field. The diffusion coefficient, assumed constant, of the Ca-impurities exchanged in the soda-lime glass was determined to be 1.23 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup 2}/s. A comparison between theoretically and experimentally determined profiles is made and commented at, where several conclusions are drawn and suggestions for future work are mentioned. (author). 38 refs., 21 figs., 10 Tabs.

  17. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  18. Multienergy anomalous diffuse scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Fábry, Jan; Kub, Jiří; Lausi, A.; Busetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 19 (2008), 195504/1-195504/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100529 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffuse scattering * x-rays * structure determination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  19. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free...

  20. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role...

  1. Diffusion in ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to changes that occur in solids such as ceramics, mainly at high temperatures, which are diffusion controlled, as well as presenting research data. Such changes are related to the kinetics of various reactions such as precipitation, oxidation and phase transformations, but are also related to some mechanical changes, such as creep. The book is composed of two parts, beginning with a look at the basics of diffusion according to Fick's Laws. Solutions of Fick’s second law for constant D, diffusion in grain boundaries and dislocations are presented along with a look at the atomistic approach for the random motion of atoms. In the second part, the author discusses diffusion in several technologically important ceramics. The ceramics selected are monolithic single phase ones, including: A12O3, SiC, MgO, ZrO2 and Si3N4. Of these, three refer to oxide ceramics (alumina, magnesia and zirconia). Carbide based ceramics are represented by the technologically very important Si-ca...

  2. Long-term observations on the influence of groundwater level variations on BTEX concentrations in groundwater; Langzeituntersuchungen zum Einfluss von Grundwasserschwankungen auf die BTEX-Konzentration im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puettmann, W. [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt a. M., Institut fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, AG Umweltanalytik, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hettwer, K.; Warrelmann, J. [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung und Umwelttechnologie, Bremen (Germany); Gaab, S.

    2007-06-15

    A long-term study on natural attenuation and remediation in soil and groundwater at the former military base Schaeferhof-Sued (Niedersachsen) was performed at a former gasoline filling station. At this locality, a large residual source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and additional petroleum hydrocarbons is present in the soil. BTEX-concentrations in the groundwater and their correlation with groundwater level variations were monitored for three years. Within the monitoring period, a very dry summer was recorded, which caused the groundwater level to drop by 1.7 m and the BTEX concentrations to increase from 240 {mu}g/l to 1300 {mu}g/l at the site of contamination. The microbial degradation of BTEX was documented by data on consumption of electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate or sulphate) and production of reduced products (Fe(II), methane). The degradation is further supported by the detection of metabolites. Therefore, the increasing BTEX concentrations were not a consequence of limited biological degradation. (orig.) [German] Auf dem frueher militaerisch genutzten Gelaende Schaeferhof-Sued (Niedersachsen) wurden im Bereich einer ehemaligen Abfuellstation fuer Kraftstoffe Langzeituntersuchungen zum natuerlichen Schadstoffabbau und -rueckhalt im Boden und Grundwasser durchgefuehrt. Der Standort weist eine hohe Restkontamination der Verbindungen Benzol, Toluol, Ethylbenzol und Xylole (BTEX), sowie Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen (MKW) in der ungesaettigten Bodenzone auf. Ueber einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren wurden die BTEX-Konzentrationen im Grundwasser und deren Abhaengigkeit von einer Aenderung des Grundwasserstandes untersucht und eine negative Korrelation der Schadstoffkonzentrationen mit der Hoehe des Grundwasserstandes festgestellt. Im Beobachtungszeitraum lag das sehr trockene Sommerhalbjahr 2003, was im Vergleich zum vorhergehenden Winterhalbjahr eine Absenkung des Grundwasserspiegels um 1,7 m zur Folge hatte und die BTEX-Konzentrationen am

  3. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  4. The Pearson diffusions: A class of statistically tractable diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Julie Lyng; Sørensen, Michael

    The Pearson diffusions is a flexible class of diffusions defined by having linear drift and quadratic squared diffusion coefficient. It is demonstrated that for this class explicit statistical inference is feasible. Explicit optimal martingale estimating func- tions are found, and the corresponding...

  5. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in diffuse liver diseases; Stellenwert der MRT bei diffusen Lebererkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, N.; D' Anastasi, M.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    '' (IVIM), MR-Perfusion. T1-gewichtete In- und Opposed-phase-Sequenzen werden im klinischen Alltag am haeufigsten zum Steatosenachweis und zur Fettquantifizierung eingesetzt. Neue Methoden zur Quantifizierung, die nicht durch zahlreiche moegliche Stoerfaktoren wie Eisenueberladung beeinflusst werden, sind in Entwicklung. Die MRS misst den Fettgehalt der Leber am sensitivsten und genauesten. Aufgrund der Komplexitaet der Datenakquise und -auswertung sowie der fehlenden Abdeckung der gesamten Leber eignet sie sich noch nicht als Routinemethode. Mit optimiertem Protokoll, das zunehmend T2*-gewichtete Sequenzen enthaelt, ist die MRT Methode der Wahl zur Quantifizierung der Eisenueberladung bei Haemochromatose. Fruehe Stadien der Leberfibrose koennen mit Standardsequenzen nicht dargestellt werden. Die fortgeschrittenen MR-Techniken zur nichtinvasiven Beurteilung der Leberfibrose (Elastographie, Diffusion, IVIM, Perfusion) sind viel versprechend, befinden sich aber derzeit noch im Forschungsstadium. (orig.)

  6. Ion conductivity and mass spectrometry of methanol diffusion and electroosmotic drag on proton-conducting membranes for the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC); Ionische Leitfaehigkeit und massenspektrometrische Bestimmung der Methanol-Diffusion und des 'Electroosmotic Drag' an protonenleitenden Membranen fuer die Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle (DMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztuerk, N.

    2001-07-01

    The methanol permeability of the nafion membrane is one reason why the DMFC is not marketable as yet. As a result of diffusion, permeation and electroosmotic drag, methanol is transferred to the kation side where it will reduce the fuel cell performance. Research is going on world-wide to develop new materials that will prevent methanol crossover. The report describes the development of a measuring cell that will provide the necessary information on diffusion, permeation, electroosmotic drag and conductivity. [German] Ein wesentlicher Grund, der die Einfuehrung der DMFC noch verhindert, ist die Methanoldurchlaessigkeit der Nafion-Membran. Durch Diffusion und Permeation und durch den Electroosmotic Drag gelangt Methanol auf die Kathodenseite und fuehrt dann zu einem Leistungsabfall der Brennstoffzelle. Daher werden weltweit neue Materialien entwickelt, die bei guter lonenleitfaehigkeit den Methanol-crossover unterdruecken. Zur Beurteilung und Weiterentwicklung der neuen Materialien werden Informationen zur Diffusion, Permeation, zum Electroosmotic Drag und zur Leitfaehigkeit benoetigt. Um diese Parameter schnell und einfach zu bestimmen, wurde im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine Messzelle weiter entwickelt. Diese Messzelle erlaubt die schnelle Bestimmung aller vier wichtigen Parameter. (orig.)

  7. Urban diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    It is hoped that urban diffusion models of air pollutants can eventually confidently be used to make major decisions, such as in planning the layout of a new industrial park, determining the effects of a new highway on air quality, or estimating the results of a new automobile emissions exhaust system. The urban diffusion model itself should be able to account for point, line, and area sources, and the local aerodynamic effects of street canyons and building wakes. Removal or transformations due to dry or wet deposition and chemical reactions are often important. It would be best if the model included meteorological parameters such as wind speed and temperature as dependent variables, since these parameters vary significantly when air passes from rural surfaces over urban surfaces

  8. Diffused Religion and Prayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite likely that the origins of prayer are to be found in ancient mourning and bereavement rites. Primeval ritual prayer was codified and handed down socially to become a deep-rooted feature of people’s cultural behavior, so much so, that it may surface again several years later, in the face of death, danger, need, even in the case of relapse from faith and religious practice. Modes of prayer depend on religious experience, on relations between personal prayer and political action, between prayer and forgiveness, and between prayer and approaches to religions. Various forms of prayer exist, from the covert-hidden to the overt-manifest kind. How can they be investigated? How can one, for instance, explore mental prayer? These issues regard the canon of diffused religion and, therefore, of diffused prayer.

  9. Magnetic diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of neutrons from magnetic materials provides unique and important information regarding the spatial correlations of the atoms and the spins. Such measurements have been extensively applied to magnetically ordered systems, such as the ferromagnetic binary alloys, for which the observed correlations describe the magnetic moment fluctuations associated with local environment effects. With the advent of polarization analysis, these techniques are increasingly being applied to study disordered paramagnetic systems such as the spin-glasses and the diluted magnetic semiconductors. The spin-pair correlations obtained are essential in understanding the exchange interactions of such systems. In this paper, we describe recent neutron diffuse scattering results on the atom-pair and spin-pair correlations in some of these disordered magnetic systems. 56 refs

  10. Diffusion in heterogeneous lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 17 (2010), s. 5137-5144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : lattice- gas systems * diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010

  11. Diffusion bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of diffusion bonding at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the gold/gold or gold/indium joints made between metallized alumina ceramic parts in the vacuum switch tube and the crystal resonator programs. Fixtures which use the differential expansion of dissimilar metals are described and compared to one that uses hydraulic pressure to apply the necessary bonding force

  12. Enrichment by diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezin, M.

    1976-01-01

    The report presents an introduction to general basic principles of the gaseous diffusion process for the separation of uranium isotopes. Dealt with are: a) theoretical background and basic considerations of separation work and production costs, b) construction of a single separation stage and a multistage plant, c) the components of a plant and the optimization factors, d) cost factors. The text is illustrated by instructive diagrammes and flow charts. (RB) [de

  13. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  14. Diffusion in cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.S.; Pande, B.M.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium has been used as a cladding material in most research reactors because its low neutron absorption cross section and ease of fabrication. However, it is not suitable for cladding in power reactors and as such zircaloy-2 is normally used as a clad because it can withstand high temperature. It has low neutron absorption cross section, good oxidation, corrosion, creep properties and possesses good mechanical strength. With the passage of time, further development in this branch of science took place and designers started looking for better neutron economy and less hydrogen pickup in PHW reactors. The motion of fission products in the cladding material could pose a problem after long operation. In order to understand their behaviour under reactor environment, it is essential to study first the diffusion under normal conditions. These studies will throw light on the interaction of defects with impurities which would in turn help in understanding the mechanism of diffusion. In this article, it is intended to discuss the diffusion behaviour of impurities in cladding materials.(i.e. aluminium, zircaloy-2, zirconium-niobium alloy etc.). (author). 94 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Solute diffusivity in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    Solute diffusivity in soil plays a major role in many important processes with relation to plant growth and environmental issues. Soil solute diffusivity is affected by the volumetric water content as well as the morphological characteristics of water-filled pores. The solute diffusivity in intact...

  16. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirable to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.

  17. Keine Angst vor der Muttersprache – vor den (anderen Fremdsprachen aber auch nicht! Überlegungen zum Verhältnis von Einsprachigkeit und Zweisprachigkeit im Fremdsprachenunterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank G. Königs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Die heute vorliegenden Forschungsergebnisse erlauben einen differenzierteren Blick auf die Rolle der Muttersprache bei der Aneignung einer fremden Sprache. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird versucht, dieses differenzierte Bild nachzuzeichnen und die Rolle der Muttersprache aus unterschiedlichen Perspektiven auszuleuchten: Welche Erkenntnisse zur Sprachverarbeitung und zum Spracherwerb und welche vermittlungsmethodische Einsichten erlauben uns, die Rolle der Muttersprache zu bestimmen? Welche Bedeutung haben dabei der Bezug zur außerunterrichtlichen Realität der Lernenden und die dem scheinbar gegenüber-stehende natürliche Künstlichkeit des Fremdsprachenunterrichts? Was bedeutet dies alles für den Umgang mit Sprachen im fremdsprachlichen Klassenzimmer und im bilingualen Sachfachunterricht?  Recent research allows a more nuanced view of the role of the mother tongue in acquiring a foreign language. In this paper, an attempt is made to trace this differentiated image and illuminate the role of the mother tongue from different perspectives: What helps us to determine the role of the mother tongue given findings on language processing, language acquisition and (foreign language teaching methods? How do these results relate to the extracurricular realities of learners and the seemingly opposing natural artificiality of language teaching? What are the implications of this when dealing with languages in the foreign language classroom and CLIL?

  18. Investigation of the warm prestress effect by X-ray and microfractographic measurements; Roentgenografische und mikrofraktografische Untersuchungen zum Warmvorbeanspruchungs (WPS) - Effekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenauer, H.; Eichler, B.; Krempe, M.; Ude, J. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik und Werkstoffpruefung

    1998-11-01

    The work reported was to investigate the changes caused at the crack tip of a specimen with incipient crack and to assess their effects with regard to component fracture. The steels selected for testing are the pressure vessel steels 10MnMoNi5-5 and 17MoV8-4, and the experiments were made with CT-25 specimens. The conclusion drawn from the results obtained is that the WPS effect is due to a stronger energy dissipation in the prestressed area ahead of the crack tip, assisted by intrinsic stress-induced crack closing. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die durch eine Vorbeanspruchung angerissener Proben hervorgerufenen Veraenderungen an der Rissspitze und ihre Auswirkungen auf das Bruchverhalten zu untersuchen. Die Untersuchungen wurden an den Druckbehaelterstaehlen 10MnMoNi5-5 und 17MoV8-4 durchgefuehrt. Die Versuche wurden an CT-25-Proben durchgefuehrt. Die Autoren kommen zum Schluss, dass der WPS-Effekt mit einer staerkeren Energiedissipation in der vorgeschaedigten Prozesszone vor der Rissspitze, unterstuetzt durch eigenspannungsbedingtes Rissschliessen, erklaert werden kann. (orig./MM)

  19. Investigations into the use of bacteria for enhanced recovery of petroleum; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von Bakterien zur Erhoehung des Entoelungsgrades in Erdoellagerstaetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amro, M.

    1995-06-01

    Strains of bacteria were investigated with a view to their applicability and efficiency in enhanced recovery of petroleum. The mechanisms of enhanced recovery with bacteria were to be clarified as well. The experiments were carried out as static autoclave experiments without bedrock and as dynamic flooding experiments in a model pore space (Bentheim sandstone and carbonate rock) under the conditions of North German petroleum deposits. The static experiments carried out preliminary to the more time-consuming dynamic flooding experiments were to help with an optimized design of the injection experiments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit hat zum Ziel, entoelungswirksame Bakterienstaemme zu untersuchen und hinsichtlich der durch sie bewirkten Erhoehung des Entoelungsgrades zu bewerten. Gleichzeitig sollen die Mechanismen aufgeklaert werden, die der Entoelungsverbesserung durch Einsatz von Bakterien zugrunde liegen. Die Experimente wurden als statische Autoklavenversuche ohne Lagerstaettengestein sowie als dynamische Flutversuche im Modellporenraum (Bentheimer Sandstein und karbonatisches Gesteinsmaterial) unter Bedingungen norddeutscher Lagerstaetten durchgefuehrt. Die statischen Versuche, die als Auswahltests den aufwendigeren dynamischen Flutversuchen vorgeschaltet waren, sollten dazu beitragen, die Flutversuche gezielt konzipieren zu koennen. (orig./EF)

  20. Particle diffusion in a spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.; Levinton, F.M.; Yamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    The local carbon particle diffusion coefficient was measured in the Proto S-1/C spheromak using a test particle injection scheme. When the plasma was not in a force-free Taylor state, and when there were pressure gradients in the plasma, the particle diffusion was five times that predicted by Bohm and was consistent with collisional drift wave diffusion. The diffusion appears to be driven by correlations of the fluctuating electric field and density. During the decay phase of the discharge when the plasma was in the Taylor state, the diffusion coefficient of the carbon was classical. 23 refs., 4 figs

  1. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  2. Measuring methods of matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Valkiainen, M.

    1988-03-01

    In Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of at large depths in crystalline bedrock. The radionuclides which are dissolved in the groundwater may be able to diffuse into the micropores of the porous rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the flowing water in the fractures. This phenomenon is called matrix diffusion. A review over matrix diffusion is presented in the study. The main interest is directed to the diffusion of non-sorbing species. The review covers diffusion experiments and measurements of porosity, pore size, specific surface area and water permeability

  3. Use and abuse of diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiotek, A.; Grzywna, Z.J.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion in a bounded region (or diffusive mass transport) can be seen from at least three platforms: - chemistry of he Fick's equation; - chemical engineering. To pose a particular problem we have to provide some additional conditions (initial conditions, boundary conditions and further). As we understood it in all cases diffusion is considered in an open region (in other words in one phase). Chemical engineering however brings an idea of 'diffusion' between phases. We claim that there isn't diffusion between phases. One can only consider mass transport between phases. Mass transport (or transfer in chemical engineering jargon) from one phase to another composes of: diffusion in first phase partition at an interface diffusion in second phase. (author)

  4. Diffusion in amorphous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotov, Mihail S.

    The goals of this research are twofold: First, to develop methods and tools for studying problems in chemistry, material science and biology, as well as accurate prediction of the properties of structures and materials of importance to those fields. Second, use those tools to apply the methods to practical problems. In terms of methodology development this thesis focuses on two topics: One: Development of a massively parallel computer program to perform electronic, atomic, molecular levels simulations of problems in chemistry, material science and biology. This computer program uses existing and emerging hardware platforms and parallel tools and is based on decades long research in computer modeling and algorithms. We report on that development in Chapter 3. Two: Development of tools for Molecular Dynamics simulation and methods and tools for course-grained meso-scale modeling of transport properties and especially diffusion of gas penetrants in polymers. We have formulated a new method for extracting coarse-grained information from short (0.2-0.5 nanoseconds [ns]) MD simulations and use this in a meso-scale simulation to calculate diffusion constants in polymer matrices. This is a grid-based method, which calculates the average probability of each grid point of being a void and performs constrained and biased Monte Carlo (MC) dynamics to reach much longer time regimes than possible in MD. The MC method mimics the three regimes of mean square deviation (MSD) behavior seen in MD, thus accounting for the proper mobility of the voids and the compressibility of the polymer matrix. Theoretical discussions and justification for the method is presented in chapter 6. Initial results on He diffusion in a low-density polyethylene (PE) matrix are presented in chapter 7. The behavior at different temperatures follows closely the trend observed from calibrating long term MD for this particular system.

  5. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and 28Si enriched layers, enables the observation of 30Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the 28Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly

  6. Planar Dirac diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)

  7. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  8. Diffuse esophageal spasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.J.; Chen, Y.M.; Hewson, E.G.; Richter, J.E.; Wu, W.C.; Gelfand, D.W.; Castell, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Radiologic and manometric findings were correlated in 17 patients with diffuse esophageal spasm (DES). All patients initially had chest pain and/or dysphagia and had a manometric diagnosis of DES. Mean percentage of normal peristalsis manometrically was 46% (range, 20%-80%). Based on radiologic examination, an esophageal motor disorder consistent with DES was diagnosed in 12 of 17 patients, and there was one misinterpretation of achalasia. Radiologic detection was not related significantly to the percentage of peristalsis seen on manometric examination. Mean esophageal wall thickness as measured radiographically in patients with DES was 2.6 mm, compared with 2.5 mm in 17 individuals with normal results of manometry

  9. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  10. Craniocerebral trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging of diffuse axonal injury; Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma. MRT bei diffuser axonaler Verletzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouhi, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Abteilung fuer Neuro- und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    fuer Behinderung oder Tod. Es fuehrt haeufig zu einer axonalen Scherverletzung. Die daraus resultierende Pathologie wird als diffuse axonale Verletzung (''diffuse axonal injury'', DAI) bezeichnet. Die DAI-assoziierten Laesionen treten bilateral und verteilt auf und werden in der oberflaechlichen und in der tiefen weissen Substanz beobachtet. Sie finden sich sowohl in der Naehe als auch weit entfernt von der Aufprallstelle. Bei klinischem Verdacht auf eine diffuse axonale Verletzung ist die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur weiteren Abklaerung die Methode der Wahl, dies insbesondere bei Patienten mit einer unauffaelligen Computertomographie des Schaedels. Zur Abklaerung des Gehirns nach einem Schaedel-Hirn-Trauma (SHT) wird ein multimodales MR-Verfahren angewendet, das in 2 Kategorien unterteilt werden kann: strukturelle und funktionelle MR-Bildgebung. Fuer die strukturelle MRT kommen hauptsaechlich die Fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery(FLAIR)-Gewichtung und die suszeptibilitaetsgewichtete Bildgebung (SWI) zum Einsatz. Die SWI ist ausserordentlich auf Blutabbauprodukte empfindlich, welche als kleine Signalausloeschungen an 3 typischen Lokalisationen (an der Rinden-Mark-Grenzzone, im Corpus callosum und im Hirnstamm) zur Darstellung kommen. Die funktionelle MRT umfasst eine Gruppe staendig in Entwicklung befindlicher Techniken, welche ein grosses Potenzial zur optimalen Evaluierung der weissen Substanz bei Patienten nach einem SHT haben. Diese modernen bildgebenden Verfahren ermoeglichen die Visualisierung der mit Scherverletzungen assoziierten Veraenderungen, wie die Funktionsbeeintraechtigung der Axone, die verminderte Durchblutung und abnormale metabolische Aktivitaet der betroffenen Gehirnanteile. Die multimodale MR-Abklaerung bei Patienten mit DAI fuehrt zu einer detaillierteren und differenzierteren Darstellung der zugrunde liegenden pathophysiologischen Veraenderungen der verletzten Nervenbahnen und traegt zur Verbesserung der

  11. Diffusion in Solids Fundamentals, Methods, Materials, Diffusion-Controlled Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrer, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion is a vital topic in solid-state physics and chemistry, physical metallurgy and materials science. Diffusion processes are ubiquitous in solids at elevated temperatures. A thorough understanding of diffusion in materials is crucial for materials development and engineering. This book first gives an account of the central aspects of diffusion in solids, for which the necessary background is a course in solid state physics. It then provides easy access to important information about diffuson in metals, alloys, semiconductors, ion-conducting materials, glasses and nanomaterials. Several diffusion-controlled phenomena, including ionic conduction, grain-boundary and dislocation pipe diffusion, are considered as well. Graduate students in solid-state physics, physical metallurgy, materials science, physical and inorganic chemistry or geophysics will benefit from this book as will physicists, chemists, metallurgists, materials engineers in academic and industrial research laboratories.

  12. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Mohr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann   Citation - APA format: Mohr, G. (2017. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 49-50.

  13. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  14. The diffusion of microfinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit; Chandrasekhar, Arun G; Duflo, Esther; Jackson, Matthew O

    2013-07-26

    To study the impact of the choice of injection points in the diffusion of a new product in a society, we developed a model of word-of-mouth diffusion and then applied it to data on social networks and participation in a newly available microfinance loan program in 43 Indian villages. Our model allows us to distinguish information passing among neighbors from direct influence of neighbors' participation decisions, as well as information passing by participants versus nonparticipants. The model estimates suggest that participants are seven times as likely to pass information compared to informed nonparticipants, but information passed by nonparticipants still accounts for roughly one-third of eventual participation. An informed household is not more likely to participate if its informed friends participate. We then propose two new measures of how effective a given household would be as an injection point. We show that the centrality of the injection points according to these measures constitutes a strong and significant predictor of eventual village-level participation.

  15. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  16. E-business solutions for utilities, - current state of implementation on the Internet; E-Business-Branchenloesungen - Untersuchung zum Implementierunsstand im Internet. Der Online-Weg zu den Privatkunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Baier, D. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Marketing und Innovationsmanagement

    2003-04-22

    In the first part of the contribution the benefit of an e-business system in connection with internet was illustrated by an example. The current state of implementation is the subject of this second part. In an empirical study the websites of 600 utilities were analyzed in detail. The results of this analysis are described in the following. (orig.) [German] In [1] wird der Nutzen eines E-Business-Systems in Verbindung mit dem Internet an einem praktischen Beispiel veranschaulicht. Im Folgenden wird ein Ueberblick zum aktuellen Implementierungsstand in den Enegieversorgungsunternehmen gegeben. In einer empirischen Untersuchung wurden die Webseiten von 600 EVU analysiert, die Ergebnisse der Auswertung werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  17. Confinement and diffusion in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of electric field fluctuations on confinement and diffusion in tokamak is discussed. Based on the experimentally determined cross-field turbolent diffusion coefficient, D∼3.7*cT e /eB(δn i /n i ) rms which is also derived by a simple theory, the cross-field diffusion time, tp=a 2 /D, is calculated and compared to experimental results from 51 tokamak for standard Ohmic operation

  18. Diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novion, C.H. de.

    1981-02-01

    The use of neutron scattering to study atomic disorder in metals and alloys is described. The diffuse elastic scattering of neutrons by a perfect crystal lattice leads to a diffraction spectrum with only Bragg spreads. the existence of disorder in the crystal results in intensity and position modifications to these spreads, and above all, to the appearance of a low intensity scatter between Bragg peaks. The elastic scattering of neutrons is treated in this text, i.e. by measuring the number of scattered neutrons having the same energy as the incident neutrons. Such measurements yield information on the static disorder in the crystal and time average fluctuations in composition and atomic displacements [fr

  19. Diffuse lung disease: Pneumoconioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the 1980 International Labour Organization classification of the pneumoconioses. Emphasis is on the common pneumoconioses, that is, silicosis, coalworker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal disease. Examples of the five radiographic forms of silicosis-simple and complicated silicosis, Caplan syndrome, silicotuberculosis, and acute silicosis- are presented, and the differential diagnoses are discussed. Discussion of asbestos-related disease included pleural manifestations such as plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and asbestos pleural effusion as well as asbestosis and malignancies associated with asbestos exposure, such as bronchogenic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. Although the standard radiographic findings are stressed, the use of CT in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and the staging of dust-related malignancies is also discussed

  20. On Diffusive Climatological Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, D. H.; Drazin, P. G.

    1981-11-01

    A simple, zonally and annually averaged, energy-balance climatological model with diffusive heat transport and nonlinear albedo feedback is solved numerically. Some parameters of the model are varied, one by one, to find the resultant effects on the steady solution representing the climate. In particular, the outward radiation flux, the insulation distribution and the albedo parameterization are varied. We have found an accurate yet simple analytic expression for the mean annual insolation as a function of latitude and the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis; this has enabled us to consider the effects of the oscillation of the obliquity. We have used a continuous albedo function which fits the observed values; it considerably reduces the sensitivity of the model. Climatic cycles, calculated by solving the time-dependent equation when parameters change slowly and periodically, are compared qualitatively with paleoclimatic records.

  1. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  2. Convergence of Nelson diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Antonio, G.; Posilicano, A.

    1991-01-01

    Let ψ t , ψ t n , n≥1, be solutions of Schroedinger equations with potentials form-bounded by -1/2 Δ and initial data in H 1 (R d ). Let P, P n , n≥1, be the probability measures on the path space Ω=C(R + , R d ) given by the corresponding Nelson diffusions. We show that if {ψ t n } n≥1 converges to ψ t in H 2 (R d ), uniformly in t over compact intervals, then {P n } n≥1 converges to P in total variation. Moreover, if the potentials are in the Kato class K d , we show that the above result follows from H 1 -convergence of initial data, and K d -convergence of potentials. (orig.)

  3. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  4. The diffuse interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    The last 20 years of the efforts to understand the diffuse ISM are reviewed, with recent changes of fundamental aspects being highlighted. Attention is given to the interstellar pressure and its components, the weight of the ISM, the midplane pressure contributions, and pressure contributions at 1 kpc. What velocity dispersions, cosmic ray pressure, and magnetic field pressure that can be expected for a gas in a high magnetic field environment is addressed. The intercloud medium is described, with reference to the work of Cox and Slavin (1989). Various caveats are discussed and a number of areas for future investigation are identified. Steps that could be taken toward a successful phase segregation model are discussed.

  5. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  6. MHD diffuser model test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzorek, J J

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.

  7. MHD diffuser model test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idzorek, J.J.

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment

  8. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  10. Diffusion of condenser water discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Thermal and nuclear power stations in Japan are mostly located in coastal area, and the cooling water is discharged into sea as warm water. Recently, large interest is taken in this matter, and it is desirable to predict the diffusion of warm discharge accurately and to take effective measures for lowering the temperature. As for the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, simplified estimation, mathematical analysis and hydrographical model experiment are used corresponding to objects and conditions. As for the measures to lower temperature, the method of discharging warm water into deep sea bottom was confirmed to be very effective. In this paper, the phenomena of diffusion of warm discharge in sea, the methods of predicting the diffusion of warm discharge, and the deep sea discharge as the measure for lowering temperature are outlined. The factors concerning the diffusion of warm discharge in sea are the conditions of discharge, topography and sea state, and the diffusion is roughly divided into mixing diffusion in the vicinity of warm water outlet and eddy diffusion in distant region. It is difficult to change artificially the conditions of diffusion in distant region, and the measures of raising the rate of dilution in near region are effective, therefore the deep sea discharge is adopted. (Kako, I.)

  11. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  12. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  13. Turing instability in reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The Turing instability is studied in two-component reaction-diffusion systems with nonlinear diffusion terms, and the regions in parametric space where Turing patterns can form are determined. The boundaries between super- and subcritical bifurcations are found. Calculations are performed for one-dimensional brusselator and oregonator models.

  14. Analysis of the water balance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells; Untersuchung zum Wasserhaushalt von Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakenjos, A.

    2006-09-14

    Within this thesis, instruments for the localised characterisation of fuel cells and fuel cell stacks have been created. The simultaneous multi-channel impedance spectroscopy was implemented and applied to fuel cells for the first time. A measurement device has been developed that can be used to simultaneously apply various localised measurement methods to fuel cells during operation. Within this work, mainly current density and localized impedance measurements were used. Additionally, the temperature distribution of the active fuel cell area was determined and the water condensation was visualised. Several fuel cells have been developed, constructed and assembled to carry out localised characterisation. An algorithm has been developed to evaluate impedance spectra that separate the processes in the fuel cell according to their different time constants. This algorithm is based on a system of physical model equations that provide time- and location-dependent descriptions of the different processes in the cell. This allows the quantitive extraction of physical parameters from the impedance spectroscopy results. To perform localised simulation, a three-dimensional, two-phase, stationary model was adopted cell. A simple one-dimensional fuel cell geometry was used to demonstrate that the three-dimensional model reliably describes the processes under various operation conditions. The model validation was also successfully carried out for various complex fuel cell geometries. With the localised characterisation methods, air flow field geometries of fuel cells were successfully analysed. It could be explained how the microporous coating of the diffusion layer influences the current density distribution. The water balance of a number of different gas flow geometries was successfully characterised. As a result, an optimised flow field design with a double meander has been developed. The water content has been improved so that the efficiency is increased, and the current

  15. Models of diffuse solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Brown, Bruce [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)

    2008-04-15

    For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from trigonometry, we need to have diffuse on the horizontal available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse radiation on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia [Spencer JW. A comparison of methods for estimating hourly diffuse solar radiation from global solar radiation. Sol Energy 1982; 29(1): 19-32]. Boland et al. [Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Environmetrics 2001; 12: 103-16] developed a validated model for Australian conditions. We detail our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the approach reported therein, particularly the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Additionally, we have also constructed a method, using quadratic programming, for identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. This allows us to eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. (author)

  16. Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Williams, Kathy S.; Lineback, Jennifer Evarts

    2011-01-01

    Biology student mastery regarding the mechanisms of diffusion and osmosis is difficult to achieve. To monitor comprehension of these processes among students at a large public university, we developed and validated an 18-item Osmosis and Diffusion Conceptual Assessment (ODCA). This assessment includes two-tiered items, some adopted or modified…

  17. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  18. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  19. Consequences of Diffusion of Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Kevin F.

    1979-01-01

    The article traces evolution of diffusion theory; illustrates undesirable consequences in a cross-cultural setting, reviews criticisms of several scholars; considers distributional effects and unanticipated consequences for potential ameliorative impact on diffusion theory; and codifies these factors into a framework for research into consequences…

  20. Enhancement of diffusers BRDF accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Gerard; Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; van Brug, Hedser; Schaarsberg, Jos Groote; Delwart, Steven; del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the result of an ESA study conducted at TNO to investigate properties of various diffusers. Diffusers are widely used in space instruments as part of the on-board absolute calibration. Knowledge of the behaviour of the diffuser is therefore most important. From measurements of launched instruments in-orbit it has been discovered that when a diffuser is used in the vacuum of space the BRDF can change with respect to the one in ambient conditions. This is called the air/vacuum effect and has been simulated in this study by measuring the BRDF in a laboratory in ambient as well as vacuum conditions. Another studied effect is related to the design parameters of the optical system and the scattering properties of the diffuser. The effect is called Spectral Features and is a noise like structure superimposed on the diffuser BRDF. Modern space spectrometers, which have high spectral resolution and/or a small field of view (high spatial resolution) are suffering from this effect. The choice of diffuser can be very critical with respect to the required absolute radiometric calibration of an instrument. Even if the Spectral Features are small it can influence the error budget of the retrieval algorithms for the level 2 products. in this presentation diffuser trade-off results are presented and the Spectral Features model applied to the optical configuration of the MERIS instrument is compared to in-flight measurements of MERIS.

  1. Chemical strategies for modifications of the solar cell process, from wafering to emitter diffusion; Chemische Ansaetze zur Neuordnung des Solarzellenprozesses ausgehend vom Wafering bis hin zur Emitterdiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Kuno

    2009-11-06

    The paper describes the classic standard industrial solar cell based on monocrystalline silicon and describes new methods of fabrication. The first is an alternative wafering concept using laser microjet cutting instead of multiwire cutting. This method originally uses pure, deionized water; it was modified so that the liquid jet will not only be a liquid light conductor but also a transport medium for etching fluids supporting thermal abrasion of silicon by the laser jet. Two etching fluids were tested experimentally; it was found that water-free fluids based on perfluorinated solvents with very slight additions of gaseous chlorine are superior to all other options. In the second section, the wet chemical process steps between wafering and emitter diffusion (i.e. the first high-temperature step) was to be modified. Alternatives to 2-propanol were to be found in the experimental part. Purification after texturing was to be rationalized in order to reduce the process cost, either by using less chemical substances or by achieving shorter process times. 1-pentanol and p-toluolsulfonic acid were identified as two potential alternatives to 2-propanol as texture additives. Finally, it could be shown that wire-cut substrates processed with the new texturing agents have higher mechanical stabilities than substrates used with the classic texturing agent 2-propanol. [German] Im ersten Kapitel wird die klassische Standard-Industrie-Solarzelle auf der Basis monokristallinen Siliziums vorgestellt. Der bisherige Herstellungsprozess der Standard-Industrie-Solarzelle, der in wesentlichen Teilen darauf abzielt, diese Verluste zu minimieren, dient als Referenz fuer die Entwicklung neuer Fertigungsverfahren, wie sie in dieser Arbeit vorgestellt werden. Den ersten thematischen Schwerpunkt bildet die Entwicklung eines alternativen Wafering-Konzeptes zum Multi-Drahtsaegen. Die Basis des neuen, hier vorgestellten Wafering-Prozesses bildet das Laser-Micro-Jet-Verfahren. Dieses System

  2. Criteria for assembly of in vivo measuring systems using high-resolution {gamma}-spectroscopy for evaluation of incorporated radionuclides; Kriterien zum Aufbau von In Vivo Messsystemen zur hochaufloesenden {gamma}-Spektrometrie inkorporierter Radionuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W. [GSF Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    1997-12-01

    The paper reviews the available, fundamental measuring methods relying on {gamma}-spectroscopy for their possible application in whole-body and partial-body counters for detection of manifold incorporation of radionuclides. Particular emphasis is placed on the response functions of various detectors, the assembly, the differentiated radioactivity distribution in the body, the various components of background activity and the corresponding suppression mechanisms, and possible ways of using the energy dependence for optimised detection of specific {gamma} energies in a given body region. Criteria and relations as well as their advantages and drawbacks are discussed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Diese Arbeit prueft die zur Verfuegung stehenden grundlegenden, {gamma}-spektroskopischen Messmethoden auf deren moegliche Anwendung im Spektrum der Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehler zum Nachweis der mannigfach inkorporierten Radionuklide. Insbesondere wird eingegangen auf die Response Funktionen verschiedener Detektoren, die Anordnung, die differenzierte Aktivitaetsverteilung im Koerper, die verschiedenen Untergrundkomponenten und deren Unterdrueckungsmechanismen sowie die Beeinflussung durch die Energieabhaengigkeit zum optimalen Nachweis spezifischer {gamma}-Energien an einem bestimmten Ort am Koerper. Kriterien und Relationen sowie deren Vor- und Nachteile werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  3. Addimer diffusions on Si(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gun Do; Wang, C. Z.; Lu, Z. Y.; Ho, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusion pathways along the trough and between the trough and the dimer row on the Si(100) surface are investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics calculations using the environment dependent tight-binding silicon potential and by ab initio calculations using the Car-Parrinello method. The studies discover new diffusion pathways consisting of rotation of addimer. The calculated energy barrier are in excellent agreement with experiment. The rotational diffusion pathway between the trough and the dimer row is much more energetically favorable than other diffusion pathways by parallel and perpendicular addimer. The new pathway along the trough is nearly same as the energy barrier of the diffusion pathway by dissociation of the addimer

  4. Application of polycrystalline diffusion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, V.A.; Kolupaev, I.N.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of contacts of the electronic equipment at the raised temperatures is connected with active diffusion redistribution of components contact - metalized systems (CMS) and phase production on interphase borders. One of systems diffusion barriers (DB) are polycrystalline silicide a film, in particular silicides of the titan. Reception disilicide the titan (TiSi 2 ) which on the parameters is demanded for conditions of microelectronics from known silicides of system Ti-Si, is possible as a result of direct reaction of a film of the titan and a substrate of silicon, and at sedimentation of layer Ti-Si demanded stoichiometric structure. Simultaneously there is specific problem polycrystalline diffusion a barrier (PDB): the polycrystalline provides structural balance and metastability film disilicide, but leaves in it borders of grains - easy local ways of diffusion. In clause the analysis diffusion permeability polycrystalline and polyphase DB is made and recommendations for practical methods of increase of blocking properties PDB are made.

  5. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  6. The magnetic diffusion of neutrons; La diffusion magnetique des neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, W C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine briefly the diffusion of neutrons by substances, particularly by crystals containing permanent atomic or ionic magnetic moments. In other words we shall deal with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic crystals, but first it is necessary to touch on nuclear diffusion of neutrons. We shall start with the interaction of the neutron with a single diffusion centre; the results will then be applied to the magnetic interactions of the neutron with the satellite electrons of the atom; finally we shall discuss the diffusion of neutrons by crystals. (author) [French] Le but de ce rapport est d'examiner, brievement, la diffusion des neutrons par les substances, et surtout, par des cristaux qui contiennent des moments magnetiques atomiques ou ioniques permanents. C'est-a-dire que nous nous interesserons aux cristaux ferromagnetiques, antiferromagnetiques, ferrimagnetiques ou paramagnetiques; il nous faut cependant rappeler d'abord la diffusion nucleaire des neutrons. Nous commencerons par l'interaction du neutron avec un seul centre diffuseur; puis les resultats seront appliques aux interactions magnetiques du neutron avec les electrons satellites de l'atome; enfin nous discuterons la diffusion des neutrons par les cristaux. (auteur)

  7. 27 January 2012 - Mitglieder des Stiftungsrates Academia Engelberg und Gesellschaft zum Bettag Luzern Schweiz welcomed by Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental cavern; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall SM18.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    27 January 2012 - Mitglieder des Stiftungsrates Academia Engelberg und Gesellschaft zum Bettag Luzern Schweiz welcomed by Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental cavern; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall SM18.

  8. Paweł Bąk, Die Metapher in der Übersetzung. Studien zum Transfer der Aphorismen von Stanisław Jerzy Lec und der Gedichte von Wisława Szymborska, Peter Lang Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaft en, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2007 =...

    OpenAIRE

    Zieliński, Lech

    2008-01-01

    Paweł Bąk, Die Metapher in der Ubersetzung. Studien zum Transfer der Aphorismen von Stanisław Jerzy Lec und der Gedichte von Wisława Szymborska, Peter Lang Europaischer Verlag der Wissenschaft en, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2007 = Danziger Beitrage zur Germanistik, Bd. 20 wyd. Andrzej Kątny, 332 strony

  9. Multidimensional diffusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Stroock, Daniel W

    1997-01-01

    From the reviews: "… Both the Markov-process approach and the Itô approach … have been immensely successful in diffusion theory. The Stroock-Varadhan book, developed from the historic 1969 papers by its authors, presents the martingale-problem approach as a more powerful - and, in certain regards, more intrinsic-means of studying the foundations of the subject. […] … the authors make the uncompromising decision not "to proselytise by intimidating the reader with myriad examples demonstrating the full scope of the techniques", but rather to persuade the reader "with a careful treatment of just one problem to which they apply". […] Most of the main tools of stochastic-processes theory are used, ..but it is the formidable combination of probability theory with analysis … which is the core of the work. […] I have emphasized the great importance of the Stroock-Varadhan book. It contains a lot more than I have indicated; in particular, its many exercises conain much interesting material. For immediat...

  10. Diffusive instabilities in hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemskov, Evgeny P.; Horsthemke, Werner

    2016-03-01

    We investigate two-variable reaction-diffusion systems of the hyperbolic type. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the conditions for diffusion-driven instabilities are derived. Two basic types of eigenvalues, real and complex, are described. Dispersion curves for both types of eigenvalues are plotted and their behavior is analyzed. The real case is related to the Turing instability, and the complex one corresponds to the wave instability. We emphasize the interesting feature that the wave instability in the hyperbolic equations occurs in two-variable systems, whereas in the parabolic case one needs three reaction-diffusion equations.

  11. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  12. Macrolides for diffuse panbronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiufang; Lu, Jing; Yang, Ming; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Hong Mei

    2015-01-25

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic airways disease predominantly affecting East Asians. Macrolides, a class of antibiotics, have been used as the main treatment for DPB, based on evidence from retrospective and non-randomised studies. To assess the efficacy and safety of macrolides for DPB. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to July week 1, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to July 2014), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1974 to July 2014), KoreaMed (1997 to July 2014) and Database of Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to July 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs assessing the effect of macrolides for DPB. Two review authors independently assessed study quality and subsequent risk of bias according to The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The primary outcomes were five-year survival rate, lung function and clinical response. We used risk ratios (RR) for individual trial results in the data analysis and measured all outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Only one RCT (19 participants) with significant methodological limitations was included in this review. It found that the computerised tomography images of all participants treated with a long-term, low-dose macrolide (erythromycin) improved from baseline, while the images of 71.4% of participants in the control group (with no treatment) worsened and 28.6% remained unchanged. Adverse effects were not reported. This review was previously published in 2010 and 2013. For this 2014 update, we identified no new trials for inclusion or exclusion. There is little evidence for macrolides in the treatment of DPB. We are therefore unable to make any new recommendations. It may be reasonable to use low-dose macrolides soon after diagnosis is made and to continue this treatment for at least six months, according to current guidelines.

  13. Moessbauer effect and vacancy diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, L.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamical theory of vacancy diffusion which was motivated by the need to explain recent experimental results for the Moessbauer spectra of Fe in Cu, Fe in Au and Fe in Al is presented. Diffusion in these systems is dominated by the vacancy mechanism, which involves strong correlations between successive jumps. The theory developed by Singwi and Sjoelander for the Moessbauer spectrum of a diffusing nucleus is therefore not applicable. The inverse of the normalized Moessbauer spectrum evaluated at zero frequency is introduced as a useful means of comparing experimental with theoretical spectral widths

  14. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...

  15. Self diffusion in isotopic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.

    1991-01-01

    Expressions for the second and fourth frequency sum rules of the velocity auto-correlation function have been obtained for an isotopic fluid. These expressions and Mori memory function formalism have been used to study the influence of the particle mass and mole fraction on the self diffusion coefficient. Our results confirm the weak mass dependence of the self diffusion. The influence of the mole fraction of the light particles on the self diffusion constant has been found to increase for the larger particle mass. (author). 17 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Muon diffusion in noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Bokema, C.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Olsen, C.E.; Dodds, S.A.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Richards, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Diffusion-induced muon depolarization in dilute AgGd and AgEr were measured in the temperature range 200-700 K and have thereby determined the muon diffusion parameters in Ag. The diffusion parameters for μ + in Cu, Ag, and Au are compared with those of hydrogen. For Ag and Au, the μ + parameters are similar to those of hydrogen, whereas for Cu, the μ + parameters are much smaller. Lattice-activated tunneling and over-barrier hopping are investigated with computational models. 15 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  17. Muon diffusion in noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Boekema, C.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Olsen, C.E.; Dodds, S.A.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Richards, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Diffusion-induced muon depolarization was measured in dilute AgGd and AgEr in the temperature range 200 to 700 0 K and have thereby determined the muon diffusion parameters in Ag. The diffusion parameters for μ + in Cu, Ag, and Au are compared with those of hydrogen. For Ag and Au, the μ + parameters are similar to those of hydrogen, whereas for Cu, the μ + parameters are much smaller. Lattice-activated tunneling and over-barrier hopping are investigated with computational models

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  19. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  20. Alexander von Humboldt und Carlos Montúfar als Reisegefährten: ein Vergleich ihrer Tagebücher zum Chimborazo-Aufstieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Andress

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ZusammenfassungAls Alexander von Humboldt im Juni 1802 von Quito aus zum Rest seiner lateinamerikanischen Forschungsreise aufbrach, begleitete ihn, abgesehen von Aimé Bonpland, Carlos Montúfar bis nach Europa zurück begleitet, u.a. auch auf beim Versuch, den Chimborazo zu ersteigen. Bis kurz vor der Stadt Cajamarca im heutigen Peru schrieb Montúfar ein relativ unbekanntes Tagebuch zur Reise. Nach einem kurzen Ausflug in das Leben von Humboldts Begleiter steht im Zentrum der weiteren Ausführungen die Frage, ob sein Tagebuch ein anderes Licht auf Humboldt und speziell auf den Aufstiegsversuch wirft. Das läuft auf einen Vergleich der Tagebücher der beiden Reisegefährten hinaus und auf den Versuch, die scheinbaren Widersprüche aufzulösen.AbstractWhen Alexander von Humboldt left Quito in June 1802 in order to undertake the rest of his Latin-American trip of exploration, he was accompanied, aside from Aimé Bonpland, by Carlos Montúfar all the way back to Europe, including the attempt to scale the Chimborazo. Up to shortly before the city of Cajamarca in today’s Peru, Montúfar wrote an relatively unknown diary account of their travels. After a brief excursion into the life of Humboldt’s companion, the question is considered whether his diary sheds a different light on Humboldt and specifically on the mountain climb. That amounts to a comparison of the diaries of the two travel companions and to an attempt to explain the apparent contradictions.ResumenCuando Alexander von Humboldt salió de Quito en junio de 1802 para continuar con el resto de su viaje de exploración por la América Latina, fue acompañado por Carlos Montúfar además de Aimé Bonpland hasta que volvieron a Europa. Este trayecto incluía la tentativa de llegar a la cima del Chimborazo. Hasta un poco antes de la cuidad de Cajamarca que está en el Perú de hoy día, Montúfar mantenía un diario relativamente no conocido del viaje. Después de una breve excursión por

  1. (Kein Grund zur Homosexualität: Ein Plädoyer zum Verzicht auf psychogenetische Erklärungsversuche von homosexuellen, heterosexuellen und anderen Orientierungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Binswanger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fritz Morgenthaler steht mit seinem Konzept der «Weichenstellungen » auf dem Boden von Freuds Postulat, wonach homosexuelle und heterosexuelle Orientierungen gleich erklärungsbedürftig sind. Allerdings können die «Weichenstellungen» weniger Hetero- oder Homosexualität per se erklären, sondern eher die verschiedenen Formen von Homo- und Heterosexualität in actu, wie sie in Fantasie und Verhalten gelebt werden. Mit Sexualität per se und Sexualität in actu sind zwei qualitativ verschiedene Gesichtspunkte benannt, unter denen Diskurse über manifeste und organisierte Sexualität sowie Perversionen mit Vorteil geführt werden. Dabei wird der Perversionsbegriff ausschliesslich der Sexualität in actu zugeordnet, welche als dialektische Einheit von sexuellen und nicht-sexuellen Funktionen aufgefasst wird. Pervers ist sexuelle Aktivität dann, wenn innerhalb dieser Einheit eine nicht-sexuelle Funktion die Priorität über die Triebbefriedigung hat. Sexualität per se bezeichnet Homosexualität, Heterosexualität, Fetischismus, Sadomasochismus, Pädophilie usw. als verschiedene erwachsene Sexualorganisationen – als hierarchische Organisation von Partialtrieben – auf «gleichberechtigter», entpathologisierter Ebene. Nachdem begründet wird, weshalb auch Judith Le Soldat den Grund zur Homosexualität per se anscheinend nicht gefunden hat und alle bisherigen psychogenetischen Herleitungen der verschiedenen erwachsenen Sexualorganisationen dieses Ziel verfehlen, empfiehlt sich ein grundsätzlicher Verzicht auf solche Erklärungsversuche – so wie es für die Heterosexualität per se meistens gehandhabt wird. Dagegen kann auf den u. a. von Robert Stoller verwendeten Begriff imprinting oder Prägung zurückgegriffen werden, welchen die Zürcher Analytiker Harold Lincke und Werner Fessler von jeglichem Biologismusverdacht befreit haben. Zum Schluss wird hervorgehoben, wie sehr Morgenthaler und Le Soldat mit ihrer Suche nach dem Grund zur

  2. Atmospheric turbulence and diffusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (well known in the atmospheric dispersion community as the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, ATDL) is one of several field facilities of NOAAs Air Resources Laboratory, headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland. The laboratory conducts research on matters of atmospheric diffusion and turbulent exchange, concerning air quality. ATDD focuses attention on the physics of the lower atmosphere, with special emphasis on the processes contributing to atmospheric transport, dispersion, deposition, and air-surface exchange, and on the development of predictive capabilities using the results of this research. Research is directed toward issues of national and global importance related to the missions of DOE, to DOE's Oak Ridge Field Office, and to NOAA. The program is divided into four major projects: plume transport and diffusion in the planetary boundary layer, complex topography, canopy micrometeorology, and air-surface exchange

  3. Diffusion mechanisms in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larikov, L N [ANU, Inst. Metallofiziki, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1992-08-01

    Recent research aimed at the identification of the principal mechanisms of diffusion in intermetallics is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the effect of the type of interatomic bond on the contribution of different mechanisms to diffusion in ordered metallic compounds. Results of an analysis of experimental determinations of diffusion coefficients D(A) and D(B) in binary intermetallics (CuZn, Cu3Sn, AuCd, AgZn, AgMg, InSb, GaSb, AlSb, Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl3, Ni3Al, Ni3Nb, FeSn, FeSn2, Ni3Sn2, Ni3Sn4, Co3Sn2, CoSn, CoSn2, and CoGa) are presented, and it is shown that the D(A)/D(B) ratio differs substantially for different diffusion mechanisms. 60 refs.

  4. Diffusion of single oxidation pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Ruo-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic characteristic of an oxidation pond was studied by the tracer experiment, and an empirical formula of Peclet number was obtained, which can be well applied to the model of plug flow reactor with longitudinal diffusion.

  5. Computational Diffusion MRI : MICCAI Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Grussu, Francesco; Ning, Lipeng; Tax, Chantal; Veraart, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This volume presents the latest developments in the highly active and rapidly growing field of diffusion MRI. The reader will find numerous contributions covering a broad range of topics, from the mathematical foundations of the diffusion process and signal generation, to new computational methods and estimation techniques for the in-vivo recovery of microstructural and connectivity features, as well as frontline applications in neuroscience research and clinical practice. These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 2017 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI (CDMRI’17) held in Québec, Canada on September 10, 2017, sharing new perspectives on the most recent research challenges for those currently working in the field, but also offering a valuable starting point for anyone interested in learning computational techniques in diffusion MRI. This book includes rigorous mathematical derivations, a large number of rich, full-colour visualisations and clinically relevant results. As such, it wil...

  6. Diffusion from cylindrical waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1985-05-01

    The diffusion of a single component material from a finite cylindrical waste form, initially containing a uniform concentration of the material, is investigated. Under the condition that the cylinder is maintained in a well-stirred bath, expressions for the fractional inventory leached and the leach rate are derived with allowance for the possible permanent immobilization of the diffusant through its decay to a stable product and/or its irreversible reaction with the waste form matrix. The usefulness of the reported results in nuclear waste disposal applications is emphasized. The results reported herein are related to those previously derived at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by Bell and Nestor. A numerical scheme involving the partial decoupling of nested infinite summations and the use of rapidly converging rational approximants is recommended for the efficient implementation of the expressions derived to obtain reliable estimates of the bulk diffusion constant and the rate constant describing the diffusant-waste form interaction from laboratory data

  7. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  8. Diffusion formation and psychiatric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Kulikovski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle behind diffusion is Brownian motion. The diffusion parameters obtained in a clinical association provide information on the spatial distribution of water molecule mobility and, therefore, evidence of the morphological integrity of the white and grey matters of the brain. In recent years functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could contribute to obtaining a detailed understanding of the cortical and subcortical cerebral networks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations can demonstrate the extent of anisotropy and the fiber pathways in so-called parametric images. For example, in Alzheimer's disease DTI reveals a reduced structural connectivity between the posterior cingulum and the hippocampus. This article shows examples of the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  9. Anomalous diffusion in chaotic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous diffusion is found for peripheral collision of atomic nuclei described in the framework of the molecular dynamics. Similarly as for chaotic billiards, the long free paths are the source of the long-time correlations and the anomalous diffusion. Consequences of this finding for the energy dissipation in deep-inelastic collisions and the dynamics of fission in hot nuclei are discussed (authors). 30 refs., 2 figs

  10. Diffusion processes and memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Yulmetyev, Renat M; Haenggi, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of the numerical estimation of statistical memory effects in diffusion for two various systems: Lennard-Jones fluids and the model of the Brownian particle in a one-dimensional harmonic lattice. We have found the relation between the diffusion coefficient and the non-Markovity parameter, which is linear for the Lennard-Jones systems in liquid state. The relation between the memory measure and the excess entropy is also discussed here

  11. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Diffusion MRI findings in phenylketonuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-12-01

    Two patients with phenylketonuria were studied who were under dietary control since infancy, and who were mentally normal. Diffusion MRI was obtained using a spin-echo, echo-planar sequence with a gradient strength of 30 mT/m at 1.5 T. A trace sequence (TR=5700 ms, and TE=139 ms) was used, acquired in 22 s. Heavily diffusion-weighted (b=1000 mm{sup 2}/s) images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from automatically generated ADC maps were studied. There were two different patterns in these two patients, restricted and increased diffusion patterns. Restricted diffusion pattern consisted of high-signal on b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images with low ADC values ranging from 0.46 to 0.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Increased diffusion pattern consisted of normal b=1000 s/mm{sup 2} images with high ADC values ranging from 1.37 to 1.63 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. It is likely that these values reflected presence of two different histopathological changes in phenylketonuria or reflected different stages of the same disease. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion MRI findings in phenylketonuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.

    2003-01-01

    Two patients with phenylketonuria were studied who were under dietary control since infancy, and who were mentally normal. Diffusion MRI was obtained using a spin-echo, echo-planar sequence with a gradient strength of 30 mT/m at 1.5 T. A trace sequence (TR=5700 ms, and TE=139 ms) was used, acquired in 22 s. Heavily diffusion-weighted (b=1000 mm 2 /s) images, and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from automatically generated ADC maps were studied. There were two different patterns in these two patients, restricted and increased diffusion patterns. Restricted diffusion pattern consisted of high-signal on b=1000 s/mm 2 images with low ADC values ranging from 0.46 to 0.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Increased diffusion pattern consisted of normal b=1000 s/mm 2 images with high ADC values ranging from 1.37 to 1.63 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. It is likely that these values reflected presence of two different histopathological changes in phenylketonuria or reflected different stages of the same disease. (orig.)

  14. Atmospheric diffusion of large clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. V. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Radiation Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    1967-07-01

    Clouds of pollutants travel within a coordinate system that is fixed to the earth's surface, and they diffuse and grow within a coordinate system fixed to the cloud's center. This paper discusses an approach to predicting the cloud's properties, within the latter coordinate system, on space scales of a few hundred meters to a few hundred kilometers and for time periods of a few days. A numerical cloud diffusion model is presented which starts with a cloud placed arbitrarily within the troposphere. Similarity theories of atmospheric turbulence are used to predict the horizontal diffusivity as a function of initial cloud size, turbulent atmospheric dissipation, and time. Vertical diffusivity is input as a function of time and height. Therefore, diurnal variations of turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer and effects of temperature inversions, etc. can be modeled. Nondiffusive cloud depletion mechanisms, such as dry deposition, washout, and radioactive decay, are also a part of this numerical model. An effluent cloud, produced by a reactor run at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Nevada, is discussed in this paper. Measurements on this cloud, for a period of two days, are compared to calculations with the above numerical cloud diffusion model. In general, there is agreement. within a factor of two, for airborne concentrations, cloud horizontal area, surface air concentrations, and dry deposition as airborne concentration decreased by seven orders of magnitude during the two-day period. (author)

  15. Diffusion, confusion and functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has been introduced in 1985 and has had a very successful life on its own. While it has become a standard for imaging stroke and white matter disorders, the borders between diffusion MRI and the general field of fMRI have always remained fuzzy. First, diffusion MRI has been used to obtain images of brain function, based on the idea that diffusion MRI could also be made sensitive to blood flow, through the intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM) concept. Second, the IVIM concept helped better understand the contribution from different vasculature components to the BOLD fMRI signal. Third, it has been shown recently that a genuine fMRI signal can be obtained with diffusion MRI. This 'DfMRI' signal is notably different from the BOLD fMRI signal, especially for its much faster response to brain activation both at onset and offset, which points out to structural changes in the neural tissues, perhaps such as cell swelling, occurring in activated neural tissue. This short article reviews the major steps which have paved the way for this exciting development, underlying how technical progress with MRI equipment has each time been instrumental to expand the horizon of diffusion MRI toward the field of fMRI. (authors)

  16. Lead diffusion in monazite; Diffusion du plomb dans la monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardes, E

    2006-06-15

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO{sub 4} monocrystals and in Nd{sub 0.66}Ca{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} polycrystals from Nd{sub 0.66}Pb{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} thin films to investigate Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 {+-} 24 kJ mol{sup -1} and log(D{sub 0} (m{sup 2}s{sup -1})) equals -3.41 {+-} 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 {mu}m grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  17. Drug diffusion across skin with diffusivity spatially modulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Arroyave, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A diffusion and delivery model of a drug across the skin with diffusivity spatially modulated is formulated and solved analytically using computer algebra. The model is developed using one-dimensional diffusion equation with a diffusivity which is a function of position in the skin; with an initial condition which is describing that the drug is initially contained inside a therapeutic patch; with a boundary condition according to which the change in concentration in the patch is minimal, such that assumption of zero flux at the patch-skin interface is valid; and with other boundary condition according to which the microcirculation in the capillaries just below the dermis carries the drug molecules away from the site at a very fast rate, maintaining the inner concentration at 0. The model is solved analytically by the method of the Laplace transform, with Bromwich integral and residue theorem. The concentration profile of the drug in the skin is expressed as an infinite series of Bessel functions. The corresponding total amount of delivered drug is expressed as an infinite series of decreasing exponentials. Also, the corresponding effective time for the therapeutic patch is determined. All computations were performed using computer algebra software, specifically Maple. The analytical results obtained are important for understanding and improving currentapplications of therapeutic patches. For future research it is interesting to consider more general models of spatial modulation of the diffusivity and the possible application of other computer algebra software such as Mathematica and Maxima.

  18. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K{sub d}, unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.) 45 refs.

  19. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K d , unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  20. Identification of the Diffusion Parameter in Nonlocal Steady Diffusion Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Elia, M., E-mail: mdelia@fsu.edu, E-mail: mdelia@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gunzburger, M. [Florida State University (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The problem of identifying the diffusion parameter appearing in a nonlocal steady diffusion equation is considered. The identification problem is formulated as an optimal control problem having a matching functional as the objective of the control and the parameter function as the control variable. The analysis makes use of a nonlocal vector calculus that allows one to define a variational formulation of the nonlocal problem. In a manner analogous to the local partial differential equations counterpart, we demonstrate, for certain kernel functions, the existence of at least one optimal solution in the space of admissible parameters. We introduce a Galerkin finite element discretization of the optimal control problem and derive a priori error estimates for the approximate state and control variables. Using one-dimensional numerical experiments, we illustrate the theoretical results and show that by using nonlocal models it is possible to estimate non-smooth and discontinuous diffusion parameters.

  1. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases; Diffuse und vaskulaere Lebererkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [German] Neben den fokalen Leberlaesionen stellen diffuse und vaskulaere Lebererkrankungen ein weites Spektrum an Erkrankungen der Leber dar, die radiologisch oft schwer oder gar nicht diagnostizierbar sind. Klassische diagnostische Verfahren sind dabei neben dem Ultraschall die Computertomographie und die Magnetresonanztomographie. Diffuse Parenchymschaeden, bedingt durch Erkrankungen unterschiedlichster Aetiologie, sind deshalb schwierig evaluierbar, weil haeufig charakteristische bildmorphologische Merkmale fehlen. Die Steatosis hepatis, die Haemochromatose/Siderose als Beispiel der Speicherkrankheiten sowie die Sarkoidose und die Candidose als infektioes-entzuendliche Erkrankungen sind einer bildbasierten Diagnosestellung z. T. zugaenglich, bei den meisten diffusen Lebererkrankungen jedoch zeigen sich lediglich unspezifische

  2. Gaseous diffusion -- the enrichment workhorse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Construction of the first large-scale gaseous diffusion facility was started as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in 1943. This facility, code named ''K-25,'' began operation in January 1945 and was fully on stream by September 1945. Four additional process buildings were later added in Oak Ridge as the demand for enriched uranium escalated. New gaseous diffusion plants were constructed at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, during this period. The three gaseous diffusion plants were the ''workhorses'' which provided the entire enriched uranium demand for the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. As the demand for enriched uranium for military purposes decreased during the early 1960s, power to the diffusion plants was curtailed to reduce production. During the 1960s, as plans for the nuclear power industry were formulated, the role of the diffusion plants gradually changed from providing highly-enriched uranium for the military to providing low-enriched uranium for power reactors

  3. Radionuclide diffusion in soils. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.; Szabova, T.

    1988-01-01

    Samples were taken of five soil types for determining diffusion coefficients, namely chernozem, illimerized brown soil, degraded chernozem, gleizated brown soil and heavy loamy brown soil. 5 layers of soil having a thickness of 1 cm each were placed in diffusion columns. 20 ml of water with 0.45 MBq 85 Sr of distilled water was poured over the columns. 10 ml of distilled water was poured over the columns every 5 days for monitoring the effect of the amount of precipitation and its distribution - a similarity with rainfall in the driest month, 41 ml of distilled water was then poured over the column every 5 days or 82 ml of distilled water every 10 days - imitating the month with the highest rainfall level. The effect of salts and various concentrations of salt mixtures on the value of the diffusion coefficient were monitored in solutions of NaNO 3 , KNO 3 and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 with added activity 0.45 MGq of 85 SrCl 2 . Diffusion was monitored for 101 days. All measured values are tabulated. The smallest diffusion coefficient was found in chernozem in the presence of H 2 O and the highest value was found in illimerized brown soil in the presence of 0.15 M of KNO 3 . (E.S.). 2 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Fourth report by the Federal German Government to the Bundestag on measures for the protection of the ozone layer; 4. Bericht der Bundesregierung an den Deutschen Bundestag ueber Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report, which relates the situation as of July 1997, again confirms the internationally leading role of the Federal German Republic in the phase-out of CFCs. No country has realised a more comprehensive concept for the phase-out of substances that deplete the ozone layer. Combining statutory and voluntary measures has proved a path-breaking approach. One of the most important driving forces in the CFC phase-out were the restrictions of use imposed by the Ordinance on the Prohibition of CFCs and Halon. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht - mit Stand vom Juli 1997 - bestaetigt erneut die internationale Fuehrungsrolle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beim FCKW-Ausstieg. In keinem anderen Staaat wurde ein umfassenderes Konzept zum Ausstieg aus den ozonabbauenden Stoffen realisiert. Als wegweisend hat sich dabei die Verknuepfung ordnungsrechtlicher und freiwilliger Massnahem erwiesen. Insbesondere von den Verwendungsbeschraenkungen der FCKW-Halon-Verbots-Verordnung gingen wichtige Impulse beim FCKW-Ausstieg aus. (orig./SR)

  5. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... tremendously in different chambers because the chambers are non-diffuse in variously different ways. Therefore, good objective measures that can quantify the degree of diffusion and potentially indicate how to fix such problems in reverberation chambers are needed. Acousticians often blend the concept...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  6. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. Nitrogen diffusion in zirconium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmaison, J.G.; Smeltzer, W.W.

    1977-01-01

    Nitrogen diffusion in polycrystalline ZrN/sub 0.71-0.79/ spheres, 60 and 90 μm diameter, was studied by the gas-solid exchange technique using 15 N as a tracer at a nitrogen pressure of 220 torr and 1000 to 1200 0 C. These specimens were characterized by chemical analyses, density, lattice parameter, and structural measurements. The tracer diffusion coefficient can be expressed as D* (cm 2 /S) = 3.0 x 10 -10 exp (-23,000/RT). This result, when compared to a previous determination obtained in the same conditions with 254 μm thick plates, confirms that nitrogen transport in this polycrystalline solid at temperatures less than 1200 0 C is associated with a short-circuit diffusion mechanism

  8. Tracer diffusion in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    An intuitive extension of the theory for diffusion in dynamic binary alloys given in the preceding paper is presented. This theory has also received an independent derivation, based on more formal procedures, by Holdsworth and Elliott. We present Monte Carlo estimates for diffusion correlation factors, fsup(A), fsup(B), and fsup(C) and compare them with the theory. The agreement between the theoretical results and the Monte Carlo estimates for the correlation factors of the slow particles, i.e., fsup(C) and fsup(B), is found to be generally good. In contrast, for the correlation factor, fsup(A), referring to the diffusion coefficient of fast particles in the system, the theoretical results are found to be systematically lower by a small but resolvable margin. It is suggested that this is occasioned by the neglect of spatial constraints on the scattering of coupled tracer-background particle field pairs. (author)

  9. Emissivity of discretized diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Davidson, Gregory; Carrington, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The numerical modeling of radiative transfer by the diffusion approximation can produce artificially damped radiation propagation if spatial cells are too optically thick. In this paper, we investigate this nonphysical behavior at external problem boundaries by examining the emissivity of the discretized diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the standard cell-centered discretization produces an emissivity that is too low for optically thick cells, a situation that leads to the lack of radiation propagation. We then present a modified boundary condition that yields an accurate emissivity regardless of cell size. This modified boundary condition can be used with a deterministic calculation or as part of a hybrid transport-diffusion method for increasing the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations. We also discuss the range of applicability, as a function of cell size and material properties, when this modified boundary condition is employed in a hybrid technique. With a set of numerical calculations, we demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of this modified boundary condition

  10. Diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasargod, Sameer S.; Adib, Farhad; Neogi, P.

    1995-10-01

    The dual mode sorption solubility isotherms assume, and in instances Zimm-Lundberg analysis of the solubilities show, that glassy polymers are heterogeneous and that the distribution of the solute in the polymer is also inhomogeneous. Under some conditions, the heterogeneities cannot be represented as holes. A mathematical model describing diffusion in inhomogeneous polymer membranes is presented using Cahn and Hilliard's gradient theory. The fractional mass uptake is found to be proportional to the fourth root of time rather than the square root, predicted by Fickian diffusion. This type of diffusion is classified as pseudo-Fickian. The model is compared with one experimental result available. A negative value of the persistence factor is obtained and the results are interpreted.

  11. Single Crystal Diffuse Neutron Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Welberry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse neutron scattering has become a valuable tool for investigating local structure in materials ranging from organic molecular crystals containing only light atoms to piezo-ceramics that frequently contain heavy elements. Although neutron sources will never be able to compete with X-rays in terms of the available flux the special properties of neutrons, viz. the ability to explore inelastic scattering events, the fact that scattering lengths do not vary systematically with atomic number and their ability to scatter from magnetic moments, provides strong motivation for developing neutron diffuse scattering methods. In this paper, we compare three different instruments that have been used by us to collect neutron diffuse scattering data. Two of these are on a spallation source and one on a reactor source.

  12. Examination of the somatostatin receptor status in non-medullary thyroid cancer; Untersuchungen zum Somatostatinrezeptor-Status bei nicht-medullaeren Schilddruesenkarzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerges, R.; Brandt-Mainz, K.; Bockisch, A. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kahaly, G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Medizin - Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen; Mueller-Brand, J.; Maecke, H. [Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Walgenbach, S. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemein- und Abdominalchirurgie; Bruns, C. [Praeklinische Forschung Novartis, Basel (Switzerland); Andreas, J. [Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-06-01

    -medullaeren Schilddruesenkarzinomen nachgewiesen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Somatostatinrezeptor-Status bei dieser Tumorentitaet in einem groesseren Patientenkollektiv untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Wir vergleichen 131-Iod- mit 111-In-Pentetreotide-Szintigraphien bei 24 Patienten mit metastasiertem, nicht-medullaeren Schilddruesenkarzinom. Die Befunde wurden mit anderen bildgebenden Verfahren korreliert. Zusaetzlich erfolgten Rezeptor-Autoradiographien bei einem Patienten, eine Octreotide-Behandlung bei einem anderen und die Verabreichung von 90-Y- sowie 111-In-DOTATOC bei zwei weiteren Patienten. Ergebnisse: Bei 8/15 Patienten mit papillaerem oder follikulaerem Schilddruesenkarzinom erwies sich 111-In-Pentetreotide dem 131-I- als unterlegen, bei 1/15 als gleichwertig und bei 6/15 als ueberlegen. Bei 8/9 Patienten mit onkozytaerem Schilddruesenkarzinom zeigten die Metastasen eine 111-In-Pentetreotide-Akkumulation unterschiedlicher Intensitaet, waehrend die 131-I-Szintigraphien hier bis auf eine Ausnahme negativ waren. Im Vergleich mit 201-Tl oder 99m-Tc-Sestamibi erwies sich 111-In-Pentetreotide als gleichwertig oder ueberlegen, aber im Vergleich zum 18-F-FDG-PET zumeist als unterlegen. Die Befunde der 111-In-Pentetreotide-Szintigraphie korrelierten gut mit der Rezeptor-Autoradiographie und der DOTATOC-Akkumulation, nicht dagegen mit dem Behandlungseffekt von `kaltem` Octreotide auf die Schilddruesenkarzinom-Metastasen. Schlussfolgerungen: Diverse Metastasen papillaerer und follikulaerer Schilddruesenkarzinome und die Mehrzahl der onkozytaeren Schilddruesenkarzinom-Metastasen koennen Somatostatin-Rezeptoren exprimieren. Insbesondere beim onkozytaeren Schilddruesenkarzinom beziehungsweise bei nicht verfuegbarem PET erweist sich die 111-In-Pentetreotide-Szintigraphie als vielversprechende Methode zur Metastasenlokalisation; sie konnte ferner von Nutzen sein bei der Selektion moeglicher Kandidaten fuer eine Therapie mit {beta}-Strahler-markierten Somatostatinanaloga, wenn diese fuer die

  13. Neurocognition and PET: strategies for data analysis in activation studies on working memory; Neurokognition und PET: datenanalytische Strategien bei Aktivierungsstudien zum Arbeitsgedaechtnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautzel, H.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Schmidt, D.; Mueller, H.-W.; Krause, B. J. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (KME), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Verwendung eines verbalen n-zurueck-Arbeitsgedaechtnis-Paradigmas (n von 0 bis 3) werden kognitive Subtraktionsanalysen als Basisauswertung, parametrische und Kovarianz-basierte Analysen vorgestellt. Letztere wurden unter Anwendung einer externen Kovariante (individuelle Rate der korrekten Antworten), mittels regionaler Interkorrelationen und als Netzwerkanalyse mit Hilfe struktureller Gleichungssysteme zur Modellierung der effektiven Konnektivitaet zwischen den beteiligten Hirnregionen durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die Subtraktionsanalysen stellten eine zunehmende Involvierung eines fronto-parientalen Netzwerkes unter Einschluss des anterioren cingulaeren Kortex und Kleinhirnanteilen dar. Die parametrische Analyse wie einen linear mit der Aufgabenschwierigkeit ansteigenden rCBF beidseits praefrontal, inferior parietal unter Einschluss des Praecuneus, im prae-supplementaer-motorischen Kortex links und im anterior cingulaeren Kortex nach. Die Korrelationsanalyse mit Nutzung einer externen Kovarianten demonstrierte von dieser negativ abhaengige rCBF-Veraenderungen beidseits inferior parietal und im Praecuneus, bilateral praefrontal und im anterior cingulaeren Kortex. In der Netzwerkanalyse zur Beschreibung der effektiven Konnektivitaet wurden vorwiegend von okzipital nach frontal gerichtete, links-hemisphaerisch dominante Interaktionen nachgewiesen. Schlussfolgerung: Die vorgestellten datenanalytischen Vorgehensweisen tragen in ihrer Gesamtheit zum umfassenden Verstaendnis kognitiver Prozesse und einzelner Teilaspekte bei. (orig.)

  14. Innovation Diffusion: Assessment of Strategies within the Diffusion Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enfield, Jacob; Myers, Rodney D.; Lara, Miguel; Frick, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Educators increasingly view the high level of engagement and experiential learning offered by games as a means to promote learning. However, as with any designed learning experience, player experiences should provide an accurate representation of content to be learned. In this study, the authors investigated the DIFFUSION SIMULATION GAME (DSG) to…

  15. Huang diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkel, E.; Guerard, B. v.; Metzger, H.; Peisl, J.

    1979-01-01

    Huang diffuse neutron scattering was measured for the first time on niobium with interstitially dissolved deuterium as well as on MgO after neutron irradiation and Li 7 F after γ-irradiation. With Huang diffuse scattering the strength and symmetry of the distortion field around lattice defects can be determined. Our results clearly demonstrate that this method is feasible with neutrons. The present results are compared with X-ray experiments and the advantages of using neutrons is discussed in some detail. (orig.)

  16. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, F.; Pocachard, J.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining of relevant diffusion coefficients is therefore of prime importance. A few techniques exist for in situ measurement of the quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve the situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  17. In situ measurement of diffusivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berne, Ph.; Pocachard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of molecular diffusion controls the migration of contaminants in very low-permeability porous media, like underground facilities for the storage of hazardous waste. Determining the relevant diffusion coefficients is, therefore, of prime importance. A few techniques exist for the in situ measurement of that quantity, but they suffer from many handicaps (duration, complexity and cost of the experiments). We propose here two innovative methods that have some potential to improve this situation. So far, we have found them feasible on the basis of design calculations and laboratory experiments. This work is presently protected by a patent. (author)

  18. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2+4 (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible

  19. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  20. Langevin diffusions on the torus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Portugués, Eduardo; Sørensen, Michael; Mardia, Kanti V.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce stochastic models for continuous-time evolution of angles and develop their estimation. We focus on studying Langevin diffusions with stationary distributions equal to well-known distributions from directional statistics, since such diffusions can be regarded as toroidal analogues......) a likelihood based on the stationary distribution; (ii) toroidal adaptations of the Euler and Shoji–Ozaki pseudo-likelihoods; (iii) a likelihood based on a specific approximation to the transition density of the wrapped normal process. A simulation study compares, in dimensions one and two, the approximate...

  1. Slaved diffusion in phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangfang; Granick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The translational diffusion of phospholipids in supported fluid bilayers splits into two populations when polyelectrolytes adsorb at incomplete surface coverage. Spatially resolved measurements using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy show that a slow mode, whose magnitude scales inversely with the degree of polymerization of the adsorbate, coexists with a fast mode characteristic of naked lipid diffusion. Inner and outer leaflets of the bilayer are affected nearly equally. Mobility may vary from spot to spot on the membrane surface, despite the lipid composition being the same. This work offers a mechanism to explain how nanosized domains with reduced mobility arise in lipid membranes. PMID:15967988

  2. Some Aspects of Diffusion Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pignedoli, A

    2011-01-01

    This title includes: V.C.A. Ferraro: Diffusion of ions in a plasma with applications to the ionosphere; P.C. Kendall: On the diffusion in the atmosphere and ionosphere; F. Henin: Kinetic equations and Brownian motion; T. Kahan: Theorie des reacteurs nucleaires: methodes de resolution perturbationnelles, interactives et variationnelles; C. Cattaneo: Sulla conduzione del calore; C. Agostinelli: Formule di Green per la diffusione del campo magnetico in un fluido elettricamente conduttore; A. Pignedoli: Transformational methods applied to some one-dimensional problems concerning the equations of t

  3. Spatial Mapping of Translational Diffusion Coefficients Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Mathematical Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Anil N; Chiang, Sharon; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Kasprian, Gregor; Vannucci, Marina; Lee, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the theoretical background for diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Molecular diffusion is a random process involving thermal Brownian motion. In biological tissues, the underlying microstructures restrict the diffusion of water molecules, making diffusion directionally dependent. Water diffusion in tissue is mathematically characterized by the diffusion tensor, the elements of which contain information about the magnitude and direction of diffusion and is a function of the coordinate system. Thus, it is possible to generate contrast in tissue based primarily on diffusion effects. Expressing diffusion in terms of the measured diffusion coefficient (eigenvalue) in any one direction can lead to errors. Nowhere is this more evident than in white matter, due to the preferential orientation of myelin fibers. The directional dependency is removed by diagonalization of the diffusion tensor, which then yields a set of three eigenvalues and eigenvectors, representing the magnitude and direction of the three orthogonal axes of the diffusion ellipsoid, respectively. For example, the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector along the long axis of the fiber corresponds qualitatively to diffusion with least restriction. Determination of the principal values of the diffusion tensor and various anisotropic indices provides structural information. We review the use of diffusion measurements using the modified Stejskal-Tanner diffusion equation. The anisotropy is analyzed by decomposing the diffusion tensor based on symmetrical properties describing the geometry of diffusion tensor. We further describe diffusion tensor properties in visualizing fiber tract organization of the human brain.

  4. Verfahren zum Elektrodialysieren von Fluessigkeiten

    OpenAIRE

    Boergardts, P.

    1998-01-01

    This new method is used for the electrodialysis of fluids, accompanied by water electrolysis. Fluid containing a salt undergoes monopolar electrodialysis. Concentrate flowing from this stage is then subjected to bipolar electrodialysis. A novel feature of this process is that the concentrate stream undergoing bipolar electrodialysis, is mixed with fluid which has been reduced in concentration by bipolar electrodialysis, i.e. resultant dilutate. Also claimed is the equipment to carry out the p...

  5. Zum Interview mit Arthur Schnitzler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkert, Ernst-Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar til et interview med Schnitzler, som dagbladet Politiken publicerede i 1923 og som E.U.Pinkert oversatte til tysk. Oversættelsen udkom den 28.11.2015 i Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung med titlen "Eine Gefahr für die Jugend?"...

  6. Vom Nachhaltigkeitsdiskurs zum hochschuldidaktischen Kriteriensatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Greb

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Als regulative Idee impliziert die „Nachhaltigkeitsidee“ eine Reihe geisteswissenschaftlicher Theoreme. Sie gilt daher als überkomplex und konnte bislang hochschuldidaktisch nicht systematisch transformiert wurden. Zur Rede stehen hier begriffliche Großprojekte wie Gerechtigkeit, Verantwortung, Partizipation, Retinität oder Globalität und Interkulturalität, die als Kristallisationspunkte der Nachhaltigkeitsidee die Grundlagentexte, Positionspapiere und Programme durchziehen. Im Anschluss an die heuristische Studie Globalität und Interkulturalität als integrale Bestandteile beruflicher Bildung für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung (GInE, www.ibw.uni-hamburg.de/GInE wurde ein didaktisches Strukturgitter entworfen, das exemplarische Problemlagen und Dilemmata benennt, so wie Reflexionskategorien für die Hochschuldidaktik in der beruflichen Lehrerbildung zur Diskussion stellt.As a regulative concept, the idea of sustainability implies a number of theorems in the field of humanities. It is regarded as supercomplex and, thus, could not yet be systematically transformed in university didactics. Large scale conceptual terms such as justice, responsibility, participation, retinity, globality, and interculturality are at the core of the discussion – terms which run through basic texts, policy papers, and programmes as focal points of the idea of sustainability. With respect to the heuristic study Globality and Interculturality as Integral Elements of a Professional Education for a Sustainable Development (GInE, www.ibw.uni-hamburg.de/GInE, a didactic framework was designed which not only denotes exemplary problems and dilemmata but also puts up categories of reflection for a university didactics aiming at a professional teacher training.

  7. Sammelrezension: Neue Publikationen zum Horrorfilm

    OpenAIRE

    Stiasny, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    Reynold Humphries: The American Horror Film. An IntroductionPeter Hutchings: The Horror FilmJoseph Maddrey: Nightmares in Red, White and Blue. The Evolution of the American Horror FilmBarry Keith Grant, Christopher Sharret (Hg.): Planks of Reason. Essays on the Horror Film

  8. Ingo Schwarz zum 65. Geburtstag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Die Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter der Alexander-von-Humboldt-Forschungsstelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Am 17. Dezember 2014 feiert der langjährige Arbeitsstellenleiter der Alexander-von-Humboldt-Forschungsstelle der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Ingo Schwarz seinen 65. Geburtstag. Aus diesem Anlass haben Freunde, Kollegen und Wegbegleiter Beiträge zusammengetragen, die die Bandbreite der jahrzehntelangen Forschungen Ingo Schwarz’ zu Alexander von Humboldt widerspiegeln.

  9. Zum Typus des ossetischen Kasussystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Horst Schmidt

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Altiranisch ist das altindogermanische Kasussystem weitgehend erhalten geblieben; im Singular (Sg. der avestischen (av. Nominaldeklination werden noch die acht Kasus Nominativ, Akkusativ, Genetiv, Dativ, Ablativ, Lokativ, Instrumenta! und Vokativ unterschieden; z.B. o-Stamm ahura- 'Gott': ahuri5, ahuram, ahurahyii., ahurai usw.; im Altpersischen ist dieses System durch den Zusammenfall von Dativ und Genetiv um einen Kasus reduziert worden. Auch in der typologischen Anordnung der Morpheme hat das Altiranische den aus dem Indogermanischen (idg. ererbten Status einer flektierenden Sprache bewahrt. Es ist charakterisiert durch Merkmale wie die Differenzierung von rrwnothematischer und heteroklitischer Deklination2 (vgl. Stamm vs. r/n-Stamm: av. ahura- vs. hvarǝ 'Sonne', Genetiv xvǝng, Caland-Wackernagelschen Suffixwechsel (av. dǝrǝz-ra- 'fest' : dǝrǝz-i-ra0a- 'festen Wagen habend' 3, Ablaut (av. dātā 'Geber', Genetiv dāvro, Formvariation4 (aav. Genetiv Sg. ahura-hyā vs. dāvr-ō oder Autonomie des Wortes.

  10. Albert Keding zum 65. Geburtstag

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Herr Albert Keding beging am 2. März 1997 seinen 65. Geburtstag. Er wurde in Schreitlacken, Kreis Samland (Ostpreußen) geboren, wo seine Eltern einen Landwirtschaftsbetrieb besaßen. Dort wurde das Interesse des Jubilars zur Landwirtschaft geweckt. So besuchte Albert Keding später in Dassow-Lütgenhof (Mecklenburg) eine Fachschule für Landwirtschaft, wo er seine Vorliebe für Gräser entdeckte. An diese Ausbildung schloss sich ein Landwirtschaftsstudium an der Martin-Luther-Universität in Halle a...

  11. VERFAHREN ZUM VERBINDEN METALLISCHER SCHAUMWERKSTOFFE

    OpenAIRE

    Gruetzner, H.; Horn, H.

    2003-01-01

    WO 200218089 A UPAB: 20020528 NOVELTY - Joining a first object (1) made of a metallic foam material to a second metallic object (2) in a connecting region (7) comprises moving a rotating friction stud (6) between the objects in the connecting region in a friction fit so that the objects are heated and plasticized as a result of friction and pressure exerted on the objects by the stud and then welding the two objects together. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Preferred Features: The friction stud is rot...

  12. HTGT-Turbotech II. Project: 1.222: transonic diffusers and resulting unsteady effects. Final report; HTGT-Turbotech II. Teilprojekt 1.222: Transsonische Diffusoren und resultierende instationaere Effekte. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetter, H.; Margot-Peters, X.; Kraus, P.

    1999-12-01

    The tip gap between rotor blades and the casing of a turbomachine is essential for a safe operation. Behind the last stage the resulting leakage jet may however cause a supersonic flow region at the outer diffuser casing which can induce - due to shock/boundary layer interactions - unsteady shock oscillations. Until now this process can't be described numerically. Therefore the scope of this project was to provide an extensive validated numerical code which can be used simultaneously to optimize the diffuser's flow properties and to minimize the blade loading due to shock oscillations. Fundamental questions such as shock oscillation amplitudes and influence area of the leakage jet had been answered by using the hydraulic analogy. To realize the flow properties steady and unsteady flow measurements had been carried out at an air test rig to deliver boundary conditions and validation data for the numerical code. Concerning the numerical work an existent steady Navier-Stokes-Code had been upgraded to unsteady calculations. Some turbulence models had been tested to proof its qualification for separated unsteady flows. However with the intended solution approach - no full threedimensional discretisation - it has been found impossible to converge the unsteady shock/boundary layer interaction calculations. Reasons are re-entry flow at the diffuser outlet and the measured, significant circumferential variation of flow properties. However important insights to the continuous work could be extracted from the preliminary negative results of the numerical studies: The circumferential variation of the flow properties can locally cause re-entry flow at the diffuser outlet. In addition the unsteady shock/boundary-interactions vary round the periphere, but they could be influenced by locally applied methods. Therefore a proofed numerical treatment supposes detailed solutions for the modelling of boundary conditions for re-entry flow and unsteady circumferentially varying

  13. Innovation and creativity : Beyond diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    2009-01-01

    of postwar systems theory and introduce Castoriadis' philosophy as an interesting option in this regard. It proceeds in four parts: (a) First, it debates the limits of the commonplace metaphor of diffusion and adoption in today's debate on innovation. (b) Second, it will present aspects of Castoriadis...

  14. Stability of Randomly Switched Diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef; Gholami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a sufficient criterion for ε-moment stability (boundedness) and ergodicity for a class of systems comprising a finite set of diffusions among which switching is governed by a continuous time Markov chain. Stability/instability properties for each separate subsystem are assumed...

  15. Evaluating Technology Transfer and Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four articles discuss the evaluation of technology transfer and diffusion: (1) "Technology Transfer at the U.S. National Laboratories: A Framework for Evaluation"; (2) "Application of Social Psychological and Evaluation Research: Lessons from Energy Information Programs"; (3) "Technology and Knowledge Transfer in Energy R and D Laboratories: An…

  16. Less Confusion in Diffusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, CMW

    2016-01-01

    With its unique ability to investigate tissue architecture and microstructure in vivo, diffusion MRI (dMRI) has gained tremendous interest and the society has been continuously triggered to develop novel dMRI image analysis approaches. With the overwhelming amount of strategies currently available

  17. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  18. Memory effects in turbulent diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodny, A.G.; Weiland, J.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1993-01-01

    A non-Markovian approach is proposed for the derivation of the diffusion coefficient of saturated turbulence. A memory term accounting for nonlocal coherence effects is introduced in a new attempt to describe the transition between weak and strong turbulence. The result compares favourably with recent experiments as well as mode coupling simulations of fusion plasmas. (14 refs.)

  19. Diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, V.V.; Ryabchikov, L.N.

    1966-01-01

    In this work the diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in yttrium were determined from the rate at which the hydrogen was released from yttrium samples under a vacuum at temperatures of 450 to 850 0 C and from the quantity of hydrogen retained by yttrium at hydrogen pressures below 5 x 10 - 4 mm Hg in the same temperature range

  20. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  1. Unexpected consequences of bedload diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, O.; Abramian, A.; Lajeunesse, E.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary grains transported as bedload bump and bounce on the rough bed of the river that entrains them. The succession of these random events causes bedload particles to diffuse across the flow, towards the less active areas of the bed. In a fashion reminiscent of that proposed by Parker (1978) for suspended load, this mechanism opposes gravity to maintain the banks of alluvial rivers. In fact, diffusion is so tightly linked to bedload that it appears in the most basic sediment transport experiment--the straight channel we use to calibrate transport laws. Indeed, the fixed sides of the channel cause the flow, and thus the bed shear stress, to vary across the flume. This variation induces bedload diffusion, which in turn deforms the bed. As a consequence, to reliably calibrate a transport law, we need to measure the full profiles of shear stress and bedload transport, rather than bulk-average these quantities. Unfortunately, using a larger channel does not solve the problem, as a large aspect ratio favors the growth of streaks caused by a diffusion-induced instability. Based on these observations, we propose a different design for sediment transport experiments.

  2. Quasilinear diffusion in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, D.L.

    1975-05-01

    The problem of inhomogeneous diffusion in a plasma is considered with emphasis on its possible application to relativistic electron beams. A one-dimensional model with a background electrostatic field is used to illustrate the basic approach, which is then extended to a two-dimensional plasma with a background magnetic field. Only preliminary results are available. (U.S.)

  3. Tiny Molybdenites Tell Diffusion Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion invokes micron-scale exchange during crystal growth and dissolution in magma chambers on short time-scales. Fundamental to interpreting such data are assumptions on magma-fluid dynamics at all scales. Nevertheless, elemental diffusion profiles are used to estimate time scales for magma storage, eruption, and recharge. An underutilized timepiece to evaluate diffusion and 3D mobility of magmatic fluids is high-precision Re-Os dating of molybdenite. With spatially unique molybdenite samples from a young ore system (e.g., 1 Ma) and a double Os spike, analytical errors of 1-3 ka unambiguously separate events in time. Re-Os ages show that hydrous shallow magma chambers locally recharge and expel Cu-Mo-Au-silica as superimposed stockwork vein networks at time scales less than a few thousand years [1]. Re-Os ages provide diffusion rates controlled by a dynamic crystal mush, accumulation and expulsion of metalliferous fluid, and magma reorganization after explosive crystallization events. Importantly, this approach has broad application far from ore deposits. Here, we use Re-Os dating of molybdenite to assess time scales for generating and diffusing metals through the deep crust. To maximize opportunity for chemical diffusion, we use a continental-scale Sveconorwegian mylonite zone for the study area. A geologically constrained suite of molybdenite samples was acquired from quarry exposures. Molybdenite, previously unreported, is extremely scarce. Tiny but telling molybdenites include samples from like occurrences to assure geologic accuracy in Re-Os ages. Ages range from mid-Mesoproterozoic to mid-Neoproterozoic, and correspond to early metamorphic dehydration of a regionally widespread biotite-rich gneiss, localized melting of gneiss to form cm-m-scale K-feldspar ± quartz pods, development of vapor-rich, vuggy mm stringers that serve as volatile collection surfaces in felsic leucosomes, and low-angle (relative to foliation) cross-cutting cm-scale quartz veins

  4. Wright-Fisher diffusion bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert C; Jenkins, Paul A; Spanò, Dario

    2017-10-06

    The trajectory of the frequency of an allele which begins at x at time 0 and is known to have frequency z at time T can be modelled by the bridge process of the Wright-Fisher diffusion. Bridges when x=z=0 are particularly interesting because they model the trajectory of the frequency of an allele which appears at a time, then is lost by random drift or mutation after a time T. The coalescent genealogy back in time of a population in a neutral Wright-Fisher diffusion process is well understood. In this paper we obtain a new interpretation of the coalescent genealogy of the population in a bridge from a time t∈(0,T). In a bridge with allele frequencies of 0 at times 0 and T the coalescence structure is that the population coalesces in two directions from t to 0 and t to T such that there is just one lineage of the allele under consideration at times 0 and T. The genealogy in Wright-Fisher diffusion bridges with selection is more complex than in the neutral model, but still with the property of the population branching and coalescing in two directions from time t∈(0,T). The density of the frequency of an allele at time t is expressed in a way that shows coalescence in the two directions. A new algorithm for exact simulation of a neutral Wright-Fisher bridge is derived. This follows from knowing the density of the frequency in a bridge and exact simulation from the Wright-Fisher diffusion. The genealogy of the neutral Wright-Fisher bridge is also modelled by branching Pólya urns, extending a representation in a Wright-Fisher diffusion. This is a new very interesting representation that relates Wright-Fisher bridges to classical urn models in a Bayesian setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Turbulent diffusion of small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.G.

    1977-11-01

    The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley

  6. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-04

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  7. In vivo P-31 MR diffusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, C.T.W.; Vanzijl, P.C.M.; LeBihan, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion spin-echo sequence modified for the in vivo diffusion spectroscopy. The apparent diffusion constant D α was measured as a function of the diffusion time. Contrary to the results in phantom samples, a strong dependency of the D α for phosphocreatine (PCr) in the rat muscle tissue on diffusion time was observed, clearly indicating restricted diffusion effects and allowing an approximation of the size of the restricted volume (8-13 μm). This size fits well with the known dimensions of a normal muscle cell

  8. Diffraction and diffusion in room acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Rasmussen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Diffraction and diffusion are two phenomena that are both related to the wave nature of sound. Diffraction due to the finite size of reflecting surfaces and the design of single reflectors and reflector arrays are discussed. Diffusion is the result of scattering of sound reflected from surfaces...... that are not plane but curved or irregular. The importance of diffusion has been demonstrated in concert halls. Methods for the design of diffusing surfaces and the development of new types of diffusers are reviewed. Finally, the importance of diffraction and diffusion in room acoustic computer models is discussed....

  9. Bayesian regularization of diffusion tensor images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jesper; Hobolth, Asger; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fibre bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fibre orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along...... several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and thereby the diffusion tensors are subject to noise, leading to possibly flawed representations of the three dimensional fibre bundles. In this paper we develop a Bayesian procedure for regularizing the diffusion tensor field, fully utilizing...

  10. [Carl Schirren als Gelehrter im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft und politischer Publizistik. 13 Beiträge zum 22. Baltischen Seminar 2010 ; Carl Schirren. Vorlesungen über livländische Geschichte. Nachschrift von Johannes Lossius] / Karsten Brügge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Carl Schirren als Gelehrter im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft und politischer Publizistik. 13 Beiträge zum 22. Baltischen Seminar 2010 (Baltische Seminare, 20). Hrsg. von Michael Garleff. Verlag Carl-Schirren-Gesellschaft. Lüneburg 2013; Carl Schirren. Vorlesungen über livländische Geschichte. Nachschrift von Johannes Lossius (Baltische Seminare, 20-1). Hrsg. von Carl Schirren und Wilhelm Lenz. Verlag Carl-Schirren-Gesellschaft. Lüneburg 2013

  11. Diffusing diffusivity: a new derivation and comparison with simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rohit Jain

    active media, where the relation of Eq.(1) is not valid at all times.4–6 ... tional diffusion of dumbbells in 2D porous media of stationary hard ..... reflecting boundary condition at D = 0, i.e., πeq(D) = 1. D0 .... Superdiffusion and viscoelastic vortex flows in a two- .... gator for Free, Linear, and Harmonic Potentials in the. Over- and ...

  12. Oceanic diffusion in the coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukuda, Masaaki

    1980-03-01

    Described in this paper is the eddy diffusion in the area off Tokai Village investigated by means of dye diffusion experiment and of oceanic observation. In order to assess the oceanic diffusion in coastal areas, improved methods effective in complex field were developed. The oceanic diffusion was separated in two groups, horizontal and vertical diffusion respectively. Both these diffusions are combined and their analysis together is difficult. The oceanic diffusion is thus considered separately. Instantaneous point release is the basis of horizontal diffusion analysis. Continuous release is then the overlap of numerous instantaneous releases. It was shown that the diffusion parameters derived from the results of diffusion experiment or oceanic observation vary widely with time and place and with sea conditions. A simple diffusion equation was developed from the equation of continuity. The results were in good agreement with seasonal mean horizontal distribution of river water in the sea area. The vertical observation in diffusion experiment is difficult and the vertical structure of oceanic condition is complex, so that the research on vertical diffusion generally is not advanced yet. With river water as the tracer, a method of estimating vertical diffusion parameters with a Gaussian model or one-dimensional model was developed. The vertical diffusion near sea bottom was numerically analized with suspended particles in seawater as the tracer. Diffusion was computed for each particle size, and by summing up the vertical distribution of beam attenuation coefficient was estimated. By comparing the results of estimation and those of observation the vertical diffusivity and the particle size distribution at sea bottom could be estimated. (author)

  13. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  14. Tracer surface diffusion on UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, S.Y.; Olander, D.R.

    1983-06-01

    Surface diffusion on UO 2 was measured by the spreading of U-234 tracer on the surface of a duplex diffusion couple consisting of wafers of depleted and enriched UO 2 joined by a bond of uranium metal

  15. Diffus lungesygdom hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse lung disease in children represents a heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders with high morbidity and mortality. Typical features include tachypnoea, failure to thrive, diffuse radiological and histopathological abnormalities. Advances in genetics and pathophysiology, combined...

  16. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  17. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlake, Bä rbel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double

  18. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.S.; Scherrer, P.; Ross, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH 0.2 is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.)

  19. Theory and experiments on surface diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestri, W.L.

    1998-11-01

    The following topics were dealt with: adatom formation and self-diffusion on the Ni(100) surface, helium atom scattering measurements, surface-diffusion parameter measurements, embedded atom method calculations.

  20. Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions

  1. Massively parallel diffuse optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd A.

    2017-09-05

    Diffuse optical tomography systems and methods are described herein. In a general embodiment, the diffuse optical tomography system comprises a plurality of sensor heads, the plurality of sensor heads comprising respective optical emitter systems and respective sensor systems. A sensor head in the plurality of sensors heads is caused to act as an illuminator, such that its optical emitter system transmits a transillumination beam towards a portion of a sample. Other sensor heads in the plurality of sensor heads act as observers, detecting portions of the transillumination beam that radiate from the sample in the fields of view of the respective sensory systems of the other sensor heads. Thus, sensor heads in the plurality of sensors heads generate sensor data in parallel.

  2. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  3. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  4. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La{sub 2}{sub {minus}}{sub {times}}Sr{sub {times}}CuO{sub 4}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}{sub {minus}}{delta}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and the Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n}{sub {minus}}{sub 1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2}{sub +}{sub 4} (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible.

  5. CT of diffuse pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro

    1987-01-01

    While the theory of chest radiographic interpretation in diagnosing diffuse pulmonary diseases has not yet been established, X-ray computed tomography (CT), having intrinsic high contrast resolution and improved spatial resolution, has proved to offer important imformation concerning the location and invasion of diffuse pulmonary lesions. This study related to CT-pathologic correlation, focusing on perivascular interstitial space and secondary pulmonary lobule at macroscopic levels. The perivascular interstitial space was thickened as a result of the infiltration of cancer, granulomas, and inflammatory cells. This finding appeared as irregular contour of the blood vessel on CT. Centrilobular nodules were distributed at the tip of the bronchus or pulmonary artery on CT. The distance from the terminal and respiratory bronchioles to the lobular border was 2 to 3 mm. Lobular lesions were delineated as clear margin on CT. Contribution of these CT features to chest radiographic interpretation must await further studies. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Erbium diffusion in titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Basse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The diffusivity of erbium in the anatase phase of titanium dioxide (TiO2 has been studied for various temperatures ranging from 800 °C to 1, 000 °C. Samples of TiO2, with a 10 nm thick buried layer containing 0.5 at% erbium, were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and subsequently heat treated. The erbium concentration profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, allowing for determination of the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients. These were found to follow an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of ( 2.1 ± 0.2 eV. X-ray diffraction revealed that the TiO2 films consisted of polycrystalline grains of size ≈ 100 nm.

  7. Morphological inversion of complex diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V. A. T.; Vural, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here, we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than algorithms based on distance (closeness) and Jordan centrality. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves.

  8. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  9. The generalized Airy diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Cholewinski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of a generalized Airy diffusion equation and an associated nonlinear partial differential equation are obtained. Trigonometric type functions are derived for a third order generalized radial Euler type operator. An associated complex variable theory and generalized Cauchy-Euler equations are obtained. Further, it is shown that the Airy expansions can be mapped onto the Bessel Calculus of Bochner, Cholewinski and Haimo.

  10. The Diffusion of Military Dictatorships

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Caruso; Ilaria Petrarca; Roberto Ricciuti

    2012-01-01

    We show the existence of a diffusion process of military dictatorships in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1972 through 2007, using panel data probit estimation and a Markov chain transition model. This process is shortly-lived, since we observe an overall trend that reduces the number of military regimes. We also find that Manufacturing share of GDP, Primary share of GDP positively affect the probability of military dictatorship, and Openness to trade, whereas the British colonial origin are negative...

  11. Composite interlayer for diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A ductile interlayer is described, which is useful for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of metallic articles; the interlayer consisting of a melting point depressant and a plurality of ductile lamellae which are free from carbides, aluminides and borides. The composition and fabrication of the lamellae, and the process for bonding the metallic articles, depend on the composition of the metals to be bonded, and are exemplified in the specification. (U.K.)

  12. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  13. Diffusion processes in dyed detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lferde, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of the dyed and fluorescent track detectors, the diffusion speed of the swelling agent, the sensitization molecules and the dye have been measured under various conditions. It is shown that the sensitization affects the entire detector while dyeing is restricted to the upper and lower layers of the detector. By combining the optimal values of the reactions parameters a higher contrast and sensitivity may be achieved. (author)

  14. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  15. Diffusion in ordered binary solid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the field of diffusion in ordered binary solid systems. An extensive experimental investigation of the self diffusion in CoGa is presented. The results of these diffusion measurements strongly suggest that a substantial part of the atomic migration is caused by a new type of defect. A quantitative description of the atomic displacements via this defect is given. Finally computer simulations are presented of diffusion and ordering in binary solid systems. (Auth.)

  16. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  17. The Adoption and Diffusion of Service Products

    OpenAIRE

    Myung Joong Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to theoretically explore the innovation, adoption and diffusion of service product. A theoretical model of the diffusion of service product is developed that takes account of transportation, waiting and searching casts in the adoption of service product. The main results of the model are; (1) the diffusion of service product is slower than that of the manufacturing equivalent and (2) the delivery or retail distribution service speeds up the diffusion of the manu...

  18. Diffuse Deckenlüftung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Richtung in den Raum geleitet (daher auch der Namensteil „diffus“). Im Vergleich zu herkömmlichen Lüftungsanlagen (Misch- oder Verdrängungslüftung) kann die diffuse Deckenlüftung das Risiko eines Luftzugs im Raum erheblich reduzieren oder sogar vermeiden. Darüber hinaus bietet diese Lüftungsanlage die...... vielversprechende Möglichkeit, Energie einzusparen. Dies liegt am geringen Druckverlust, an dem längeren Zeitraum der freien Kühlung und dem großen Potenzial der Nachtkühlung. Die Investitionskosten für eine Anlage für die diffuse Deckenlüftung sind 5 bis 10 % geringer als die für herkömmliche Anlagen, da die...... Akustikdecke direkt als Luftverteiler verwendet werden kann. Durch den Einsatz eines Hohlraums für die Luftverteilung fallen zudem auch die Kosten für Luftkanäle niedriger aus. Das Interesse daran, die diffuse Deckenlüftung in Büros und anderen Gewerbegebäuden einzusetzen, wächst aufgrund der Vorteile in Bezug...

  19. Mathematical methods for diffusion MRI processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglet, C.; Lenglet, C.; Sapiro, G.; Campbell, J.S.W.; Pike, G.B.; Campbell, J.S.W.; Siddiqi, K.; Descoteaux, M.; Haro, G.; Wassermann, D.; Deriche, R.; Wassermann, D.; Anwander, A.; Thompson, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review recent mathematical models and computational methods for the processing of diffusion Magnetic Resonance Images, including state-of-the-art reconstruction of diffusion models, cerebral white matter connectivity analysis, and segmentation techniques. We focus on Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) and Q-Ball Images (QBI). (authors)

  20. On the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75

    1993-07-01

    The diffusion of a charged particle by a singular flux tube is revisited. A simple and rigourous derivation shows that the action of the propagator on an incident plane wave precisely yields the Aharonov-Bohm diffusion amplitude. The forward diffusion is discussed as well as the singularity of the interaction at the position of the flux tube. (orig.)

  1. Oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolitsch, A.; Richter, E.; Wolf, M.

    1978-10-01

    A survey is given on the published works to study oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials in the last years. In the first part methods are described for the measurement of oxygen diffusion coefficients and in the second part the published reports on oxygen diffusion in glasses, ceramic and other oxides are discussed. The most important results are summarized in different tables. (author)

  2. Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and

  3. Auf dem Weg zum Web 3.0: Taxonomien und Ontologien für die medizinische Ausbildung - eine systematische Literaturrecherche [Towards Web 3.0: Taxonomies and ontologies for medical education - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaum, Wolf E.

    2013-02-01

    Curriculumsentwicklung und –kartierung als auch zur Orientierung innerhalb der seit Jahren zunehmenden Fülle von Lernressourcen in der medizinischen Ausbildung stellt das semantische Web („Web 3.0“ ein niedrigschwelliges, effektives Hilfsmittel dar, das es ermöglicht, inhaltlich verwandte Elemente über Systemgrenzen hinweg zu identifizieren. Voraussetzung dafür ist der Einsatz eines geeigneten strukturierten Vokabulars zur maschinenlesbaren, inhaltlichen Beschreibung von Objekten, um die bisher notwendige manuelle Verknüpfung durch eine automatisch erzeugte, inhaltsbasierte bzw. semantische Verknüpfung zu ersetzen. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, existierende Taxonomien und Ontologien zur Annotation medizinischer Lernressourcen und -inhalte zusammenzustellen und anhand ausgewählter Kriterien zu vergleichen sowie auf ihre Eignung zum Einsatz im eingangs beschriebenen Kontext zu überprüfen.Methoden: Anhand einer systematischen Literaturrecherche wurden existierende Taxonomien und Ontologien zur Beschreibung medizinischer Lernressourcen identifiziert. Für jedes so identifizierte strukturierte Vokabular wurden mittels Websuche und/oder Kontakt zu den Herausgebern Thema, Struktur, Sprache, Umfang, Wartung und Technik der Taxonomie/Ontologie ermittelt und deren Eignung für den Einsatz im semantischen Web überprüft.Ergebnisse: In 20 identifizierten Publikationen wurden 14 strukturierte Vokabulare identifiziert, die sich in Sprache, Umfang, Aktualität und Wartung zum Teil sehr stark unterschieden. Keines der identifizierten Vokabulare erfüllte die erforderlichen Kriterien zur inhaltlichen Beschreibung medizinischer Ausbildungsinhalte und Lernressourcen im deutschsprachigen Raum.Diskussion: Auf dem Weg zum Web 3.0 stellen Auswahl und Einsatz eines geeigneten, deutschsprachigen Vokabulars zur maschinenlesbaren, inhaltlichen Beschreibung von Objekten ein relevantes Problem dar. Mögliche Lösungsansätze umfassen die Neuentwicklung, die Übersetzung und/ oder die Kombination

  4. Cosmic ray diffusion: report of the workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmingham, T.J.; Jones, F.C.

    1975-02-01

    A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory. (auth)

  5. New diffusion mechanism for high temperature diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Adda, Y.

    1986-09-01

    A new atomic transport mechanism in solids at high temperatures has been discovered by Molecular Dynamics computer simulation. It can be described as a ring sequence of atomic replacements induced by unstable Frenkel pairs. This transport process takes place without stable defects, the atomic migration occurring indeed by simultaneous creation and migration of unstable defects. Starting from the analysis of this mechanism in different solids at high temperature (CaF 2 , Na, Ar) and in irradiated copper by subthreshold collisions, we discuss the role of this mechanism on various diffusion controlled phenomena and also on the atomic processes of defect creation

  6. Anomalous diffusion in niobium. Study of solute diffusion mechanism of iron in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablitzer, D.

    1977-01-01

    In order to explain anomalously high diffusion velocities observed for iron diffusion in niobium, the following parameters were measured: isotope effect, b factor (which expresses the effect of iron on niobium self-diffusion), self-diffusion coefficient of niobium, solute diffusion coefficient of iron in niobium. The results obtained show that neither pure vacancy models, nor diffusion in the lattice defects (dislocations, sub-boundaries, grain boundaries), nor pure interstitialy mechanisms, nor simple or cyclic exchange mechanisms agree with experiments. A mechanism is proposed which considers an equilibrium between substitution iron atoms and interstitial iron atoms. The diffusion of iron then occurs through interstitial vancancy pairs [fr

  7. Research of Innovation Diffusion on Industrial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real value of innovation consists in its diffusion on industrial network. The factors which affect the diffusion of innovation on industrial network are the topology of industrial network and rules of diffusion. Industrial network is a complex network which has scale-free and small-world characters; its structure has some affection on threshold, length of path, enterprise’s status, and information share of innovation diffusion. Based on the cost and attitude to risk of technical innovation, we present the “avalanche” diffusing model of technical innovation on industrial network.

  8. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for groundlevel sources

  9. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for ground-level sources.

  10. Quantum diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, T.; Bergersen, B.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of diffusion of self-trapped light interstitials in metals is presented. The theory encompasses both coherent and incoherent tunneling, but the approximation used neglects the dependence of the interstitial transfer matrix element on the vibrational state of the crystal. The coherent tunneling contribution is estimated by fitting the incoherent diffusion rate to experimental data for hydrogen and muon diffusion. It is predicted that coherent diffusion should be dominant below approximately 80 K for H in Nb and below approximately 190 K for μ + in Cu. Experimental verifications of these predictions would require high purity strain free samples and low concentrations of the diffusing species. (author)

  11. U diffusion in Ti-α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo, J.; Perez, R.A.; Di Lalla, N.

    2012-01-01

    The spectrometry was used to measure the diffusion of u in Ti-α in the range of temperatures from 863 to 1123 k (590-850 o C). The diffusion parameters found Q = 294 kj / mol and D o = 4x10 -3 m2 / s are similar to obtained for the self-diffusion in Ti-? measured using a base material containing impurities like this work. This is consistent with the hypothesis that u diffuses via a vacancy mechanism in the grid of Ti-α and it contrasted with older results, in which the activation energy is significantly lower and incompatible with said diffusion mechanism (author)

  12. A novel experimental approach for the determination of the photooxidative decay of semivolatile pesticides and POPs adsorbed on single levitated particles; Aufbau eines Messverfahrens zum photo-oxidativen Abbau von semivolatilen Pflanzenschutzmitteln und POPs an levitierten Einzelpartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, E.

    2002-08-01

    gespeicherte Mikro- und Nanopartikel, auf deren Oberflaeche die zu untersuchenden Substanzen in Monolagen adsorbiert sind. Die beruehrungslose Speicherung der Partikel gelingt in einer elektrodynamischen Falle, in der die Temperatur, Luftdruck, Luftfeuchte und die Zusammensetzung der Atmosphaere kontrolliert einstellbar ist. Die Partikel werden reaktiven Gasen, wie OH-Radikalen, ausgesetzt. Die induzierten Veraenderungen der adsorbierten Substanzen werden zeitaufgeloest mit Hilfe der Raman-Spektroskopie verfolgt, so dass chemische Prozesse, die entstehenden Reaktionsprodukte sowie auch Abdampfverluste von der Partikeloberflaeche quantifiziert werden koennen. Alternativ kann auch die Fourier-Transform-Infrarot-Spektroskopie zum spezifischen Nachweis genutzt werden. Mit den Experimenten lassen sich reaktionskinetische Daten zum indirekten Photoabbau schwerfluechtiger Substanzen als Funktion der Umgebungsbedingungen ableiten. Im Zuge des Vorhabens wurden die notwendigen experimentellen Voraussetzungen geschaffen und die hierfuer konstruierten Komponenten anhand von Testsystemen im Hinblick auf ihre Einsetzbarkeit charakterisiert. Erste Experimente zur Reaktionskinetik belegen die Funktionstuechtigkeit des neuen Verfahrens. (orig.)

  13. SOUND FIELD DIFFUSIVITY AT THE TOP SURFACE OF SCHROEDER DIFFUSER BARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Monazzam

    2006-01-01

    Reactive barriers are one of the most promising and novel environmental noise barriers. In this case using Schroeder diffusers (e.g. quadratic residue diffusers) on the top surface of the T-shape barrier was shown to significantly improve the performance of absorbent T-shape barriers. The reasons behind the high performance of diffuser barriers are considered in this investigation. A question about the diffusivity behavior of Schroeder diffusers when they are utilized on the top of barrier wa...

  14. Simulation of diffusion in concentrated lattice gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the diffusion of particles in lattice gases was studied extensively by theoretical methods and numerical simulations. This paper reviews work on collective and, in particular, on tracer diffusion. The diffusion of tagged particles is characterized by a correlation factor whose behavior as a function of concentration is now well understood. Also the detailed kinetics of the tracer transitions was investigated. A special case is the one-dimensional lattice gas where the tracer diffusion coefficient vanishes. An interesting extension is the case of tagged atoms with a different transition rate. This model allows to study various physical situations, including impurity diffusion, percolation, and diffusion in partially blocked lattices. Finally some recent work on diffusion in lattice gases under the influence of a drift field will be reported. (author)

  15. Model of diffusers / permeators for hydrogen processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W. D.; Hang, T.

    2008-01-01

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  17. Diffusive separation of particles by diffusion in swirled turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, V.N.; Shiliaev, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of turbulent flow and diffusive separation of solid particles in a centrifugal air separator (consisting of two flat disks rotating at the same angular velocity) is presented. A closed set of balances for all the components of the tensor of turbulent stresses, extended to the entire flow region, is employed in the numerical analysis of transition and turbulent air flows between the rotating disks. The analytical relationships obtained for the case of the mixed flow for the various components of the average velocity, energy of fluctuations, and turbulence level in the circumferential direction agreed well with the theoretical and experimental distributions of Bakke, et al. (1973). It is shown that at high Reynolds numbers the flow is isotropic, the dependence of the circumferential component of the average velocity obeys a power law, and the generation of the radial component is controlled by the local centrifugal field. The sharpness of particle separation was calculated by the eddy diffusion equation and was found to depend on the geometry and the operating conditions. 8 references

  18. Calculating effective diffusivities in the limit of vanishing molecular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavliotis, G.A.; Stuart, A.M.; Zygalakis, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of the numerical calculation (by Monte Carlo methods) of the effective diffusivity for a particle moving in a periodic divergent-free velocity field, in the limit of vanishing molecular diffusion. In this limit traditional numerical methods typically fail, since they do not represent accurately the geometry of the underlying deterministic dynamics. We propose a stochastic splitting method that takes into account the volume-preserving property of the equations of motion in the absence of noise, and when inertial effects can be neglected. An extension of the method is then proposed for the cases where the noise has a non-trivial time-correlation structure and when inertial effects cannot be neglected. The method of modified equations is used to explain failings of Euler-based methods. The new stochastic geometric integrators are shown to outperform standard Euler-based integrators. Various asymptotic limits of physical interest are investigated by means of numerical experiments, using the new integrators

  19. Probing the diffuse interstellar medium with diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Bailey, Mandy; Farhang, Amin; Javadi, Atefeh; Khosroshahi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    For a century already, a large number of absorption bands have been known at optical wavelengths, called the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). While their carriers remain unidentified, the relative strengths of these bands in various environments make them interesting new probes of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We present the results from two large, dedicated campaigns to map the ISM using DIBs measured in the high signal-to-noise spectra of hundreds of early-type stars: [1] in and around the Local Bubble using ESO's New Technology Telescope and the Isaac Newton Telescope, and [2] across both Magellanic Clouds using the Very Large Telescope and the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We discuss the implications for the structure and dynamics of the ISM, as well as the constraints these maps place on the nature of the carriers of the DIBs. Partial results have appeared in the recent literature (van Loon et al. 2013; Farhang et al. 2015a,b; Bailey, PhD thesis 2014) with the remainder being prepared for publication now.

  20. Diffusion of gases in solids: rare gas diffusion in solids; tritium diffusion in fission and fusion reactor metals. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, P.M.; Chandra, D.; Mintz, J.M.; Elleman, T.S.; Verghese, K.

    1976-01-01

    Major results of tritium and rare gas diffusion research conducted under the contract are summarized. The materials studied were austenitic stainless steels, Zircaloy, and niobium. In all three of the metal systems investigated, tritium release rates were found to be inhibited by surface oxide films. The effective diffusion coefficients that control tritium release from surface films on Zircaloy and niobium were determined to be eight to ten orders of magnitude lower than the bulk diffusion coefficients. A rapid component of diffusion due to grain boundaries was identified in stainless steels. The grain boundary diffusion coefficient was determined to be about six orders of magnitude greater than the bulk diffusion coefficient for tritium in stainless steel. In Zircaloy clad fuel pins, the permeation rate of tritium through the cladding is rate-limited by the extremely slow diffusion rate in the surface films. Tritium diffusion rates through surface oxide films on niobium appear to be controlled by cracks in the surface films at temperatures up to 600 0 C. Beyond 600 0 C, the cracks appear to heal, thereby increasing the activation energy for diffusion through the oxide film. The steady-state diffusion of tritium in a fusion reactor blanket has been evaluated in order to calculate the equilibrium tritium transport rate, approximate time to equilibrium, and tritium inventory in various regions of the reactor blanket as a function of selected blanket parameters. Values for these quantities have been tabulated

  1. Anomalous diffusion spreads its wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klafter, J. [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)]. E-mail: klafter@post.tau.ac.il; Sokolov, I.M. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: igor.sokolov@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2005-08-01

    An increasing number of natural phenomena do not fit into the relatively simple description of diffusion developed by Einstein a century ago. As all of us are no doubt aware, this year has been declared 'world year of physics' to celebrate the three remarkable breakthroughs made by Albert Einstein in 1905. However, it is not so well known that Einstein's work on Brownian motion - the random motion of tiny particles first observed and investigated by the botanist Robert Brown in 1827 - has been cited more times in the scientific literature than his more famous papers on special relativity and the quantum nature of light. In a series of publications that included his doctoral thesis, Einstein derived an equation for Brownian motion from microscopic principles - a feat that ultimately enabled Jean Perrin and others to prove the existence of atoms (see 'Einstein's random walk' Physics World January pp19-22). Einstein was not the only person thinking about this type of problem. The 27 July 1905 issue of Nature contained a letter with the title 'The problem of the random walk' by the British statistician Karl Pearson, who was interested in the way that mosquitoes spread malaria, which he showed was described by the well-known diffusion equation. As such, the displacement of a mosquito from its initial position is proportional to the square root of time, and the distribution of the positions of many such 'random walkers' starting from the same origin is Gaussian in form. The random walk has since turned out to be intimately linked to Einstein's work on Brownian motion, and has become a major tool for understanding diffusive processes in nature. (U.K.)

  2. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  3. Diffuse hemangioma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.; Caseiro-Alves, F.; Cruz, L.; Moreira, A.; Rebelo, O.

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of diffuse hemangioma of the colon in adolescent patients. One patient had multiple phleboliths at the lower pelvis identified with plain radiographs of the abdomen. Several aspects were seen on double-contrast enema: luminal narrowing, colonic-wall thickening and submucosal colonic masses that changed in appearance with the degree of colonic distension. Angiography was inconclusive in one case. Use of CT and MR provided relevant information regarding the true extent of the disease, but MR was superior in demonstrating unequivocally the vascular nature of the lesions. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion Indexes with Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the LASSO as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model which is better suited for forecasting compared...... it to be an important alternative to PC....

  5. Diffusion inside living human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, N.; Jeon, J. -H.; Loft, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    of the cell or within the nucleus. Also, granules in cells which are stressed by intense laser illumination or which have attached to a surface for a long period of time move in a more restricted fashion than those within healthy cells. For granules diffusing in healthy cells, in regions away from the cell...... cells. For these cells the exact diffusional pattern of a particular granule depends on the physiological state of the cell and on the localization of the granule within the cytoplasm. Granules located close to the actin rich periphery of the cell move less than those located towards to the center...

  6. Diffusion of torqued active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Mario; Lauga, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Motivated by swimming microorganisms whose trajectories are affected by the presence of an external torque, we calculate the diffusivity of an active particle subject to an external torque and in a fluctuating environment. The analytical results are compared with Brownian dynamics simulations showing excellent agreement between theory and numerical experiments. This work was funded in part by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Mexico (Conacyt postdoctoral fellowship to M. S.) and the US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0746285 to E.L.).

  7. Transaction Costs For Innovations Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Romanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of transaction costs of the innovations distribution. The factors, affecting the innovations diffusion in accordance with the clusters, relations, dynamics of the distribution are disclosed. Transaction costs as a result of bounded rationality of economic entities are detected. The inevitability of transaction costs as an objective phenomenon is shown. Their dependence on the quality of economic information and information uncertainty is indicated. Correlative approach for the analysis of these costs is applied. The article justifies that the reduction of transaction costs increases the efficiency of innovations.

  8. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  9. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  10. An axisymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

    2011-04-25

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  11. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  12. Material Barriers to Diffusive Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, George; Karrasch, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transport barriers, as zero-flux surfaces, are ill-defined in purely advective mixing in which the flux of any passive scalar is zero through all material surfaces. For this reason, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have been argued to play the role of mixing barriers as most repelling, attracting or shearing material lines. These three kinematic concepts, however, can also be defined in different ways, both within rigorous mathematical treatments and within the realm of heuristic diagnostics. This has lead to a an ever-growing number of different LCS methods, each generally identifying different objects as transport barriers. In this talk, we examine which of these methods have actual relevance for diffusive transport barriers. The latter barriers are arguably the practically relevant inhibitors in the mixing of physically relevant tracers, such as temperature, salinity, vorticity or potential vorticity. We demonstrate the role of the most effective diffusion barriers in analytical examples and observational data. Supported in part by the DFG Priority Program on Turbulent Superstructures.

  13. Diffusion Maps for Multimodal Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Piella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal image registration is a difficult task, due to the significant intensity variations between the images. A common approach is to use sophisticated similarity measures, such as mutual information, that are robust to those intensity variations. However, these similarity measures are computationally expensive and, moreover, often fail to capture the geometry and the associated dynamics linked with the images. Another approach is the transformation of the images into a common space where modalities can be directly compared. Within this approach, we propose to register multimodal images by using diffusion maps to describe the geometric and spectral properties of the data. Through diffusion maps, the multimodal data is transformed into a new set of canonical coordinates that reflect its geometry uniformly across modalities, so that meaningful correspondences can be established between them. Images in this new representation can then be registered using a simple Euclidean distance as a similarity measure. Registration accuracy was evaluated on both real and simulated brain images with known ground-truth for both rigid and non-rigid registration. Results showed that the proposed approach achieved higher accuracy than the conventional approach using mutual information.

  14. Diffusion tensor MRI: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meli, Francisco; Romero, Carlos; Carpintiero, Silvina; Salvatico, Rosana; Lambre, Hector; Vila, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) on different neurological diseases, and to know if this technique shows additional information than conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Materials and method: Eight patients, with neurological diseases (five patients with brain tumors, one with multiple sclerosis (MS), one with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the other with delayed CO intoxication were evaluated. A MR scanner of 1.5 T was used and conventional sequences and DTI with twenty-five directions were done. Quantitative maps were gotten, where the fractional anisotropy (FA) through regions of interest (ROIs) in specific anatomic area were quantified (i.e.: internal and external capsules, frontal and temporal bundles, corpus fibers). Results: In the patients with brain tumors, there was a decrease of FA on intra and peritumoral fibers. Some of them had a disruption in their pattern. In patients with MS and CO intoxication, partial interruption along white matter bundles was demonstrated. However, a 'mismatch' between the findings of FLAIR, Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and DTI, in the case of CO intoxication, was seen. Conclusions: DTI gave more information compared to conventional sequences about ultrastructural brain tissue in almost all the diseases above mentioned. Therefore, there is a work in progress about DTI acquisition, to evaluate a new technique, called tractography. (author)

  15. Numerical study of turbulent diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the numerical simulation of turbulent diffusion is studied. The two-dimensional velocity fields are assumed to be incompressible, homogeneous and stationary, and they are represented as stochastic processes. A technique is offered which creates velocity fields accurately representing the input statistics once a two point correlation function or an energy spectrum is given. Various complicated energy spectra may be represented utilizing this model. The program is then used to extract information concerning Gaussian diffusion processes. Various theories of other workers are tested including Taylor's classical representation of dispersion for times long compared with the Lagrangian correlation time. Also, a study is made of the relation between the Lagrangian and the Eulerian correlation function and a hypothesis is advanced and successfully tested. Questions concerning the relation between small eddies and the energy spectrum are considered. A criterion is advanced and successfully tested to decide whether small scale flow can be detected within the large eddies for any given spectrum. A method is developed to determine whether this small scale motion is in any sense periodic. Finally, the relation between two particle dispersion and the energy spectrum is studied anew and various theories are tested

  16. OH+ IN DIFFUSE MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, A. J.; Federman, S. R.; Welty, D. E.; Ritchey, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Near ultraviolet observations of OH + and OH in diffuse molecular clouds reveal a preference for different environments. The dominant absorption feature in OH + arises from a main component seen in CH + (that with the highest CH + /CH column density ratio), while OH follows CN absorption. This distinction provides new constraints on OH chemistry in these clouds. Since CH + detections favor low-density gas with small fractions of molecular hydrogen, this must be true for OH + as well, confirming OH + and H 2 O + observations with the Herschel Space Telescope. Our observed correspondence indicates that the cosmic ray ionization rate derived from these measurements pertains to mainly atomic gas. The association of OH absorption with gas rich in CN is attributed to the need for a high enough density and molecular fraction before detectable amounts are seen. Thus, while OH + leads to OH production, chemical arguments suggest that their abundances are controlled by different sets of conditions and that they coexist with different sets of observed species. Of particular note is that non-thermal chemistry appears to play a limited role in the synthesis of OH in diffuse molecular clouds

  17. Mechanisms of impurity diffusion in rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.; Sasaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer diffusion of 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 63 Ni, and 95 Zr, was measured as functions of crystal orientation, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in rutile single crystals using the radioactive tracer sectioning technique. Compared to cation self-diffusion, divalent impurities (e.g., Co and Ni) diffuse extremely rapidly in TiO 2 and exhibit a large anisotropy in the diffusion behavior; divalent-impurity diffusion parallel to the c-axis is much larger than it is perpendicular to the c-axis. The diffusion of trivalent impurity ions (Sc and Cr) and tetravalent impurity ions (Zr) is similar to cation self-diffusion, as a function of temperature and of oxygen partial pressure. The divalent impurity ions Co and Ni apparently diffuse as interstitial ions along open channels parallel to the c-axis. The results suggest that Sc, Cr, and Zr ions diffuse by an interstitialcy mechanism involving the simultaneous and cooperative migration of tetravalent interstitial titanium ions and the tracer-impurity ions. Iron ions diffused both as divalent and as trivalent ions. 8 figures

  18. Diffusion tensor and diffusion weighted imaging. Pictorial mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Tsutomu [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    A new imaging algorithm for the treatment of a second order apparent diffusion tensor, D{sub app}{sup {xi}} is described. The method calls for only mathematics of images (pictorial mathematics) without necessity of eigenvalues/eigenvectors estimation. Nevertheless, it is capable of extracting properties of D{sub app}{sup {xi}} invariant to observation axes. While trace image is an example of images weighted by invariance of the tensor matrix, three dimensional anisotropy (3DAC) contrast represents the imaging method making use to anisotropic direction of tensor ellipsoid producing color coded contrast of exceptionally high anatomic resolution. Contrary to intuition, the processes require only a simple algorithm directly applicable to clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As a contrast method which precisely represents physical characteristics of a target tissue, invariant D{sub app}{sup {xi}} images produced by pictorial mathematics possess significant potential for a number of biological and clinical applications. (author).

  19. Diffusion processes in nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Brebec, G.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning the containment of nuclear wastes are presented. Different materials which have been considered for this purpose are briefly reviewed and we see why glass is one of the favorite candidates. It is focussed on what is known about diffusion in 'simple enough' glasses. After a recall concerning the structure and possible defects, the main results on diffusion in 'simple' glasses are given and it is shown what these results involve for the mechanisms of diffusion. The diffusion models are presented which can account for transport in random media: percolation and random walk models. Specific phenomena for the nuclear waste glasses are considered: the effect of irradiation on diffusion and leaching (i.e. corrosion by water). Finally diffusion data in nuclear waste glasses are presented. (author). 199 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Gao, Nan; Lu, Nianduan; Liu, Ming; Bässler, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    An analytical theory for spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors is derived. It is based on percolation theory and variable range hopping in a disordered energy landscape with a Gaussian density of states. It describes universally the dependence of the spin diffusion on temperature, carrier density, material disorder, magnetic field, and electric field at the arbitrary magnitude of the Hubbard energy of charge pairs. It is found that, compared to the spin transport carried by carriers hopping, the spin exchange will hinder the spin diffusion process at low carrier density, even under the condition of a weak electric field. Importantly, under the influence of a bias voltage, anomalous spreading of the spin packet will lead to an abnormal temperature dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient and diffusion length. This explains the recent experimental data for spin diffusion length observed in Alq3.

  1. 2015 MICCAI Workshop on Computational Diffusion MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Aurobrata; Kaden, Enrico; Rathi, Yogesh; Reisert, Marco

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings of the 2015 MICCAI Workshop “Computational Diffusion MRI” offer a snapshot of the current state of the art on a broad range of topics within the highly active and growing field of diffusion MRI. The topics vary from fundamental theoretical work on mathematical modeling, to the development and evaluation of robust algorithms, new computational methods applied to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data, and applications in neuroscientific studies and clinical practice. Over the last decade interest in diffusion MRI has exploded. The technique provides unique insights into the microstructure of living tissue and enables in-vivo connectivity mapping of the brain. Computational techniques are key to the continued success and development of diffusion MRI and to its widespread transfer into clinical practice. New processing methods are essential for addressing issues at each stage of the diffusion MRI pipeline: acquisition, reconstruction, modeling and model fitting, image processing, fiber t...

  2. Radon progeny distribution in cylindrical diffusion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressyanov, Dobromir S.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm to model the diffusion of radioactive decay chain atoms is presented. Exact mathematical solutions in cylindrical geometry are given. They are used to obtain expressions for the concentrations of 222 Rn progeny atoms in the volume and deposited on the wall surface in cylindrical diffusion chambers. The dependence of volume fractions of 222 Rn progeny and chamber sensitivity on the coefficient of diffusion of 222 Rn progeny atoms in air is modeled.

  3. Structured inverse modeling in parabolic diffusion processess

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Volker; Siebenborn, Martin; Welker, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Often, the unknown diffusivity in diffusive processes is structured by piecewise constant patches. This paper is devoted to efficient methods for the determination of such structured diffusion parameters by exploiting shape calculus. A novel shape gradient is derived in parabolic processes. Furthermore quasi-Newton techniques are used in order to accelerate shape gradient based iterations in shape space. Numerical investigations support the theoretical results.

  4. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  5. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  6. Diffusion Indexes With Sparse Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2017-01-01

    The use of large-dimensional factor models in forecasting has received much attention in the literature with the consensus being that improvements on forecasts can be achieved when comparing with standard models. However, recent contributions in the literature have demonstrated that care needs...... to the problem by using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) as a variable selection method to choose between the possible variables and thus obtain sparse loadings from which factors or diffusion indexes can be formed. This allows us to build a more parsimonious factor model...... in forecasting accuracy and thus find it to be an important alternative to PC. Supplementary materials for this article are available online....

  7. The double-diffusive modon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Timour

    Fully developed two-dimensional salt-finger convection is characterized by the appearance of coherent dipolar eddies which carry relatively fresh and cold fluid upward and salty and warm fluid downward. Such structures are prevalent in the regime in which density stratification is close to neutral and the salt-finger instability is extremely vigorous. The structure and translation velocities of modons are discussed in terms of the asymptotic expansion in which the background density ratio approaches unity. It is argued that the vertical salt flux is driven primarily by double-diffusive modons, which makes it possible to derive explicit expressions for the mixing rates of temperature and salinity as a function of their background gradients. Predictions of the proposed mixing model are successfully tested by direct numerical simulations.

  8. [Tracheobronchoplasty for Severe Diffuse Tracheomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H; Gompelmann, D; Heußel, C P; Dienemann, H; Eberhardt, R

    2016-09-01

    Patients with diffuse airway instability due to tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse are typically highly symptomatic, with marked dyspnoea, recurrent bronchopulmonary infections and excruciating intractable cough. Silicone stents achieve immediate symptom control, but are - due to the typical complications associated with stent treatment - usually not an option for long-term treatment. The aim of surgical intervention is definitive stabilisation of the trachea and of both main bronchi by posterior splinting of the Paries membranaceus with a polypropylene mesh. This operation is an appropriate treatment option for patients with documented severe tracheobronchomalacia or excessive dynamic airway collapse and is ultimately the only therapy that can achieve permanent symptom control. The success of the operation, however, depends on many factors and requires close interdisciplinary collaboration. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Word diffusion and climate science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society.

  10. Directed diffusion of reconstituting dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barma, Mustansir; Grynberg, Marcelo D; Stinchcombe, Robin B

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical aspects of an asymmetric version of assisted diffusion of hard core particles on a ring studied by Menon et al (1997 J. Stat. Phys. 86 1237). The asymmetry brings in phenomena like kinematic waves and effects of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang non-linearity, which combine with the feature of strongly broken ergodicity, a characteristic of the model. A central role is played by a single non-local invariant, the irreducible string, whose interplay with the driven motion of reconstituting dimers, arising from the assisted hopping, determines the asymptotic dynamics and scaling regimes. These are investigated both analytically and numerically through sector-dependent mappings to the asymmetric simple exclusion process

  11. Directed diffusion of reconstituting dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barma, Mustansir [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Grynberg, Marcelo D [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Stinchcombe, Robin B [Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-14

    We discuss the dynamical aspects of an asymmetric version of assisted diffusion of hard core particles on a ring studied by Menon et al (1997 J. Stat. Phys. 86 1237). The asymmetry brings in phenomena like kinematic waves and effects of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang non-linearity, which combine with the feature of strongly broken ergodicity, a characteristic of the model. A central role is played by a single non-local invariant, the irreducible string, whose interplay with the driven motion of reconstituting dimers, arising from the assisted hopping, determines the asymptotic dynamics and scaling regimes. These are investigated both analytically and numerically through sector-dependent mappings to the asymmetric simple exclusion process.

  12. Flow, diffusion, and rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, S.; Salamon, P.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains recent results obtained for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport and rate processes are reviewed. Kinetic equations, conservation laws, and transport coefficients are obtained for multicomponent mixtures. Thermodynamic principles are used in the design of experiments predicting heat and mass transport coefficients. Highly nonstationary conditions are analyzed in the context of transient heat transfer, nonlocal diffusion in stress fields and thermohydrodynamic oscillatory instabilities. Unification of the dynamics of chemical systems with other sorts of processes (e.g. mechanical) is given. Thermodynamics of reacting surfaces is developed. Admissible reaction paths are studied and a consistency of chemical kinetics with thermodynamics is shown. Oscillatory reactions are analyzed in a unifying approach showing explosive, conservation or damped behavior. A comprehensive review of transport processes in electrolytes and membranes is given. Applications of thermodynamics to thermoelectric systems and ionized gas (plasma) systems are reviewed

  13. Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models

    CERN Document Server

    Kärger, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.

  14. Diffusion mechanisms in grain boundaries in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A critical review is given of our current knowledge of grain-boundary diffusion in solids. A pipe mechanism of diffusion based on the well-established dislocation model seems most appropriate for small-angle boundaries. Open channels, which have atomic configurations somewhat like dislocation cores, probably play a major role in large-angle grain-boundary diffusion. Dissociated dislocations and stacking faults are not efficient paths for grain-boundary diffusion. The diffusion and computer modeling experiments are consistent with a vacancy mechanism of diffusion by a rather well-localized vacancy. The effective width of a boundary for grain-boundary diffusion is about two atomic planes. These general features of grain-boundary diffusion, deduced primarily from experiments on metals, are thought to be equally applicable for pure ceramic solids. The ionic character of many ceramic oxides may cause some differences in grain-boundary structure from that observed in metals, resulting in changes in grain-boundary diffusion behavior. 72 references, 5 figures

  15. Diffusion weighted imaging by MR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Naruse, Shoji; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Tokumitsu, Takuaki; Ueda, Satoshi; Tanaka, Chuzo; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Umeda, Masahiro.

    1993-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a recently developed technique used to examine the micromovement of water molecules in vivo. We have applied this technique to examine various kinds of brain diseases, both experimentally and clinically. The calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in vivo showed reliable values. In experimentally induced brain edema in rats, the pathophysiological difference of the type of edema (such as cytotoxic, and vasogenic) could be differentiated on the diffusion weighted MR images. Cytotoxic brain edema showed high intensity (slower diffusion) on the diffusion weighted images. On the other hand, vasogenic brain edema showed a low intensity image (faster diffusion). Diffusion anisotropy was demonstrated according to the direction of myelinated fibers and applied motion proving gradient (MPG). This anisotropy was also demonstrated in human brain tissue along the course of the corpus callosum, pyramidal tract and optic radiation. In brain ischemia cases, lesions were detected as high signal intensity areas, even one hour after the onset of ischemia. Diffusion was faster in brain tumor compared with normal brain. Histological differences were not clearly reflected by the ADC value. In epidermoid tumor cases, the intensity was characteristically high, was demonstrated, and the cerebrospinal fluid border was clearly demonstrated. New clinical information obtainable with this molecular diffusion method will prove to be useful in various clinical studies. (author)

  16. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  17. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  18. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  19. Mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, R.; Li, Q.; Pan, B.C.; Yoon, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Tight-binding molecular-dynamics calculations reveal a mechanism for hydrogen diffusion in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen diffuses through the network by successively bonding with nearby silicons and breaking their Si endash Si bonds. The diffusing hydrogen carries with it a newly created dangling bond. These intermediate transporting states are densely populated in the network, have lower energies than H at the center of stretched Si endash Si bonds, and can play a crucial role in hydrogen diffusion. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Collective diffusion and quantum chaos in holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Feng; Wang, Bin; Ge, Xian-Hui; Tian, Yu

    2018-05-01

    We define a particular combination of charge and heat currents that is decoupled with the heat current. This "heat-decoupled" (HD) current can be transported by diffusion at long distances, when some thermoelectric conductivities and susceptibilities satisfy a simple condition. Using the diffusion condition together with the Kelvin formula, we show that the HD diffusivity can be same as the charge diffusivity and also the heat diffusivity. We illustrate that such mechanism is implemented in a strongly coupled field theory, which is dual to a Lifshitz gravity with the dynamical critical index z =2 . In particular, it is exhibited that both charge and heat diffusivities build the relationship to the quantum chaos. Moreover, we study the HD diffusivity without imposing the diffusion condition. In some homogeneous holographic lattices, it is found that the diffusivity/chaos relation holds independently of any parameters, including the strength of momentum relaxation, chemical potential, or temperature. We also show a counter example of the relation and discuss its limited universality.

  1. Diffusion in Deterministic Interacting Lattice Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenjak, Marko; Klobas, Katja; Prosen, Tomaž

    2017-09-01

    We study reversible deterministic dynamics of classical charged particles on a lattice with hard-core interaction. It is rigorously shown that the system exhibits three types of transport phenomena, ranging from ballistic, through diffusive to insulating. By obtaining an exact expressions for the current time-autocorrelation function we are able to calculate the linear response transport coefficients, such as the diffusion constant and the Drude weight. Additionally, we calculate the long-time charge profile after an inhomogeneous quench and obtain diffusive profilewith the Green-Kubo diffusion constant. Exact analytical results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Pressure effect on grain boundary diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on grain boundary diffusion and grain boundary migration in metallic materials is theoretically investigated. The model is suggested that permits describing changes in activation energy of grain boundary self-diffusion and diffusion permeability of grain boundaries under hydrostatic pressure. The model is based on the ideas about island-type structure of grain boundaries as well as linear relationship of variations in grain boundary free volume to hydrostatic pressure value. Comparison of theoretical data with experimental ones for a number of metals and alloys (α-Zr, Sn-Ge, Cu-In with Co, In, Al as diffusing elements) shows a qualitative agreement

  3. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aburano, T; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsudaira, M

    1975-10-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effectivehepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease.

  4. Angiohepatogram in diffuse hepatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hisada, Kinichi; Matsudaira, Masamichi.

    1975-01-01

    A region of interest angiohepatogram was obtained with intravenous injection of 10mCi of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid and a data processing system. Furthermore, the ratio of hepatic arterial blood flow volume to total hepatic blood flow volume was calculated according to Ueda's method, and the correlation of this calculated ratio and the degree of extrahepatic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid (spleen to liver, and bone marrow to liver activity ratio) was examined. Most cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome showed the increased hepatic arterial blood flow ratio (liver cirrhosis: 43.5+-9.5%, Banti's syndrome 48.8+-4.9%) in contrast with 18.1+-4.6% in normal cases, and its ratio showed much higher values in the presence of portal hypertension manifestations (esophageal varix and ascites). The hepatic arterial blood flow ratio showed increased values in the case of markedly increased extrahepatic activity, e.g. liver cirrhosis, and the correlation of the ratio and extrahepatic activity degree of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid was significant statistically. From these results, a region of interest angiohepatogram was supposed to be useful for the prediction of the hemodynamic change, as well as, the improvement of diagnostic accuracy with radioisotope in diffuse hepatic disease, especially liver cirrhosis. Moreover, the hemodynamic change of liver, especially the reduction of the effective hepatic blood flow volume via the portal vein was considered to be closely concerned in the mechanism of increased extrahepatic activity of RI colloid in diffuse hepatic disease. (auth.)

  5. Collective effects in diffuse ambiplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    All laboratory evidence to date indicates that particles materialize from energy only in matter-antimatter pairs and, conversely, disappear only when such pairs annihilate. This observed law suggests that early in the Big Bang, when material and radiation were in equilibrium, the universe contained equal amounts of matter and antimatter. Since the earth, the solar system, and the neighboring stars, as implied by cosmic ray data, appear to be exclusively matter, their antimatter counterparts should by all rights exist elsewhere. Astronomical observations, however, have revealed no signs of antimatter on a large scale; in particular, the energetic gamma rays that would originate in the boundaries between matter and antimatter are not observed. The dilemma is resolved if the laboratory law is violated even minutely, a possibility that is now being tested by experiment. On the other hand, the dilemma disappears if the matter and antimatter exist in separate regions without, in effect, interacting. In this case there must be a repulsive force between the matter and antimatter that prevents them from mixing; in particular, such a force is crucial to the coexistence of large, diffuse regions akin to the galactic interstellar clouds. Predictions of the outcome of matter-antimatter contact are usually based entirely on binary collisions. This disseration explores the possibility that collective effects dominate interactions between diffuse matter and antimatter and give rise to the necessary repulsive force. Some years ago, a mechanism was proposed in which a thin, magnetized layer of ambiplasma kept matter and antimatter plasmas separated with the energy released in occasional annihilation

  6. Amplitude equations for a sub-diffusive reaction-diffusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nec, Y; Nepomnyashchy, A A

    2008-01-01

    A sub-diffusive reaction-diffusion system with a positive definite memory operator and a nonlinear reaction term is analysed. Amplitude equations (Ginzburg-Landau type) are derived for short wave (Turing) and long wave (Hopf) bifurcation points

  7. Size dependent diffusive parameters and tensorial diffusion equations in neutronic models for optically small nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1983-01-01

    Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated

  8. Electrolyte diffusion in compacted montmorillonite engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1985-09-01

    The bentonite-based engineered barrier or packing is a proposed component of several designs conceived to dispose of high-level nuclear waste in geologic repositories. Once radionuclides escape the waste package, they must first diffuse through the highly impermeable clay-rich barrier before they reach the host repository. To determine the effectiveness of the packing as a sorption barrier in the transient release period and as a mass-transfer barrier in the steady release period over the geologic time scales involved in nuclear waste disposal, a fundamental understanding of the diffusion of electrolytes in compacted clays is required. We present, and compare with laboratory data, a model quantifying the diffusion rates of cationic cesium and uncharged tritium in compacted montmorillonite clay. Neutral tritium characterizes the geometry (i.e., tortuosity) of the particulate gel. After accounting for cation exchange, we find that surface diffusion is the dominant mechanism of cation transport, with an approximate surface diffusion coefficient of 2 x 10 -6 cm 2 /s for cesium. This value increases slightly with increasing background ionic strength. The implications of this work for the packing as a migration barrier are twofold. During the transient release period, K/sub d/ values are of little importance in retarding ion migration. This is because sorption also gives rise to a surface diffusion path, and it is surface diffusion which controls the diffusion rate of highly sorbing cations in compacted montmorillonite. During the steady release period, the presence of surface diffusion leads to a flux through the packing which is greatly enhanced. In either case, if surface diffusion is neglected, the appropriate diffusion coefficient of ions in compacted packing will be in considerable error relative to current design recommendations. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Diffusion Modeling: A Study of the Diffusion of “Jatropha Curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, the study recommended the use of diffusion networks which integrate interpersonal networks, and multimedia strategies for the effective diffusion of innovation such as Jacodiesel in Adamawa State and other parts of the country. Keywords: Sustainability, Diffusion, Innovation, Communicative Influence, ...

  10. Transition Process from Diffuser Stall to Stage Stall in a Centrifugal Compressor with a Vaned Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobumichi Fujisawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process from a diffuser rotating stall to a stage stall in a centrifugal compressor with a vaned diffuser was investigated by experimental and numerical analyses. From the velocity measurements, it was found that the rotating stall existed on the shroud side of the diffuser passage in the off-design flow condition. The numerical results revealed the typical vortical structure of the diffuser stall. The diffuser stall cell was caused by the systematic vortical structure which consisted of the tornado-type vortex, the longitudinal vortex at the shroud/suction surface corner (i.e., leading edge vortex (LEV, and the vortex in the throat area of the diffuser passages. Furthermore, the stage stall, which rotated within both the impeller and diffuser passages, occurred instead of the diffuser stall as the mass flow rate was decreased. According to the velocity measurements at the diffuser inlet, the diffuser stall which rotated on the shroud side was shifted to the hub side. Then, the diffuser stall moved into the impeller passages and formed the stage stall. Therefore, the stage stall was caused by the development of the diffuser stall, which transferred from the shroud side to the hub side in the vaneless space and expanded to the impeller passages.

  11. Self-diffusion in isotopically enriched silicon carbide and its correlation with dopant diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueschenschmidt, K.; Bracht, H.; Stolwijk, N.A.; Laube, M.; Pensl, G.; Brandes, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion of 13 C and 30 Si in silicon carbide was performed with isotopically enriched 4H- 28 Si 12 C/ nat SiC heterostructures which were grown by chemical vapor phase epitaxy. After diffusion annealing at temperatures between 2000 deg. C and 2200 deg. C the 30 Si and 13 C profiles were measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry. We found that the Si and C diffusivity is of the same order of magnitude but several orders of magnitude lower than earlier data reported in the literature. Both Si and C tracer diffusion coefficients are in satisfactory agreement with the native point defect contribution to self-diffusion deduced from B diffusion in SiC. This reveals that the native defect which mediates B diffusion also controls self-diffusion. Assuming that B atoms within the extended tail region of B profiles are mainly dissolved on C sites, we propose that B diffuses via the kick-out mechanism involving C interstitials. Accordingly, C diffusion should proceed mainly via C interstitials. The mechanism of Si diffusion remains unsolved but Si may diffuse via both Si vacancies and interstitials, with the preference for either species depending on the doping level

  12. Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and

  13. Self-diffusion on copper surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.; Stoltze, Per; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1991-01-01

    The diffusion paths and activation energies of a Cu adatom on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Cu(110) are studied using the effective-medium theory to calculate the energetics. For the (100) and (110) faces, diffusion via an exchange mechanism is found to be important. The transition state for these paths ...

  14. Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar

    2000-01-01

    The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  16. Higher-order tensors in diffusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, T.; Fuster, A.; Ghosh, A.; Deriche, R.; Florack, L.M.J.; Lim, L.H.; Westin, C.-F.; Vilanova, A.; Burgeth, B.

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion imaging is a noninvasive tool for probing the microstructure of fibrous nerve and muscle tissue. Higher-order tensors provide a powerful mathematical language to model and analyze the large and complex data that is generated by its modern variants such as High Angular Resolution Diffusion

  17. Multicomponent diffusivities from the free volume theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A; Bollen, A.M

    In this paper the free volume theory of diffusion is extended to multicomponent mixtures. The free volume is taken to be accessible for any component according to its surface. fraction. The resulting equations predict multicomponent (Maxwell-Stefan) diffusivities in simple liquid mixtures from pure

  18. An Organizational Diffusion Study on Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lillian Upton; Richter, Donna L.; Miner, Kathleen R.; Watkins, Ken; Usdan, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    This research explored the diffusion process of distance education in schools of public health to determine best practices in the planning and implementation of future programs. The researcher traced the diffusion process by utilizing a multiple-case study methodology using a semi-structured interview to collect the perceptions of Distance…

  19. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly...

  20. Water diffusion in phosphate-containing hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.A.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the kinetics and diffusion of liquids through polymeric hydrogels is critical for the successful design and application of these materials in biomedical field, particularly as controlled drug delivery systems. In this study, the mechanisms of water transport and parameters that describe the diffusion process in crosslinked poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-methyloxyethylene phosphate), poly(HEMA-co-MOEP) polymers were investigated. The copolymerisation of HEMA with MOEP was initiated by γ radiolysis with full conversion of monomer to polymer. The sorption of water into the polymers with 0 - 30 mol% MOEP was monitored gravimetrically over a period of 2 - 3 weeks. This study provided an insight into the diffusion mechanism and showed that the PHEMA hydrogel displayed concentration-independent Fickian diffusion. As the concentration of MOEP in the network increased, the diffusion rate and the rigidity of the network also increased in a linear fashion. NMR imaging was used in conjunction with the gravimetric study to elucidate the transport mechanisms, diffusion coefficients and proportionality constants governing the water diffusion in the phosphate-containing polymers. The hydrogels with 3 - 20 mol% MOEP exhibited exponential concentration-dependent Fickian diffusion and the transport mechanism in the system with 30 mol% MOEP was shown to be anomalous. The systems with greater concentrations of MOEP displayed a high degree of fracturing during water sorption and resulted in the ultimate destruction of the cylindrical geometry

  1. Self-diffusion in remodeling and growth

    KAUST Repository

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2011-07-16

    Self-diffusion, or the flux of mass of a single species within itself, is viewed as an independent phenomenon amenable to treatment by the introduction of an auxiliary field of diffusion velocities. The theory is shown to be heuristically derivable as a limiting case of that of an ordinary binary mixture. © 2011 Springer Basel AG.

  2. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovejoy, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Schertzer, D. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Waston, B. [St. Lawrence Univ., Canton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  3. Derivation of the neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mika, J.R.; Banasiak, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the diffusion equation as an asymptotic limit of the neutron transport equation for large scattering cross sections. We show that the classical asymptotic expansion procedure does not lead to the diffusion equation and present two modified approaches to overcome this difficulty. The effect of the initial layer is also discussed. (authors). 9 refs

  4. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  5. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  6. Self-diffusion in remodeling and growth

    KAUST Repository

    Epstein, Marcelo; Goriely, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Self-diffusion, or the flux of mass of a single species within itself, is viewed as an independent phenomenon amenable to treatment by the introduction of an auxiliary field of diffusion velocities. The theory is shown to be heuristically derivable

  7. High angular resolution diffusion imaging : processing & visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prckovska, V.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can map the orientation architecture of neural tissues in a completely non-invasive way by measuring the directional specificity (anisotropy) of the local water diffusion. However, in areas of complex fiber

  8. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  9. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  10. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  11. Long range diffusion of hydrogen in yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I S; Scherrer, P [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Ross, D K [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics; Bonnet, J E [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE), Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1989-01-01

    The diffusion of H in single crystals of YH{sub 0.2} is investigated by means of Quasielastic neutron scattering between 593 K and 695 K. Individual jump rates giving rise to long range and local diffusion are determined. (orig.).

  12. Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummer, Gerhard [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Building 5, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States); Garcia, Angel E. [Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group T-10, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Garde, Shekhar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2000-09-18

    The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  13. Dynamic problem of generalized thermoelastic diffusive medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Kansal, Tarun [Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra (India)

    2010-01-15

    The equations of generalized thermoelastic diffusion, based on the theory of Lord and Shulman with one relaxation time, are derived for anisotropic media with rotation. The variational principle and reciprocity theorem for the governing equations are derived. The propagation of leaky Rayleigh waves in a viscous fluid layer overlying a homogeneous isotropic, generalized thermoelastic diffusive half space with rotating frame of reference is studied

  14. Depolarization of diffusing spins by paramagnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Hutson, R.L.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Dodds, S.A.; Estle, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    We study the depolarization of diffusing spins (muons) interacting with dilute paramagnetic impurities in a solid using a simple computational model which properly treats the muon motion and preserves correct muon-impurity distances. Long-range (dipolar) and nearest-neighbor (contact) interactions are treated together. Diffusion parameters are deduced and model comparisons made for AuGd (300 ppm). (orig.)

  15. Imaging features of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, M.; Vogel, W.; Horger, M.

    2006-01-01

    There are diverse etiologies of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage, so specific diagnosis may be difficult. Conventional radiography tends to be misleading as hemoptysis may lacking in patients with hemorrhagic anemia. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage should be differentiated from focal pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, active infection (tuberculosis) neoplasia, trauma, or embolism. (orig.)

  16. Multicomponent diffusion in two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A recent hydrodynamic theory of multicomponent diffusion in multitemperature gas mixtures [J. D. Ramshaw, J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 18, 121 (1993)] is generalized to include the velocity-dependent Lorentz force on charged species in a magnetic field B. This generalization is used to extend a previous treatment of ambipolar diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas [J. D. Ramshaw and C. H. Chang, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13, 489 (1993)] to situations in which B and the electrical current density are nonzero. General expressions are thereby derived for the species diffusion fluxes, including thermal diffusion, in both single- and two-temperature multicomponent magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is shown that the usual zero-field form of the Stefan-Maxwell equations can be preserved in the presence of B by introducing generalized binary diffusion tensors dependent on B. A self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation is presented that provides explicit approximate expressions for the diffusion fluxes. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are exploited to obtain an ideal MHD description in which the electron diffusion coefficients drop out, resistive effects vanish, and the electric field reduces to a particularly simple form. This description should be well suited for numerical calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine and titaniumdioxide - photocatalysts for solar induced water remediation; Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin und Titandioxid - Photokatalysatoren zum solarinduzierten Abbau von Schadstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, S [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Inst., Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of photocatalysts capable of working under solar-light-irradiation are of great interest. An especially promising application is the development of low-cost `Advanced Oxidation Procedures` (AOP). The aim of this endeavor is the detoxification of hazardous chemicals in wastewaters, which cannot be treated by conventional techniques. The mineralization of the most (highly) toxic chemicals to CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and simple inorganic compounds is favored by thermodynamics, however various difficulties such as kinetic barriers and hindered diffusion exist in systems for heterogeneous photocatalysis. In that respect, Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) and TiO{sub 2} - codoped photocatalysts offer several advantages. The photoreactive centers consist of supramolecular units of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and TiO{sub 2} - nanocrystals. Pollutants, such as our model compound 2,4-Dimethylaniline, diffuse through the framework of zeolite Y and undergo oxidative degradation at the reactive centers of the photocatalysts in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Under the aspect of application, the size of the zeolite Y-particles (diameter: 1x10{sup -6} m in average) permits their easy handling in filtration and recyling operations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die photophysikalischen und -chemischen Eigenschaften von Katalysatoren, die das Licht der Sonne als kostenguenstige Energiequelle ausnutzen, treten immer staerker in den Vordergrund des Interesses. Dies gilt vor allem fuer ihren Einsatz in `Advanced Oxidation Technologies` (AOT`s) zur Entgiftung toxischer Substanzen im Abwasser. Die Mineralisation der meisten (hoch)giftigen Chemikalien zu CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O und einfachen anorganischen Verbindungen ist zwar thermodynamisch beguenstigt, es treten jedoch sowohl kinetische Hemmschwellen als auch Diffusionshindernisse in der heterogenen Photokatalyse auf. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) und TiO{sub 2

  18. Investigation of corrosion and wear mechanisms in hard material-reinforced duplex steel coatings; Untersuchungen zum Korrosions- und Verschleissverhalten von hartstoffverstaerkten `Duplex`-Schutzschichten. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaifi, B. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Schweisstechnik und Trennende Fertigungsverfahren; Goellner, J. [Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik und Werkstoffpruefung

    1998-09-30

    The hard-material reinforced duplex steel coatings were deposited by plasma arc two-powder surfacing. By varying the angle of the hard materials feeding process, the deposition of the carbides was optimized so that they are deposited into the matrix in the trailing zone of the welding torch under conditions of very low thermal effects near the freezing point of the weld pool. Microstructural studies revealed that the deposition of the hard materials prevents devlopment of the typical, ferritic-austenitic microstructure of duplex steels. Due to a dissolution and diffusion process, the microstructure of the matrix takes up carbon and chromium or tungsten, depending on the carbide, thus enhancing the austenitic material in the microstructure. The wear behaviour of the surface deposits was found to be very good, wear being reduced by a factor of 6, irrespective of the type of carbide. The friction-affected surfaces showed no dissolving effects or cracking. The corrosion behaviour in sulfuric acid is also good. The welded deposits exhibited the typical behaviour of a passive material. Wear mechanisms slightly reduce the resistance. The behaviour of various specimens in artificial seawater could be distinctly assessed. Small grain fractions and pre-heating temperatures of 100 C have a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance. The technique recommends itself for applications such as coatings for baffle plates used in flue gas desulfurisation, pipes, pump components, flanges or nozzles, or for recurrent coating of system components affected by abrasive corrosion. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zur Herstellung hartstoffverstaerkter Duplex-Beschichtungen wurde das Plasma-Zwei-Pulver-Auftragschweissverfahren verwendet. Hierbei wurde durch Variation des Zufuhrwinkels der Hartstoffe der Einbringungsort der Karbide optimiert, so dass diese im Nachlauf des Schweissbrenners mit sehr geringer thermischer Beeinflussung im erstarrungsnahen Schmelzbadbereich in die Matrix eingelagert

  19. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. A meteorology comparision for better understanding of different pollutant concentration simulations with different chemistry transport models. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Ein Meteorologievergleich zum besseren Verstaendnis der unterschiedlichen Schadstoffkonzentrationssimulationen mit verschiedenen Chemie-Transport-Modellen. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschbaumer, Andreas [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this study, input variables for chemical transport models were compared from different meteorological drivers each with other and with the measured friction velocities in one place. Friction velocities are used as a measure of the mechanical turbulence, but are made available neither by numerical weather models nor routinely available observations: so they must either recalculate or estimated. In this study, friction velocities (u{sup *}), which is measured for years by the DWD in Lindenberg near Berlin, averaged over 30 minutes and have been made available to FU Berlin, compared with modeled values. The considered models are firstly the diagnostic interpolation model TRAMPER, on the other the prognostic models of the DWD COSMO-EU and the EZMWF. The boundary layer relevant parameters from the NWM were recalculated from the involved groups, which has been made for the COSMO-EU the one from the FU Berlin, the other from IfT in Leipzig. The boundary layer variables in the EZMWF model, however, were determined by TNO Netherlands. The measurements have shown that u{sup *} in the forest twice as high as above the meadow. [German] In dieser Studie wurden Eingangsvariablen fuer Chemie-Transport-Modelle aus verschiedenen meteorologischen Treibern miteinander und mit an einem Ort gemessenen Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten verglichen. Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten werden als Mass fuer die mechanische Turbulenz benutzt, werden aber weder von numerischen Wettermodellen noch routinemaessig von Beobachtungen zur Verfuegung gestellt: sie muessen also entweder nachgerechnet oder abgeschaetzt werden. In dieser Arbeit wurden Schubspannungsgeschwindigkeiten (u{sup *}), die vom DWD in Lindenberg bei Berlin ueber Jahre gemessen, gemittelt ueber 30 Minuten, und der FUBerlin zur Verfuegung gestellt worden sind, mit modellierten Werten verglichen. Die beruecksichtigten Modelle sind zum einen das diagnostische Interpolationsmodell TRAMPER, zum anderen die prognostischen Modelle des DWD

  20. Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale

  1. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  2. White matter biomarkers from diffusion MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørhøj Jespersen, Sune

    2018-06-01

    As part of an issue celebrating 2 decades of Joseph Ackerman editing the Journal of Magnetic Resonance, this paper reviews recent progress in one of the many areas in which Ackerman and his lab has made significant contributions: NMR measurement of diffusion in biological media, specifically in brain tissue. NMR diffusion signals display exquisite sensitivity to tissue microstructure, and have the potential to offer quantitative and specific information on the cellular scale orders of magnitude below nominal image resolution when combined with biophysical modeling. Here, I offer a personal perspective on some recent advances in diffusion imaging, from diffusion kurtosis imaging to microstructural modeling, and the connection between the two. A new result on the estimation accuracy of axial and radial kurtosis with axially symmetric DKI is presented. I moreover touch upon recently suggested generalized diffusion sequences, promising to offer independent microstructural information. We discuss the need and some methods for validation, and end with an outlook on some promising future directions.

  3. Symmetries and modelling functions for diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A G; Spichak, S V; Vedula, Yu S; Naumovets, A G

    2009-01-01

    A constructive approach to the theory of diffusion processes is proposed, which is based on application of both symmetry analysis and the method of modelling functions. An algorithm for construction of the modelling functions is suggested. This algorithm is based on the error function expansion (ERFEX) of experimental concentration profiles. The high-accuracy analytical description of the profiles provided by ERFEX approximation allows a convenient extraction of the concentration dependence of diffusivity from experimental data and prediction of the diffusion process. Our analysis is exemplified by its employment in experimental results obtained for surface diffusion of lithium on the molybdenum (1 1 2) surface precovered with dysprosium. The ERFEX approximation can be directly extended to many other diffusion systems.

  4. Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.

    2010-08-01

    The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.

  5. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  6. Diffusion bonding in compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southall, David

    2009-01-01

    Heatric's diffusion bonding process is a solid-state joining technology that produces strong, compact, all-metal heat exchanger cores. Diffusion bonding allows for a large quantity of joints to be made in geometries that would normally be inaccessible for conventional welding techniques. Since Heatric's diffusion bonding process uses no interlayer or braze alloy, the resulting heat exchanger core has consistent chemistry throughout and, under carefully controlled conditions, a return to parent metal strength can be reached. This paper will provide an overview of the diffusion bonding process and its origins, and also its application to compact heat exchanger construction. The paper will then discuss recent work that has been done to compare mechanical properties of Heatric's diffusion bonded material with material that has been conventionally welded, as well as with material tested in the as-received condition. (author)

  7. Diffuse Esophageal leiomyomatosis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Chang, Suk Ki; Park, Seoung jin; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Youn hwa [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors found in the esophagus. They are mostly solitary and multiple diffuse lesions are rare, occurring in only 2.4% of cases (1). We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with a history of Alport syndrome who complained of progressive dysphagia and postprandial vomiting, and in whom diffuse leiomyomatosis of the esophagus was diagnosed. Chest PA showed mediastinal widening, and a barium study revealed diffuse esophageal wall thickening with dilatation, and obstruction at the level of the distal esophagus. Manometry showed increased pressure in the lower esophagus, and CT demonstrated diffuse thickening of the entire esophageal wall and an intraluminal mass in the distal esophagus, Follow-up CT three years later showed further esophageal wall thickening, as well as luminal narrowing. By means of distal esophagectomy, diffuse leiomyomatosis involving the entire esophageal wall and intraluminal mass was diagnosed. (author)

  8. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  9. Physical bases for diffusion welding processes optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, S.M.; Berber, N.N.; Mukhambetov, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    One of wide-spread method of different materials joint is diffusion welding. It has being brought off at the expense of mutual diffusion of atoms of contacting surfaces under long-duration curing at its heating and compression. Welding regime in dependence from properties of welding details is defining of three parameters: temperature, pressure, time. Problem of diffusion welding optimization concludes in determination less values of these parameters, complying with requirements for quality of welded joint. In the work experiments on diffusion welding for calculated temperature and for given surface's roughness were carried out. Tests conduct on samples of iron and iron-nickel alloy with size 1·1·1 cm 3 . Optimal regime of diffusion welding of examined samples in vacuum is defined. It includes compression of welding samples, heating, isothermal holding at temperature 650 deg C during 0.5 h and affords the required homogeneity of joint

  10. Diffusion of Charged Species in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, J. A.; Whitaker, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this study the laws of mechanics for multi-component systems are used to develop a theory for the diffusion of ions in the presence of an electrostatic field. The analysis begins with the governing equation for the species velocity and it leads to the governing equation for the species diffusion velocity. Simplification of this latter result provides a momentum equation containing three dominant forces: (a) the gradient of the partial pressure, (b) the electrostatic force, and (c) the diffusive drag force that is a central feature of the Maxwell-Stefan equations. For ideal gas mixtures we derive the classic Nernst-Planck equation. For liquid-phase diffusion we encounter a situation in which the Nernst-Planck contribution to diffusion differs by several orders of magnitude from that obtained for ideal gases.

  11. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Diffusion and the self-measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeček M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The familiar diffusion equation, ∂g/∂t = DΔg, is studied by using the spatially averaged quantities. A non-local relation, so-called the self-measurability condition, fulfilled by this equation is obtained. We define a broad class of diffusion equations defined by some "diffusion inequality", ∂g/∂t · Δg ≥ 0, and show that it is equivalent to the self-measurability condition. It allows formulating the diffusion inequality in a non-local form. That represents an essential generalization of the diffusion problem in the case when the field g(x, t is not smooth. We derive a general differential equation for averaged quantities coming from the self-measurability condition.

  13. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  14. Diffusion of water into SU-8 microcantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, C.J.; Liu, Y.; Sokuler, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to monitor the diffusion of liquid molecules in polymers. A microdrop of water is deposited by a piezoelectric drop generator onto the upper surface of a cantilever made of SU-8 based photoresist. In response, the cantilever bends in the opposite direction. We find...... sophisticated finite element model the diffusion coefficient of water in the SU-8 polymer can be determined quantitatively from the dynamics of cantilever bending....... that this bending is mainly caused by the diffusion of water into the cantilever and the consequent swelling of SU-8. Using a one-dimensional diffusion model and assuming a simple swelling law, we qualitatively model the bending of the cantilever during in and out diffusion of water in SU-8. With a more...

  15. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammer, Roland.

    2003-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), image contrast is determined by the random microscopic motion of water protons. During the last years, DWI has become an important modality in the diagnostic work-up of acute ischemia in the CNS. There are also a few promising reports about the application of DWI to other regions in the human body, such as the vertebral column or the abdomen. This manuscript provides an introduction into the basics of DWI and Diffusion Tensor imaging. The potential of various MR sequences in concert with diffusion preparation are discussed with respect to acquisition speed, spatial resolution, and sensitivity to bulk physiologic motion. More advanced diffusion measurement techniques, such as high angular resolution diffusion imaging, are also addressed

  16. Understanding deterministic diffusion by correlated random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, R.; Korabel, N.

    2002-01-01

    Low-dimensional periodic arrays of scatterers with a moving point particle are ideal models for studying deterministic diffusion. For such systems the diffusion coefficient is typically an irregular function under variation of a control parameter. Here we propose a systematic scheme of how to approximate deterministic diffusion coefficients of this kind in terms of correlated random walks. We apply this approach to two simple examples which are a one-dimensional map on the line and the periodic Lorentz gas. Starting from suitable Green-Kubo formulae we evaluate hierarchies of approximations for their parameter-dependent diffusion coefficients. These approximations converge exactly yielding a straightforward interpretation of the structure of these irregular diffusion coefficients in terms of dynamical correlations. (author)

  17. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  18. Stable isotope separation by thermal diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Thermal diffusion in both gaseous and liquid phase has been subject of extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, especially after the invention of K. Clusius and G. Dickel of the thermal diffusion column, sixty three years ago. This paper gives a brief overview of the most important research and developments performed during the time at the National Institute for Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technology (ITIM) at Cluj - Napoca, Romania in the field of separation of stable isotopes by thermal diffusion. An retrospective analysis of the research and results concerning isotope separation by thermal diffusion entails the following conclusions: - thermal diffusion is an adequate method for hydrogen isotope separation (deuterium and tritium) and for noble gas isotope separation (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe); - thermal diffusion is attractive also for 13 C enrichment using methane as raw material for separation, when annual yields of up to 100 g are envisaged; - lately, the thermal diffusion appears to be chosen as a final enrichment step for 17 O. An obvious advantage of this method is its non-specificity, i.e. the implied equipment can be utilized for isotope separation of other chemical elements too. Having in view the low investment costs for thermal diffusion cascades the method appears economically attractive for obtaining low-scale, laboratory isotope production. The paper has the following content: 1. The principle of method; 2. The method's application; 3. Research in the field of thermal diffusion at ITIM; 4. Thermal diffusion cascades for N, C, Ne, Ar and Kr isotope separation; 5. Conclusion

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Wen; Hao, Nanxin; Wang, Yibin; Zong, Genlin

    2012-01-01

    Background Although diffusion tensor imaging has been successfully applied in brain research for decades, several main difficulties have hindered its extended utilization in spinal cord imaging. Purpose To assess the feasibility and clinical value of diffusion tensor imaging and tractography for evaluating chronic spinal cord compression. Material and Methods Single-shot spin-echo echo-planar DT sequences were scanned in 42 spinal cord compression patients and 49 healthy volunteers. The mean values of the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy were measured in region of interest at the cervical and lower thoracic spinal cord. The patients were divided into two groups according to the high signal on T2WI (the SCC-HI group and the SCC-nHI group for with or without high signal). A one-way ANOVA was used. Diffusion tensor tractography was used to visualize the morphological features of normal and impaired white matter. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values between the different spinal cord segments of the normal subjects. All of the patients in the SCC-HI group had increased apparent diffusion coefficient values and decreased fractional anisotropy values at the lesion level compared to the normal controls. However, there were no statistically significant diffusion index differences between the SCC-nHI group and the normal controls. In the diffusion tensor imaging maps, the normal spinal cord sections were depicted as fiber tracts that were color-encoded to a cephalocaudal orientation. The diffusion tensor images were compressed to different degrees in all of the patients. Conclusion Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography are promising methods for visualizing spinal cord tracts and can provide additional information in clinical studies in spinal cord compression

  20. Ultrafast palladium diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan Ali

    2015-01-01

    The slow transport of dopants through crystal lattices has hindered the development of novel devices. Typically atoms are contained within deep potential energy wells which necessitates multiple attempts to hop between minimum energy positions. This is because the bonds that constrain atoms are strongest at the minimum positions. As they hop between sites the bonds must be broken, only to re-form as the atoms slide into adjacent minima. Here we demonstrate that the Pd atoms introduced into the Ge lattice behave differently. They retain bonds as the atoms shift across so that at the energy maximum between sites Pd still exhibits strong bonding characteristics. This reduces the energy maximum to almost nothing (a migration energy of only 0.03 eV) and means that the transport of Pd through the Ge lattice is ultrafast. We scrutinize the bonding characteristics at the atomic level using quantum mechanical simulation tools and demonstrate why Pd behaves so differently to other metals we investigated (i.e. Li, Cu, Ag, Pt and Au). Consequently, this fundamental understanding can be extended to systems where extremely rapid diffusion is desired, such as radiation sensors, batteries and solid oxide fuel cells.

  1. Diffusive charge transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhao

    The physical mechanisms limiting the mobility of graphene on SiO 2 are studied and printed graphene devices on a flexible substrate are realized. Intentional addition of charged scattering impurities is used to study the effects of charged impurities. Atomic-scale defects are created by noble-gas ions irradiation to study the effect of unitary scatterers. The results show that charged impurities and atomic-scale defects both lead to conductivity linear in density in graphene, with a scattering magnitude that agrees quantitatively with theoretical estimates. While charged impurities cause intravalley scattering and induce a small change in the minimum conductivity, defects in graphene scatter electrons between the valleys and suppress the minimum conductivity below the metallic limit. Temperature-dependent measurements show that longitudinal acoustic phonons in graphene produce a small resistivity which is linear in temperature and independent of carrier density; at higher temperatures, polar optical phonons of the SiO2 substrate give rise to an activated, carrier density-dependent resistivity. Graphene is also made into high mobility transparent and flexible field effect device via the transfer-printing method. Together the results paint a complete picture of charge carrier transport in graphene on SiO2 in the diffusive regime, and show the promise of graphene as a novel electronic material that have potential applications not only on conventional inorganic substrates, but also on flexible substrates.

  2. Simulation of anisotropic diffusion by means of a diffusion velocity method

    CERN Document Server

    Beaudoin, A; Rivoalen, E

    2003-01-01

    An alternative method to the Particle Strength Exchange method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in the general case of a non-isotropic and non-uniform diffusion is proposed. This method is an extension of the diffusion velocity method. It is shown that this extension is quite straightforward due to the explicit use of the diffusion flux in the expression of the diffusion velocity. This approach is used to simulate pollutant transport in groundwater and the results are compared to those of the PSE method presented in an earlier study by Zimmermann et al.

  3. Principles and implementation of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Timothy P.L.; Schwartz, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    We review the physiological basis of diffusion-weighted imaging and discuss the implementation of diffusion-weighted imaging pulse sequences and the subsequent postprocessing to yield quantitative estimations of diffusion parameters. We also introduce the concept of directionality of ''apparent'' diffusion in vivo and the means of assessing such anisotropy quantitatively. This in turn leads to the methodological application of diffusion tensor imaging and the subsequent postprocessing, known as tractography. The following articles deal with the clinical applications enabled by such methodologies. (orig.)

  4. Investigations on radionuclide release and on the corrosion behaviour of spent fuels from research reactors under disposal conditions. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Radionuklidfreisetzung und zum Korrosionsverhalten von bestrahltem Kernbrennstoff aus Forschungsreaktoren unter Endlagerbeedingungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecher, H.; Curtius, H.; Fachinger, J.; Kaiser, G.; Mazeina, L.; Nau, K.

    2003-12-01

    From the present report 'Untersuchungen zur Radionuklidfreisetzung und zum Korrosionsverhalten von bestrahltem Kernbrennstoff aus Forschungsreaktoren unter Endlagerbedingungen' with the code number FKZ 9108 carried out in the time periode 01.06.1998 till 30.11.2001 the following results can be withdrawn: U/Al-RR-fuel elements corroded slowly in granite water (Grimsel-West) at 90 C under anaerobic conditions. For a complete dissolution of the fuel element a time period of 10{sup 3} years is assumed according to present conservative results. In salt brines, especially in magnesium chloride rich brines the corrosion rate is high. Addition of GGG40 (basic material of the fuel element container with iron as main element) had an acceleration effect. A complete dissolution of the fuel is achieved within a couple of months. Under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions the bulk of released radionuclides were fixed by the corrosion products formed (secondary phases). The actinides were mobilised by variation of the ionic strength of the leaching solution. This process can be explained by phase conversion reactions within the secondary phases. Secondary phases formed by corrosion of a non-irradiated U/Al-RR-fuel element, were analysed and hydrotalcites were identified as phase components. This result justifies the assumption, that hydrotalcites are components of the corrosion products from irradiated fuels. To clarify the questions which bindings exist between radionuclides and secondary phases, sorption experiments were performed. The sorption experiments were performed in salt brines and in granite water using repository relevant radionuclides and minerals which are considered to represent thermodynamic final components of the secondary phases. Pu sorbed as cationic species quantitatively and the binding is covalent. In granite water the same behaviour was found for Am. (orig.) [German] Aus dem vorliegenden Bericht 'Untersuchungen zur Radionuklidfreisetzung

  5. Reduction of radiation dose by using digital luminescence radiography compared to conventional screen film system with grid cassette; Reduktion der Strahlendosis mittels Speicherfolienradiographie im Vergleich zum konventionellen Film-Folien-System mit Rasterkassette am Schaedelphantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, J.P.; Merbold, H.; Neumann, R.; Freesmeyer, M.; Jonetz-Mentzel, L.; Kaiser, W.A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany); Sehner, J. [AGFA-Deutschland, Vertriebsgesellschaft (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: How much can the radiation dose be reduced for skull radiography by using digital luminescence radiography (DLR) compared to a conventional screen film system with a grid cassette? Methods and Materials: A skull phantom (3M) was X-rayed in anterior-posterior orientation using both a conventional screen film system with grid cassette and DLR (ADC-70, Agfa). The tube current time product (mAs) was diminished gradually while keeping the voltage constant. The surface entrance dose was measured by a sensor of Dosimax (Wellhoefer). Five investigators evaluated the images by characteristic and critical features, spatial resolution and contrast. Results: The surface entrance dose at 73 kV/22 mAs was 0,432 mGy in conventional screen film system and 0,435 mGy in DLR. The images could be evaluated very well down to an average dose of 71% (0,308 mGy; SD 0,050); sufficient images were obtained down to an average dose of 31% (0,136 mGy; SD 0,065). The resolution of the line pairs were reduced down to a 2 levels depending on the investigator. Contrast was assessed as being very good to sufficient. The acceptance of the postprocessed images (MUSICA-software) was individually different and resultde in an improvement of the assessment of bone structures an contrast in higher dose ranges only. Conclusion: For the sufficient assessment of a possible fracture/of paranasal sinuses/of measurement the skull the dose can be reduced to at least 56% (31%; SD 14,9%)/40% (27%; SD 9,3%)/18% (14%; SD 4,4%). Digital radiography allows question-referred exposure parameters with clearly reduced dose, so e.g. for fracture exclusion 73 kV/12,5 mAs and to skull measurement 73 kV/4 mAs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Wie weit kann unter Einsatz der rasterlosen Speicherfolienradiographie bei einer Schaedelaufnahme die Strahlendosis im Vergleich zum Film-Folien-System (FFS) mit Rasterkassette (RK) fragestellungsbezogen gesenkt werden? Material und Methode: Ein Schaedelphantom (3M) wurde konventionell

  6. Radiation protection in medical research. Licensing requirement for the use of radiation and advice for the application procedure; Strahlenschutz in der medizinischen Forschung. Genehmigungsbeduerftigkeit von Strahlenanwendungen und Hinweise zum Antragsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Klammer, H.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    In Germany, persons who are to be exposed to radiation for medical research purposes are protected by a licensing requirement. However, there are considerable uncertainties on the part of the applicants as to whether licensing by the competent Federal Office for Radiation Protection is necessary, and regarding the choice of application procedure. The article provides explanatory notes and practical assistance for applicants and an outlook on the forthcoming new regulations concerning the law on radiation protection of persons in the field of medical research. Questions and typical mistakes in the application process were identified and evaluated. The qualified physicians involved in a study are responsible for deciding whether a license is required for the intended application of radiation. The decision can be guided by answering the key question whether the study participants would undergo the same exposures regarding type and extent if they had not taken part in the study. When physicians are still unsure about their decision, they can seek the advisory service provided by the professional medical societies. Certain groups of people are particularly protected through the prohibition or restriction of radiation exposure. A simplified licensing procedure is used for a proportion of diagnostic procedures involving radiation when all related requirements are met; otherwise, the regular licensing procedure should be used. The new radiation protection law, which will enter into force on the 31st of december 2018, provides a notification procedure in addition to deadlines for both the notification and the licensing procedures. In the article, the authors consider how eligible studies involving applications of radiation that are legally not admissible at present may be feasible in the future, while still ensuring a high protection level for study participants. (orig.) [German] Personen, bei denen Strahlenanwendungen zum Zweck der medizinischen Forschung durchgefuehrt

  7. Is tamoxifen associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction? [Ist die Einnahme von Tamoxifen zum Zeitpunkt der mikrovaskulären Brustrekonstruktion mit einer erhöhten Rate an thrombembolischen Komplikationen assoziiert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Robert

    2013-02-01

    des hormonrezeptorpen Brustkrebses postmenopausaler Frauen abgelöst. Tamoxifen ist mit einem ca. zweifach erhöhten Risiko für thrombembolische Komplikationen (tiefe Beinvenenthrombose, Lungenembolie assoziiert. Vor dem Hintergrund einer aktuellen und im Februar 2012 im Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery erschienenen retrospektiven Studie mit Nachweis einer erhöhten Komplikationsrate freier Lappentransplantate zur Brustrekonstruktion unter Tamoxifen-Einnahme haben wir unser Patientenkollektiv nach mikrochirurgischer Brustrekonstruktion retrospektiv auf Minor- und Major-Komplikationen einschließlich thrombembolischer Ereignisse insbesondere vor dem Hintergrund einer perioperativen Tamoxifeneinnahme untersucht. Eingeschlossen wurden insgesamt 29 Patientinnen nach mikrochirurgischer autologer Brustrekonstruktion. Es wurden mikrovaskuläre Lappenkomplikationen und Lappenverluste von Patientinnen ohne und mit Einnahme von Tamoxifen und Aromatasehemmern zum Zeitpunkt der mikrochirurgischen Brustrekonstruktion verglichen. 25 Patientinnen (86,2% erhielten eine DIEP-Lappenplastik und 4 (13,8% eine TRAM-Lappenplastik. Fernerhin verglichen wir die Rate allgemeiner thrombembolischer Ereignisse unter Berücksichtigung sonstiger Nebendiagnosen und Risikofaktoren. Von insgesamt 29 Patientinnen standen zum Zeitpunkt der mikrovaskulären Brustrekonstruktion 3 unter einer Aromatasehemmer-Therapie und 5 unter einer Tamoxifen-Therapie. Insgesamt traten in 11 Fällen (37,9% postoperative Komplikationen auf, in 5 Fällen handelte es sich hierbei um Major-Komplikationen (mit einem Lappenverlust und in um Minorkomplikationen. Unter Tamoxifeneinnahme kam es in einem Fall zu einer Minorkomplikation, und in einem anderen Fall zu einem thrombembolisch bedingten Lappenverlust. Insgesamt kam es postoperativ zu einem thrombembolischen Ereignis in Form einer Lungenembolie ohne Assoziation zur Tamoxifen-Therapie.Die Anzahl thrombembolischer Ereignisse stellten sich mit und ohne

  8. Simple simulation of diffusion bridges with application to likelihood inference for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    the accuracy and efficiency of the approximate method and compare it to exact simulation methods. In the study, our method provides a very good approximation to the distribution of a diffusion bridge for bridges that are likely to occur in applications to statistical inference. To illustrate the usefulness......With a view to statistical inference for discretely observed diffusion models, we propose simple methods of simulating diffusion bridges, approximately and exactly. Diffusion bridge simulation plays a fundamental role in likelihood and Bayesian inference for diffusion processes. First a simple......-dimensional diffusions and is applicable to all one-dimensional diffusion processes with finite speed-measure. One advantage of the new approach is that simple simulation methods like the Milstein scheme can be applied to bridge simulation. Another advantage over previous bridge simulation methods is that the proposed...

  9. Study of the uranium-zirconium diffusion; Etude de la diffusion uranium-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y; Mairy, C; Bouchet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The intermetallic diffusion of uranium fuel and zirconium used as cladding is studied. Intermetallic diffusion can occur during the cladding of uranium rods and uranium can penetrate the zirconium cladding. Different parameters are involved in this mechanism as structure and mechanical properties of the diffusion area as well as presence of impurities in the metal. The uses of different analysis techniques (micrography, Castaing electronic microprobe, microhardness and autoradiography) have permitted to determine with great accuracy the diffusion coefficient in gamma phase (body centered cubic system) and the results have given important information on the intermetallic diffusion mechanisms. The existence of the Kirkendall effect in the U-Zr diffusion is also an argument in favor of the generality of the diffusion mechanism by vacancies in body centered cubic system. (M.P.)

  10. Application of multicomponent diffusion theory for description of impurities distribution in complex diffusive doping of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, V.A.; Kondrachenko, O.E.; Kondrachenko, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    A phenomenological theory of multicomponent diffusion involving interaction between the components is employed to analyze how the interaction between two admixtures affects their simultaneous or consequent diffusion into a semiconductor. The theory uses the equations of multicomponent dissusion under common conditions (constant diffusion coefficients and equilibrium distribution of vacancies). The experiments are described on In and Sb simultaneous diffusion into Ge. The diffusion is performed according to the routine gas phase technology with the use of radioactive isotopes In 114 and Sb 124 . It is shown that the introduction of an additional diffusion coefficient D 12 makes it possible to simply and precisely describe the distribution of interacting admixtures in complex diffusion alloying of semiconductors

  11. Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2017-05-01

    The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into

  12. Environment-friendly building. Energy efficiency - thermal comfort - materials. Publication on the occasion of the 60th birthday of Gerd Hauser; Umweltbewusstes Bauen. Energieeffizienz - Behaglichkeit - Materialien. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Gerd Hauser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, A. (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    In honour of the 60th birthday of Professor Gerd Hauser, ''father of the Energy Passport'' in this festival script 38 contributions are compiled in recognition of his work. These articles present the whole thematics of heat- and energy transfer in the building sector. The broad spectra is arranged into the sections energy efficiency, thermal comfort and materials. Constructive problems on sun protection, computer-simulated models of indoor climate, energetic sanitation of monuments taking into account preservative aspects, problems of sound emission from traffic as the constructional physical evaluation of materials in the building envelope. Furtheron the actual discussion on energy saving construction is reflected due to perspective and strategies of climate policy in Germany. The spectrum of the contribution from research and practice shows clearly, that construction physics has developed since last decades from a niche position to a comprehensive branche. (orig./GL) [German] Aus Anlass des 60. Geburtstages von Professor Gerd Hauser, dem Vater des Energiepasses, sind in dieser Festschrift in Anerkennung seines Werkes 38 Beitraege zusammengestellt. Diese stellen die gesamte Thematik der Waerme- und Energieuebertragung im Gebaeudebereich vor. Das breite Spektrum ist in die Abschnitte Energieeffizienz, Behaglichkeit und Materialien gegliedert. Behandelt werden beispielsweise baukonstruktive Fragestellungen beim Sonnenschutz, Computer simulierte Raumklimamodelle, denkmalpflegerische Aspekte bei der energetischen Sanierung, Probleme der Schalluebertragung im Verkehr sowie die bauphysikalische Bewertung von Materialien der Gebaeudehuelle. Darueber hinaus wird die aktuelle Diskussion zum Energiesparenden Bauen im Hinblick auf die Perspektiven und Strategien der Klimapolitik in Deutschland wiedergegeben. Die Bandbreite der Beitraege aus Forschung und Praxis zeigen anschaulich, dass sich die Bauphysik in den letzten Jahrzehnten aus einer

  13. The Eckert number phenomenon - experimental investigations of heat transfer on moving walls, e.g. rotating cylinders; Das Eckert-Zahl-Phaenomen - Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Waermeuebergang an einer bewegten Wand am Modellfall eines rotierenden Zylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwendtner, M.

    2000-07-01

    The Eckert number phenomenon - theoretically investigated by Geropp in 1969 - describes a turnover in heat transfer at a moving wall at an Eckert number EC=1. This report is the first to confirm the Eckert number phenomenon experimentally. Heat transfer on a heated, vertically rotating cylinder in a crossflow was investigated at extreme rotational speeds, i.e. in the range where the predicted phenomenon will occur. A heating concept had to be developed which allowed an input of heating power independent of rotational speed and which therefore had to be contact-free. The complex thermofluiddynamic processes in the boundary layer around the rotating cylinder were investigated and measured using predominantly optical measuring techniques. The results show that the temperature difference between the wall and the surrounding fluid had a significant effect on the predicted turnover of heat transfer at the wall. Moreover, maximum heat transfer occurs at an Eckert number Ec=0.3, which is of great importance for the cooling of hot surfaces in an airstream. [German] Das Eckert-Zahl-Phaenomen - von Geropp 1969 theoretisch untersucht - beschreibt den Umschlag des Waermeueberganges an einer bewegten Wand bei einer Eckert-ZahlEc{approx}1. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das Eckert-Zahl-Phaenomen zum ersten Mal experimentell bestaetigt. Dazu wurde der Waermeuebergang am Modellfall eines queransgestroemten, beheizten, vertikalrotierenden Zylinders untersucht. Aufgrund der fuer die Experimente notwendigen extremen Drehzahlen musste fuer die Zylinderheizung ein Konzept entwickelt werden, das eine beruehrungsfreie und damit drehzahlunabhaengige Leistungseinspeisung erlaubte. Mit vorwiegend optischen Messmethoden wurden die komplexen thermofluiddynamischen Vorgaenge in der Grenzschicht um den rotierenden Zylinder untersucht und vermessen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen u.a., dass die Temperaturdifferenz zwischen Wand und Umgebung von entscheidender Bedeutung fuer die Richtungsumkehr des

  14. Newly developed active braze powders based on commercial nickel brazes using zirconium as active element for joining ceramic to metal; Entwicklung von neuen Aktivlotpulvern auf Basis kommerzieller Nickellote mit Zirkon als aktivelement zum Fuegen von Keramik-Metall-Verbunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Schlaefer, T.; Kopp, N.; Schlegel, A. [Institut fuer Oberflaechentechnik der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    10 weight-%. For the characterisation, the melting range of all experimental brazing filler metals has been determined by thermoanalytical methods and the ones, which have been manufactured by powder metallurgy, have been investigated by means of an x-ray diffraction analysis and a morphological analysis of the powder particles. The suitability of the experimental brazing filler metals for the active brazing has been probed in wetting tests on alumina in high-vacuum brazing trials and examined metallographically. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die gestiegenen Anforderungen an hochbeanspruchte Bauteilkomponenten hinsichtlich Bestaendigkeit gegen thermische, oxidierende und korrosive Beanspruchungen, Haerte sowie Verschleissbestaendigkeit praedestinieren den Einsatz von ingenieurkeramischen Werkstoffen. Dem gegenueber stehen Eigenschaften wie hohe Sproedigkeit, zum Teil geringe Thermoschockbestaendigkeit, schwierige Bearbeitbarkeit und daraus resultierende Einschraenkungen bei der konstruktiven Gestaltung. Hybride Werkstoffkonzepte als Kombination ingenieurkeramischer Werkstoffe mit metallischen Konstruktionswerkstoffen koennen, sofern dazu geeignete und leistungsfaehige Fuegetechniken verfuegbar sind, technologisch interessante Loesungen darstellen. Das Aktivloeten als eine in der Werkstoffauswahl sehr flexible Fuegetechnologie bietet sich fuer die Erschliessung neuer und innovativer Anwendungen wie beispielsweise der Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen-Technik an. Derzeit in der industriellen Praxis eingesetzte Aktivlote auf Silber/Kupfer-, Kupfer- und Silberbasis weisen bei etwa 500 C einen deutlichen Abfall bezueglich ihrer mechanischen Festigkeit auf. Gold- oder palladiumhaltige Aktivlote mit diesbezueglich besseren Eigenschaften finden aufgrund ihres hohen Preises aeusserst selten Verwendung. Die hier vorgestellten Untersuchungen haben das Ziel, neue Aktivlotlegierungen bei vertretbaren Rohstoffkosten fuer Einsatztemperaturen oberhalb

  15. SPECT/CT for staging and treatment monitoring in oncology. Applications in differentiated thyroid cancer and liver tumors; SPECT/CT zum initialen Staging und Therapiemonitoring in der Onkologie. Indikationen beim differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinom und bei Lebertumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K.; Berger, F.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Mustafa, M.; Bartenstein, P.; Haug, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    and SPECT/CT provides more accurate imaging of the arterial supply of the liver and of potential outflows of micro-spheres into other organs. SPECT/CT allows evaluation and quantification of the uptake of liver tumors. Improved postablative staging in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer by SPECT/CT in comparison to radioiodine whole body scans can be achieved. Improved planning and monitoring of SIRT therapies utilizing SPECT/CT leads to optimized therapeutic doses within liver lesions. Integration of SPECT/CT into the clinical standard for postablative staging in patients with DTC is recommended as well as utilization of SPECT/CT during the planning process, for dose calculation and treatment monitoring of SIRT therapies. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren hat die Hybridbildgebung mit Verbindung von funktioneller und morphologischer Information zur Diagnostik zahlreicher Erkrankungen zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. Bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom (DTC) wird nach erfolgter Radiojodtherapie (RJT) ein planares Ganzkoerperszintigramm zum Staging durchgefuehrt. Die diagnostische Genauigkeit dieser szintigraphischen Methode ist jedoch aufgrund limitierter raeumlicher Aufloesung begrenzt. Die Radioembolisation von mit {sup 90}Yttrium beladenen Mikrosphaeren (selektive interne Radiotherapie, SIRT) ermoeglicht eine wenig invasive Therapie primaerer und sekundaerer Lebertumoren. Zur Vermeidung von Nebenwirkungen der Mikrosphaeren durch einen Abstrom in Darm, Magen und Lunge muss vor Therapiebeginn eine Darstellung des durch die leberversorgenden Arterien versorgten Gebiets mittels {sup 99m}Tc-MAA ({sup 99m}Technetium-makroaggregiertes Albumin) und einer Szintigraphie erfolgen. Auch hier limitiert die begrenzte morphologische Information der Szintigraphie das Therapiemonitoring. {sup 131}Jod-Ganzkoerperszintigramm zum Nachweis einer erfolgreichen Ablation und Staging ca. 3-4 Tage postablativ bei Patienten mit DTC. Ueberwachung des

  16. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  17. Studies of matrix diffusion in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartikainen, K.; Timonen, J.; Vaeaetaeinen, K.; Pietarila, H.

    1994-03-01

    The diffusion of solutes from fractures into rock matrix is an important factor in the safety analysis of disposal of radioactive waste. Laboratory measurements are needed to complement field investigations for a reliable determination of the necessary transport parameters. Measurements of diffusion coefficients in tight rock samples are usually time consuming because the diffusion processes are slow. On the other hand it is well known that diffusion coefficients in the gas phase are roughly four orders of magnitude larger than those in the liquid phase. Therefore, for samples whose structures do not change much upon drying, it is possible to estimate the diffusion properties of the liquid phase when the properties of the gas phase are known. Advantages of the gas method are quick and easy measurements. In the measurements nitrogen was used as the carrier gas and helium as the tracer gas, and standard techniques have been used for helium detection. Techniques have been developed for both channel flow and through-diffusion measurements. The breakthrough curves have been measured in every experiment and all measurements have been modelled by using appropriate analytical models. As a result matrix porosities and effective diffusion coefficients in the gas phase have been determined. (12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.)

  18. Mechanism and kinetics of hydrated electron diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kafui A.; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Boutin, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the mechanism and kinetics of hydrated electron diffusion. The electron center of mass is found to exhibit Brownian-type behavior with a diffusion coefficient considerably greater than that of the solvent. As previously postulated by both experimental and theoretical works, the instantaneous response of the electron to the librational motions of surrounding water molecules constitutes the principal mode of motion. The diffusive mechanism can be understood within the traditional framework of transfer diffusion processes, where the diffusive step is akin to the exchange of an extramolecular electron between neighboring water molecules. This is a second-order process with a computed rate constant of 5.0 ps -1 at 298 K. In agreement with experiment the electron diffusion exhibits Arrhenius behavior over the temperature range of 298-400 K. We compute an activation energy of 8.9 kJ mol -1 . Through analysis of Arrhenius plots and the application of a simple random walk model it is demonstrated that the computed rate constant for exchange of an excess electron is indeed the phenomenological rate constant associated with the diffusive process

  19. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect

  20. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  1. Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdebosq, Y.

    1999-09-01

    In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)

  2. Rationality and contradictions in the competition for concessions. A (second) contribution to the Joint Practical Guide of the German Federal Cartel Office and Federal Network Agency for the allocation of electricity and gas concession tolerated and to change the concessionaire of 21 May 2015; Rationalitaet und Widersprueche im Wettbewerb um Konzessionen. Ein (zweiter) Beitrag zum Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundeskartellamt und Bundesnetzagentur zur Vergabe von Strom- und Gaskonzessionsvertraegen und zum Wechsel des Konzessionsnehmers vom 21. Mai 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, David; Templin, Wolf [Boos Hummel und Wegerich Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    This article follows to an essay in the ZNER of 2011 (S. 121 et seq.) for the first Joint Practical Guide of the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA) and Federal Cartel Office (FCO) from the year 2010, in which the authors had attested authorities a good ''step towards to more competition ''. In the essay is examined and shown that the Joint practical guide from the year 2010 this target could meet and what effect the now in its second edition newly revised guidelines on competition to distribution networks may have. The revision of the guidelines will be given to municipalities further action assistance to the hand, but - with few exceptions - only reproduces the jurisprudence of the staked legal framework. One proposed solution for the more diverse existing problems remains undone, whereas new problem areas are put up in several places. Nevertheless, the will of the authorities is to recognize, to avoid legal problems in the concession process and net acquisitions from the outset. [German] Dieser Beitrag knuepft an einen Aufsatz in der ZNER 2011 (S. 121 ff.) zum ersten Gemeinsamen Leitfaden von Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) und Bundeskartellamt (BKartA) aus dem Jahre 2010 an, in dem die Autoren den Behoerden einen richtigen ''Schritt hin zu mehr Wettbewerb'' attestiert hatten. In der Abhandlung wird untersucht und dargestellt, ob der Gemeinsame Leitfaden aus dem Jahr 2010 diesem Ziel gerecht werden konnte und welche Auswirkungen der nunmehr in der zweiten Auflage neu ueberarbeitete Leitfaden auf den Wettbewerb um Verteilnetze haben kann. Die Ueberarbeitung des Leitfadens wird den Kommunen eine weitere Handlungshilfe an die Hand gegeben, die aber - bis auf wenige Ausnahmen - den durch die Rechtsprechung abgesteckten Rechtsrahmen nur wiedergibt. Ein Loesungsvorschlag fuer die noch vielfaeltig bestehenden Probleme unterbleibt, wohingegen an mehreren Stellen neue Problemfelder aufgemacht werden. Gleichwohl ist der Wille der Behoerden

  3. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  4. A tracer diffusion model derived from microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, Jarmo; Muurinen, Arto; Olin, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Numerous attempts have been made to explain the tracer diffusion of various solutes in compacted clays. These attempts have commonly suffered from an inability to describe the diffusion of uncharged and charged solutes with a single unified model. Here, an internally consistent approach to describing the diffusion of solutes in a heterogeneous porous medium, such as compacted bentonite, in terms of its microstructure is presented. The microstructure is taken to be represented by a succession of unit cells, which consist of two consecutive regions (Do, 1996). In the first region, the diffusion is viewed to occur in two parallel paths: one through microcrystalline units (micropores) and the other through meso-pores between the microcrystalline units. Solutes exiting these two paths are then joined together to continue diffusing through the second, disordered, region, connecting the two adjacent microcrystalline units. Adsorption (incl. co-ion exclusion) is thought to occur in the micropores, whereas meso-pores and the disordered region accommodate free species alone. Co-ions are also assumed to experience transfer resistance into and out of the micropores, which is characterized in the model by a transmission coefficient. Although the model is not new per se, its application to compacted clays has never been attempted before. It is shown that in the limit of strong adsorption, the effective diffusivity is limited from above only by the microstructural parameters of the model porous medium. As intuitive and logical as this result may appear, it has not been proven before. In the limit of vanishing disordered region, the effective diffusivity is no longer explicitly constrained by any of the model parameters. The tortuosity of the diffusion path, i.e. the quotient of the actual diffusion path length in the porous-medium coordinates and the characteristic length of the laboratory frame

  5. Airflow Pattern Genereated by Three Air Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz

    The correct description of air diffusers plays a crucial role in the CFD predictions of the airflow pattern into a room. The numerical simulation of air distribution in an indoor space is challenging because of the complicated airflow pattern generated. An experimental study has been carried out...... in a full scale test room, 4.10 m (length), 3.20 m (width), and 2.70 m (height), in order to take velocity measurements of the airflow pattern generated by three different air diffusers: displacement, mixing and a low impulse diffuser. Smoke visualization has been developed to determine the direction...

  6. Diffusion of improved biomass stoves in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daxiong Qiu; Shuhua Gu; Catania, P.; Kun Huang

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale utilization of inefficient biofuel stoves for cooking and heating in the rural areas of China can cause ecological and environmental problems; thus, in 1982, the Chinese government encouraged the diffusion of improved biomass stoves. From 1982 to 1994, these improved biomass stoves have been used by 144 million households or the equivalent of 90% of all improved stoves installed globally; 62% of the Chinese market has been penetrated. This paper presents the fundamental features of China's diffusion programme of improved biomass stoves, analyses of the future domestic market, and defines some of the lessons learned from the diffusion programme which may be applicable in other emerging nations. (Author)

  7. Neoclassical diffusion at low L-shel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G.; Ripoll, J. F.; Loridan, V.; Schulz, M.

    2017-12-01

    At very low L-shell, the lifetime of MeV electrons is dominated by pitch-angle scattering due to Coulomb collisions with background neutrals and ions. Walt's evaluation of this lifetime explained Van Allen's observations of the decay of the radiation belts in the early 1960's, for L500 keV electrons for L=[1.15,1.21] was much greater than predicted by Walt's model when the decay was observed over 3 years rather than just a few months. Imhof et al argued that inward radial diffusion from larger L would be a source of electrons at low L, thus increasing the apparent lifetimes that were observed, but did not speculate on the cause of such diffusion across L. Newkirk and Walt estimated the radial diffusion coefficient that would be needed to explain the apparent lifetimes observed by Imhof et al. The radial diffusion coefficients they inferred dropped sharply as L increased, contrasting with the radial diffusion coefficients that had been recently developed by Falthammar [1965], which increase as a power law in L. Newkirk and Walt noted Falthammar's speculation that pitch-angle diffusion caused by Coulomb scattering, when coupled to drift-shell splitting associated with non-dipolar terms in the near-Earth geomagnetic field, might be the physical basis for the radial diffusion, but they did not attempt to quantify this effect. Roederer et al demonstrated that Coulomb scattering plus drift-shell splitting could explain the Newkirk and Walt results but they did not perform an exhaustive study. In the field of magnetically confined fusion, the movement of charged particles to different drift-shells caused by the combination of collisions and drift-shell splitting is labeled `neoclassical' diffusion. By contrast, `anomalous' diffusion results from pitch-angle diffusion caused by wave turbulence combined with drift-shell splitting, an effect recently studied by O'Brien in the outer radiation belt. We have constructed a comprehensive model of neoclassical diffusion at low L

  8. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir; Fatollahi, Amir H.; Khorrami, Mohammad; Shariati, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  9. Entropy as a measure of diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir; Fatollahi, Amir H., E-mail: fath@alzahra.ac.ir; Khorrami, Mohammad, E-mail: mamwad@mailaps.org; Shariati, Ahmad, E-mail: shariati@mailaps.org

    2013-10-15

    The time variation of entropy, as an alternative to the variance, is proposed as a measure of the diffusion rate. It is shown that for linear and time-translationally invariant systems having a large-time limit for the density, at large times the entropy tends exponentially to a constant. For systems with no stationary density, at large times the entropy is logarithmic with a coefficient specifying the speed of the diffusion. As an example, the large-time behaviors of the entropy and the variance are compared for various types of fractional-derivative diffusions.

  10. Atomic defects and diffusion in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The tracer self-diffusion data for fcc and refractory bcc metals are briefly reviewed with respect to (i) the available monovacancy formation and migration properties and (ii) the high-temperature diffusion enhancement above that expected for mass transport via atomic exchange with monovacancies. While the atomic-defect mechanism for low-temperature self-diffusion can be reliably attributed to monovacancies, the mechanisms responsible for high-temperature mass transport are not so easily defined at this time; both divacancies and interstitials must be seriously considered. Possibilities for improving our understanding in this area are discussed. 68 references, 7 figures

  11. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  13. Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.

  14. Current limiting capability of diffused resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedd, W.; Cappelli, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the current limiting capability of dielectrically isolated diffused resistors at transient ionizing dose rates up to 6*10 12 rads(Si)/sec is presented. Existing theoretical predictions of the transient response of diffused resistors are summarized and compared to the experimentally measured values. The test resistors used allow the effects of sheet resistance and geometry on the transient response to be determined. The experimental results show that typical dielectrically isolated diffused resistors maintain adequate current limiting capability for use in radiation hardened integrated circuits

  15. Diffusion of tritiated water in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Kasai, A.; Imai, T.; Amano, H.; Yanase, N.

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion of tritiated water discharged by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute at shore line has been investigated. In continuous discharge, the concentration of tritiated water in samples taken at a point downstream fluctuates largely. To reveal the cause, dye diffusion experiments were made in the coastal area. The shapes of dye cloud were photographed by a remote-control camera suspended from a captive balloon as color pictures. The movement of dye is so complex that a three-dimensional model must be employed to assess the diffusion in coastal areas

  16. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  17. Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mellet, Antoine

    2010-08-20

    This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider situations in which the equilibrium distribution function is a heavy-tailed distribution with infinite variance. We then show that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a fractional diffusion equation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Demonstration of non-Gaussian restricted diffusion in tumor cells using diffusion-time dependent diffusion weighted MR contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuva Roaldsdatter Hope

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion weighted imaging (DWI technique enables quantification of water mobility for probing microstructural properties of biological tissue, and has become an effective tool for collecting information about the underlying pathology of cancerous tissue. Measurements using multiple b-values have indicated a bi-exponential signal attenuation, ascribed to fast (high ADC and slow (low ADC diffusion components. In this empirical study, we investigate the properties of the diffusion time (∆ - dependent components of the diffusion-weighted (DW signal in a constant b-value experiment. A Xenograft GBM mouse was imaged using ∆ = 11 ms, 20 ms, 40 ms, 60 ms and b=500-4000 s/mm2 in intervals of 500s/mm2. Data was corrected for EPI distortions and the ∆-dependence on the DW signal was measured within three regions of interest (intermediate- and high-density tumor regions and normal appearing brain tissue regions (NAB. In this empirical study we verify the assumption that the slow decaying component of the DW-signal is non-Gaussian and dependent on ∆, consistent with restricted diffusion of the intracellular space. As the DW-signal as a function of ∆ is specific to restricted diffusion, manipulating ∆ at constant b-value (cb provides a complementary and direct approach for separating the restricted from the hindered diffusion component. Our results show that only tumor tissue signal of our data demonstrate ∆-dependence, based on a bi-exponential model with a restricted diffusion component, we successfully estimated the restricted ADC, signal volume fraction and cell size within each tumor ROI.

  19. Lattice dynamical investigations on Zn diffusion in zinc oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diffusion and that too by single vacancy mechanism. The results are compared with the .... Instantaneous relative displacement of the diffusing atom with respect to the neigh- bours in the diffusion ring is given as a reaction coordinate,. X =.

  20. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficients of trace elements in open and restricted diffusive layers used by the diffusive gradients in a thin film technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiva, Amir Houshang; Teasdale, Peter R.; Bennett, William W.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic comparison of the diffusion coefficients of cations (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and oxyanions (Al, As, Mo, Sb, V, W) in open (ODL) and restricted (RDL) diffusive layers used by the DGT technique was undertaken. Diffusion coefficients were measured using both the diffusion cell...... concentrations required with the Dcell measurements. This is the first time that D values have been reported for several oxyanions using RDL. Except for Al at pH 8.30 with ODL, all DDGT measurements were retarded relative to diffusion coefficients in water (DW) for both diffusive hydrogels. Diffusion in RDL...

  1. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper

  2. Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.shea@dal.ca; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2014-07-28

    We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.

  3. Diffusion studies of anamorphic GRIN lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekh, Md. Asraful; SoodBiswas, Nisha; Sarkar, Samir; Basuray, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the diffusion study of cylindrical GRIN rod with elliptical cross section, developed by ion exchange process. The diffusion equation takes the form of Mathieu equations when transform into elliptic coordinate system and the solutions are derived in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions. Computations of eigenvalues and expansion coefficients as well as angular and radial Mathieu functions are made which shows good agreement with the existing results. Simpler expression for ionic concentration is derived using asymptotic formulae of the functions which are used for final computation of ionic concentration of diffusing cations in elliptic GRIN. The plot of change in concentration versus diffusion depth along different directions approximately correlates with the results obtained by an earlier experimental study.

  4. A Dynamical Theory of Markovian Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A dynamical treatment of Markovian diffusion is presented and several applications discussed. The stochastic interpretation of quantum mechanics is considered within this framework. A model for Brownian movement which includes second order quantum effects is derived.

  5. Atmospheric diffusion wind tunnel with automatic measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, S; Sakai, J; Murata, E

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel which permits estimates of atmospheric diffusion is described. Smoke from power plant smoke stacks, for example, can be simulated and traced to determine the manner of diffusion in the air as well as the grade of dilution. The wind tunnel is also capable of temperature controlled diffusion tests in which temperature distribution inside the wind tunnel is controlled. A minimum wind velocity of 10 cm can be obtained with accuracy within plus or minus 0.05 percent using a controlled direct current motor; diffusion tests are often made at low wind velocity. Fully automatic measurements can be obtained by using a minicomputer so that the operation and reading of the measuring instruments can be remotely controlled from the measuring chamber. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  6. Exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation in ${H^{2}(Omega}cap{H}^{1}_{0}(Omega$ when the space dimension is less than 4.

  7. Image denoising using non linear diffusion tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzarti, F.; Amiri, H.

    2011-01-01

    Image denoising is an important pre-processing step for many image analysis and computer vision system. It refers to the task of recovering a good estimate of the true image from a degraded observation without altering and changing useful structure in the image such as discontinuities and edges. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image denoising based on the combination of two non linear diffusion tensors. One allows diffusion along the orientation of greatest coherences, while the other allows diffusion along orthogonal directions. The idea is to track perfectly the local geometry of the degraded image and applying anisotropic diffusion mainly along the preferred structure direction. To illustrate the effective performance of our model, we present some experimental results on a test and real photographic color images.

  8. Inertial effects in diffusion-limited reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsaz, N; Foffi, G; De Michele, C; Piazza, F

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion-limited reactions are commonly found in biochemical processes such as enzyme catalysis, colloid and protein aggregation and binding between different macromolecules in cells. Usually, such reactions are modeled within the Smoluchowski framework by considering purely diffusive boundary problems. However, inertial effects are not always negligible in real biological or physical media on typical observation time frames. This is all the more so for non-bulk phenomena involving physical boundaries, that introduce additional time and space constraints. In this paper, we present and test a novel numerical scheme, based on event-driven Brownian dynamics, that allows us to explore a wide range of velocity relaxation times, from the purely diffusive case to the underdamped regime. We show that our algorithm perfectly reproduces the solution of the Fokker-Planck problem with absorbing boundary conditions in all the regimes considered and is thus a good tool for studying diffusion-guided reactions in complex biological environments.

  9. Helium diffusion in nickel at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipps, V.

    1980-09-01

    Helium has been implanted at certain temperatures between 800 and 1250 0 C into single and polycrystalline Ni-samples with implantation depths between 15 and 90 μm. Simultaneously the helium reemission from the sample is measured by a mass-spectrometer. It has been shown that the time dependence of the observed reemission rate is governed by volume diffusion of the helium. Measuring this time dependence as a function of temperature the helium diffusion constant has been determined. The He-diffusion is interpreted as a interstitial diffusion hindered by thermal vacancies. Depending on the implantation depth more or less of the implanted helium remains in the sample and forms large helium bubbles. (orig./GSCH)

  10. Diffusion changes predict cognitive and functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ropele, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) and in white matter hyperintensities (WMH) predict longitudinal cognitive decline and disability in older individuals independently of the concomitant magnetic...

  11. Fractional diffusion equation for heterogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo L, M. A.; Espinosa M, E. G.; Espinosa P, G.; Del Valle G, E.

    2011-11-01

    The asymptotic diffusion approximation for the Boltzmann (transport) equation was developed in 1950 decade in order to describe the diffusion of a particle in an isotropic medium, considers that the particles have a diffusion infinite velocity. In this work is developed a new approximation where is considered that the particles have a finite velocity, with this model is possible to describe the behavior in an anomalous medium. According with these ideas the model was obtained from the Fick law, where is considered that the temporal term of the current vector is not negligible. As a result the diffusion equation of fractional order which describes the dispersion of particles in a highly heterogeneous or disturbed medium is obtained, i.e., in a general medium. (Author)

  12. Cloaking through cancellation of diffusive wave scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-08-10

    A new cloaking mechanism, which makes enclosed objects invisible to diffusive photon density waves, is proposed. First, diffusive scattering from a basic core-shell geometry, which represents the cloaked structure, is studied. The conditions of scattering cancellation in a quasi-static scattering regime are derived. These allow for tailoring the diffusivity constant of the shell enclosing the object so that the fields scattered from the shell and the object cancel each other. This means that the photon flow outside the cloak behaves as if the cloaked object were not present. Diffusive light invisibility may have potential applications in hiding hot spots in infrared thermography or tissue imaging. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  14. Ignition in Convective-Diffusive Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Law, Chung

    1999-01-01

    ... efficiency as well as the knock and emission characteristics. The ignition event is clearly controlled by the chemical reactions of fuel oxidation and the fluid mechanics of convective and diffusive transport...

  15. ICT Innovation Diffusion in the Construction Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widén, Kristian; Christiansson, Per; Hjelseth, Eilif

    is to increase the possibility of successful implementation and adoption of new ICT tools in the construction sector across the supply chain through increasing the knowledge and awareness of how to execute suitable development and diffusion/implementation schemes. This research carried out in this study consists...... an innovation. Recent research on innovation diffusion in the construction sector show that a way to increase opportunities for diffusion in the construction sector is to stop considering diffusion as a discrete activity following on from the development of the innovation. It is therefore of great importance...... directly. The need for stakeholder management right up from the start of the innovation projects and how to deal with it is the major difference between traditional innovation project management and the one necessary for innovation projects in construction, ICT innovations as well as others. To what extent...

  16. Deterministic diffusion in flower-shaped billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Klages, Rainer; Gaspard, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    We propose a flower-shaped billiard in order to study the irregular parameter dependence of chaotic normal diffusion. Our model is an open system consisting of periodically distributed obstacles in the shape of a flower, and it is strongly chaotic for almost all parameter values. We compute the parameter dependent diffusion coefficient of this model from computer simulations and analyze its functional form using different schemes, all generalizing the simple random walk approximation of Machta and Zwanzig. The improved methods we use are based either on heuristic higher-order corrections to the simple random walk model, on lattice gas simulation methods, or they start from a suitable Green-Kubo formula for diffusion. We show that dynamical correlations, or memory effects, are of crucial importance in reproducing the precise parameter dependence of the diffusion coefficent.

  17. Diffusion Coefficients of Several Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Riele, Marcel J.M. te; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine

  18. Theory of quantum diffusion in biased semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bryksin, V V

    2003-01-01

    A general theory is developed to describe diffusion phenomena in biased semiconductors and semiconductor superlattices. It is shown that the Einstein relation is not applicable for all field strengths so that the calculation of the field-mediated diffusion coefficient represents a separate task. Two quite different diffusion contributions are identified. The first one disappears when the dipole operator commutes with the Hamiltonian. It plays an essential role in the theory of small polarons. The second contribution is obtained from a quantity that is the solution of a kinetic equation but that cannot be identified with the carrier distribution function. This is in contrast to the drift velocity, which is closely related to the distribution function. A general expression is derived for the quantum diffusion regime, which allows a clear physical interpretation within the hopping picture.

  19. Diffused zircaloy 2/stainless steel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, F.

    1964-01-01

    The diffusion permits to realize joints between two different materials, in fact of the formation of a liquid phase at the contact face. The study of the tensile properties allowed the determination of the ideal conditions for the diffusion treatment which are, within 2 and 3 minutes for a temperature within 1020 C and 1030 C. The characteristics of the so obtained joints were, studied: mechanical properties, tightness, resistance to thermal cycling. Analysis of the thermal stress, owing to the differential dilatation of the two materials mode the object of a particular study. The investigation on the diffusion zone, includes specially, an analysis of the constituents distribution formed during the diffusion treatment. (author) [fr

  20. Molecular diffusion in monolayer and submonolayer nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter

    2001-01-01

    The orientational and translational motions in a monolayer fluid of physisorbed molecular nitrogen are treated using molecular dynamics simulations. Dynamical response functions and several approximations to the coefficient of translational diffusion are determined for adsorption on the basal plane...