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Sample records for diffusion model analysis

  1. Social influence and perceptual decision making: a diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germar, Markus; Schlemmer, Alexander; Krug, Kristine; Voss, Andreas; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Classic studies on social influence used simple perceptual decision-making tasks to examine how the opinions of others change individuals' judgments. Since then, one of the most fundamental questions in social psychology has been whether social influence can alter basic perceptual processes. To address this issue, we used a diffusion model analysis. Diffusion models provide a stochastic approach for separating the cognitive processes underlying speeded binary decisions. Following this approach, our study is the first to disentangle whether social influence on decision making is due to altering the uptake of available sensory information or due to shifting the decision criteria. In two experiments, we found consistent evidence for the idea that social influence alters the uptake of available sensory evidence. By contrast, participants did not adjust their decision criteria.

  2. Modeling and Analysis of New Products Diffusion on Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a heterogeneous networks model with the awareness stage and the decision-making stage to explain the process of new products diffusion. If mass media is neglected in the decision-making stage, there is a threshold whether the innovation diffusion is successful or not, or else it is proved that the network model has at least one positive equilibrium. For networks with the power-law degree distribution, numerical simulations confirm analytical results, and also at the same time, by numerical analysis of the influence of the network structure and persuasive advertisements on the density of adopters, we give two different products propagation strategies for two classes of nodes in scale-free networks.

  3. Turbulent diffusion modelling for windflow and dispersion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzis, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The need for simple but reliable models for turbulent diffusion for windflow and atmospheric dispersion analysis is a necessity today if one takes into consideration the relatively high demand in computer time and costs for such an analysis, arising mainly from the often large solution domains needed, the terrain complexity and the transient nature of the phenomena. In the accident consequence assessment often there is a need for a relatively large number of cases to be analysed increasing further the computer time and costs. Within the framework of searching for relatively simple and universal eddy viscosity/diffusivity models, a new three dimensional non isotropic model is proposed applicable to any domain complexity and any atmospheric stability conditions. The model utilizes the transport equation for turbulent kinetic energy but introduces a new approach in effective length scale estimation based on the flow global characteristics and local atmospheric stability. The model is discussed in detail and predictions are given for flow field and boundary layer thickness. The results are compared with experimental data with satisfactory results

  4. Postural control model interpretation of stabilogram diffusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Collins and De Luca [Collins JJ. De Luca CJ (1993) Exp Brain Res 95: 308-318] introduced a new method known as stabilogram diffusion analysis that provides a quantitative statistical measure of the apparently random variations of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories recorded during quiet upright stance in humans. This analysis generates a stabilogram diffusion function (SDF) that summarizes the mean square COP displacement as a function of the time interval between COP comparisons. SDFs have a characteristic two-part form that suggests the presence of two different control regimes: a short-term open-loop control behavior and a longer-term closed-loop behavior. This paper demonstrates that a very simple closed-loop control model of upright stance can generate realistic SDFs. The model consists of an inverted pendulum body with torque applied at the ankle joint. This torque includes a random disturbance torque and a control torque. The control torque is a function of the deviation (error signal) between the desired upright body position and the actual body position, and is generated in proportion to the error signal, the derivative of the error signal, and the integral of the error signal [i.e. a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) neural controller]. The control torque is applied with a time delay representing conduction, processing, and muscle activation delays. Variations in the PID parameters and the time delay generate variations in SDFs that mimic real experimental SDFs. This model analysis allows one to interpret experimentally observed changes in SDFs in terms of variations in neural controller and time delay parameters rather than in terms of open-loop versus closed-loop behavior.

  5. Analysis of a diffuse interface model of multispecies tumor growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dai, M.; Feireisl, Eduard; Rocca, E.; Schimperna, G.; Schonbek, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1639-1658 ISSN 0951-7715 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cahn-Hilliard equation * Darcy law * diffuse interface model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6544/aa6063/meta

  6. Individual differences in emotion word processing: A diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christina J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task. A processing advantage for positive words was observed, and differences between happy and fear-related words in response times were predicted by individual differences in specific variables of emotion processing: Whereas more pronounced goal-directed behavior was related to a specific slowdown in processing of fear-related words, the rate of spontaneous eye blinks (indexing brain dopamine levels) was associated with a processing advantage of happy words. Estimating diffusion model parameters revealed that the drift rate (rate of information accumulation) captures unique variance of processing differences between happy and fear-related words, with highest drift rates observed for happy words. Overall emotion recognition ability predicted individual differences in drift rates between happy and fear-related words. The findings emphasize that a significant amount of variance in emotion processing is explained by individual differences in behavioral data.

  7. Stability Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion System Modeling Atherogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Ibragimov, Akif; Ritter, Laura; Walton, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a linear, asymptotic stability analysis for a reaction-diffusionconvection system modeling atherogenesis, the initiation of atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory instability. Motivated by the disease paradigm articulated by Ross

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Epidemic Diffusion within Small-World Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To depict the rule of epidemic diffusion, two different models, the Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS model and the Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Quarantine-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIQRS model, are proposed and analyzed within small-world network in this paper. Firstly, the epidemic diffusion models are constructed with mean-filed theory, and condition for the occurrence of disease diffusion is explored. Then, the existence and global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium for these two complex epidemic systems are proved by differential equations knowledge and Routh-Hurwiz theory. At last, a numerical example which includes key parameters analysis and critical topic discussion is presented to test how well the proposed two models may be applied in practice. These works may provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with epidemic diffusion controlling problems.

  9. Thermomechanics of damageable materials under diffusion: modelling and analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 6 (2015), s. 3535-3572 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : visco-elastic porous solids * incomplete damage * diffusion driven by chemical-potential gradient Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.560, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00033-015-0566-2

  10. Stability Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion System Modeling Atherogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Ibragimov, Akif

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a linear, asymptotic stability analysis for a reaction-diffusionconvection system modeling atherogenesis, the initiation of atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory instability. Motivated by the disease paradigm articulated by Ross, atherogenesis is viewed as an inflammatory spiral with a positive feedback loop involving key cellular and chemical species interacting and reacting within the intimal layer of muscular arteries. The inflammatory spiral is initiated as an instability from a healthy state which is defined to be an equilibrium state devoid of certain key inflammatory markers. Disease initiation is studied through a linear, asymptotic stability analysis of a healthy equilibrium state. Various theorems are proved, giving conditions on system parameters guaranteeing stability of the health state, and a general framework is developed for constructing perturbations from a healthy state that exhibit blow-up, which are interpreted as corresponding to disease initiation. The analysis reveals key features that arterial geometry, antioxidant levels, and the source of inflammatory components (through coupled third-kind boundary conditions or through body sources) play in disease initiation. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Bifurcation Analysis of Gene Propagation Model Governed by Reaction-Diffusion Equations

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    Guichen Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of the attractor bifurcation for gene propagation model governed by reaction-diffusion equations. We investigate the dynamical transition problems of the model under the homogeneous boundary conditions. By using the dynamical transition theory, we give a complete characterization of the bifurcated objects in terms of the biological parameters of the problem.

  12. Analysis of effective diffusivity of cement based materials by multi-scale modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dridi, Wissem

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified composite model, which considers the contribution of each phase participating to the transport within OPC pastes and concretes. At the micrometer scale, the phases considered hereafter are capillary porosity (macro-porosity) and the Low Density and the High Density C-S-H both containing gel pores (nano-porosity). Predicted values of tritiated water (HTO) diffusivity in OPC pastes with various (w/c) ratios are confronted to experimental results with a good agreement. The approach is then extended to mortars and concretes scale where microstructure is described by a three phase composite sphere assemblage. Here, elementary phase distribution is assumed to change as a function of distance from aggregate surface. Model results about HTO diffusivities of mortars and concretes are presented with some experimental values. The competition between the more diffusing ITZ zone and the less diffusing bulk matrix is investigated from a sensitive analysis. The dominance of the ITZ control is confirmed. (authors)

  13. Modeling photovoltaic diffusion: an analysis of geospatial datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Drury, Easan; Lopez, Anthony; Elmore, Ryan; Margolis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study combines address-level residential photovoltaic (PV) adoption trends in California with several types of geospatial information—population demographics, housing characteristics, foreclosure rates, solar irradiance, vehicle ownership preferences, and others—to identify which subsets of geospatial information are the best predictors of historical PV adoption. Number of rooms, heating source and house age were key variables that had not been previously explored in the literature, but are consistent with the expected profile of a PV adopter. The strong relationship provided by foreclosure indicators and mortgage status have less of an intuitive connection to PV adoption, but may be highly correlated with characteristics inherent in PV adopters. Next, we explore how these predictive factors and model performance varies between different Investor Owned Utility (IOU) regions in California, and at different spatial scales. Results suggest that models trained with small subsets of geospatial information (five to eight variables) may provide similar explanatory power as models using hundreds of geospatial variables. Further, the predictive performance of models generally decreases at higher resolution, i.e., below ZIP code level since several geospatial variables with coarse native resolution become less useful for representing high resolution variations in PV adoption trends. However, for California we find that model performance improves if parameters are trained at the regional IOU level rather than the state-wide level. We also find that models trained within one IOU region are generally representative for other IOU regions in CA, suggesting that a model trained with data from one state may be applicable in another state. (letter)

  14. Dynamic Analysis of a Reaction-Diffusion Rumor Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyong; Zhu, Linhe

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of the Internet, especially the emergence of the social networks, leads rumor propagation into a new media era. Rumor propagation in social networks has brought new challenges to network security and social stability. This paper, based on partial differential equations (PDEs), proposes a new SIS rumor propagation model by considering the effect of the communication between the different rumor infected users on rumor propagation. The stabilities of a nonrumor equilibrium point and a rumor-spreading equilibrium point are discussed by linearization technique and the upper and lower solutions method, and the existence of a traveling wave solution is established by the cross-iteration scheme accompanied by the technique of upper and lower solutions and Schauder’s fixed point theorem. Furthermore, we add the time delay to rumor propagation and deduce the conditions of Hopf bifurcation and stability switches for the rumor-spreading equilibrium point by taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results.

  15. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  16. Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.; Meinardi, C.R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an

  17. An analysis of extrusion of buffer material into fracture behavior by diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanai, Kenji; Kanno, Takeshi; Iwata, Yumiko

    2005-06-01

    The buffer that will be used as a component of the engineered barriers system swells when saturated by groundwater. As a result of this swelling, buffer may penetrate into the surrounding rock zone through open fractures. It sustained for extremely long periods of time, the buffer extrusion could lead to reduction of buffer density, which may in turn degrade the assumed performance. In this report, the viscosity of bentonite was measured as one of the parameter of diffusion model. In addition, the simulation analysis was carried out to confirm the applicability of diffusion model. Moreover, an analytical evaluation on extrusion behavior of buffer into rock fractures was performed to estimate the long-term stability of buffer as reduction of density. (1) Measurement of the viscosity of bentonite. The viscosity of bentonite is measured by the Rheometer. The viscosity of bentonite indicated tendency to non-Newton flow. The viscosity of bentonite at water contents of 400-1000% was estimated. The evaluated value of the viscosity was modified based on this measurement. (2) Simulation analysis of an experiment results. The simulation analysis of the experimental result using diffusion model was performed to confirm applicability of this model. The results of the simulation reasonably agreed with obtained experimental result. (3) Example analysis of a long-term stability of buffer. The analysis of a long-term stability of buffer as reduction of density was performed to compare with the results in H12 report. In this analysis, the density of the buffer material decreased earlier than the results in H12 report. In addition, a long-term change in the density of the buffer material under seawater condition was preliminary calculated. As a result, it is indicated that extrusion behavior is not significant under seawater condition. (author)

  18. Numerical model for atmospheric diffusion analysis and evaluation of effective dose for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, Koichi; Michioka, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoichi; Komiyama, Sumito

    2009-01-01

    A numerical simulation method has been developed to predict atmospheric flow and stack gas diffusion, considering the buildings and complex terrain located near and relatively far from a stack, respectively. The turbulence closure technique was used for flow calculation, some calculation grids on the ground near a stack were treated as buildings, and stack gas diffusion was predicted using the Lagrangian particle model. The calculated flow and stack gas diffusion results were compared with those obtained by wind tunnel experiments under actual terrain containing buildings. Effective stack height was estimated by comparing the surface concentration along the plume axis with those under a flat-plate condition, and it was apparent that the effective stack heights estimated by calculations were almost the same as those obtained by the wind tunnel experiment. Then, the effective dose and relative concentration of stack gas were calculated using the effective stack heights obtained by a numerical model. Almost the same effective dose and relative concentration were obtained when compared with those using the effective stack height obtained by wind tunnel experiment. (author)

  19. Specifying theories of developmental dyslexia: a diffusion model analysis of word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.; Snellings, P.; Tijms, J.; Weeda, W.D.; Tamboer, P.; Bexkens, A.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and

  20. Model analysis of the influence of gas diffusivity in soil on CO and H2 uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, S.; Yokozawa, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    2000-01-01

    CO and H 2 uptake by soil was studied as a diffusion process. A diffusion model was used to determine how the surface fluxes (net deposition velocities) were controlled by in-situ microbial uptake rates and soil gas diffusivity calculated from the 3-phase system (solid, liquid, gas) in the soil. Analytical solutions of the diffusion model assuming vertical uniformity of soil properties showed that physical properties such as air-filled porosity and soil gas diffusivity were more important in the uptake process than in the emission process. To incorporate the distribution of in-situ microbial uptake, we used a 2-layer model incorporating 'a microbiologically inactive layer and an active layer' as suggested from experimental results. By numerical simulation using the 2-layer model, we estimated the effect of several factors on deposition velocities. The variations in soil gas diffusivity due to physical properties, i.e., soil moisture and air-filled porosity, as well as to the depth of the inactive layer and in-situ microbial uptake, were found to be important in controlling deposition velocities. This result shows that the diffusion process in soil is critically important for CO and H 2 uptake by soil, at least in soils with higher in-situ uptake rates and/or with large variation in soil moisture. Similar uptake rates and the difference in deposition velocity between CO and H 2 may be attributable to differences in CO and H 2 molecular diffusivity. The inactive layer is resistant to diffusion and creates uptake limits in CO and H 2 by soil. The coupling of high temperature and a thick inactive layer, common in arid soils, markedly lowers net CO deposition velocity. The temperature for maximum uptake of CO changes with depth of the inactive layer

  1. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Giannone, L.

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a≤18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T e modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Xenograft Models: Texture Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Bo La; Cho, Nariya; Li, Mulun; Song, In Chan; Moon, Woo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Min Hye; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Bo Young [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Chul [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate whether there is a relationship between texture analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and histopathologic features of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 xenograft models. MCF-7 estradiol (+), MCF-7 estradiol (-), and MDA-MB-231 xenograft models were made with approval of the animal care committee. Twelve tumors of MCF-7 estradiol (+), 9 tumors of MCF-7 estradiol (-), and 6 tumors in MDA-MB-231 were included. Diffusion-weighted MR images were obtained on a 9.4-T system. An analysis of the first and second order texture analysis of ADC maps was performed. The texture analysis parameters and histopathologic features were compared among these groups by the analysis of variance test. Correlations between texture parameters and histopathologic features were analyzed. We also evaluated the intraobserver agreement in assessing the texture parameters. MCF-7 estradiol (+) showed a higher standard deviation, maximum, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values than MCF-7 estradiol (-) and MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.01 for all). The contrast of the MCF-7 groups was higher than that of the MDA-MB-231 (p 0.004). The correlation (COR) of the texture analysis of MCF-7 groups was lower than that of MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.001). The histopathologic analysis showed that Ki-67mean and Ki-67diff of MCF-7 estradiol (+) were higher than that of MCF-7 estradiol (-) or MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.05). The microvessel density (MVD)mean and MVDdiff of MDA-MB-231 were higher than those of MCF-7 groups (p < 0.001). A diffuse-multifocal necrosis was more frequently found in MDA-MB-231 (p < 0.001). The proportion of necrosis moderately correlated with the contrast (r = -0.438, p = 0.022) and strongly with COR (r = 0.540, p 0.004). Standard deviation (r = 0.622, r = 0.437), skewness (r = 0.404, r 0.484), and kurtosis (r = 0.408, r = 0.452) correlated with Ki-67 mean and Ki-67diff (p < 0.05 for all). COR moderately correlated with Ki-67diff (r -0.388, p = 0.045). Skewness (r = -0.643, r = -0

  3. ADHD performance reflects inefficient but not impulsive information processing: a diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Thompson, Margaret; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2013-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with performance deficits across a broad range of tasks. Although individual tasks are designed to tap specific cognitive functions (e.g., memory, inhibition, planning, etc.), these deficits could also reflect general effects related to either inefficient or impulsive information processing or both. These two components cannot be isolated from each other on the basis of classical analysis in which mean reaction time (RT) and mean accuracy are handled separately. Seventy children with a diagnosis of combined type ADHD and 50 healthy controls (between 6 and 17 years) performed two tasks: a simple two-choice RT (2-CRT) task and a conflict control task (CCT) that required higher levels of executive control. RT and errors were analyzed using the Ratcliff diffusion model, which divides decisional time into separate estimates of information processing efficiency (called "drift rate") and speed-accuracy tradeoff (SATO, called "boundary"). The model also provides an estimate of general nondecisional time. Results were the same for both tasks independent of executive load. ADHD was associated with lower drift rate and less nondecisional time. The groups did not differ in terms of boundary parameter estimates. RT and accuracy performance in ADHD appears to reflect inefficient rather than impulsive information processing, an effect independent of executive function load. The results are consistent with models in which basic information processing deficits make an important contribution to the ADHD cognitive phenotype. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. On Diffusive Climatological Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, D. H.; Drazin, P. G.

    1981-11-01

    A simple, zonally and annually averaged, energy-balance climatological model with diffusive heat transport and nonlinear albedo feedback is solved numerically. Some parameters of the model are varied, one by one, to find the resultant effects on the steady solution representing the climate. In particular, the outward radiation flux, the insulation distribution and the albedo parameterization are varied. We have found an accurate yet simple analytic expression for the mean annual insolation as a function of latitude and the obliquity of the Earth's rotation axis; this has enabled us to consider the effects of the oscillation of the obliquity. We have used a continuous albedo function which fits the observed values; it considerably reduces the sensitivity of the model. Climatic cycles, calculated by solving the time-dependent equation when parameters change slowly and periodically, are compared qualitatively with paleoclimatic records.

  5. A diffusion decision model analysis of evidence variability in the lexical decision task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillman, Gabriel; Osth, Adam F.; van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The lexical-decision task is among the most commonly used paradigms in psycholinguistics. In both the signal-detection theory and Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, Psychological Review, 111, 159–182, 2004) frameworks, lexical-decisions are based on a continuous source of

  6. Analysis of nonlinear parabolic equations modeling plasma diffusion across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, J.M.; Rosenau, P.

    1984-01-01

    We analyse the evolutionary behavior of the solution of a pair of coupled quasilinear parabolic equations modeling the diffusion of heat and mass of a magnetically confined plasma. The solutions's behavior, due to the nonlinear diffusion coefficients, exhibits many new phenomena. In short time, the solution converges into a highly organized symmetric pattern that is almost completely independent of initial data. The asymptotic dynamics then become very simple and take place in a finite dimensional space. These conclusions are backed by extensive numerical experimentation

  7. Analysis of model implied volatility for jump diffusion models: Empirical evidence from the Nordpool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomikos, Nikos K.; Soldatos, Orestes A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we examine the importance of mean reversion and spikes in the stochastic behaviour of the underlying asset when pricing options on power. We propose a model that is flexible in its formulation and captures the stylized features of power prices in a parsimonious way. The main feature of the model is that it incorporates two different speeds of mean reversion to capture the differences in price behaviour between normal and spiky periods. We derive semi-closed form solutions for European option prices using transform analysis and then examine the properties of the implied volatilities that the model generates. We find that the presence of jumps generates prominent volatility skews which depend on the sign of the mean jump size. We also show that mean reversion reduces the volatility smile as time to maturity increases. In addition, mean reversion induces volatility skews particularly for ITM options, even in the absence of jumps. Finally, jump size volatility and jump intensity mainly affect the kurtosis and thus the curvature of the smile with the former having a more important role in making the volatility smile more pronounced and thus increasing the kurtosis of the underlying price distribution.

  8. A priori analysis of differential diffusion for model development for scale-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Franziska; Dietzsch, Felix; Gauding, Michael; Hasse, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present study analyzes differential diffusion and the mechanisms responsible for it with regard to the turbulent/nonturbulent interface (TNTI) with special focus on model development for scale-resolving simulations. In order to analyze differences between resolved and subfilter phenomena, direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are compared with explicitly filtered data. The DNS database stems from a temporally evolving turbulent plane jet transporting two passive scalars with Schmidt numbers of unity and 0.25 presented by Hunger et al. [F. Hunger et al., J. Fluid Mech. 802, R5 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.471]. The objective of this research is twofold: (i) to compare the position of the turbulent-nonturbulent interface between the original DNS data and the filtered data and (ii) to analyze differential diffusion and the impact of the TNTI with regard to scale resolution in the filtered DNS data. For the latter, differential diffusion quantities are studied, clearly showing the decrease of differential diffusion at the resolved scales with increasing filter width. A transport equation for the scalar differences is evaluated. Finally, the existence of large scalar gradients, gradient alignment, and the diffusive fluxes being the physical mechanisms responsible for the separation of the two scalars are compared between the resolved and subfilter scales.

  9. Regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance for skin color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Norimichi; Kawazoe, Daisuke; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Miyake, Yoichi

    2008-11-01

    A simple regression-based model of skin diffuse reflectance is developed based on reflectance samples calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of light transport in a two-layered skin model. This reflectance model includes the values of spectral reflectance in the visible spectra for Japanese women. The modified Lambert Beer law holds in the proposed model with a modified mean free path length in non-linear density space. The averaged RMS and maximum errors of the proposed model were 1.1 and 3.1%, respectively, in the above range.

  10. The generation of hourly diffuse irradiation: A model from the analysis of the fluctuation of global irradiance series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, UCO, Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    An analysis of models for the estimation of hourly diffuse irradiation based on the interrelations between the hourly diffuse fraction k{sub d} and the hourly clearness index k{sub t}, has concluded that k{sub t} is not a sufficient variable for parametrizing the effect of clouds on diffuse irradiation. A detailed study of the dispersion recorded by this diffuse component for a specific clearness index under partly cloudy sky conditions has led to analyzing how the variability in the instantaneous clearness index influences this dispersion. The data sets correspond to 10 years of hourly and instantaneous value records of global and diffuse radiation collected in Cordoba, Spain. In addition to the inclusion of the sine of solar elevation as a variable into the k{sub d}-k{sub t} correlations, this model propose the inclusion of others parameters related to the variability in the normalized clearness index within an hour and with the fluctuations presented by the time series of the instantaneous values of that index. Also presented is the implementation of an algorithm permitting both the determination of the hourly diffuse irradiation and the discrimination between the different sky conditions in those situations known by the designation partly cloudy sky. (author)

  11. The generation of hourly diffuse irradiation: A model from the analysis of the fluctuation of global irradiance series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posadillo, R.; Lopez Luque, R.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of models for the estimation of hourly diffuse irradiation based on the interrelations between the hourly diffuse fraction k d and the hourly clearness index k t , has concluded that k t is not a sufficient variable for parametrizing the effect of clouds on diffuse irradiation. A detailed study of the dispersion recorded by this diffuse component for a specific clearness index under partly cloudy sky conditions has led to analyzing how the variability in the instantaneous clearness index influences this dispersion. The data sets correspond to 10 years of hourly and instantaneous value records of global and diffuse radiation collected in Cordoba, Spain. In addition to the inclusion of the sine of solar elevation as a variable into the k d -k t correlations, this model propose the inclusion of others parameters related to the variability in the normalized clearness index within an hour and with the fluctuations presented by the time series of the instantaneous values of that index. Also presented is the implementation of an algorithm permitting both the determination of the hourly diffuse irradiation and the discrimination between the different sky conditions in those situations known by the designation partly cloudy sky.

  12. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  13. Object selection costs in visual working memory: A diffusion model analysis of the focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2016-11-01

    A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can occur. The need to orient the focus of attention implies that single-object accounts typically predict response time costs associated with object selection even when working memory is not full (i.e., memory load is less than 4 items). For other theories that assume storage of multiple items in the focus of attention, predictions depend on specific assumptions about the way resources are allocated among items held in the focus, and how this affects the time course of retrieval of items from the focus. These broad theoretical accounts have been difficult to distinguish because conventional analyses fail to separate components of empirical response times related to decision-making from components related to selection and retrieval processes associated with accessing information in working memory. To better distinguish these response time components from one another, we analyze data from a probed visual working memory task using extensions of the diffusion decision model. Analysis of model parameters revealed that increases in memory load resulted in (a) reductions in the quality of the underlying stimulus representations in a manner consistent with a sample size model of visual working memory capacity and (b) systematic increases in the time needed to selectively access a probed representation in memory. The results are consistent with single-object theories of the focus of attention. The results are also consistent with a subset of theories that assume a multiobject focus of attention in which resource allocation diminishes both the quality and accessibility of the underlying representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  14. Comparative analysis of diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination for Indian locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Chandel, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Tilt angle and orientation greatly are influenced on the performance of the solar photo voltaic panels. The tilt angle of solar photovoltaic panels is one of the important parameters for the optimum sizing of solar photovoltaic systems. This paper analyses six different isotropic and anisotropic diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination. The predicted optimum tilt angles are compared with the experimentally measured values for summer season under outdoor conditions. The Liu and Jordan model is found to exhibit t lowest error as compared to other models for the location. (author)

  15. Breast lesion characterization using whole-lesion histogram analysis with stretched-exponential diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunling; Wang, Kun; Li, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jine; Ding, Jie; Spuhler, Karl; Duong, Timothy; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Chuan

    2018-06-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied in breast imaging and can provide more information about diffusion, perfusion and other physiological interests than standard pulse sequences. The stretched-exponential model has previously been shown to be more reliable than conventional DWI techniques, but different diagnostic sensitivities were found from study to study. This work investigated the characteristics of whole-lesion histogram parameters derived from the stretched-exponential diffusion model for benign and malignant breast lesions, compared them with conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and further determined which histogram metrics can be best used to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. This was a prospective study. Seventy females were included in the study. Multi-b value DWI was performed on a 1.5T scanner. Histogram parameters of whole lesions for distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), heterogeneity index (α), and ADC were calculated by two radiologists and compared among benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive carcinoma confirmed by pathology. Nonparametric tests were performed for comparisons among invasive carcinoma, DCIS, and benign lesions. Comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to show the ability to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. The majority of histogram parameters (mean/min/max, skewness/kurtosis, 10-90 th percentile values) from DDC, α, and ADC were significantly different among invasive carcinoma, DCIS, and benign lesions. DDC 10% (area under curve [AUC] = 0.931), ADC 10% (AUC = 0.893), and α mean (AUC = 0.787) were found to be the best metrics in differentiating benign from malignant tumors among all histogram parameters derived from ADC and α, respectively. The combination of DDC 10% and α mean , using logistic regression, yielded the highest sensitivity (90.2%) and specificity (95.5%). DDC 10% and α mean derived from

  16. Models of diffuse solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Brown, Bruce [Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117546 (Singapore)

    2008-04-15

    For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from trigonometry, we need to have diffuse on the horizontal available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse radiation on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia [Spencer JW. A comparison of methods for estimating hourly diffuse solar radiation from global solar radiation. Sol Energy 1982; 29(1): 19-32]. Boland et al. [Modelling the diffuse fraction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Environmetrics 2001; 12: 103-16] developed a validated model for Australian conditions. We detail our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the approach reported therein, particularly the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Additionally, we have also constructed a method, using quadratic programming, for identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. This allows us to eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. (author)

  17. Symmetries and modelling functions for diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A G; Spichak, S V; Vedula, Yu S; Naumovets, A G

    2009-01-01

    A constructive approach to the theory of diffusion processes is proposed, which is based on application of both symmetry analysis and the method of modelling functions. An algorithm for construction of the modelling functions is suggested. This algorithm is based on the error function expansion (ERFEX) of experimental concentration profiles. The high-accuracy analytical description of the profiles provided by ERFEX approximation allows a convenient extraction of the concentration dependence of diffusivity from experimental data and prediction of the diffusion process. Our analysis is exemplified by its employment in experimental results obtained for surface diffusion of lithium on the molybdenum (1 1 2) surface precovered with dysprosium. The ERFEX approximation can be directly extended to many other diffusion systems.

  18. Applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive models for mud-flows: a steady state analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristo, Cristiana; Iervolino, Michele; Vacca, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    The paper investigates the applicability of Kinematic and Diffusive Wave models for mud-flows with a power-law shear-thinning rheology. In analogy with a well-known approach for turbulent clear-water flows, the study compares the steady flow depth profiles predicted by approximated models with those of the Full Dynamic Wave one. For all the models and assuming an infinitely wide channel, the analytical solution of the flow depth profiles, in terms of hypergeometric functions, is derived. The accuracy of the approximated models is assessed by computing the average, along the channel length, of the errors, for several values of the Froude and kinematic wave numbers. Assuming the threshold value of the error equal to 5%, the applicability conditions of the two approximations have been individuated for several values of the power-law exponent, showing a crucial role of the rheology. The comparison with the clear-water results indicates that applicability criteria for clear-water flows do not apply to shear-thinning fluids, potentially leading to an incorrect use of approximated models if the rheology is not properly accounted for.

  19. A diffusion decision model analysis of evidence variability in the lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Gabriel; Osth, Adam F; van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    The lexical-decision task is among the most commonly used paradigms in psycholinguistics. In both the signal-detection theory and Diffusion Decision Model (DDM; Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, Psychological Review, 111, 159-182, 2004) frameworks, lexical-decisions are based on a continuous source of word-likeness evidence for both words and non-words. The Retrieving Effectively from Memory model of Lexical-Decision (REM-LD; Wagenmakers et al., Cognitive Psychology, 48(3), 332-367, 2004) provides a comprehensive explanation of lexical-decision data and makes the prediction that word-likeness evidence is more variable for words than non-words and that higher frequency words are more variable than lower frequency words. To test these predictions, we analyzed five lexical-decision data sets with the DDM. For all data sets, drift-rate variability changed across word frequency and non-word conditions. For the most part, REM-LD's predictions about the ordering of evidence variability across stimuli in the lexical-decision task were confirmed.

  20. Bifurcation analysis of a delay reaction-diffusion malware propagation model with feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhe; Zhao, Hongyong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of network information technology, information networks security has become a very critical issue in our work and daily life. This paper attempts to develop a delay reaction-diffusion model with a state feedback controller to describe the process of malware propagation in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). By analyzing the stability and Hopf bifurcation, we show that the state feedback method can successfully be used to control unstable steady states or periodic oscillations. Moreover, formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic oscillations are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations on large-scale MWSNs to evaluate the proposed model. Numerical evidences show that the linear term of the controller is enough to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation and the properties of the bifurcation can be regulated to achieve some desirable behaviors by choosing the appropriate higher terms of the controller. Furthermore, we obtain that the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of malware propagation are closely related to the rate constant for nodes leaving the infective class for recovered class and the mobile behavior of nodes.

  1. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Decision Biases Affecting Delayed Recognition of Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Holly J.; Spaniol, Julia; Patel, Ronak; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Previous empirical work suggests that emotion can influence accuracy and cognitive biases underlying recognition memory, depending on the experimental conditions. The current study examines the effects of arousal and valence on delayed recognition memory using the diffusion model, which allows the separation of two decision biases thought to underlie memory: response bias and memory bias. Memory bias has not been given much attention in the literature but can provide insight into the retrieval dynamics of emotion modulated memory. Participants viewed emotional pictorial stimuli; half were given a recognition test 1-day later and the other half 7-days later. Analyses revealed that emotional valence generally evokes liberal responding, whereas high arousal evokes liberal responding only at a short retention interval. The memory bias analyses indicated that participants experienced greater familiarity with high-arousal compared to low-arousal items and this pattern became more pronounced as study-test lag increased; positive items evoke greater familiarity compared to negative and this pattern remained stable across retention interval. The findings provide insight into the separate contributions of valence and arousal to the cognitive mechanisms underlying delayed emotion modulated memory. PMID:26784108

  2. Energy Performance Contract models for the diffusion of green-manufacturing technologies in China: A stakeholder analysis from SMEs’ perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yuan; Zhou, Dillon K.; Xue, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are significant to China's emission reduction programme. This research aims to improve our understanding of the challenge of diffusing green-manufacturing technologies among SMEs in China. Specifically, this study examines the Chinese Government's effort to facilitate reduction of energy consumption among SMEs through Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) to incentivize domestic manufacturers to adopt energy efficient measures (EEMs) in order to reduce demand for energy and corresponding drop in emissions. The data is gathered from relevant EPC stakeholders in the National Motor Upgrading Demonstration Project and its implementation in Dongguan city, which is based on 30 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. Using stakeholder analysis, this study finds that guaranteed energy savings model is the favorite model in implementation, given the gained benefits outweigh committed resources, and the control capability overrides possible risks among the two core stakeholders. The outcomes of this study may allow the government to have a clear understanding of stakeholder perception of the different EPC models used in China so the design and deployment of these mechanisms can be improved. - Highlights: • Examine the barriers faced by green technologies when they are promoted to SMEs on a large scale. • Explain why green technology diffusion is thwarted when stakeholders cannot reach compromises. • Find that the guaranteed energy savings model is the best mechanism for upgrading SMEs. • Note that new EPC models and new policies are needed to increase stakeholders’ adoption rate.

  3. A thermodynamically consistent model of magneto-elastic materials under diffusion at large strains and its analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubíček, Tomáš; Tomassetti, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    A theory of elastic magnets is formulated under possible diffusion and heat flow governed by Fick's and Fourier's laws in the deformed (Eulerian) configuration, respectively. The concepts of nonlocal nonsimple materials and viscous Cahn-Hilliard equations are used. The formulation of the problem uses Lagrangian (reference) configuration while the transport processes are pulled back. Except the static problem, the demagnetizing energy is ignored and only local non-self-penetration is considered. The analysis as far as existence of weak solutions of the (thermo) dynamical problem is performed by a careful regularization and approximation by a Galerkin method, suggesting also a numerical strategy. Either ignoring or combining particular aspects, the model has numerous applications as ferro-to-paramagnetic transformation in elastic ferromagnets, diffusion of solvents in polymers possibly accompanied by magnetic effects (magnetic gels), or metal-hydride phase transformation in some intermetallics under diffusion of hydrogen accompanied possibly by magnetic effects (and in particular ferro-to-antiferromagnetic phase transformation), all in the full thermodynamical context under large strains.

  4. Stochastic diffusion models for substitutable technological innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Hu, B.; Yu, X.

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of firms' stochastic adoption behaviour, this paper first points out the necessity to build more practical stochastic models. And then, stochastic evolutionary models are built for substitutable innovation diffusion system. Finally, through the computer simulation of the

  5. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation. [ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a[<=]18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T[sub e] modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Analysis of tracer tests with multirate diffusion models: recent results and future directions within the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.; Altman, S.J.; Haggerty, R.

    1998-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basis physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations. An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  7. A comparative analysis of diffusion and transport models applying to releases in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejon, M.J.

    1984-05-01

    This study is a contribution to the development of methodologies allowing to assess the radiological impact of liquid effluent releases from nuclear power plants. It first concerns hydrodynamics models and their applications to the North sea, which is of great interest to the European Community. Starting from basic equations of geophysical fluid mechanics, the assumptions made at each step in order to simplifly resolution are analysed and commented. The results published on the application of the Liege University models (NIHOUL, RONDAY et al.) are compared to observations both on tides and tempests and residual circulation which is responsible for the long-terme transport of pollutants. The results for residual circulation compare satisfactorily, and the expected accuracy of the other models is indicated. A dispersion model by the same authors is then studied with a numerical integration method using a moving grid. Others models (Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique, EDF) used for the Channel, are also presented [fr

  8. An Econometric Analysis of Modulated Realised Covariance, Regression and Correlation in Noisy Diffusion Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnebrock, Silja; Podolskij, Mark

    This paper introduces a new estimator to measure the ex-post covariation between high-frequency financial time series under market microstructure noise. We provide an asymptotic limit theory (including feasible central limit theorems) for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis...... process can be relaxed and how our method can be applied to non-synchronous observations. We also present an empirical study of how high-frequency correlations, regressions and covariances change through time....

  9. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  10. Customer social network affects marketing strategy: A simulation analysis based on competitive diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Wu, Jiawen; Du, Helen S.

    2017-03-01

    To explain the competition phenomenon and results between QQ and MSN (China) in the Chinese instant messaging software market, this paper developed a new population competition model based on customer social network. The simulation results show that the firm whose product with greater network externality effect will gain more market share than its rival when the same marketing strategy is used. The firm with the advantage of time, derived from the initial scale effect will become more competitive than its rival when facing a group of common penguin customers within a social network, verifying the winner-take-all phenomenon in this case.

  11. CFD analysis of flow fields for shrouded wind turbine’s diffuser model with different flange angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-Zahaby

    2017-03-01

    Present model verification indicates a good agreement between present numerical work and previous published experimental work. The numerical simulation shows the created vortices behind flange that cause pressure drop which increases mass flow rate through the diffuser. The results indicate also that the right flange angle at 15° is the optimum angle that accelerates flow at diffuser entrance. The increase of velocity at this optimum flange angles is higher than the case of normal angle, where the expected increase in the generated power by wind turbine can reach 5% more compared with normal flange.

  12. Dynamic Analysis for a Kaldor–Kalecki Model of Business Cycle with Time Delay and Diffusion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics behaviors of Kaldor–Kalecki business cycle model with diffusion effect and time delay under the Neumann boundary conditions are investigated. First the conditions of time-independent and time-dependent stability are investigated. Then, we find that the time delay can give rise to the Hopf bifurcation when the time delay passes a critical value. Moreover, the normal form of Hopf bifurcations is obtained by using the center manifold theorem and normal form theory of the partial differential equation, which can determine the bifurcation direction and the stability of the periodic solutions. Finally, numerical results not only validate the obtained theorems, but also show that the diffusion coefficients play a key role in the spatial pattern. With the diffusion coefficients increasing, different patterns appear.

  13. Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and

  14. Analysis of Tracer Tests with Multirate Diffusion Models: Recent Results and Future Directions within the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALTMAN, SUSAN J.; HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A.; MEIGS, LUCY C.

    1999-01-01

    A series of single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) and two-well convergent-flow (TWCF) tracer tests were conducted in the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site in late 1995 and early 1996. Modeling analyses over the past year have focused on reproducing the observed mass-recovery curves and understanding the basic physical processes controlling tracer transport in SWIW and TWCF tests. To date, specific modeling efforts have focused on five SWIW tests and one TWCF pathway at each of two different locations (H-11 and H-19 hydropads). An inverse parameter-estimation procedure was implemented to model the SWIW and TWCF tests with both traditional and multirate double-porosity formulations. The traditional model assumes a single diffusion rate while the multirate model uses a first-order approximation to model a continuous distribution of diffusion coefficients. Conceptually, the multirate model represents variable matrix block sizes within the Culebra as observed in geologic investigations and also variability in diffusion rates within the matrix blocks as observed with X-ray imaging in the laboratory. Single-rate double-porosity models cannot provide an adequate match to the SWIW data. Multirate double-porosity models provide excellent fits to all five SWIW mass-recovery curves. Models of the TWCF tests show that, at one location, the tracer test can be modeled with both single-rate and multirate double-porosity models. At the other location, only the multi-rate double-porosity model is capable of explaining the test results

  15. Model of diffusers / permeators for hydrogen processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W. D.; Hang, T.

    2008-01-01

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Comparison between types I and II epithelial ovarian cancer using histogram analysis of monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential diffusion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Yuxiang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Congrong; Xie, Lizhi; Zhou, Zhenyu; Liang, Dong; Shen, Yang; Yao, Zhihang; Liu, Jianyu

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the utility of histogram analysis of monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched-exponential models to a dualistic model of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Fifty-two patients with histopathologically proven EOC underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (including diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] with 11 b-values) using a 3.0T system and were divided into two groups: types I and II. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudodiffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC), and intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity (α) histograms were obtained based on solid components of the entire tumor. The following metrics of each histogram were compared between two types: 1) mean; 2) median; 3) 10th percentile and 90th percentile. Conventional MRI morphological features were also recorded. Significant morphological features for predicting EOC type were maximum diameter (P = 0.007), texture of lesion (P = 0.001), and peritoneal implants (P = 0.001). For ADC, D, f, DDC, and α, all metrics were significantly lower in type II than type I (P histogram metrics of ADC, D, and DDC had significantly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values than those of f and α (P histogram analysis. ADC, D, and DDC have better performance than f and α; f and α may provide additional information. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1797-1809. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Spring 2014 Internship Diffuser Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigaie, Robert T.; Ryan, Harry M.

    2014-01-01

    J-2X engine testing on the A-2 test stand at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has recently concluded. As part of that test campaign, the engine was operated at lower power levels in support of expanding the use of J-2X to other missions. However, the A-2 diffuser was not designed for engine testing at the proposed low power levels. To evaluate the risk of damage to the diffuser, computer simulations were created of the rocket engine exhaust plume inside the 50ft long, water-cooled, altitude-simulating diffuser. The simulations predicted that low power level testing would cause the plume to oscillate in the lower sections of the diffuser. This can possibly cause excessive vibrations, stress, and heat transfer from the plume to the diffuser walls. To understand and assess the performance of the diffuser during low power level engine testing, nine accelerometers and four strain gages were installed around the outer surface of the diffuser. The added instrumentation also allowed for the verification of the rocket exhaust plume computational model. Prior to engine hot-fire testing, a diffuser water-flow test was conducted to verify the proper operation of the newly installed instrumentation. Subsequently, two J-2X engine hot-fire tests were completed. Hot-Fire Test 1 was 11.5 seconds in duration, and accelerometer and strain data verified that the rocket engine plume oscillated in the lower sections of the diffuser. The accelerometers showed very different results dependent upon location. The diffuser consists of four sections, with Section 1 being closest to the engine nozzle and Section 4 being farthest from the engine nozzle. Section 1 accelerometers showed increased amplitudes at startup and shutdown, but low amplitudes while the diffuser was started. Section 3 accelerometers showed the opposite results with near zero G amplitudes prior to and after diffuser start and peak amplitudes to +/- 100G while the diffuser was started. Hot-Fire Test 1 strain gages

  18. Modeling of Reaction Processes Controlled by Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelli, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic modeling is quite powerful in science and technology.The technics derived from this process have been used with great success in laser theory, biological systems and chemical reactions.Besides, they provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental results on the field of particle's diffusion in ordered and disordered materials.In this work we analyze transport processes in one-dimensional fluctuating media, which are media that change their state in time.This fact induces changes in the movements of the particles giving rise to different phenomena and dynamics that will be described and analyzed in this work.We present some random walk models to describe these fluctuating media.These models include state transitions governed by different dynamical processes.We also analyze the trapping problem in a lattice by means of a simple model which predicts a resonance-like phenomenon.Also we study effective diffusion processes over surfaces due to random walks in the bulk.We consider different boundary conditions and transitions movements.We derive expressions that describe diffusion behaviors constrained to bulk restrictions and the dynamic of the particles.Finally it is important to mention that the theoretical results obtained from the models proposed in this work are compared with Monte Carlo simulations.We find, in general, excellent agreements between the theory and the simulations

  19. Qualitative Analysis of a Diffusive Ratio-Dependent Holling-Tanner Predator-Prey Model with Smith Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongmin Yue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dynamics of a diffusive ratio-dependent Holling-Tanner predator-prey model with Smith growth subject to zero-flux boundary condition. Some qualitative properties, including the dissipation, persistence, and local and global stability of positive constant solution, are discussed. Moreover, we give the refined a priori estimates of positive solutions and derive some results for the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant positive steady state.

  20. Reliability Analysis Based on a Jump Diffusion Model with Two Wiener Processes for Cloud Computing with Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Tamura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, many cloud services are managed by using open source software, such as OpenStack and Eucalyptus, because of the unification management of data, cost reduction, quick delivery and work savings. The operation phase of cloud computing has a unique feature, such as the provisioning processes, the network-based operation and the diversity of data, because the operation phase of cloud computing changes depending on many external factors. We propose a jump diffusion model with two-dimensional Wiener processes in order to consider the interesting aspects of the network traffic and big data on cloud computing. In particular, we assess the stability of cloud software by using the sample paths obtained from the jump diffusion model with two-dimensional Wiener processes. Moreover, we discuss the optimal maintenance problem based on the proposed jump diffusion model. Furthermore, we analyze actual data to show numerical examples of dependability optimization based on the software maintenance cost considering big data on cloud computing.

  1. Lagrangian-similarity diffusion-deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A Lagrangian-similarity diffusion model has been incorporated into the surface-depletion deposition model. This model predicts vertical concentration profiles far downwind of the source that agree with those of a one-dimensional gradient-transfer model

  2. Multi-model Analysis of Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Normal Testes at 3.0 T: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiangde; Feng, Zhaoyan; Wang, Liang; Cai, Jie; Li, Basen; Ke, Zan; Zhang, Peipei; You, Huijuan; Yan, Xu

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to establish diffusion quantitative parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], DDC, α, D app , and K app ) in normal testes at 3.0 T. Sixty-four healthy volunteers in two age groups (A: 10-39 years; B: ≥ 40 years) underwent diffusion-weighted imaging scanning at 3.0 T. ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, α, D app , and K app were calculated using the mono-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. The correlations between parameters and the age were analyzed. The parameters were compared between the age groups and between the right and the left testes. The average ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, α, D app , and K app values did not significantly differ between the right and the left testes (P > .05 for all). The following significant correlations were found: positive correlations between age and testicular ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, and D app (r = 0.516, 0.518, 0.518, 0.521, and 0.516, respectively; P < .01 for all) and negative correlations between age and testicular α and K app (r = -0.363, -0.427, respectively; P < .01 for both). Compared to group B, in group A, ADC 1000 , ADC 2000 , ADC 3000 , DDC, and D app were significantly lower (P < .05 for all), but α and K app were significantly higher (P < .05 for both). Our study demonstrated the applicability of the testicular mono-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. Our results can help establish a baseline for the normal testicular parameters in these diffusion models. The contralateral normal testis can serve as a suitable reference for evaluating the abnormalities of the other side. The effect of age on these parameters requires further attention. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MHD diffuser model test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzorek, J J

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.

  4. MHD diffuser model test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idzorek, J.J.

    1976-07-01

    Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment

  5. Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdebosq, Y.

    1999-09-01

    In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)

  6. Quantitative analysis of MR perfusion/diffusion images in a dog model of renal artery stenosis with microsphere correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, C.H.; Powers, T.A.; Holburn, G.E.; Price, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares MR perfusion/diffusion-derived parameters with microsphere determination of asymmetry of renal perfusion in a dog model of renal artery stenosis. A left renal artery stenosis was created by placement of a silk ligature. Nb-95-labeled microspheres were injected into the left ventricle, and a reference blood sample was drawn. The dog was imaged in a 1.5-T MR imager with both spin-echo and turbo-FLASH perfusion/diffusion-sensitive pulse sequences. The kidneys were excised, weighted, divided into sections, and counted. Two dogs have been studied to date. In dog 1, left renal blood flow (RBF) was 42 mL/min/100g and right RBF was 337 mL/min/100g. In dog 2 left RBF was 444 mL/min/100g and right RBF was 608 mL/min/100g. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) reflected the asymmetry of flow in dog 1 for both spin-echo and turbo-FLASH sequences (RADC/LADC = 1.7) and showed essentially equal flow in dog 2(RADC/LADC = 0.7)

  7. Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Santoro, P A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann scheme for mixture modeling: analysis of the continuum diffusion regimes recovering Maxwell-Stefan model and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asinari, Pietro

    2009-11-01

    A finite difference lattice Boltzmann scheme for homogeneous mixture modeling, which recovers Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model in the continuum limit, without the restriction of the mixture-averaged diffusion approximation, was recently proposed [P. Asinari, Phys. Rev. E 77, 056706 (2008)]. The theoretical basis is the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-type kinetic model for gas mixtures [P. Andries, K. Aoki, and B. Perthame, J. Stat. Phys. 106, 993 (2002)]. In the present paper, the recovered macroscopic equations in the continuum limit are systematically investigated by varying the ratio between the characteristic diffusion speed and the characteristic barycentric speed. It comes out that the diffusion speed must be at least one order of magnitude (in terms of Knudsen number) smaller than the barycentric speed, in order to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for mixtures in the incompressible limit. Some further numerical tests are also reported. In particular, (1) the solvent and dilute test cases are considered, because they are limiting cases in which the Maxwell-Stefan model reduces automatically to Fickian cases. Moreover, (2) some tests based on the Stefan diffusion tube are reported for proving the complete capabilities of the proposed scheme in solving Maxwell-Stefan diffusion problems. The proposed scheme agrees well with the expected theoretical results.

  9. Anomalous diffusion in the evolution of soccer championship scores: Real data, mean-field analysis, and an agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Vainstein, Mendeli H.; Gonçalves, Sebastián; Paula, Felipe S. F.

    2013-08-01

    Statistics of soccer tournament scores based on the double round robin system of several countries are studied. Exploring the dynamics of team scoring during tournament seasons from recent years we find evidences of superdiffusion. A mean-field analysis results in a drift velocity equal to that of real data but in a different diffusion coefficient. Along with the analysis of real data we present the results of simulations of soccer tournaments obtained by an agent-based model which successfully describes the final scoring distribution [da Silva , Comput. Phys. Commun.CPHCBZ0010-465510.1016/j.cpc.2012.10.030 184, 661 (2013)]. Such model yields random walks of scores over time with the same anomalous diffusion as observed in real data.

  10. Asymptotic solutions of diffusion models for risk reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of diffusion models for risk reserves which account for the investment income earned and for the inflation experienced on claim amounts. After we defined the process of the conditional probability of ruin over finite time and imposed the appropriate boundary conditions, classical results from the theory of diffusion processes turn the stochastic differential equation to a special class of initial and boundary value problems defined by a linear diffusion equation. Armed with asymptotic analysis and perturbation theory, we obtain the asymptotic solutions of the diffusion models (possibly degenerate governing the conditional probability of ruin over a finite time in terms of interest rate.

  11. Recent advances in modelling diffuse radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, John; Ridley, Barbara [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Boland et al (2001) developed a validated model for Australian conditions, using a logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions. Recently, Jacovides et al (2006) have verified that this model performs well for locations in Cyprus. Their analysis includes using moving average techniques to demonstrate the form of the relationship, which corresponds well to a logistic relationship. We have made significant advances in both the intuitive and theoretical justification of the use of the logistic function. In the theoretical development of the model utilising advanced non-parametric statistical methods. We have also constructed a method of identifying values that are likely to be erroneous. Using quadratic programming, we can eliminate outliers in diffuse radiation values, the data most prone to errors in measurement. Additionally, this is a first step in identifying the means for developing a generic model for estimating diffuse from global and other predictors (see Boland and Ridley 2007). Our more recent investigations focus on examining the effects of adding additional explanatory variables to enhance the predictability of the model. Examples for Australian and other locations will be presented. (orig.)

  12. Drifting through Basic Subprocesses of Reading: A Hierarchical Diffusion Model Analysis of Age Effects on Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Eva; Liebig, Johanna; Ziegler, Johannes C; Braun, Mario; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i.e., sublexical, orthographic, phonological and lexico-semantic processing. The aim of the present study was therefore to systematically investigate the impact of age on each of these subprocesses. A total of 1,807 participants (young, N = 384; old, N = 1,423) performed four decision tasks specifically designed to tap one of the subprocesses. To account for the behavioral heterogeneity in older adults, this subsample was split into high and low performing readers. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modeling approach, which provides more information than standard response time/accuracy analyses. Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion modeling allowed us to differentiate between age-related changes in decision threshold, non-decision time and the speed of information uptake. We observed longer non-decision times for older adults and a more conservative decision threshold. More importantly, high-performing older readers outperformed younger adults at the speed of information uptake in orthographic and lexico-semantic processing, whereas a general age-disadvantage was observed at the sublexical and phonological levels. Low-performing older readers were slowest in information uptake in all four subprocesses. Discussing these results in terms of computational models of word recognition, we propose age

  13. Drifting through basic subprocesses of reading: A hierarchical diffusion model analysis of age effects on visual word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Froehlich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i.e., sublexical, orthographic, phonological and lexico-semantic processing. The aim of the present study was therefore to systematically investigate the impact of age on each of these subprocesses. A total of 1,807 participants (young, N = 384; old, N = 1,423 performed four decision tasks specifically designed to tap one of the subprocesses. To account for the behavioral heterogeneity in older adults, this subsample was split into high and low performing readers. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modelling approach which provides more information than standard response times/accuracy analyses. Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion modelling allowed us to differentiate between age-related changes in decision threshold, non-decision time and the speed of information uptake. We observed longer non-decision times for older adults and a more conservative decision threshold. More importantly, high-performing older readers outperformed younger adults at the speed of information uptake in orthographic and lexico-semantic processing whereas a general age-disadvantage was observed at the sublexical and phonological levels. Low-performing older readers were slowest in information uptake in all four subprocesses. Discussing these results in terms of computational models of word recognition, we propose

  14. A simplified model exploration research of new anisotropic diffuse radiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wanxiang; Li, Zhengrong; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Qun; Zhang, Zhigang; Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The specific process of measured diffuse radiation data. - Highlights: • Simplified diffuse radiation model is extremely important for solar radiation simulation and energy simulation. • A new simplified anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NSADR model) is proposed. • The accuracy of existing models and NSADR model is compared based on the measured values. • The accuracy of the NSADR model is higher than that of the existing models, and suitable for calculating diffuse radiation. - Abstract: More accurate new anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NADR model) has been proposed, but the parameters and calculation process of NADR model used in the process are complex. So it is difficult to widely used in the simulation software and engineering calculation. Based on analysis of the diffuse radiation model and measured diffuse radiation data, this paper put forward three hypotheses: (1) diffuse radiation from sky horizontal region is concentrated in a very thin layer which is close to the line source; (2) diffuse radiation from circumsolar region is concentrated in the point of the sun; (3) diffuse radiation from orthogonal region is concentrated in the point located at 90 degree angles with the Sun. Based on these hypotheses, NADR model is simplified to a new simplified anisotropic diffuse radiation model (NSADR model). Then the accuracy of NADR model and its simplified model (NSADR model) are compared with existing models based on the measured values, and the result shows that Perez model and its simplified model are relatively accurate among existing models. However, the accuracy of these two models is lower than the NADR model and NSADR model due to neglect the influence of the orthogonal diffuse radiation. The accuracy of the NSADR model is higher than that of the existing models, meanwhile, another advantage is that the NSADR model simplifies the process of solution parameters and calculation. Therefore it is more suitable for

  15. Diffusion in condensed matter methods, materials, models

    CERN Document Server

    Kärger, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement is a phenomenon of crucial relevance for a large variety of processes and materials. This comprehensive, handbook- style survey of diffusion in condensed matter gives detailed insight into diffusion as the process of particle transport due to stochastic movement. Leading experts in the field describe in 23 chapters the different aspects of diffusion, covering microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and exemplary results for various classes of solids, liquids and interfaces as well as several theoretical concepts and models. Students and scientists in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology will benefit from this detailed compilation.

  16. Information geometric analysis of phase transitions in complex patterns: the case of the Gray-Scott reaction–diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Har-Shemesh, Omri; Quax, Rick; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Sloot, Peter M A

    2016-01-01

    The Fisher–Rao metric from information geometry is related to phase transition phenomena in classical statistical mechanics. Several studies propose to extend the use of information geometry to study more general phase transitions in complex systems. However, it is unclear whether the Fisher–Rao metric does indeed detect these more general transitions, especially in the absence of a statistical model. In this paper we study the transitions between patterns in the Gray-Scott reaction–diffusion model using Fisher information. We describe the system by a probability density function that represents the size distribution of blobs in the patterns and compute its Fisher information with respect to changing the two rate parameters of the underlying model. We estimate the distribution non-parametrically so that we do not assume any statistical model. The resulting Fisher map can be interpreted as a phase-map of the different patterns. Lines with high Fisher information can be considered as boundaries between regions of parameter space where patterns with similar characteristics appear. These lines of high Fisher information can be interpreted as phase transitions between complex patterns. (paper: disordered systems, classical and quantum)

  17. Double diffusivity model under stochastic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Aifantis, Elias C.

    2017-05-01

    The "double diffusivity" model was proposed in the late 1970s, and reworked in the early 1980s, as a continuum counterpart to existing discrete models of diffusion corresponding to high diffusivity paths, such as grain boundaries and dislocation lines. It was later rejuvenated in the 1990s to interpret experimental results on diffusion in polycrystalline and nanocrystalline specimens where grain boundaries and triple grain boundary junctions act as high diffusivity paths. Technically, the model pans out as a system of coupled Fick-type diffusion equations to represent "regular" and "high" diffusivity paths with "source terms" accounting for the mass exchange between the two paths. The model remit was extended by analogy to describe flow in porous media with double porosity, as well as to model heat conduction in media with two nonequilibrium local temperature baths, e.g., ion and electron baths. Uncoupling of the two partial differential equations leads to a higher-ordered diffusion equation, solutions of which could be obtained in terms of classical diffusion equation solutions. Similar equations could also be derived within an "internal length" gradient (ILG) mechanics formulation applied to diffusion problems, i.e., by introducing nonlocal effects, together with inertia and viscosity, in a mechanics based formulation of diffusion theory. While being remarkably successful in studies related to various aspects of transport in inhomogeneous media with deterministic microstructures and nanostructures, its implications in the presence of stochasticity have not yet been considered. This issue becomes particularly important in the case of diffusion in nanopolycrystals whose deterministic ILG-based theoretical calculations predict a relaxation time that is only about one-tenth of the actual experimentally verified time scale. This article provides the "missing link" in this estimation by adding a vital element in the ILG structure, that of stochasticity, that takes into

  18. Modeling 2D and 3D diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Modeling obstructed diffusion is essential to the understanding of diffusion-mediated processes in the crowded cellular environment. Simple Monte Carlo techniques for modeling obstructed random walks are explained and related to Brownian dynamics and more complicated Monte Carlo methods. Random number generation is reviewed in the context of random walk simulations. Programming techniques and event-driven algorithms are discussed as ways to speed simulations.

  19. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  20. A tracer diffusion model derived from microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, Jarmo; Muurinen, Arto; Olin, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Numerous attempts have been made to explain the tracer diffusion of various solutes in compacted clays. These attempts have commonly suffered from an inability to describe the diffusion of uncharged and charged solutes with a single unified model. Here, an internally consistent approach to describing the diffusion of solutes in a heterogeneous porous medium, such as compacted bentonite, in terms of its microstructure is presented. The microstructure is taken to be represented by a succession of unit cells, which consist of two consecutive regions (Do, 1996). In the first region, the diffusion is viewed to occur in two parallel paths: one through microcrystalline units (micropores) and the other through meso-pores between the microcrystalline units. Solutes exiting these two paths are then joined together to continue diffusing through the second, disordered, region, connecting the two adjacent microcrystalline units. Adsorption (incl. co-ion exclusion) is thought to occur in the micropores, whereas meso-pores and the disordered region accommodate free species alone. Co-ions are also assumed to experience transfer resistance into and out of the micropores, which is characterized in the model by a transmission coefficient. Although the model is not new per se, its application to compacted clays has never been attempted before. It is shown that in the limit of strong adsorption, the effective diffusivity is limited from above only by the microstructural parameters of the model porous medium. As intuitive and logical as this result may appear, it has not been proven before. In the limit of vanishing disordered region, the effective diffusivity is no longer explicitly constrained by any of the model parameters. The tortuosity of the diffusion path, i.e. the quotient of the actual diffusion path length in the porous-medium coordinates and the characteristic length of the laboratory frame

  1. Wind Power in Europe. A Simultaneous Innovation-Diffusion Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, P.; Klaassen, G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative analysis of innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector. We derive a simultaneous model of wind power innovation and diffusion, which combines a rational choice model of technological diffusion and a learning curve model of dynamic cost reductions. These models are estimated using pooled annual time series data for four European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom) over the time period 1986-2000. The empirical results indicate that reductions in investment costs have been important determinants of increased diffusion of wind power, and these cost reductions can in turn be explained by learning activities and public R and D support. Feed-in tariffs also play an important role in the innovation and diffusion processes. The higher the feed-in price the higher, ceteris paribus, the rate of diffusion, and we present some preliminary empirical support for the notion that the impact on diffusion of a marginal increase in the feed-in tariff will differ depending on the support system used. High feed-in tariffs, though, also have a negative effect on cost reductions as they induce wind generators to choose high-cost sites and provide fewer incentives for cost cuts. This illustrates the importance of designing an efficient wind energy support system, which not only promotes diffusion but also provides continuous incentives for cost-reducing innovations

  2. A drift-diffusion-reaction model for excitonic photovoltaic bilayers: Photovoltaic bilayers: Asymptotic analysis and a 2D hdg finite element scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Brinkman, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    We present and discuss a mathematical model for the operation of bilayer organic photovoltaic devices. Our model couples drift-diffusion-recombination equations for the charge carriers (specifically, electrons and holes) with a reaction-diffusion equation for the excitons/polaron pairs and Poisson\\'s equation for the self-consistent electrostatic potential. The material difference (i.e. the HOMO/LUMO gap) of the two organic substrates forming the bilayer device is included as a work-function potential. Firstly, we perform an asymptotic analysis of the scaled one-dimensional stationary state system: (i) with focus on the dynamics on the interface and (ii) with the goal of simplifying the bulk dynamics away from the interface. Secondly, we present a two-dimensional hybrid discontinuous Galerkin finite element numerical scheme which is very well suited to resolve: (i) the material changes, (ii) the resulting strong variation over the interface, and (iii) the necessary upwinding in the discretization of drift-diffusion equations. Finally, we compare the numerical results with the approximating asymptotics. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  3. Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.shea@dal.ca; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2014-07-28

    We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.

  4. A drift-diffusion-reaction model for excitonic photovoltaic bilayers: Photovoltaic bilayers: Asymptotic analysis and a 2D hdg finite element scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Brinkman, Daniel; Fellner, Klemens J.; Markowich, Peter A.; Wolfram, Marie Therese

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss a mathematical model for the operation of bilayer organic photovoltaic devices. Our model couples drift-diffusion-recombination equations for the charge carriers (specifically, electrons and holes) with a reaction

  5. Generalized free-space diffuse photon transport model based on the influence analysis of a camera lens diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Gao, Xinbo; Qu, Xiaochao; Chen, Duofang; Ma, Xiaopeng; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie

    2010-10-10

    The camera lens diaphragm is an important component in a noncontact optical imaging system and has a crucial influence on the images registered on the CCD camera. However, this influence has not been taken into account in the existing free-space photon transport models. To model the photon transport process more accurately, a generalized free-space photon transport model is proposed. It combines Lambertian source theory with analysis of the influence of the camera lens diaphragm to simulate photon transport process in free space. In addition, the radiance theorem is also adopted to establish the energy relationship between the virtual detector and the CCD camera. The accuracy and feasibility of the proposed model is validated with a Monte-Carlo-based free-space photon transport model and physical phantom experiment. A comparison study with our previous hybrid radiosity-radiance theorem based model demonstrates the improvement performance and potential of the proposed model for simulating photon transport process in free space.

  6. Prediction and validation of diffusion coefficients in a model drug delivery system using microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulation and vapour sorption analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrey, Christopher; Saylor, David M; Silverstein, Joshua S; Douglas, Jack F; Davis, Eric M; Elabd, Yossef A

    2014-10-14

    Diffusion of small to medium sized molecules in polymeric medical device materials underlies a broad range of public health concerns related to unintended leaching from or uptake into implantable medical devices. However, obtaining accurate diffusion coefficients for such systems at physiological temperature represents a formidable challenge, both experimentally and computationally. While molecular dynamics simulation has been used to accurately predict the diffusion coefficients, D, of a handful of gases in various polymers, this success has not been extended to molecules larger than gases, e.g., condensable vapours, liquids, and drugs. We present atomistic molecular dynamics simulation predictions of diffusion in a model drug eluting system that represent a dramatic improvement in accuracy compared to previous simulation predictions for comparable systems. We find that, for simulations of insufficient duration, sub-diffusive dynamics can lead to dramatic over-prediction of D. We present useful metrics for monitoring the extent of sub-diffusive dynamics and explore how these metrics correlate to error in D. We also identify a relationship between diffusion and fast dynamics in our system, which may serve as a means to more rapidly predict diffusion in slowly diffusing systems. Our work provides important precedent and essential insights for utilizing atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to predict diffusion coefficients of small to medium sized molecules in condensed soft matter systems.

  7. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Obata, Takayuki; Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  9. Agent-based modelling of cholera diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella; Doldersum, Tom; Useya, Juliana; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model for micro-scale cholera diffusion. The model simulates both an environmental reservoir of naturally occurring V.cholerae bacteria and hyperinfectious V. cholerae. Objective of the research is to test if runoff from open refuse

  10. Bag model with diffuse surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The constraint of a sharp bag boundary in the bag model is relaxed in the present work. This has been achieved by replacing the square-well potential of the bag model by a smooth scalar potential and introducing a term similar to the bag pressure term. The constraint of the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is used to obtain an expression for the added bag pressure term. The model is then used to determine the static properties of the nucleon. The calculation shows that the rms charge radius and the nucleon magnetic moment are larger than the corresponding bag model values. Also, the axial vector coupling constant and the πNN coupling constant are in better agreement with the experimental values

  11. Multiphase Microfluidics The Diffuse Interface Model

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows are typically described assuming that the different phases are separated by a sharp interface, with appropriate boundary conditions. This approach breaks down whenever the lengthscale of the phenomenon that is being studied is comparable with the real interface thickness, as it happens, for example, in the coalescence and breakup of bubbles and drops, the wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces and, in general, im micro-devices. The diffuse interface model resolves these probems by assuming that all quantities can vary continuously, so that interfaces have a non-zero thickness, i.e. they are "diffuse". The contributions in this book review the theory and describe some relevant applications of the diffuse interface model for one-component, two-phase fluids and for liquid binary mixtures, to model multiphase flows in confined geometries.

  12. Parameter estimation in fractional diffusion models

    CERN Document Server

    Kubilius, Kęstutis; Ralchenko, Kostiantyn

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to parameter estimation in diffusion models involving fractional Brownian motion and related processes. For many years now, standard Brownian motion has been (and still remains) a popular model of randomness used to investigate processes in the natural sciences, financial markets, and the economy. The substantial limitation in the use of stochastic diffusion models with Brownian motion is due to the fact that the motion has independent increments, and, therefore, the random noise it generates is “white,” i.e., uncorrelated. However, many processes in the natural sciences, computer networks and financial markets have long-term or short-term dependences, i.e., the correlations of random noise in these processes are non-zero, and slowly or rapidly decrease with time. In particular, models of financial markets demonstrate various kinds of memory and usually this memory is modeled by fractional Brownian diffusion. Therefore, the book constructs diffusion models with memory and provides s...

  13. Comparison of Diffusion MRI Acquisition Protocols for the In Vivo Characterization of the Mouse Spinal Cord: Variability Analysis and Application to an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figini, Matteo; Scotti, Alessandro; Marcuzzo, Stefania; Bonanno, Silvia; Padelli, Francesco; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Bernasconi, Pia; Mantegazza, Renato; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) has relevant applications in the microstructural characterization of the spinal cord, especially in neurodegenerative diseases. Animal models have a pivotal role in the study of such diseases; however, in vivo spinal dMRI of small animals entails additional challenges that require a systematical investigation of acquisition parameters. The purpose of this study is to compare three acquisition protocols and identify the scanning parameters allowing a robust estimation of the main diffusion quantities and a good sensitivity to neurodegeneration in the mouse spinal cord. For all the protocols, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to noise ratios and the mean value and variability of Diffusion Tensor metrics were evaluated in healthy controls. For the estimation of fractional anisotropy less variability was provided by protocols with more diffusion directions, for the estimation of mean, axial and radial diffusivity by protocols with fewer diffusion directions and higher diffusion weighting. Intermediate features (12 directions, b = 1200 s/mm2) provided the overall minimum inter- and intra-subject variability in most cases. In order to test the diagnostic sensitivity of the protocols, 7 G93A-SOD1 mice (model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) at 10 and 17 weeks of age were scanned and the derived diffusion parameters compared with those estimated in age-matched healthy animals. The protocols with an intermediate or high number of diffusion directions provided the best differentiation between the two groups at week 17, whereas only few local significant differences were highlighted at week 10. According to our results, a dMRI protocol with an intermediate number of diffusion gradient directions and a relatively high diffusion weighting is optimal for spinal cord imaging. Further work is needed to confirm these results and for a finer tuning of acquisition parameters. Nevertheless, our findings could be important for the

  14. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2006-01-01

    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments

  15. Technological diffusion in the Ramsey model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duczynski, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2002), s. 243-250 ISSN 1607-0704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : neoclassical growth model * technological diffusion Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ijbe.org/table%20of%20content/pdf/vol1-3/06.pdf

  16. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Magnitude Comparison in Children with and without Dyscalculia: Care of Response and Ability Are Related to Both Mathematical Achievement and Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szardenings, Carsten; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ranger, Jochen; Holling, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    The respective roles of the approximate number system (ANS) and an access deficit (AD) in developmental dyscalculia (DD) are not well-known. Most studies rely on response times (RTs) or accuracy (error rates) separately. We analyzed the results of two samples of elementary school children in symbolic magnitude comparison (MC) and non-symbolic MC using a diffusion model. This approach uses the joint distribution of both RTs and accuracy in order to synthesize measures closer to ability and response caution or response conservatism. The latter can be understood in the context of the speed-accuracy tradeoff: It expresses how much a subject trades in speed for improved accuracy. We found significant effects of DD on both ability (negative) and response caution (positive) in MC tasks and a negative interaction of DD with symbolic task material on ability. These results support that DD subjects suffer from both an impaired ANS and an AD and in particular support that slower RTs of children with DD are indeed related to impaired processing of numerical information. An interaction effect of symbolic task material and DD (low mathematical ability) on response caution could not be refuted. However, in a sample more representative of the general population we found a negative association of mathematical ability and response caution in symbolic but not in non-symbolic task material. The observed differences in response behavior highlight the importance of accounting for response caution in the analysis of MC tasks. The results as a whole present a good example of the benefits of a diffusion model analysis.

  17. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Magnitude Comparison in Children with and without Dyscalculia: Care of Response and Ability Are Related to Both Mathematical Achievement and Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Szardenings

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The respective roles of the approximate number system (ANS and an access deficit (AD in developmental dyscalculia (DD are not well-known. Most studies rely on response times (RTs or accuracy (error rates separately. We analyzed the results of two samples of elementary school children in symbolic magnitude comparison (MC and non-symbolic MC using a diffusion model. This approach uses the joint distribution of both RTs and accuracy in order to synthesize measures closer to ability and response caution or response conservatism. The latter can be understood in the context of the speed-accuracy tradeoff: It expresses how much a subject trades in speed for improved accuracy. We found significant effects of DD on both ability (negative and response caution (positive in MC tasks and a negative interaction of DD with symbolic task material on ability. These results support that DD subjects suffer from both an impaired ANS and an AD and in particular support that slower RTs of children with DD are indeed related to impaired processing of numerical information. An interaction effect of symbolic task material and DD (low mathematical ability on response caution could not be refuted. However, in a sample more representative of the general population we found a negative association of mathematical ability and response caution in symbolic but not in non-symbolic task material. The observed differences in response behavior highlight the importance of accounting for response caution in the analysis of MC tasks. The results as a whole present a good example of the benefits of a diffusion model analysis.

  18. Surveying for migration pathways in the granitic rock using nuclear track detectors, autoradiography and digital image analysis as an aid to construct the basis for heterogeneous diffusion modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemppainen, M.; Oila, E.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioelement migration within a rock matrix under natural long-term conditions is a complex process controlled by various parameters. Pure physical parameters such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity are usually sufficient to describe transport in well-defined laboratory systems. In natural rock matrices transport is influenced by physical pore properties such as pore size distribution, connectivity, tortuosity, constrictivity and petrological and chemical nature and charge on the fluid-rock interface. The overall characterization of heterogeneous rock structures is needed for the accurate heterogeneous diffusion modeling. Here we describe a method for the detection of α-particles from uranium in cm-scale rock samples based on the analysis of the tracks formed in organic polymer, CR-39. On the other hand the uranium tracks were compared with the migration pathways and porosity distribution produced with the 14 C-polymethylmethacrylate impregnation method ( 14 C-PMMA). For analyzing mineral specific uranium occurrence and porosities the staining methods were used to produce the mineral map of the rock sample. Digital image analysis techniques were applied to the different cm-scale pictures of rock samples. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS) were performed in order both to study the pore apertures of grain boundaries and fissures in greater detail and to detect the uranium phases. The high uranium content was found to be congruent with the porous mineral phases; altered plagioclase and biotite grains, and the intra- and intergranular fissures detected with the 14 C-PMMA technique. Plenty of microfractures transsecting potassium feldspar and quartz grains were filled with calcite together with precipitated uranium. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  19. Diffusion model of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shmakov, AA; Kalin, BA; Matvienko, YG; Singh, RN; De, PK

    2004-01-01

    We develop a method for the evaluation of the rate of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys. The model is based on the stationary solution of the phenomenological diffusion equation and the detailed analysis of the distribution of hydrostatic stresses in the plane of a sharp tensile crack.

  20. Experiences of nursing students of Evidence-Based Practice Education according to Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Model: A Directed Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaeypoor, Shahzad; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Rassouli, Maryam; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2017-10-01

    Evidence based practice (EBP) education is essential in promoting of clinical care, but an effective educational strategy for teaching EBP in nursing faculties is not available. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of nursing students of EBP Education according to Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Model. This qualitative study was carried out using a directed content analysis method and purposeful sampling. Data were collected until saturation by fourteen semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews and two focus group discussions with nursing students from two nursing faculties in Tehran, Iran. Rogers' Model was used in this study. Data were classified into five themes and 11 categories according to the Rogers's Model. Themes and main categories were knowledge (educational enrichment, new strategy for education), persuasion (internalization of education, improvement of motivation), decision (acceptance, use in the future), implementation (objectivity, consolidation of learning) and confirmation (learning and teaching, achieving a goal, self-confidence). EBP Education, based on the teaching strategy of Rogers's Model, leads to an improved EBP learning. All the necessary steps for a better education of it are included in this educational approach which can be used to teach any new subject like EBP.

  1. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  2. Catchment Models and Management Tools for diffuse Contaminants (Sediment, Phosphorus and Pesticides): DIFFUSE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockler, Eva; Reaney, Simeon; Mellander, Per-Erik; Wade, Andrew; Collins, Adrian; Arheimer, Berit; Bruen, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural sector is the most common suspected source of nutrient pollution in Irish rivers. However, it is also often the most difficult source to characterise due to its predominantly diffuse nature. Particulate phosphorus in surface water and dissolved phosphorus in groundwater are of particular concern in Irish water bodies. Hence the further development of models and indices to assess diffuse sources of contaminants are required for use by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to provide support for river basin planning. Understanding connectivity in the landscape is a vital component of characterising the source-pathway-receptor relationships for water-borne contaminants, and hence is a priority in this research. The DIFFUSE Project will focus on connectivity modelling and incorporation of connectivity into sediment, nutrient and pesticide risk mapping. The Irish approach to understanding and managing natural water bodies has developed substantially in recent years assisted by outputs from multiple research projects, including modelling and analysis tools developed during the Pathways and CatchmentTools projects. These include the Pollution Impact Potential (PIP) maps, which are an example of research output that is used by the EPA to support catchment management. The PIP maps integrate an understanding of the pollution pressures and mobilisation pathways and, using the source-pathways-receptor model, provide a scientific basis for evaluation of mitigation measures. These maps indicate the potential risk posed by nitrate and phosphate from diffuse agricultural sources to surface and groundwater receptors and delineate critical source areas (CSAs) as a means of facilitating the targeting of mitigation measures. Building on this previous research, the DIFFUSE Project will develop revised and new catchment managements tools focused on connectivity, sediment, phosphorus and pesticides. The DIFFUSE project will strive to identify the state

  3. Nondestructive study of corrosion by the analysis of diffused light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogert, Elsa N.; Landau, Monica R.; Marengo, Jose A.; Ruiz Gale, Maria F.; Gaggioli, Nestor G.; Paiva, Raul D., Jr.; Soga, Diogo; Muramatsu, Mikiya

    1999-07-01

    This work describes the application of mean intensity diffusion analysis to detect and analyze metallic corrosion phenomena. We present some new results in the characterization of the corrosion process using a model based in electroerosion phenomena. Valuable information is provided about surface microrelief changes, which is also useful for numerous engineering applications. The quality of our results supports the idea that this technique can contribute to a better analysis of corrosion processes, in particular in real time.

  4. Modeling the reemergence of information diffusion in social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dingda; Liao, Xiangwen; Shen, Huawei; Cheng, Xueqi; Chen, Guolong

    2018-01-01

    Information diffusion in networks is an important research topic in various fields. Existing studies either focus on modeling the process of information diffusion, e.g., independent cascade model and linear threshold model, or investigate information diffusion in networks with certain structural characteristics such as scale-free networks and small world networks. However, there are still several phenomena that have not been captured by existing information diffusion models. One of the prominent phenomena is the reemergence of information diffusion, i.e., a piece of information reemerges after the completion of its initial diffusion process. In this paper, we propose an optimized information diffusion model by introducing a new informed state into traditional susceptible-infected-removed model. We verify the proposed model via simulations in real-world social networks, and the results indicate that the model can reproduce the reemergence of information during the diffusion process.

  5. Analysis of fMRI data using noise-diffusion network models: a new covariance-coding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Matthieu

    2018-04-01

    Since the middle of the 1990s, studies of resting-state fMRI/BOLD data have explored the correlation patterns of activity across the whole brain, which is referred to as functional connectivity (FC). Among the many methods that have been developed to interpret FC, a recently proposed model-based approach describes the propagation of fluctuating BOLD activity within the recurrently connected brain network by inferring the effective connectivity (EC). In this model, EC quantifies the strengths of directional interactions between brain regions, viewed from the proxy of BOLD activity. In addition, the tuning procedure for the model provides estimates for the local variability (input variances) to explain how the observed FC is generated. Generalizing, the network dynamics can be studied in the context of an input-output mapping-determined by EC-for the second-order statistics of fluctuating nodal activities. The present paper focuses on the following detection paradigm: observing output covariances, how discriminative is the (estimated) network model with respect to various input covariance patterns? An application with the model fitted to experimental fMRI data-movie viewing versus resting state-illustrates that changes in local variability and changes in brain coordination go hand in hand.

  6. Turing and Non-Turing patterns in diffusive plankton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate a Rosenzweig-McAurthur model and its variant for phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish population dynamics with Holling type II and III functional responses. We present the theoretical analysis of processes of pattern formation that involves organism distribution and their interaction of spatially distributed population with local diffusion. The choice of parameter values is important to study the effect of diffusion, also it depends more on the nonlinearity of the system. With the help of numerical simulations, we observe the formation of spatiotemporal patterns both inside and outside the Turing space.

  7. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  8. FADTTS: functional analysis of diffusion tensor tract statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Li, Runze; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a functional analysis of a diffusion tensor tract statistics (FADTTS) pipeline for delineating the association between multiple diffusion properties along major white matter fiber bundles with a set of covariates of interest, such as age, diagnostic status and gender, and the structure of the variability of these white matter tract properties in various diffusion tensor imaging studies. The FADTTS integrates five statistical tools: (i) a multivariate varying coefficient model for allowing the varying coefficient functions in terms of arc length to characterize the varying associations between fiber bundle diffusion properties and a set of covariates, (ii) a weighted least squares estimation of the varying coefficient functions, (iii) a functional principal component analysis to delineate the structure of the variability in fiber bundle diffusion properties, (iv) a global test statistic to test hypotheses of interest, and (v) a simultaneous confidence band to quantify the uncertainty in the estimated coefficient functions. Simulated data are used to evaluate the finite sample performance of FADTTS. We apply FADTTS to investigate the development of white matter diffusivities along the splenium of the corpus callosum tract and the right internal capsule tract in a clinical study of neurodevelopment. FADTTS can be used to facilitate the understanding of normal brain development, the neural bases of neuropsychiatric disorders, and the joint effects of environmental and genetic factors on white matter fiber bundles. The advantages of FADTTS compared with the other existing approaches are that they are capable of modeling the structured inter-subject variability, testing the joint effects, and constructing their simultaneous confidence bands. However, FADTTS is not crucial for estimation and reduces to the functional analysis method for the single measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dipy, a library for the analysis of diffusion MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garyfallidis, Eleftherios; Brett, Matthew; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Rokem, Ariel; van der Walt, Stefan; Descoteaux, Maxime; Nimmo-Smith, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Imaging in Python (Dipy) is a free and open source software project for the analysis of data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) experiments. dMRI is an application of MRI that can be used to measure structural features of brain white matter. Many methods have been developed to use dMRI data to model the local configuration of white matter nerve fiber bundles and infer the trajectory of bundles connecting different parts of the brain. Dipy gathers implementations of many different methods in dMRI, including: diffusion signal pre-processing; reconstruction of diffusion distributions in individual voxels; fiber tractography and fiber track post-processing, analysis and visualization. Dipy aims to provide transparent implementations for all the different steps of dMRI analysis with a uniform programming interface. We have implemented classical signal reconstruction techniques, such as the diffusion tensor model and deterministic fiber tractography. In addition, cutting edge novel reconstruction techniques are implemented, such as constrained spherical deconvolution and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) with deconvolution, as well as methods for probabilistic tracking and original methods for tractography clustering. Many additional utility functions are provided to calculate various statistics, informative visualizations, as well as file-handling routines to assist in the development and use of novel techniques. In contrast to many other scientific software projects, Dipy is not being developed by a single research group. Rather, it is an open project that encourages contributions from any scientist/developer through GitHub and open discussions on the project mailing list. Consequently, Dipy today has an international team of contributors, spanning seven different academic institutions in five countries and three continents, which is still growing.

  10. A fractional motion diffusion model for grading pediatric brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M Muge; Wang, He; Sui, Yi; Engelhard, Herbert H; Li, Yuhua; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel fractional motion (FM) diffusion model for distinguishing low- versus high-grade pediatric brain tumors; and to investigate its possible advantage over apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and/or a previously reported continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) diffusion model. With approval from the institutional review board and written informed consents from the legal guardians of all participating patients, this study involved 70 children with histopathologically-proven brain tumors (30 low-grade and 40 high-grade). Multi- b -value diffusion images were acquired and analyzed using the FM, CTRW, and mono-exponential diffusion models. The FM parameters, D fm , φ , ψ (non-Gaussian diffusion statistical measures), and the CTRW parameters, D m , α , β (non-Gaussian temporal and spatial diffusion heterogeneity measures) were compared between the low- and high-grade tumor groups by using a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon U test. The performance of the FM model for differentiating between low- and high-grade tumors was evaluated and compared with that of the CTRW and the mono-exponential models using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The FM parameters were significantly lower ( p  < 0.0001) in the high-grade ( D fm : 0.81 ± 0.26, φ : 1.40 ± 0.10, ψ : 0.42 ± 0.11) than in the low-grade ( D fm : 1.52 ± 0.52, φ : 1.64 ± 0.13, ψ : 0.67 ± 0.13) tumor groups. The ROC analysis showed that the FM parameters offered better specificity (88% versus 73%), sensitivity (90% versus 82%), accuracy (88% versus 78%), and area under the curve (AUC, 93% versus 80%) in discriminating tumor malignancy compared to the conventional ADC. The performance of the FM model was similar to that of the CTRW model. Similar to the CTRW model, the FM model can improve differentiation between low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors over ADC.

  11. Platoon Dispersion Analysis Based on Diffusion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badhrudeen Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and gro wing demand for travel, causes the traffic system to work ineffectively in most urban areas leadin g to traffic congestion. Many approaches have been adopted to address this problem, one among them being the signal co-ordination. This can be achieved if the platoon of vehicles that gets discharged at one signal gets green at consecutive signals with minimal delay. However, platoons tend to get dispersed as they travel and this dispersion phenomenon should be taken into account for effective signal coordination. Reported studies in this area are from the homogeneous and lane disciplined traffic conditions. This paper analyse the platoon dispersion characteristics under heterogeneous and lane-less traffic conditions. Out of the various modeling techniques reported, the approach based on diffusion theory is used in this study. The diffusion theory based models so far assumed thedata to follow normal distribution. However, in the present study, the data was found to follow lognormal distribution and hence the implementation was carried out using lognormal distribution. The parameters of lognormal distribution were calibrated for the study condition. For comparison purpose, normal distribution was also calibrated and the results were evaluated. It was foun d that model with log normal distribution performed better in all cases than the o ne with normal distribution.

  12. Reaction-diffusion pulses: a combustion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Daniel; Llebot, Josep Enric; Fort, Joaquim

    2004-01-01

    We focus on a reaction-diffusion approach proposed recently for experiments on combustion processes, where the heat released by combustion follows first-order reaction kinetics. This case allows us to perform an exhaustive analytical study. Specifically, we obtain the exact expressions for the speed of the thermal pulses, their maximum temperature and the condition of self-sustenance. Finally, we propose two generalizations of the model, namely, the case of several reactants burning together, and that of time-delayed heat conduction. We find an excellent agreement between our analytical results and simulations

  13. Reaction-diffusion pulses: a combustion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Daniel [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Llebot, Josep Enric [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Dept. de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterrra (Spain); Fort, Joaquim [Dept. de FIsica, Univ. de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2004-07-02

    We focus on a reaction-diffusion approach proposed recently for experiments on combustion processes, where the heat released by combustion follows first-order reaction kinetics. This case allows us to perform an exhaustive analytical study. Specifically, we obtain the exact expressions for the speed of the thermal pulses, their maximum temperature and the condition of self-sustenance. Finally, we propose two generalizations of the model, namely, the case of several reactants burning together, and that of time-delayed heat conduction. We find an excellent agreement between our analytical results and simulations.

  14. Modeling intragranular diffusion in low-connectivity granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robert P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Qinhong

    2012-03-01

    Characterizing the diffusive exchange of solutes between bulk water in an aquifer and water in the intragranular pores of the solid phase is still challenging despite decades of study. Many disparities between observation and theory could be attributed to low connectivity of the intragranular pores. The presence of low connectivity indicates that a useful conceptual framework is percolation theory. The present study was initiated to develop a percolation-based finite difference (FD) model, and to test it rigorously against both random walk (RW) simulations of diffusion starting from nonequilibrium, and data on Borden sand published by Ball and Roberts (1991a,b) and subsequently reanalyzed by Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) using a multirate mass transfer (MRMT) approach. The percolation-theoretical model is simple and readily incorporated into existing FD models. The FD model closely matches the RW results using only a single fitting parameter, across a wide range of pore connectivities. Simulation of the Borden sand experiment without pore connectivity effects reproduced the MRMT analysis, but including low pore connectivity effects improved the fit. Overall, the theory and simulation results show that low intragranular pore connectivity can produce diffusive behavior that appears as if the solute had undergone slow sorption, despite the absence of any sorption process, thereby explaining some hitherto confusing aspects of intragranular diffusion.

  15. Size dependent diffusive parameters and tensorial diffusion equations in neutronic models for optically small nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1983-01-01

    Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated

  16. A mathematical and numerical analysis of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion equations

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Grec , Bérénice; Salvarani , Francesco

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We consider the Maxwell-Stefan model of diffusion in a multicomponent gaseous mixture. After focusing on the main differences with the Fickian diffusion model, we study the equations governing a three-component gas mixture. We provide a qualitative and quantitative mathematical analysis of the model. The main properties of the standard explicit numerical scheme are also analyzed. We eventually include some numerical simulations pointing out the uphill diffusion phenome...

  17. Stochastic Modelling of the Diffusion Coefficient for Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In the paper, a new stochastic modelling of the diffusion coefficient D is presented. The modelling is based on physical understanding of the diffusion process and on some recent experimental results. The diffusion coefficients D is strongly dependent on the w/c ratio and the temperature....

  18. A comparative study of the sensitivity of diffusion-related parameters obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, diffusional kurtosis imaging, q-space analysis and bi-exponential modelling in the early disease course (24 h) of hyperacute (6 h) ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, Gaëtan; Peeters, Frank; Peeters, André; Duprez, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    To compare the sensitivity and early temporal changes of diffusion parameters obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), q-space analysis (QSA) and bi-exponential modelling in hyperacute stroke patients. A single investigational acquisition allowing the four diffusion analyses was performed on seven hyperacute stroke patients with a 3T system. The percentage change between ipsi- and contralateral regions were compared at admission and 24 h later. Two out of the seven patients were imaged every 6 h during this period. Kurtoses from both DKI and QSA were the most sensitive of the tested diffusion parameters in the few hours following ischemia. An early increase-maximum-decrease pattern of evolution was highlighted during the 24-h period for all parameters proportional to diffusion coefficients. A similar pattern was observed for both kurtoses in only one of two patients. Our comparison was performed using identical diffusion encoding timings and on patients in the same stage of their condition. Although preliminary, our findings confirm those of previous studies that showed enhanced sensitivity of kurtosis. A fine time mapping of diffusion metrics in hyperacute stroke patients was presented which advocates for further investigations on larger animal or human cohorts.

  19. Macroscopic diffusion models for precipitation in crystalline gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim Wolfgang

    2009-09-21

    Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose two different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first model treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second model is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. These models generalise the well-known Mullins- Sekerka model for Ostwald ripening. We concentrate on arsenic-rich liquid spherical droplets in a gallium arsenide crystal. Droplets can shrink or grow with time but the centres of droplets remain fixed. The liquid is assumed to be homogeneous in space. Due to different scales for typical distances between droplets and typical radii of liquid droplets we can derive formally so-called mean field models. For a model in the diffusion-controlled regime we prove this limit by homogenisation techniques under plausible assumptions. These mean field models generalise the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model, which can be derived from the Mullins-Sekerka model rigorously, and is well understood. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. We determine possible equilibria and discuss their stability. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)

  20. Computation of diffusion coefficients for waters of Gauthami Godavari estuary using one-dimensional advection-diffusion model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothi, D.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, D.P.

    conditions. As the pollutant load on the estuary increases, the. water quality may deteriorate rapidly and therefore the scientific interests are centered on the analysis of water quality. The pollutants will be subjected to a number of physical, chemical... study we have applied one-dimensional advection-diffusion model for the waters of Gauthami Godavari estuary to determine the axial diffusion coefficients and thereby to predict the impact assessment. The study area (Fig. 1) is the lower most 32 km...

  1. Homotopy analysis method for neutron diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), proposed in 1992 by Shi Jun Liao and has been developed since then, is based on a fundamental concept in differential geometry and topology, the homotopy. It has proved useful for problems involving algebraic, linear/non-linear, ordinary/partial differential and differential-integral equations being an analytic, recursive method that provides a series sum solution. It has the advantage of offering a certain freedom for the choice of its arguments such as the initial guess, the auxiliary linear operator and the convergence control parameter, and it allows us to effectively control the rate and region of convergence of the series solution. HAM is applied for the fixed source neutron diffusion equation in this work, which is a part of our research motivated by the question of whether methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation that yield straightforward expressions but able to provide a solution of reasonable accuracy exist such that we could avoid analytic methods that are widely used but either fail to solve the problem or provide solutions through many intricate expressions that are likely to contain mistakes or numerical methods that require powerful computational resources and advanced programming skills due to their very nature or intricate mathematical fundamentals. Fourier basis are employed for expressing the initial guess due to the structure of the problem and its boundary conditions. We present the results in comparison with other widely used methods of Adomian Decomposition and Variable Separation.

  2. Stability and Convergence Analysis of Second-Order Schemes for a Diffuse Interface Model with Peng-Robinson Equation of State

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Qiujin; Qiao, Zhonghua; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present two second-order numerical schemes to solve the fourth order parabolic equation derived from a diffuse interface model with Peng-Robinson Equation of state (EOS) for pure substance. The mass conservation, energy decay property, unique solvability and L-infinity convergence of these two schemes are proved. Numerical results demonstrate the good approximation of the fourth order equation and confirm reliability of these two schemes.

  3. Stability and Convergence Analysis of Second-Order Schemes for a Diffuse Interface Model with Peng-Robinson Equation of State

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Qiujin

    2017-09-18

    In this paper, we present two second-order numerical schemes to solve the fourth order parabolic equation derived from a diffuse interface model with Peng-Robinson Equation of state (EOS) for pure substance. The mass conservation, energy decay property, unique solvability and L-infinity convergence of these two schemes are proved. Numerical results demonstrate the good approximation of the fourth order equation and confirm reliability of these two schemes.

  4. Recommendation based on trust diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Recommender system is emerging as a powerful and popular tool for online information relevant to a given user. The traditional recommendation system suffers from the cold start problem and the data sparsity problem. Many methods have been proposed to solve these problems, but few can achieve satisfactory efficiency. In this paper, we present a method which combines the trust diffusion (DiffTrust) algorithm and the probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF). DiffTrust is first used to study the possible diffusions of trust between various users. It is able to make use of the implicit relationship of the trust network, thus alleviating the data sparsity problem. The probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) is then employed to combine the users' tastes with their trusted friends' interests. We evaluate the algorithm on Flixster, Moviedata, and Epinions datasets, respectively. The experimental results show that the recommendation based on our proposed DiffTrust + PMF model achieves high performance in terms of the root mean square error (RMSE), Recall, and F Measure.

  5. CROSS DIFFUSION AND NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PREVENTING BLOW UP IN THE KELLER–SEGEL MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    CARRILLO, JOSÉ ANTONIO; HITTMEIR, SABINE; JÜ NGEL, ANSGAR

    2012-01-01

    A parabolic-parabolic (Patlak-)Keller-Segel model in up to three space dimensions with nonlinear cell diffusion and an additional nonlinear cross-diffusion term is analyzed. The main feature of this model is that there exists a new entropy

  6. A spatial structural derivative model for ultraslow diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the ultraslow diffusion by a spatial structural derivative, in which the exponential function ex is selected as the structural function to construct the local structural derivative diffusion equation model. The analytical solution of the diffusion equation is a form of Biexponential distribution. Its corresponding mean squared displacement is numerically calculated, and increases more slowly than the logarithmic function of time. The local structural derivative diffusion equation with the structural function ex in space is an alternative physical and mathematical modeling model to characterize a kind of ultraslow diffusion.

  7. Observational Constraints for Modeling Diffuse Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    Ground-based and space-borne observations of diffuse molecular clouds suggest a number of areas where further improvements to modeling efforts is warranted. I will highlight those that have the widest applicability. The range in CO fractionation caused by selective isotope photodissociation, in particular the large 12C16O/13C16O ratios observed toward stars in Ophiuchus, is not reproduced well by current models. Our ongoing laboratory measurements of oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions in CO isotopologues may help clarify the situtation. The CH+ abundance continues to draw attention. Small scale structure seen toward ζ Per may provide additional constraints on the possible synthesis routes. The connection between results from optical transitions and those from radio and sub-millimeter wave transitions requires further effort. A study of OH+ and OH toward background stars reveals that these species favor different environments. This brings to focus the need to model each cloud along the line of sight separately, and to allow the physical conditions to vary within an individual cloud, in order to gain further insight into the chemistry. Now that an extensive set of data on molecular excitation is available, the models should seek to reproduce these data to place further constraints on the modeling results.

  8. Nonlinear analysis of a reaction-diffusion system: Amplitude equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E. P., E-mail: zemskov@ccas.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Dorodnicyn Computing Center (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    A reaction-diffusion system with a nonlinear diffusion term is considered. Based on nonlinear analysis, the amplitude equations are obtained in the cases of the Hopf and Turing instabilities in the system. Turing pattern-forming regions in the parameter space are determined for supercritical and subcritical instabilities in a two-component reaction-diffusion system.

  9. Dipy, a library for the analysis of diffusion MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios eGaryfallidis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion Imaging in Python (Dipy is a free and open source software projectfor the analysis of data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRIexperiments. dMRI is an application of MRI that can be used to measurestructural features of brain white matter. Many methods have been developed touse dMRI data to model the local configuration of white matter nerve fiberbundles and infer the trajectory of bundles connecting different parts of thebrain.Dipy gathers implementations of many different methods in dMRI, including:diffusion signal pre-processing; reconstruction of diffusion distributions inindividual voxels; fiber tractography and fiber track post-processing, analysisand visualization. Dipy aims to provide transparent implementations forall the different steps of dMRI analysis with a uniform programming interface.We have implemented classical signal reconstruction techniques, such as thediffusion tensor model and deterministic fiber tractography. In addition,cutting edge novel reconstruction techniques are implemented, such asconstrained spherical deconvolution and diffusion spectrum imaging withdeconvolution, as well as methods for probabilistic tracking and originalmethods for tractography clustering. Many additional utility functions areprovided to calculate various statistics, informative visualizations, as wellas file-handling routines to assist in the development and use of noveltechniques.In contrast to many other scientific software projects, Dipy is not beingdeveloped by a single research group. Rather, it is an open project thatencourages contributions from any scientist/developer through GitHub and opendiscussions on the project mailing list. Consequently, Dipy today has aninternational team of contributors, spanning seven different academic institutionsin five countries and three continents, which is still growing.

  10. Efficient analysis of macromolecular rotational diffusion from heteronuclear relaxation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosset, Patrice; Hus, Jean-Christophe; Blackledge, Martin; Marion, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    A novel program has been developed for the interpretation of 15 N relaxation rates in terms of macromolecular anisotropic rotational diffusion. The program is based on a highly efficient simulated annealing/minimization algorithm, designed specifically to search the parametric space described by the isotropic, axially symmetric and fully anisotropic rotational diffusion tensor models. The high efficiency of this algorithm allows extensive noise-based Monte Carlo error analysis. Relevant statistical tests are systematically applied to provide confidence limits for the proposed tensorial models. The program is illustrated here using the example of the cytochrome c' from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a four-helix bundle heme protein, for which data at three different field strengths were independently analysed and compared

  11. Modeling dendrite density from magnetic resonance diffusion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Kroenke, CD; Østergaard, Leif

    2007-01-01

    in this model: (i) the dendrites and axons, which are modeled as long cylinders with two diffusion coefficients, parallel (DL) and perpendicular (DT) to the cylindrical axis, and (ii) an isotropic monoexponential diffusion component describing water diffusion within and across all other structures, i.......e., in extracellular space and glia cells. The model parameters are estimated from 153 diffusion-weighted images acquired from a formalin-fixed baboon brain. A close correspondence between the data and the signal model is found, with the model parameters consistent with literature values. The model provides......Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides a noninvasive tool to probe tissue microstructure. We propose a simplified model of neural cytoarchitecture intended to capture the essential features important for water diffusion as measured by NMR. Two components contribute to the NMR signal...

  12. Fractal diffusion equations: Microscopic models with anomalous diffusion and its generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhincheev, V.E.

    2001-04-01

    To describe the ''anomalous'' diffusion the generalized diffusion equations of fractal order are deduced from microscopic models with anomalous diffusion as Comb model and Levy flights. It is shown that two types of equations are possible: with fractional temporal and fractional spatial derivatives. The solutions of these equations are obtained and the physical sense of these fractional equations is discussed. The relation between diffusion and conductivity is studied and the well-known Einstein relation is generalized for the anomalous diffusion case. It is shown that for Levy flight diffusion the Ohm's law is not applied and the current depends on electric field in a nonlinear way due to the anomalous character of Levy flights. The results of numerical simulations, which confirmed this conclusion, are also presented. (author)

  13. Validation of a mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model for premixed lean hydrogen flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Jason; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model originally proposed by Chapman and Cowling is validated using multiple flame configurations. Simulations using detailed hydrogen chemistry are done on one-, two-, and three-dimensional flames. The analysis spans flat and stretched, steady and unsteady, and laminar and turbulent flames. Quantitative and qualitative results using the thermal diffusion model compare very well with the more complex multicomponent diffusion model. Comparisons are made using flame speeds, surface areas, species profiles, and chemical source terms. Once validated, this model is applied to three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flames. For these cases, thermal diffusion causes an increase in the propagation speed of the flames as well as increased product chemical source terms in regions of high positive curvature. The results illustrate the necessity for including thermal diffusion, and the accuracy and computational efficiency of the mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model.

  14. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractal theory is introduced into the prediction of VOC diffusion coefficient. • MSFC model of the diffusion coefficient is developed for porous building materials. • The MSFC model contains detailed pore structure parameters. • The accuracy of the MSFC model is verified by independent experiments. - Abstract: Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber.

  15. A new model of anomalous phosphorus diffusion in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, M.; Poetzl, H.; Stingeder, G.; Grasserbauer, M.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the 'kink and tail' diffusion of phosphorus. The diffusion behaviour of phosphorus is expplained by the motion of phosphorus-interstitial and phosphorus-vacancy pairs in different charge states. The model yields the enhancement of diffusion in the tail region depending on surface concentration. Furthermore it yields the same selfdiffusion coefficient for interstitials as the gold diffusion experiments. A transformation of the diffusion equation was found to reduce the number of simulation equations. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  17. Structured inverse modeling in parabolic diffusion processess

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Volker; Siebenborn, Martin; Welker, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Often, the unknown diffusivity in diffusive processes is structured by piecewise constant patches. This paper is devoted to efficient methods for the determination of such structured diffusion parameters by exploiting shape calculus. A novel shape gradient is derived in parabolic processes. Furthermore quasi-Newton techniques are used in order to accelerate shape gradient based iterations in shape space. Numerical investigations support the theoretical results.

  18. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  19. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.

    1997-11-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories

  20. A factor analysis of Functional Independence and Functional Assessment Measure scores among focal and diffuse brain injury patients: The importance of bi-factor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Sarah; Burgess, Gerald H; Maltby, John

    2018-04-28

    To explore the factor structure of the UK Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure (FIM+FAM) among focal and diffuse acquired brain injury patients. Criterion standard. An NHS acute acquired brain injury inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Referred sample of 447 adults (835 cases after exclusions) admitted for inpatient treatment following an acquired brain injury significant enough to justify intensive inpatient neurorehabilitation. Not applicable. Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested a two-factor structure to FIM+FAM scores, among both focal-proximate and diffuse-proximate acquired brain injury aetiologies. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a three-factor bi-factor structure presented the best fit of the FIM+FAM score data across both aetiologies. However, across both analyses, a convergence was found towards a general factor, demonstrated by high correlations between factors in the Exploratory Factor Analysis, and by a general factor explaining the majority of the variance in scores on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Our findings suggested that although factors describing specific functional domains can be derived from FIM+FAM item scores, there is a convergence towards a single factor describing overall functioning. This single factor informs the specific group factors (e.g. motor, psychosocial and communication function) following brain injury. Further research into the comparative value of the general and group factors as evaluative/prognostic measures is indicated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Modelling Bourdieu: An extension of the Axelrod cultural diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Trigg, Andrew B.; Bertie, Andrew J.; Himmelweit, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution to the social theory of consumption of the late Pierre Bourdieu has been widely recognized, but not fully absorbed by the economics discipline. To address this lacuna, an agent-based model of Bourdieu's social theory is developed by extending Axelrod's cultural diffusion model. Bourdieu's theory is decomposed into two components: a capital effect on social interaction and an innovation effect. Whereas simulations of the capital effect are found to have a key role in the repro...

  2. [Triexponential diffusion analysis in invasive ductal carcinoma and fibroadenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kanao, Syotaro; Taniguchi, Masahiro; Higashimura, Kyoji; Toi, Masakazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2014-03-01

    To simultaneously obtain information on diffusion and perfusion in breast lesions by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), we analyzed three diffusion components using a triexponential function. Eighteen subjects [10 with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 8 with fibroadenoma] were evaluated using DWI with multiple b-values. We derived perfusion-related diffusion, fast free diffusion, and slow restricted diffusion coefficients (Dp, Df, Ds) calculated from the triexponential function using the DWI data. Moreover, the triexponential analysis was compared with biexponential and monoexponential analyses. Each diffusion coefficient with a triexponential function was correlated to a relative enhancement ratio (RER) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. In triexponential analysis, Dp and Ds in IDC were significantly higher than those for fibroadenoma. There was no correlation between each diffusion coefficient from the triexponential analysis in any of the groups (Dp, Df, and Ds), but biexponential analysis revealed a positive correlation between each diffusion coefficient in breast lesions. Strong correlations were found between Dp and RERs. Triexponential analysis thus makes it possible to obtain, in noninvasive fashion, more detailed diffusion and perfusion information in breast lesions.

  3. A new top boundary condition for modeling surface diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer: theoretical analysis and application to soil evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new top boundary condition (TBC for representing the air–soil diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer. This new TBC (1 accounts for the multi-phase flow of a generic tracer; (2 accounts for effects of soil temperature, pH, solubility, sorption, and desorption processes; (3 enables a smooth transition between wet and dry soil conditions; (4 is compatible with the conductance formulation for modeling air–water volatile tracer exchange; and (5 is applicable to site, regional, and global land models.

    Based on the new TBC, we developed new formulations for bare-soil resistance and corresponding soil evaporation efficiency. The new soil resistance is predicted as the reciprocal of the harmonic sum of two resistances: (1 gaseous and aqueous molecular diffusion and (2 liquid mass flow resulting from the hydraulic pressure gradient between the soil surface and center of the topsoil control volume. We compared the predicted soil evaporation efficiency with those from several field and laboratory soil evaporation measurements and found good agreement with the typically observed two-stage soil evaporation curves. Comparison with the soil evaporation efficiency equation of Lee and Pielke (1992; hereafter LP92 indicates that their equation can overestimate soil evaporation when the atmospheric resistance is low and underestimate soil evaporation when the soil is dry. Using a synthetic inversion experiment, we demonstrated that using inverted soil resistance data from field measurements to derive empirical soil resistance formulations resulted in large uncertainty because (1 the inverted soil resistance data are always severely impacted by measurement error and (2 the derived empirical equation is very sensitive to the number of data points and the assumed functional form of the resistance.

    We expect the application of our new TBC in land models will provide a consistent representation for the diffusive tracer

  4. Analysis of three sets of SWIW tracer test data using a two-population complex fracture model for matrix diffusion and sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christine; Chin-Fu Tsang

    2009-03-01

    This study has been undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the processes underlying retention of radionuclides in fractured rock by using different model conceptualisations when interpreting SWIW tests. In particular the aim is to infer the diffusion and sorption parameters from the SWIW test data by matching tracer breakthrough curves (BTC) with a complex fracture model. The model employs two populations for diffusion and sorption. One population represents the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other represents finite blocks that can become saturated, thereafter accepting no further diffusion or sorption. For the non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. For the sorbing tracers Cs and Rb the finite population does not saturate, but acts essentially semi-infinite, thus the BTC behaviour is comparable to that obtained for a model containing only a semi-infinite rock matrix. The ability to match BTC for both sorbing and non-sorbing tracers for these three different SWIW data sets demonstrates that the two-population complex fracture model may be useful to analyze SWIW tracer test data in general. One of the two populations should be the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other finite blocks that can saturate. The latter can represent either rock blocks within the fracture, a fracture skin zone or stagnation zones. Three representative SWIW tracer tests recently conducted by SKB have been analyzed with a complex fracture model employing two populations for diffusion and sorption, one population being the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other, finite blocks. The results show that by adjusting diffusion and sorption parameters of the model, a good match with field data is obtained for BTC of both conservative and non-conservative tracers simultaneously. For non-sorbing tracer uranine, both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTC. At early

  5. Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was

  6. Diffusion coefficient adaptive correction in Lagrangian puff model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenji; Wang Dezhong; Ma Yuanwei; Ji Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Lagrangian puff model is widely used in the decision support system for nuclear emergency management. The diffusion coefficient is one of the key parameters impacting puff model. An adaptive method was proposed in this paper, which could correct the diffusion coefficient in Lagrangian puff model, and it aimed to improve the accuracy of calculating the nuclide concentration distribution. This method used detected concentration data, meteorological data and source release data to estimate the actual diffusion coefficient with least square method. The diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method was evaluated by Kincaid data in MVK, and was compared with traditional Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) diffusion scheme method. The results indicate that this diffusion coefficient adaptive correction method can improve the accuracy of Lagrangian puff model. (authors)

  7. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  8. Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: philosophy and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munha, Jose Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta

    1999-01-01

    Understanding kinetics of diffusion is of major importance to the interpretation of isotopic ages in metamorphic rocks. This paper provides a review of concepts and methodologies involved on the various diffusion models that can be applied to radiogenic systems in cooling rocks. The central concept of closure temperature is critically discussed and quantitative estimates for the various diffusion models are evaluated, in order to illustrate the controlling factors and the limits of their practical application. (author)

  9. Modeling of isotope fractionation at the catchment scale: How promising is compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a tool for analyzing diffuse pollution by agrochemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S. R.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Broers, H. P.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration measurements are indispensable for the assessment of subsurface and surface water pollution by agrochemicals such as pesticides. However, monitoring data is often ambiguous and easily misinterpreted as a decrease in concentration could be caused by transformation, dilution or changes in the application of the pesticide. In this context, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has recently emerged as a complementary monitoring technique. It is based on the measurement of the isotopic composition (e.g. δ13C and δ2H) of the contaminant. Since transformation processes are likely accompanied by isotope fractionation, thus a change in this composition, CSIA offers the opportunity to gain additional knowledge about transport and degradation processes as well as to track pollutants back to their sources. Isotopic techniques have not yet been applied in a comprehensive way in the analysis of catchment-wide organic pollution. We therefore incorporated fractionation processes associated with the fate of pesticides into the numerical flow and solute transport model HydroGeoSphere in order to assess the feasibility of CSIA within the context of catchment monitoring. The model was set up for a hypothetical hillslope transect which drains into a river. Reactive solute transport was driven by two pesticides applications within one year and actual data for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration from a meteorological station in the Netherlands. Degradation of the pesticide was assumed to take place at a higher rate under the prevailing oxic conditions in the topsoil than in deeper, anoxic subsurface layers. In terms of CSIA, these two degradation pathways were associated with different strengths of isotope fractionation for both hydrogen and carbon atoms. By simulating changes in δ13C and δ2H, the share of the oxic and the anoxic reaction on the overall degradation could be assessed. Model results suggest that CSIA is suitable for assessing degradation of

  10. Modelling Nanoparticle Diffusion into Cancer Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podduturi, Vishwa Priya; Derosa, Pedro

    2011-03-01

    Cancer is one of the major, potentially deadly diseases and has been for years. Non-specific delivery of the drug can damage healthy tissue seriously affecting in many cases the patient's living condition. Nanoparticles are being used for a targeted drug delivery thereby reducing the dose. In addition, metallic nanoparticles are being used in thermal treatment of cancer cells where nanoparticles help concentrate heat in the tumor and away from living tissue. We proposed a model that combines random walk with diffusion principles. The particle drift velocity is taken from the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the velocity profile of the particle at the pores in the capillary wall is obtained using the Coventorware software. Pressure gradient and concentration gradient through the capillary wall are considered. Simulations are performed in Matlab using the Monte Carlo technique. Number of particles leaving the blood vessel through a pore is obtained as a function of blood pressure, the osmotic pressure, temperature, particle concentration, blood vessel radius, and pore size, and the relative effect of each of the parameters is discussed.

  11. Synaptic neuron-astrocyte communication is supported by an order of magnitude analysis of inositol tris-phosphate diffusion at the nanoscale in a model of peri-synaptic astrocyte projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca Balderas, Pavel; Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic. However, this assumption does not consider IP3 Diffusion Coefficient ( Dab ), that activates IP3 Receptor (IP3R) releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In this work we idealized a model of a PAP (PAPm) to perform an order of magnitude analysis of IP3 diffusion using a transient mass diffusion model. This model shows that IP3 forms a concentration gradient along the PAPm that reaches the steady state in milliseconds, three orders of magnitude before IP3 degradation. The model predicts that IP3 concentration near the Ca2+ stores may activate IP3R, depending upon Phospholipase C (PLC) number and activity. Moreover, the PAPm supports that IP3 and extracellular Ca2+ entry synergize to promote global Ca2+ transients. The model presented here indicates that Ca2+ stores position in PAP's does not limit SN-AmcIP3.

  12. Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer’s disease cases

    OpenAIRE

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along t...

  13. Modelling of multicomponent diffusion in a two-phase oxide-metal corium pool by a diffuse interface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardon, Clement

    2016-01-01

    This Ph.D. topic is focused on the modelling of stratification kinetics for an oxide-metal corium pool (U-O-Zr-steel system) in terms of multicomponent and multiphase diffusion. This work is part of a larger research effort for the development of a detailed corium pool modelling based on a CFD approach for thermal hydraulics. The overall goal is to improve the understanding of the involved phenomena and obtain closure laws for integral macroscopic models. The phase-field method coupled with an energy functional using the CALPHAD method appears to be relevant for this purpose. In a first part, we have developed a diffuse interface model in order to describe the diffusion process in the U-O system. This model has been coupled with a CALPHAD thermodynamic database and its parameterization has been developed with, in particular, an up-scaling procedure related to the interface thickness. Then, within the framework of a modelling for the U-O-Zr ternary system, we have proposed a generalization of the diffuse interface model through an assumption of local equilibrium for redox mechanisms. A particular attention was paid to the model analysis by 1D numerical simulations with a special focus on the steady state composition profiles. Finally we have applied this model to the U-O-Zr-Fe system. For that purpose, we have considered a configuration close to small-scale experimental tests of oxide-metal corium pool stratification. (author) [fr

  14. A variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to develop a variable-order fractal derivative model for anomalous diffusion. Previous investigations have indicated that the medium structure, fractal dimension or porosity may change with time or space during solute transport processes, results in time or spatial dependent anomalous diffusion phenomena. Hereby, this study makes an attempt to introduce a variable-order fractal derivative diffusion model, in which the index of fractal derivative depends on temporal moment or spatial position, to characterize the above mentioned anomalous diffusion (or transport processes. Compared with other models, the main advantages in description and the physical explanation of new model are explored by numerical simulation. Further discussions on the dissimilitude such as computational efficiency, diffusion behavior and heavy tail phenomena of the new model and variable-order fractional derivative model are also offered.

  15. A consistent transported PDF model for treating differential molecular diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Pei

    2016-11-01

    Differential molecular diffusion is a fundamentally significant phenomenon in all multi-component turbulent reacting or non-reacting flows caused by the different rates of molecular diffusion of energy and species concentrations. In the transported probability density function (PDF) method, the differential molecular diffusion can be treated by using a mean drift model developed by McDermott and Pope. This model correctly accounts for the differential molecular diffusion in the scalar mean transport and yields a correct DNS limit of the scalar variance production. The model, however, misses the molecular diffusion term in the scalar variance transport equation, which yields an inconsistent prediction of the scalar variance in the transported PDF method. In this work, a new model is introduced to remedy this problem that can yield a consistent scalar variance prediction. The model formulation along with its numerical implementation is discussed, and the model validation is conducted in a turbulent mixing layer problem.

  16. Diffuse radiation models and monthly-average, daily, diffuse data for a wide latitude range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan, K.K.; Soler, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several years of measured data on global and diffuse radiation and sunshine duration for 40 widely spread locations in the latitude range 36° S to 60° N are used to develop and test models for estimating monthly-mean, daily, diffuse radiation on horizontal surfaces. Applicability of the clearness-index (K) and sunshine fraction (SSO) models for diffuse estimation and the effect of combining several variables into a single multilinear equation are tested. Correlations connecting the diffuse to global fraction (HdH) with K and SSO predict Hd values more accurately than their separate use. Among clearness-index and sunshine-fraction models, SSO models are found to have better accuracy if correlations are developed for wide latitude ranges. By including a term for declinations in the correlation, the accuracy of the estimated data can be marginally improved. The addition of latitude to the equation does not help to improve the accuracy further. (author)

  17. Performance modeling of parallel algorithms for solving neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Kirk, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron diffusion calculations are the most common computational methods used in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear reactors and related activities. Here, mathematical performance models are developed for the parallel algorithm used to solve the neutron diffusion equation on message passing and shared memory multiprocessors represented by the Intel iPSC/860 and the Sequent Balance 8000, respectively. The performance models are validated through several test problems, and these models are used to estimate the performance of each of the two considered architectures in situations typical of practical applications, such as fine meshes and a large number of participating processors. While message passing computers are capable of producing speedup, the parallel efficiency deteriorates rapidly as the number of processors increases. Furthermore, the speedup fails to improve appreciably for massively parallel computers so that only small- to medium-sized message passing multiprocessors offer a reasonable platform for this algorithm. In contrast, the performance model for the shared memory architecture predicts very high efficiency over a wide range of number of processors reasonable for this architecture. Furthermore, the model efficiency of the Sequent remains superior to that of the hypercube if its model parameters are adjusted to make its processors as fast as those of the iPSC/860. It is concluded that shared memory computers are better suited for this parallel algorithm than message passing computers

  18. Diffuse interface methods for multiphase flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:Nuclear reactor safety programs need to get a better description of some stages of identified incident or accident scenarios. For some of them, such as the reflooding of the core or the dryout of fuel rods, the heat, momentum and mass transfers taking place at the scale of droplets or bubbles are part of the key physical phenomena for which a better description is needed. Experiments are difficult to perform at these very small scales and direct numerical simulations is viewed as a promising way to give new insight into these complex two-phase flows. This type of simulations requires numerical methods that are accurate, efficient and easy to run in three space dimensions and on parallel computers. Despite many years of development, direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows is still very challenging, mostly because it requires solving moving boundary problems. To avoid this major difficulty, a new class of numerical methods is arising, called diffuse interface methods. These methods are based on physical theories dating back to van der Waals and mostly used in materials science. In these methods, interfaces separating two phases are modeled as continuous transitions zones instead of surfaces of discontinuity. Since all the physical variables encounter possibly strong but nevertheless always continuous variations across the interfacial zones, these methods virtually eliminate the difficult moving boundary problem. We show that these methods lead to a single-phase like system of equations, which makes it easier to code in 3D and to make parallel compared to more classical methods. The first method presented is dedicated to liquid-vapor flows with phase-change. It is based on the van der Waals' theory of capillarity. This method has been used to study nucleate boiling of a pure fluid and of dilute binary mixtures. We discuss the importance of the choice and the meaning of the order parameter, i.e. a scalar which discriminates one

  19. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. A. H. M.; Adnan, F.; Ismail, A. R.; Kardigama, K.; Salaam, H. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Johari, N. H.; Anuar, Z.; Azmi, N. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ~ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ~ 40% and 12mm ~ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  20. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M A H M; Ismail, A R; Kardigama, K; Salaam, H A; Ahmad, Z; Johari, N H; Anuar, Z; Azmi, N S N; Adnan, F

    2012-01-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ∼ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ∼ 40% and 12mm ∼ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  1. Lévy flight with absorption: A model for diffusing diffusivity with long tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    We consider diffusion of a particle in rearranging environment, so that the diffusivity of the particle is a stochastic function of time. In our previous model of "diffusing diffusivity" [Jain and Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016), 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01527], it was shown that the mean square displacement of particle remains Fickian, i.e., ∝T at all times, but the probability distribution of particle displacement is not Gaussian at all times. It is exponential at short times and crosses over to become Gaussian only in a large time limit in the case where the distribution of D in that model has a steady state limit which is exponential, i.e., πe(D ) ˜e-D /D0 . In the present study, we model the diffusivity of a particle as a Lévy flight process so that D has a power-law tailed distribution, viz., πe(D ) ˜D-1 -α with 0 <α <1 . We find that in the short time limit, the width of displacement distribution is proportional to √{T }, implying that the diffusion is Fickian. But for long times, the width is proportional to T1 /2 α which is a characteristic of anomalous diffusion. The distribution function for the displacement of the particle is found to be a symmetric stable distribution with a stability index 2 α which preserves its shape at all times.

  2. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, A.S.; Jenneson, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair. (orig.)

  3. Ion beam analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clough, A.S.; Jenneson, P.M. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-04-01

    Ion-beam analysis has been applied to a variety of problems involving diffusion in heterogeneous materials. An energy loss technique has been used to study both the diffusion of water and the surface segregation of fluoropolymers in polymeric matrices. A scanning micro-beam technique has been developed to allow water concentrations in hydrophilic polymers and cements to be measured together with associated solute elements. It has also been applied to the diffusion of shampoo into hair. (orig.) 13 refs.

  4. Fractional diffusion models of transport in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas deviates from the standard diffusion paradigm. Some examples include the confinement time scaling in L-mode plasmas, rapid pulse propagation phenomena, and inward transport in off-axis fueling experiments. The limitations of the diffusion paradigm can be traced back to the restrictive assumptions in which it is based. In particular, Fick's law, one of the cornerstones of diffusive transport, assumes that the fluxes only depend on local quantities, i. e. the spatial gradient of the field (s). another key issue is the Markovian assumption that neglects memory effects. Also, at a microscopic level, standard diffusion assumes and underlying Gaussian, uncorrelated stochastic process (i. e. a Brownian random walk) with well defined characteristic spatio-temporal scales. Motivated by the need to develop models of non-diffusive transport, we discuss here a class of transport models base on the use of fractional derivative operators. The models incorporates in a unified way non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian processes or memory effects, and non-diffusive scaling. At a microscopic level, the models describe an underlying stochastic process without characteristic spatio-temporal scales that generalizes the Brownian random walk. As a concrete case study to motivate and test the model, we consider transport of tracers in three-dimensional, pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We show that in this system transport is non-diffusive and cannot be described in the context of the standard diffusion parading. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the radial displacements of tracers is strongly non-Gaussian with algebraic decaying tails, and the moments of the tracer displacements exhibit super-diffusive scaling. there is quantitative agreement between the turbulence transport calculations and the proposed fractional diffusion model. In particular, the model

  5. Diffusion of hydrous species in model basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Qinxia; Ding, Jiale; Ni, Huaiwei

    2017-10-01

    Water diffusion in Fe-free model basaltic melt with up to 2 wt% H2O was investigated at 1658-1846 K and 1 GPa in piston-cylinder apparatus using both hydration and diffusion couple techniques. Diffusion profiles measured by FTIR are consistent with a model in which both molecular H2O (H2Om) and hydroxyl (OH) contribute to water diffusion. OH diffusivity is roughly 13% of H2Om diffusivity, showing little dependence on temperature or water concentration. Water diffusion is dominated by the motion of OH until total H2O (H2Ot) concentration reaches 1 wt%. The dependence of apparent H2Ot diffusivity on H2Ot concentration appears to be overestimated by a previous study on MORB melt, but H2Ot diffusivity at 1 wt% H2Ot in basaltic melt is still greater than those in rhyolitic to andesitic melts. The appreciable contribution of OH to water diffusion in basaltic melt can be explained by enhanced mobility of OH, probably associated with the development of free hydroxyl bonded with network-modifying cations, as well as higher OH concentration. Calculation based on the Nernst-Einstein equation demonstrates that OH may serve as an effective charge carrier in hydrous basaltic melt, which could partly account for the previously observed strong influence of water on electrical conductivity of basaltic melt.

  6. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.

    1993-04-01

    The current diffusive ballooning mode is analysed in the tokamak plasma. This mode is destabilized by the current diffusivity (i.e., the electron viscosity) and stabilized by the thermal conductivity and ion viscosity. By use of the ballooning transformation, the eigenmode equation is solved. Analytic solution is obtained by the strong ballooning limit. Numerical calculation is also performed to confirm the analytic theory. The growth rate of the mode and the mode structure are analysed. The stability boundary is derived in terms of the current diffusivity, thermal conductivity, ion viscosity and the pressure gradient for the given shear parameter. This result is applied to express the thermal conductivity in terms of the pressure gradient, magnetic configurational parameters (such as the safety factor, shear and aspect ratio) and the Prandtl numbers. (author)

  7. Analysis of discrete reaction-diffusion equations for autocatalysis and continuum diffusion equations for transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we analyze both the spatiotemporal behavior of: (A) non-linear “reaction” models utilizing (discrete) reaction-diffusion equations; and (B) spatial transport problems on surfaces and in nanopores utilizing the relevant (continuum) diffusion or Fokker-Planck equations. Thus, there are some common themes in these studies, as they all involve partial differential equations or their discrete analogues which incorporate a description of diffusion-type processes. However, there are also some qualitative differences, as shall be discussed below.

  8. Estimating the diffuseness of sound fields: A wavenumber analysis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Davy, John L.; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a diffuse sound field is widely used in the analysis of sound in enclosures. The diffuse sound field is generally described as composed of plane waves with random phases, which wave number vectors are uniformly distributed over all angles of incidence. In this study, an interpretat...

  9. An introduction to diffusion tensor image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren J; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2011-04-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) is a relatively new technology that is popular for imaging the white matter of the brain. This article provides a basic and broad overview of DTI to enable the reader to develop an intuitive understanding of these types of data, and an awareness of their strengths and weaknesses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping

    2015-12-15

    Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Christopher James

    1997-01-01

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO 2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion

  12. Simple Brownian diffusion an introduction to the standard theoretical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    Brownian diffusion, the motion of large molecules in a sea of very many much smaller molecules, is topical because it is one of the ways in which biologically important molecules move about inside living cells. This book presents the mathematical physics that underlies the four simplest models of Brownian diffusion.

  13. A chaotic model for advertising diffusion problem with competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, W. H.; Yung, K. L.; Wang, Dingwei

    2012-08-01

    In this article, the author extends Dawid and Feichtinger's chaotic advertising diffusion model into the duopoly case. A computer simulation system is used to test this enhanced model. Based on the analysis of simulation results, it is found that the best advertising strategy in duopoly is to increase the advertising investment to reach the best Win-Win situation where the oscillation of market portion will not occur. In order to effectively arrive at the best situation, we define a synthetic index and two thresholds. An estimation method for the parameters of the index and thresholds is proposed in this research. We can reach the Win-Win situation by simply selecting the control parameters to make the synthetic index close to the threshold of min-oscillation state. The numerical example and computational results indicated that the proposed chaotic model is useful to describe and analyse advertising diffusion process in duopoly, it is an efficient tool for the selection and optimisation of advertising strategy.

  14. Modelling of diffuse solar fraction with multiple predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, Barbara; Boland, John [Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Boulevard, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Lauret, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physique du Batiment et des Systemes, University of La Reunion, Reunion (France)

    2010-02-15

    For some locations both global and diffuse solar radiation are measured. However, for many locations, only global radiation is measured, or inferred from satellite data. For modelling solar energy applications, the amount of radiation on a tilted surface is needed. Since only the direct component on a tilted surface can be calculated from direct on some other plane using trigonometry, we need to have diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane available. There are regression relationships for estimating the diffuse on a tilted surface from diffuse on the horizontal. Models for estimating the diffuse on the horizontal from horizontal global that have been developed in Europe or North America have proved to be inadequate for Australia. Boland et al. developed a validated model for Australian conditions. Boland et al. detailed our recent advances in developing the theoretical framework for the use of the logistic function instead of piecewise linear or simple nonlinear functions and was the first step in identifying the means for developing a generic model for estimating diffuse from global and other predictors. We have developed a multiple predictor model, which is much simpler than previous models, and uses hourly clearness index, daily clearness index, solar altitude, apparent solar time and a measure of persistence of global radiation level as predictors. This model performs marginally better than currently used models for locations in the Northern Hemisphere and substantially better for Southern Hemisphere locations. We suggest it can be used as a universal model. (author)

  15. Pattern Formation in Predator-Prey Model with Delay and Cross Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinze Lian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effect of time delay and cross diffusion on the dynamics of a modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge. Based on the stability analysis, we demonstrate that delayed feedback may generate Hopf and Turing instability under some conditions, resulting in spatial patterns. One of the most interesting findings is that the model exhibits complex pattern replication: the model dynamics exhibits a delay and diffusion controlled formation growth not only to spots, stripes, and holes, but also to spiral pattern self-replication. The results indicate that time delay and cross diffusion play important roles in pattern formation.

  16. What Can the Diffusion Model Tell Us About Prospective Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.; Smith, Rebekah E.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive process models, such as Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, are useful tools for examining cost- or interference effects in event-based prospective memory (PM). The diffusion model includes several parameters that provide insight into how and why ongoing-task performance may be affected by a PM task and is ideally suited to analyze performance because both reaction time and accuracy are taken into account. Separate analyses of these measures can easily yield misleading interpretations in cases of speed-accuracy tradeoffs. The diffusion model allows us to measure possible criterion shifts and is thus an important methodological improvement over standard analyses. Performance in an ongoing lexical decision task (Smith, 2003) was analyzed with the diffusion model. The results suggest that criterion shifts play an important role when a PM task is added, but do not fully explain the cost effect on RT. PMID:21443332

  17. CROSS DIFFUSION AND NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PREVENTING BLOW UP IN THE KELLER–SEGEL MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    CARRILLO, JOSÉ ANTONIO

    2012-12-01

    A parabolic-parabolic (Patlak-)Keller-Segel model in up to three space dimensions with nonlinear cell diffusion and an additional nonlinear cross-diffusion term is analyzed. The main feature of this model is that there exists a new entropy functional, yielding gradient estimates for the cell density and chemical concentration. For arbitrarily small cross-diffusion coefficients and for suitable exponents of the nonlinear diffusion terms, the global-in-time existence of weak solutions is proved, thus preventing finite-time blow up of the cell density. The global existence result also holds for linear and fast diffusion of the cell density in a certain parameter range in three dimensions. Furthermore, we show L∞ bounds for the solutions to the parabolic-elliptic system. Sufficient conditions leading to the asymptotic stability of the constant steady state are given for a particular choice of the nonlinear diffusion exponents. Numerical experiments in two and three space dimensions illustrate the theoretical results. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. Bayesian uncertainty quantification in linear models for diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, Jens; Eklund, Anders; Özarslan, Evren; Herberthson, Magnus; Bånkestad, Maria; Knutsson, Hans

    2018-03-29

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a valuable tool in the assessment of tissue microstructure. By fitting a model to the dMRI signal it is possible to derive various quantitative features. Several of the most popular dMRI signal models are expansions in an appropriately chosen basis, where the coefficients are determined using some variation of least-squares. However, such approaches lack any notion of uncertainty, which could be valuable in e.g. group analyses. In this work, we use a probabilistic interpretation of linear least-squares methods to recast popular dMRI models as Bayesian ones. This makes it possible to quantify the uncertainty of any derived quantity. In particular, for quantities that are affine functions of the coefficients, the posterior distribution can be expressed in closed-form. We simulated measurements from single- and double-tensor models where the correct values of several quantities are known, to validate that the theoretically derived quantiles agree with those observed empirically. We included results from residual bootstrap for comparison and found good agreement. The validation employed several different models: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Mean Apparent Propagator MRI (MAP-MRI) and Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD). We also used in vivo data to visualize maps of quantitative features and corresponding uncertainties, and to show how our approach can be used in a group analysis to downweight subjects with high uncertainty. In summary, we convert successful linear models for dMRI signal estimation to probabilistic models, capable of accurate uncertainty quantification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pricing Participating Products under a Generalized Jump-Diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model for valuing participating life insurance products under a generalized jump-diffusion model with a Markov-switching compensator. It also nests a number of important and popular models in finance, including the classes of jump-diffusion models and Markovian regime-switching models. The Esscher transform is employed to determine an equivalent martingale measure. Simulation experiments are conducted to illustrate the practical implementation of the model and to highlight some features that can be obtained from our model.

  20. WWER radial reflector modeling by diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P. T.; Mittag, S.

    2005-01-01

    The two commonly used approaches to describe the WWER radial reflectors in diffusion codes, by albedo on the core-reflector boundary and by a ring of diffusive assembly size nodes, are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the first approach are presented first, then the Koebke's equivalence theory is outlined and its implementation for the WWER radial reflectors is discussed. Results for the WWER-1000 reactor are presented. Then the boundary conditions on the outer reflector boundary are discussed. The possibility to divide the library into fuel assembly and reflector parts and to generate each library by a separate code package is discussed. Finally, the homogenization errors for rodded assemblies are presented and discussed (Author)

  1. Histogram analysis of stretched-exponential and monoexponential diffusion-weighted imaging models for distinguishing low and intermediate/high gleason scores in prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Xiao H; Tang, Wei; Gao, Hong B; Zhou, Bing N; Zhou, Liang P

    2018-02-07

    Noninvasive measures to evaluate the aggressiveness of prostate carcinoma (PCa) may benefit patients. To assess the value of stretched-exponential and monoexponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for predicting the aggressiveness of PCa. Retrospective study. Seventy-five patients with PCa. 3T DWI examinations were performed using b-values of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 s/mm 2 . The research were based on entire-tumor histogram analysis and the reference standard was radical prostectomy. The correlation analysis was programmed with Spearman's rank-order analysis between the histogram variables and Gleason grade group (GG). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) regression was used to analyze the ability of these histogram variables to differentiate low-grade (LG) from intermediate/high-grade (HG) PCa. The percentiles and mean of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were correlated with GG (ρ: 0.414-0.593), while there was no significant relation among α value, skewnesses, and kurtosises with GG (ρ:0.034-0.323). HG tumors (ADC:484 ± 136, 592 ± 139, 670 ± 144, 788 ± 146, 895 ± 141 mm 2 /s; DDC: 410 ± 142, 532 ± 172, 666 ± 193, 786 ± 196, 914 ± 181 mm 2 /s) had lower values in the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th percentiles and means than LG tumors (ADC: 644 ± 779, 737 ± 84, 836 ± 83, 919 ± 82, 997 ± 107 mm 2 /s; DDC: 552 ± 82, 680 ± 94, 829 ± 112, 931 ± 106, 1045 ± 100 mm 2 /s). However, there was no difference between LG and HG tumors in α value (0.671 ± 0.041 vs. 0.633 ± 0.114), kurtosises (ADC 0.09 vs. 0.086; DDC -0.033 vs. -0.317), or skewnesses (ADC -0.036 vs. 0.073; DDC -0.063 vs. 0.136). The above statistics were P Histogram variables of DDC and ADC may predict the aggressiveness of PCa, while α value does not. The abilities of ADC10 and DDC10 to discriminate LG from HG tumors were similar, and

  2. Dynamic Diffusion Estimation in Exponential Family Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 11 (2013), s. 1114-1117 ISSN 1070-9908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7D12004; GA ČR GA13-13502S Keywords : diffusion estimation * distributed estimation * paremeter estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/dedecius-0396518.pdf

  3. Weak diffusion limits of dynamic conditional correlation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafner, Christian M.; Laurent, Sebastien; Violante, Francesco

    The properties of dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models are still not entirely understood. This paper fills one of the gaps by deriving weak diffusion limits of a modified version of the classical DCC model. The limiting system of stochastic differential equations is characterized...... by a diffusion matrix of reduced rank. The degeneracy is due to perfect collinearity between the innovations of the volatility and correlation dynamics. For the special case of constant conditional correlations, a non-degenerate diffusion limit can be obtained. Alternative sets of conditions are considered...

  4. Accelerated diffusion controlled creep of polycrystalline materials. Communication 1. Model of diffusion controlled creep acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.S.; Chuvil'deev, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The model is suggested which describes the influence of large-angle grain boundary migration on a diffusion controlled creep rate in polycrystalline materials (Coble creep). The model is based on the concept about changing the value of migrating boundary free volume when introducing dislocations distributed over the grain bulk into this boundary. Expressions are obtained to calculate the grain boundary diffusion coefficient under conditions of boundary migration and the parameter, which characterized the value of Coble creep acceleration. A comparison is made between calculated and experimental data for Cd, Co and Fe

  5. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models with data of atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-02-01

    The atmospheric diffusion experiments were implemented by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) around Mount Tsukuba in 1989 and 1990, and the tracer gas concentration were monitored. In this study, the Gauss Plume Model and RAMS/HYPACT that are meteorological forecast code and atmospheric diffusion code with detailed physical law are made a comparison between monitored concentration. In conclusion, the Gauss Plume Model is better than RAM/HYPACT even complex topography if the estimation is around tens of kilometer form release point and the change in weather is constant for short time. This reason is difference of wind between RAMS and observation. (author)

  6. Microscale diffusion analysis of gaseous radioactive effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Kwang Phil; Jeong, Guy Soo; Lee, Kwang Hee; Choi, Yong Seok; An, Jin Young [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The state-of-the art review and relevant data bases have been made in this study. Microscale wind-field model has been made and applied to the site= of a target domestic plant - Younggwang units. Following researches have been made; - Review of modeling status in U.S.A., European countries, and Japan, those theoretical backgrounds, and experimental activities - Graphical display of topographical grid data in the surrounding with the Younggwang N.P.P. and basic investigation of the surrounding geography - Survey of site meteorological data of the Younggwang N.P.P.; precipitation distribution, yearly average wind direction and joint frequency, seasonal wind rose, distribution of seasonal sea and land breeze, joint frequency with respect to the atmospheric stability, mixing height - Presentation of a draft to update the existing Korea real-time dose assessment system, FADAS and to interface to the AWS(Automatic Weather System) of the Korea Meteorology Administration. - Establishment of nested-grid system with micro- and macro- scale cells around the Younggwang nuclear power plant -Consideration of solar radiation effect by using land-use map -Analysis of wind field in the region of 30 x 30 km n the Younggwang site (Author) 67 refs., 20 tabs., 28 figs.

  7. Integrating Models of Diffusion and Behavior to Predict Innovation Adoption, Maintenance, and Social Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Kim, Youllee; Zhu, Xun; Doudou, Dimi Théodore; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-01-01

    This study documents an investigation into the adoption and diffusion of eave tubes, a novel mosquito vector control, during a large-scale scientific field trial in West Africa. The diffusion of innovations (DOI) and the integrated model of behavior (IMB) were integrated (i.e., innovation attributes with attitudes and social pressures with norms) to predict participants' (N = 329) diffusion intentions. The findings showed that positive attitudes about the innovation's attributes were a consistent positive predictor of diffusion intentions: adopting it, maintaining it, and talking with others about it. As expected by the DOI and the IMB, the social pressure created by a descriptive norm positively predicted intentions to adopt and maintain the innovation. Drawing upon sharing research, we argued that the descriptive norm may dampen future talk about the innovation, because it may no longer be seen as a novel, useful topic to discuss. As predicted, the results showed that as the descriptive norm increased, the intention to talk about the innovation decreased. These results provide broad support for integrating the DOI and the IMB to predict diffusion and for efforts to draw on other research to understand motivations for social diffusion.

  8. Shape Analysis Using the Auto Diffusion Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebal, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scalar functions defined on manifold triangle meshes is a starting point for many geometry processing algorithms such as mesh parametrization, skeletonization, and segmentation. In this paper, we propose the Auto Diffusion Function (ADF) which is a linear combination of the eigenfunctions......, it is controlled by a single parameter which can be interpreted as feature scale, and, finally, the ADF is invariant to rigid and isometric deformations. We describe the ADF and its properties in detail and compare it to other choices of scalar functions on manifolds. As an example of an application, we present...

  9. Evaluation of glymphatic system activity with the diffusion MR technique: diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS) in Alzheimer's disease cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Naganawa, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    The activity of the glymphatic system is impaired in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the activity of the human glymphatic system in cases of AD with a diffusion-based technique called diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space (DTI-ALPS). Diffusion tensor images were acquired to calculate diffusivities in the x, y, and z axes of the plane of the lateral ventricle body in 31 patients. We evaluated the diffusivity along the perivascular spaces as well as projection fibers and association fibers separately, to acquire an index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index) and correlated them with the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score. We found a significant negative correlation between diffusivity along the projection fibers and association fibers. We also observed a significant positive correlation between diffusivity along perivascular spaces shown as ALPS-index and the MMSE score, indicating lower water diffusivity along the perivascular space in relation to AD severity. Activity of the glymphatic system may be evaluated with diffusion images. Lower diffusivity along the perivascular space on DTI-APLS seems to reflect impairment of the glymphatic system. This method may be useful for evaluating the activity of the glymphatic system.

  10. Simultaneous analysis and quality assurance for diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn B Lauzon

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI enables non-invasive, cyto-architectural mapping of in vivo tissue microarchitecture through voxel-wise mathematical modeling of multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI acquisitions, each differently sensitized to water diffusion. DTI computations are fundamentally estimation processes and are sensitive to noise and artifacts. Despite widespread adoption in the neuroimaging community, maintaining consistent DTI data quality remains challenging given the propensity for patient motion, artifacts associated with fast imaging techniques, and the possibility of hardware changes/failures. Furthermore, the quantity of data acquired per voxel, the non-linear estimation process, and numerous potential use cases complicate traditional visual data inspection approaches. Currently, quality inspection of DTI data has relied on visual inspection and individual processing in DTI analysis software programs (e.g. DTIPrep, DTI-studio. However, recent advances in applied statistical methods have yielded several different metrics to assess noise level, artifact propensity, quality of tensor fit, variance of estimated measures, and bias in estimated measures. To date, these metrics have been largely studied in isolation. Herein, we select complementary metrics for integration into an automatic DTI analysis and quality assurance pipeline. The pipeline completes in 24 hours, stores statistical outputs, and produces a graphical summary quality analysis (QA report. We assess the utility of this streamlined approach for empirical quality assessment on 608 DTI datasets from pediatric neuroimaging studies. The efficiency and accuracy of quality analysis using the proposed pipeline is compared with quality analysis based on visual inspection. The unified pipeline is found to save a statistically significant amount of time (over 70% while improving the consistency of QA between a DTI expert and a pool of research associates. Projection of QA

  11. An integrated modelling and multicriteria analysis approach to managing nitrate diffuse pollution: 2. A case study for a chalk catchment in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B K; O'Connell, P E

    2006-04-01

    The site-specific land use optimisation methodology, suggested by the authors in the first part of this two-part paper, has been applied to the River Kennet catchment at Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK, for a case study. The Marlborough catchment (143 km(2)) is an agriculture-dominated rural area over a deep chalk aquifer that is vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural diffuse sources. For evaluation purposes, the catchment was discretised into a network of 1 kmx1 km grid cells. For each of the arable-land grid cells, seven land use alternatives (four arable-land alternatives and three grassland alternatives) were evaluated for their environmental and economic potential. For environmental evaluation, nitrate leaching rates of land use alternatives were estimated using SHETRAN simulations and groundwater pollution potential was evaluated using the DRASTIC index. For economic evaluation, economic gross margins were estimated using a simple agronomic model based on nitrogen response functions and agricultural land classification grades. In order to see whether the site-specific optimisation is efficient at the catchment scale, land use optimisation was carried out for four optimisation schemes (i.e. using four sets of criterion weights). Consequently, four land use scenarios were generated and the site-specifically optimised land use scenario was evaluated as the best compromise solution between long term nitrate pollution and agronomy at the catchment scale.

  12. Diffuse Scattering Model of Indoor Wideband Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    segments in total and approximately 2 min running time on average computer. Frequency independent power levels at the walls around the circumference of the room and at four receiver locations in the middle of the room are observed. It is demonstrated that after finite period of initial excitation the field...... radio coverage predictions.......This paper presents a discrete-time numerical algorithm for computing field distribution in indoor environment by diffuse scattering from walls. Calculations are performed for a rectangular room with semi-reflective walls. The walls are divided into 0.5 x 0.5 m segments, resulting in 2272 wall...

  13. Monte Carlo based diffusion coefficients for LMFBR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, Willem F.G.; Takeda, Toshikazu; Hazama, Taira

    2010-01-01

    A method based on Monte Carlo calculations is developed to estimate the diffusion coefficient of unit cells. The method uses a geometrical model similar to that used in lattice theory, but does not use the assumption of a separable fundamental mode used in lattice theory. The method uses standard Monte Carlo flux and current tallies, and the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP was used without modifications. Four models are presented to derive the diffusion coefficient from tally results of flux and partial currents. In this paper the method is applied to the calculation of a plate cell of the fast-spectrum critical facility ZEBRA. Conventional calculations of the diffusion coefficient diverge in the presence of planar voids in the lattice, but our Monte Carlo method can treat this situation without any problem. The Monte Carlo method was used to investigate the influence of geometrical modeling as well as the directional dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The method can be used to estimate the diffusion coefficient of complicated unit cells, the limitation being the capabilities of the Monte Carlo code. The method will be used in the future to confirm results for the diffusion coefficient obtained of the Monte Carlo code. The method will be used in the future to confirm results for the diffusion coefficient obtained with deterministic codes. (author)

  14. Understanding diffusion of intrinsically disordered proteins in polymer solutions: A disorder plus collapse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding diffusion of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs under crowded environments is of ubiquitous importance to modelling related dynamics in biological systems. In the present work, we proposed a theoretical framework to study the diffusion behavior of IDPs in polymer solutions. IDP is modeled as an ensemble of particles with a wide range of gyration radius subject to Flory-Fisk distribution, where the collapse effect which leads to the shrink of IDP due to polymer crowding is included. The diffusion coefficient of IDP is calculated as the average, denoted by 〈D〉, over the values of the particle samples. By properly incorporating the scaling relations for diffusion coefficient of nanoparticle (NP in polymer solutions, we are able to evaluate 〈D〉 straightforwardly and reveal the disorder and collapse effects on IDP’s diffusion in an explicit manner. Particular attentions are paid on comparison between the diffusion coefficient of an IDP and that of a NP. Results demonstrate that both disorder and collapse can enhance IDP diffusion rate. Our analysis shows that the crossover behavior reported by experiments can be actually a general phenomenon, namely, while a NP with smaller size than that of an IDP diffuses faster in simple solutions, the IDP may become the faster one under crowded conditions. We apply our theory to analyze the diffusion of several types of IDP in a few different polymer solutions. Good agreements between the theoretical results and the experimental data are obtained.

  15. MODEL OF THE TOKAMAK EDGE DENSITY PEDESTAL INCLUDING DIFFUSIVE NEUTRALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BURRELL, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Several previous analytic models of the tokamak edge density pedestal have been based on diffusive transport of plasma plus free-streaming of neutrals. This latter neutral model includes only the effect of ionization and neglects charge exchange. The present work models the edge density pedestal using diffusive transport for both the plasma and the neutrals. In contrast to the free-streaming model, a diffusion model for the neutrals includes the effect of both charge exchange and ionization and is valid when charge exchange is the dominant interaction. Surprisingly, the functional forms for the electron and neutral density profiles from the present calculation are identical to the results of the previous analytic models. There are some differences in the detailed definition of various parameters in the solution. For experimentally relevant cases where ionization and charge exchange rate are comparable, both models predict approximately the same width for the edge density pedestal

  16. Reflector modelization for neutronic diffusion and parameters identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaud, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    Physical parameters of neutronic diffusion equations can be adjusted to decrease calculations-measurements errors. The reflector being always difficult to modelize, we choose to elaborate a new reflector model and to use the parameters of this model as adjustment coefficients in the identification procedure. Using theoretical results, and also the physical behaviour of neutronic flux solutions, the reflector model consists then in its replacement by boundary conditions for the diffusion equations on the core only. This theoretical result of non-local operator relations leads then to some discrete approximations by taking into account the multiscaled behaviour, on the core-reflector interface, of neutronic diffusion solutions. The resulting model of this approach is then compared with previous reflector modelizations, and first results indicate that this new model gives the same representation of reflector for the core than previous. (author). 12 refs

  17. Draft paper: On the analysis of diffusive mass transfer in ex-vessel corium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Kyrill N.

    2003-01-01

    In case of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP) involving the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) melt-through, confident solidification of ex-vessel corium is the imperative condition of its safe retention within the plant containment. The rate-determining process for solidification of ex-vessel coriums in the long-term is the chemical diffusion in the liquid phase at the solid-liquid interface. The process of chemical diffusion in the diffusive boundary layer can evolve taking on different rates, depending on the boundary conditions and the melt composition. Nonetheless, the chemical diffusion rates would entwine the self-diffusivities of corium constituents, which in turn would depend on the melt chemical composition. This work looks at some aspects of analytical and experimental determination of self-diffusivities of corium constituents. Following the corium-concrete interaction, an ex-vessel corium melt would contain several chemical components, including a fraction of silica. Accordingly, ex-vessel corium is considered in this paper as a silicate melts. In the realm of the geological and glass sciences, where silicate melts are most often discussed, the diffusive transport and viscous flow are conceived interrelated from a phenomenological point of view. Though the viscous and diffusive mass transfer mechanisms are not identical for different species even in the same melt, a combination of semi-empirical models can still provide an estimation of the diffusion thresholds in ex-vessel corium melts. Thus, the first part of this paper presents an analysis of the applicability of such empirical models for simple silicate melts based on the published data. This is followed by an estimation of diffusivities in melt compositions typical of ex-vessel coriums. Alternatively, although the general trend towards a coupled description of the viscous flow and diffusion for ex-vessel corium melts seems promising, it is limited to published data on self-diffusivities of

  18. Diffusive flux in a model of stochastically gated oxygen transport in insect respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Oxygen delivery to insect tissues is controlled by transport through a branched tubular network that is connected to the atmosphere by valve-like gates, known as spiracles. In certain physiological regimes, the spiracles appear to be randomly switching between open and closed states. Quantitative analysis of this regime leads a reaction-diffusion problem with stochastically switching boundary condition. We derive an expression for the diffusive flux at long times in this problem. Our approach starts with the derivation of the passage probability for a single particle that diffuses between a stochastically gated boundary, which models the opening and closing spiracle, and the perfectly absorbing boundary, which models oxygen absorption by the tissue. This passage probability is then used to derive an expression giving the diffusive flux as a function of the geometric parameters of the tube and characteristic time scales of diffusion and gate dynamics.

  19. Maxwell's Law Based Models for Liquid and Gas Phase Diffusivities in Variably-Saturated Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamamoto, Shoichiro; Møldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken

    2012-01-01

    -s,D-l). Different percolation threshold terms adopted from recent studies for gas (D-s,D-g) and solute (D-s,D-l) diffusion were applied. For gas diffusion, epsilon(th) was a function of bulk density (total porosity), while for solute diffusion theta(th) was best described by volumetric content of finer soil...... particles (clay and organic matter), FINESvol. The resulting LIquid and GAs diffusivity and tortuosity (LIGA) models were tested against D-s,D-g and D-s,D-l data for differently-textured soils and performed well against the measured data across soil types. A sensitivity analysis using the new Maxwell's Law...... based LIGA models implied that the liquid phase but not the gaseous-phase tortuosity was controlled by soil type. The analyses also suggested very different pathways and fluid-phase connectivity for gas and solute diffusion in unsaturated soil...

  20. A Nonlinear Diffusion Equation-Based Model for Ultrasound Speckle Noise Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Guo, Zhichang; Zhang, Dazhi; Wu, Boying

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasound images are contaminated by speckle noise, which brings difficulties in further image analysis and clinical diagnosis. In this paper, we address this problem in the view of nonlinear diffusion equation theories. We develop a nonlinear diffusion equation-based model by taking into account not only the gradient information of the image, but also the information of the gray levels of the image. By utilizing the region indicator as the variable exponent, we can adaptively control the diffusion type which alternates between the Perona-Malik diffusion and the Charbonnier diffusion according to the image gray levels. Furthermore, we analyze the proposed model with respect to the theoretical and numerical properties. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves much better speckle suppression and edge preservation when compared with the traditional despeckling methods, especially in the low gray level and low-contrast regions.

  1. Microscopic modeling of the Raman diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.; Morice, O.; Gremillet, L.; Strozzi, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the typical conditions of density and electronic temperature of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ), a quantitative assessment of the Raman reflectivity requires an accurate calculation of the non-linear movement of each electron submitted to the waves propagating in the plasma. The interaction of a laser beam with a plasma generates an electronic wave shifted in frequency (that can be back-scattered) and an electron plasma wave (OPE). The OPE can give to the electrons a strongly non-linear movement by trapping them in a potential well. This non-linearity of microscopic origin has an impact on the plasma electronic density. We have succeeded in computing this plasma electronic density in a very accurate way by combining the principles of a perturbative approach with those of an adiabatic theory. Results show that the Raman diffusion can grow on temperature and density ranges more important than expected. We have predicted the threshold and the behavior of the Raman diffusion above this threshold as accurately as we had done it with a Vlasov code but by being 10000 times more rapid. (A.C.)

  2. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peihua; Zhu, Anding; Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi

    Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public social communities

  3. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Fu

    Full Text Available Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data.We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution.We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation.To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public

  4. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Background Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. Methods We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. Results We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. Conclusion To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount

  5. Residual sweeping errors in turbulent particle pair diffusion in a Lagrangian diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nadeem A

    2017-01-01

    Thomson, D. J. & Devenish, B. J. [J. Fluid Mech. 526, 277 (2005)] and others have suggested that sweeping effects make Lagrangian properties in Kinematic Simulations (KS), Fung et al [Fung J. C. H., Hunt J. C. R., Malik N. A. & Perkins R. J. J. Fluid Mech. 236, 281 (1992)], unreliable. However, such a conclusion can only be drawn under the assumption of locality. The major aim here is to quantify the sweeping errors in KS without assuming locality. Through a novel analysis based upon analysing pairs of particle trajectories in a frame of reference moving with the large energy containing scales of motion it is shown that the normalized integrated error [Formula: see text] in the turbulent pair diffusivity (K) due to the sweeping effect decreases with increasing pair separation (σl), such that [Formula: see text] as σl/η → ∞; and [Formula: see text] as σl/η → 0. η is the Kolmogorov turbulence microscale. There is an intermediate range of separations 1 < σl/η < ∞ in which the error [Formula: see text] remains negligible. Simulations using KS shows that in the swept frame of reference, this intermediate range is large covering almost the entire inertial subrange simulated, 1 < σl/η < 105, implying that the deviation from locality observed in KS cannot be atributed to sweeping errors. This is important for pair diffusion theory and modeling. PACS numbers: 47.27.E?, 47.27.Gs, 47.27.jv, 47.27.Ak, 47.27.tb, 47.27.eb, 47.11.-j.

  6. A strongly nonlinear reaction-diffusion model for a deterministic diffusive epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirane, M.; Kouachi, S.

    1992-10-01

    In the present paper the mathematical validity of a model on the spread of an infectious disease is proved. This model was proposed by Bailey. The mathematical validity is proved by means of a positivity, uniqueness and existence theorem. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the problem, the solution requires a delicate set of techniques. It seems very difficult to extend these techniques to a model in more than one dimension without imposing conditions on the diffusivities. (author). 7 refs

  7. Modeling and experiments for the time-dependent diffusion coefficient during methane desorption from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Wu, Li; Hong-Lai, Xue; Cheng, Guan; Wen-biao, Liu

    2018-04-01

    Statistical analysis shows that in the coal matrix, the diffusion coefficient for methane is time-varying, and its integral satisfies the formula μt κ /(1 + β κ ). Therefore, a so-called dynamic diffusion coefficient model (DDC model) is developed. To verify the suitability and accuracy of the DDC model, a series of gas diffusion experiments were conducted using coal particles of different sizes. The results show that the experimental data can be accurately described by the DDC and bidisperse models, but the fit to the DDC model is slightly better. For all coal samples, as time increases, the effective diffusion coefficient first shows a sudden drop, followed by a gradual decrease before stabilizing at longer times. The effective diffusion coefficient has a negative relationship with the size of the coal particle. Finally, the relationship between the constants of the DDC model and the effective diffusion coefficient is discussed. The constant α (μ/R 2 ) denotes the effective coefficient at the initial time, and the constants κ and β control the attenuation characteristic of the effective diffusion coefficient.

  8. Verification of atmospheric diffusion models using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Junji; Kido, Hiroko; Hato, Shinji; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2009-03-01

    Straight-line or segmented plume models as atmospheric diffusion models are commonly used in probabilistic accident consequence assessment (PCA) codes due to cost and time savings. The PCA code, OSCAAR developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Present; Japan Atomic Energy Agency) uses the variable puff trajectory model to calculate atmospheric transport and dispersion of released radionuclides. In order to investigate uncertainties involved with the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model in OSCAAR, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes that included regional meteorological models RAMS and atmospheric transport model HYPACT, which were developed by Colorado State University, and comparative analyses between OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT have been performed. In this study, model verification of OSCAAR and RAMS/HYPACT was conducted using data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments, which were carried out in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken. The predictions by models and the results of the atmospheric diffusion experiments indicated relatively good agreements. And it was shown that model performance of OSCAAR was the same degree as it of RAMS/HYPACT. (author)

  9. Detailed thermodynamic analysis of a diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Ahmed; Mejbri, Khalifa; Bellagi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced simulation model for a Diffusion-Absorption Refrigerator DAR using ammonia/water/hydrogen as working fluids, and developed to describe and predict the behavior of the device under different operating conditions. The system is supposed to be cooled with ambient air and actuated with solar hot water available at 200 °C. The DAR is first simulated for a set of basic data; a COP of 0.126 associated to a cooling capacity of 22.3 W are found. Basing on the obtained results an exergetic analysis of the system is performed which shows that the rectifier contribution to the exergy destruction is the most important with 34%. In a second step, the thermal capacities of all heat exchangers of the DAR are evaluated and the mathematical model so modified that the calculated capacities are now used as input data. A parametric study of the cycle is then carried out. The COP is found to exhibit a maximum when the heat supplied to the boiler or to the bubble pump is varied. Similar behavior is observed for variable submergence ratio. It is further noted that the COP is very sensitive to the ambient air temperature and to the absorber efficiency. - Highlights: • A detailed model of a Diffusion Absorption is developed and simulated. • Irreversibility of each component of the cycle is examined. • A modified model based on thermal capacity of components of the DAR is elaborated. • System performance is calculated over a series of practical operating conditions.

  10. Analysis of diffuse gallium lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahumi; Sui, Osamu; Mukaijo, Toshihumi; Tokuyama, Noritami; Tanouchi, Miki; Kitsukawa, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    Diffuse lung uptake of Ga-67 was observed on scintigrams in 56 patients. It was considered attributable to drugs in 21 patients. Only 7 patients complained of fever, cough, and dyspnea, 5 of whom spontaneously recovered without any treatment. This seemed to reflect clinically reversible cases, as well as to support the usefulness of Ga-67 scintigraphy in early detection of drug-induced pneumonitis. In one patient that died of acute pneumonitis, only a small amount of cyclophosphamide (3,400 mg) had been administered. Drug dosage seemed to be unrelated to the prognosis of drug-induced pneumonitis. Seventeen patients underwent Ga-67 scintigraphy within one month after the completion of chemotherapy. The most frequently given dosage of cyclophosphamide was 2,000 mg or less. In early detecting drug-induced pneumonitis, the optimum time of Ga-67 scintigraphy was considered to be the first one month after completion of chemotherapy. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Fractional order analysis of Sephadex gel structures: NMR measurements reflecting anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Neuberger, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the appearance of anomalous water diffusion in hydrophilic Sephadex gels observed using pulse field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR diffusion data was collected using a Varian 14.1 Tesla imaging system with a home-built RF saddle coil. A fractional order analysis of the data was used to characterize heterogeneity in the gels for the dynamics of water diffusion in this restricted environment. Several recent studies of anomalous diffusion have used the stretched exponential function to model the decay of the NMR signal, i.e., exp[-( bD) α], where D is the apparent diffusion constant, b is determined the experimental conditions (gradient pulse separation, durations and strength), and α is a measure of structural complexity. In this work, we consider a different case where the spatial Laplacian in the Bloch-Torrey equation is generalized to a fractional order model of diffusivity via a complexity parameter, β, a space constant, μ, and a diffusion coefficient, D. This treatment reverts to the classical result for the integer order case. The fractional order decay model was fit to the diffusion-weighted signal attenuation for a range of b-values (0 < b < 4000 s mm -2). Throughout this range of b values, the parameters β, μ and D, were found to correlate with the porosity and tortuosity of the gel structure.

  12. Design analysis for optimal calibration of diffusivity in reactive multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Vohra, Manav

    2017-05-29

    Calibration of the uncertain Arrhenius diffusion parameters for quantifying mixing rates in Zr–Al nanolaminate foils have been previously performed in a Bayesian setting [M. Vohra, J. Winokur, K.R. Overdeep, P. Marcello, T.P. Weihs, and O.M. Knio, Development of a reduced model of formation reactions in Zr–Al nanolaminates, J. Appl. Phys. 116(23) (2014): Article No. 233501]. The parameters were inferred in a low-temperature, homogeneous ignition regime, and a high-temperature self-propagating reaction regime. In this work, we extend the analysis to determine optimal experimental designs that would provide the best data for inference. We employ a rigorous framework that quantifies the expected information gain in an experiment, and find the optimal design conditions using Monte Carlo techniques, sparse quadrature, and polynomial chaos surrogates. For the low-temperature regime, we find the optimal foil heating rate and pulse duration, and confirm through simulation that the optimal design indeed leads to sharp posterior distributions of the diffusion parameters. For the high-temperature regime, we demonstrate the potential for increasing the expected information gain concerning the posteriors by increasing the sample size and reducing the uncertainty in measurements. Moreover, posterior marginals are also obtained to verify favourable experimental scenarios.

  13. Discrete random walk models for space-time fractional diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenflo, Rudolf; Mainardi, Francesco; Moretti, Daniele; Pagnini, Gianni; Paradisi, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    A physical-mathematical approach to anomalous diffusion may be based on generalized diffusion equations (containing derivatives of fractional order in space or/and time) and related random walk models. By space-time fractional diffusion equation we mean an evolution equation obtained from the standard linear diffusion equation by replacing the second-order space derivative with a Riesz-Feller derivative of order α is part of (0,2] and skewness θ (moduleθ≤{α,2-α}), and the first-order time derivative with a Caputo derivative of order β is part of (0,1]. Such evolution equation implies for the flux a fractional Fick's law which accounts for spatial and temporal non-locality. The fundamental solution (for the Cauchy problem) of the fractional diffusion equation can be interpreted as a probability density evolving in time of a peculiar self-similar stochastic process that we view as a generalized diffusion process. By adopting appropriate finite-difference schemes of solution, we generate models of random walk discrete in space and time suitable for simulating random variables whose spatial probability density evolves in time according to this fractional diffusion equation

  14. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Sobchuk, A N [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-01-31

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  15. Flux-limited diffusion models in radiation hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.; Szilard, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss certain flux-limited diffusion theories which approximately describe radiative transfer in the presence of steep spatial gradients. A new formulation is presented which generalizes a flux-limited description currently in widespread use for large radiation hydrodynamic calculations. This new formation allows more than one Case discrete mode to be described by a flux-limited diffusion equation. Such behavior is not extant in existing formulations. Numerical results predicted by these flux-limited diffusion models are presented for radiation penetration into an initially cold halfspace. 37 refs., 5 figs

  16. Convergence of surface diffusion parameters with model crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer M.; Voter, Arthur F.

    1994-07-01

    A study of the variation in the calculated quantities for adatom diffusion with respect to the size of the model crystal is presented. The reported quantities include surface diffusion barrier heights, pre-exponential factors, and dynamical correction factors. Embedded atom method (EAM) potentials were used throughout this effort. Both the layer size and the depth of the crystal were found to influence the values of the Arrhenius factors significantly. In particular, exchange type mechanisms required a significantly larger model than standard hopping mechanisms to determine adatom diffusion barriers of equivalent accuracy. The dynamical events that govern the corrections to transition state theory (TST) did not appear to be as sensitive to crystal depth. Suitable criteria for the convergence of the diffusion parameters with regard to the rate properties are illustrated.

  17. Multi-scale analysis of collective behavior in 2D self-propelled particle models of swarms: An Advection-Diffusion with Memory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghib, Michael; Levin, Simon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis

    2010-05-01

    Self-propelled particle models (SPP's) are a class of agent-based simulations that have been successfully used to explore questions related to various flavors of collective motion, including flocking, swarming, and milling. These models typically consist of particle configurations, where each particle moves with constant speed, but changes its orientation in response to local averages of the positions and orientations of its neighbors found within some interaction region. These local averages are based on `social interactions', which include avoidance of collisions, attraction, and polarization, that are designed to generate configurations that move as a single object. Errors made by the individuals in the estimates of the state of the local configuration are modeled as a random rotation of the updated orientation resulting from the social rules. More recently, SPP's have been introduced in the context of collective decision-making, where the main innovation consists of dividing the population into naïve and `informed' individuals. Whereas naïve individuals follow the classical collective motion rules, members of the informed sub-population update their orientations according to a weighted average of the social rules and a fixed `preferred' direction, shared by all the informed individuals. Collective decision-making is then understood in terms of the ability of the informed sub-population to steer the whole group along the preferred direction. Summary statistics of collective decision-making are defined in terms of the stochastic properties of the random walk followed by the centroid of the configuration as the particles move about, in particular the scaling behavior of the mean squared displacement (msd). For the region of parameters where the group remains coherent , we note that there are two characteristic time scales, first there is an anomalous transient shared by both purely naïve and informed configurations, i.e. the scaling exponent lies between 1 and

  18. When mechanism matters: Bayesian forecasting using models of ecological diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Russell, Robin E.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Powell, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological diffusion is a theory that can be used to understand and forecast spatio-temporal processes such as dispersal, invasion, and the spread of disease. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling provides a framework to make statistical inference and probabilistic forecasts, using mechanistic ecological models. To illustrate, we show how hierarchical Bayesian models of ecological diffusion can be implemented for large data sets that are distributed densely across space and time. The hierarchical Bayesian approach is used to understand and forecast the growth and geographic spread in the prevalence of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We compare statistical inference and forecasts from our hierarchical Bayesian model to phenomenological regression-based methods that are commonly used to analyse spatial occurrence data. The mechanistic statistical model based on ecological diffusion led to important ecological insights, obviated a commonly ignored type of collinearity, and was the most accurate method for forecasting.

  19. Homogenization of neutronic diffusion models; Homogeneisation des modeles de diffusion en neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdebosq, Y

    1999-09-01

    In order to study and simulate nuclear reactor cores, one needs to access the neutron distribution in the core. In practice, the description of this density of neutrons is given by a system of diffusion equations, coupled by non differential exchange terms. The strong heterogeneity of the medium constitutes a major obstacle to the numerical computation of this models at reasonable cost. Homogenization appears as compulsory. Heuristic methods have been developed since the origin by nuclear physicists, under a periodicity assumption on the coefficients. They consist in doing a fine computation one a single periodicity cell, to solve the system on the whole domain with homogeneous coefficients, and to reconstruct the neutron density by multiplying the solutions of the two computations. The objectives of this work are to provide mathematically rigorous basis to this factorization method, to obtain the exact formulas of the homogenized coefficients, and to start on geometries where two periodical medium are placed side by side. The first result of this thesis concerns eigenvalue problem models which are used to characterize the state of criticality of the reactor, under a symmetry assumption on the coefficients. The convergence of the homogenization process is proved, and formulas of the homogenized coefficients are given. We then show that without symmetry assumptions, a drift phenomenon appears. It is characterized by the mean of a real Bloch wave method, which gives the homogenized limit in the general case. These results for the critical problem are then adapted to the evolution model. Finally, the homogenization of the critical problem in the case of two side by side periodic medium is studied on a one dimensional on equation model. (authors)

  20. Statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode. III. Photomicrograph study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winsel, A W

    1965-12-01

    A linear section through a gas diffusion electrode produces a certain distribution function of sinews with the pores. From this distribution function some qualities of the pore structure are derived, and an automatic device to determine the distribution function is described. With a statistical model of a gas diffusion electrode the behavior of a DSK electrode is discussed and compared with earlier measurements of the flow resistance of this material.

  1. Numerical modelling of random walk one-dimensional diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamos, C.; Suciu, N.; Peculea, M.

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of a particle which moves on a discrete one-dimensional lattice, according to a random walk low, approximates better the diffusion process smaller the steps of the spatial lattice and time are. For a sufficiently large assembly of particles one can assume that their relative frequency at lattice knots approximates the distribution function of the diffusion process. This assumption has been tested by simulating on computer two analytical solutions of the diffusion equation: the Brownian motion and the steady state linear distribution. To evaluate quantitatively the similarity between the numerical and analytical solutions we have used a norm given by the absolute value of the difference of the two solutions. Also, a diffusion coefficient at any lattice knots and moment of time has been calculated, by using the numerical solution both from the diffusion equation and the particle flux given by Fick's low. The difference between diffusion coefficient of analytical solution and the spatial lattice mean coefficient of numerical solution constitutes another quantitative indication of the similarity of the two solutions. The results obtained show that the approximation depends first on the number of particles at each knot of the spatial lattice. In conclusion, the random walk is a microscopic process of the molecular dynamics type which permits simulations precision of the diffusion processes with given precision. The numerical method presented in this work may be useful both in the analysis of real experiments and for theoretical studies

  2. Turbulent eddy diffusion models in exposure assessment - Determination of the eddy diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuan; Ramachandran, Sandhya; Arnold, Susan; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2017-03-01

    The use of the turbulent eddy diffusion model and its variants in exposure assessment is limited due to the lack of knowledge regarding the isotropic eddy diffusion coefficient, D T . But some studies have suggested a possible relationship between D T and the air changes per hour (ACH) through a room. The main goal of this study was to accurately estimate D T for a range of ACH values by minimizing the difference between the concentrations measured and predicted by eddy diffusion model. We constructed an experimental chamber with a spatial concentration gradient away from the contaminant source, and conducted 27 3-hr long experiments using toluene and acetone under different air flow conditions (0.43-2.89 ACHs). An eddy diffusion model accounting for chamber boundary, general ventilation, and advection was developed. A mathematical expression for the slope based on the geometrical parameters of the ventilation system was also derived. There is a strong linear relationship between D T and ACH, providing a surrogate parameter for estimating D T in real-life settings. For the first time, a mathematical expression for the relationship between D T and ACH has been derived that also corrects for non-ideal conditions, and the calculated value of the slope between these two parameters is very close to the experimentally determined value. The values of D T obtained from the experiments are generally consistent with values reported in the literature. They are also independent of averaging time of measurements, allowing for comparison of values obtained from different measurement settings. These findings make the use of turbulent eddy diffusion models for exposure assessment in workplace/indoor environments more practical.

  3. Modelling and simulation of diffusive processes methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, SK

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the key issues in the modeling and simulation of diffusive processes from a wide spectrum of different applications across a broad range of disciplines. Features: discusses diffusion and molecular transport in living cells and suspended sediment in open channels; examines the modeling of peristaltic transport of nanofluids, and isotachophoretic separation of ionic samples in microfluidics; reviews thermal characterization of non-homogeneous media and scale-dependent porous dispersion resulting from velocity fluctuations; describes the modeling of nitrogen fate and transport

  4. Random variability in mesoscale wind observations and implications for diffusion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S.R. [Sigma Research Corp., Concord, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The investigation reported in this paper grew out of a preliminary analysis of methods by which regional air quality models such as the Regional Oxidant Model account for horizontal transport and diffusion. It was discovered that there is a variety of often inconsistent methods used to parameterize horizontal diffusion at meso- and regional scales, and the time seemed ripe to review and compare and contrast these schemes. This paper provides a brief overview of the major issues that were uncovered and lists a few specific examples of the technical approaches that are used. Subsequent sections cover the basic physics of horizontal diffusion, the characteristics of observed wind fields, and methods of parameterizing horizontal diffusion in air quality models.

  5. A model of non-Gaussian diffusion in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoiselée, Yann; Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2018-04-01

    Recent progress in single-particle tracking has shown evidence of the non-Gaussian distribution of displacements in living cells, both near the cellular membrane and inside the cytoskeleton. Similar behavior has also been observed in granular materials, turbulent flows, gels and colloidal suspensions, suggesting that this is a general feature of diffusion in complex media. A possible interpretation of this phenomenon is that a tracer explores a medium with spatio-temporal fluctuations which result in local changes of diffusivity. We propose and investigate an ergodic, easily interpretable model, which implements the concept of diffusing diffusivity. Depending on the parameters, the distribution of displacements can be either flat or peaked at small displacements with an exponential tail at large displacements. We show that the distribution converges slowly to a Gaussian one. We calculate statistical properties, derive the asymptotic behavior and discuss some implications and extensions.

  6. Modelling of monovacancy diffusion in W over wide temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukonte, L.; Ahlgren, T.; Heinola, K.

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion of monovacancies in tungsten is studied computationally over a wide temperature range from 1300 K until the melting point of the material. Our modelling is based on Molecular Dynamics technique and Density Functional Theory. The monovacancy migration barriers are calculated using nudged elastic band method for nearest and next-nearest neighbour monovacancy jumps. The diffusion pre-exponential factor for monovacancy diffusion is found to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than commonly used in computational studies, resulting in attempt frequency of the order 10 15 Hz. Multiple nearest neighbour jumps of monovacancy are found to play an important role in the contribution to the total diffusion coefficient, especially at temperatures above 2/3 of T m , resulting in an upward curvature of the Arrhenius diagram. The probabilities for different nearest neighbour jumps for monovacancy in W are calculated at different temperatures

  7. Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion analysis of nodal expansion method for steady convection diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiafeng; Guo, Jiong; Li, Fu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NEMs are innovatively applied to solve convection diffusion equation. • Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion for NEM are analyzed for the first time. • Stability and numerical diffusion depend on the NEM expansion order and its parity. • NEMs have higher accuracy than both second order upwind and QUICK scheme. • NEMs with different expansion orders are integrated into a unified discrete form. - Abstract: The traditional finite difference method or finite volume method (FDM or FVM) is used for HTGR thermal-hydraulic calculation at present. However, both FDM and FVM require the fine mesh sizes to achieve the desired precision and thus result in a limited efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient and accurate numerical method needs to be developed. Nodal expansion method (NEM) can achieve high accuracy even on the coarse meshes in the reactor physics analysis so that the number of spatial meshes and computational cost can be largely decreased. Because of higher efficiency and accuracy, NEM can be innovatively applied to thermal-hydraulic calculation. In the paper, NEMs with different orders of basis functions are successfully developed and applied to multi-dimensional steady convection diffusion equation. Numerical results show that NEMs with three or higher order basis functions can track the reference solutions very well and are superior to second order upwind scheme and QUICK scheme. However, the false diffusion and unphysical oscillation behavior are discovered for NEMs. To explain the reasons for the above-mentioned behaviors, the stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion properties of NEM are analyzed by the Fourier analysis, and by comparing with exact solutions of difference and differential equation. The theoretical analysis results show that the accuracy of NEM increases with the expansion order. However, the stability and numerical diffusion properties depend not only on the order of basis functions but also on the parity of

  8. Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion analysis of nodal expansion method for steady convection diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiafeng, E-mail: zhou-xf11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Guo, Jiong, E-mail: guojiong12@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Fu, E-mail: lifu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • NEMs are innovatively applied to solve convection diffusion equation. • Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion for NEM are analyzed for the first time. • Stability and numerical diffusion depend on the NEM expansion order and its parity. • NEMs have higher accuracy than both second order upwind and QUICK scheme. • NEMs with different expansion orders are integrated into a unified discrete form. - Abstract: The traditional finite difference method or finite volume method (FDM or FVM) is used for HTGR thermal-hydraulic calculation at present. However, both FDM and FVM require the fine mesh sizes to achieve the desired precision and thus result in a limited efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient and accurate numerical method needs to be developed. Nodal expansion method (NEM) can achieve high accuracy even on the coarse meshes in the reactor physics analysis so that the number of spatial meshes and computational cost can be largely decreased. Because of higher efficiency and accuracy, NEM can be innovatively applied to thermal-hydraulic calculation. In the paper, NEMs with different orders of basis functions are successfully developed and applied to multi-dimensional steady convection diffusion equation. Numerical results show that NEMs with three or higher order basis functions can track the reference solutions very well and are superior to second order upwind scheme and QUICK scheme. However, the false diffusion and unphysical oscillation behavior are discovered for NEMs. To explain the reasons for the above-mentioned behaviors, the stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion properties of NEM are analyzed by the Fourier analysis, and by comparing with exact solutions of difference and differential equation. The theoretical analysis results show that the accuracy of NEM increases with the expansion order. However, the stability and numerical diffusion properties depend not only on the order of basis functions but also on the parity of

  9. The parton model for the diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducati, M.B. Gay; Machado, M.V.T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the Buchmueller-Hebecker model for diffraction processes, point out its predictions to the diffractive structure function F D(3) 2 (x IP , β,Q 2 ). The break of factorization for the F D93) 2 present in recent H1 data is well described introducing an extra soft (reggeon) contribution as an extension to the model. (author)

  10. A combinatorial model of malware diffusion via bluetooth connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Stefano; Jurman, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy) and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable) expression.

  11. A combinatorial model of malware diffusion via bluetooth connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Merler

    Full Text Available We outline here the mathematical expression of a diffusion model for cellphones malware transmitted through Bluetooth channels. In particular, we provide the deterministic formula underlying the proposed infection model, in its equivalent recursive (simple but computationally heavy and closed form (more complex but efficiently computable expression.

  12. Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  13. Anomalous Transport of Cosmic Rays in a Nonlinear Diffusion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E. [Department of Mathematics, University of Waikato, P. B. 3105, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand); Fichtner, Horst; Walter, Dominik [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2017-05-20

    We investigate analytically and numerically the transport of cosmic rays following their escape from a shock or another localized acceleration site. Observed cosmic-ray distributions in the vicinity of heliospheric and astrophysical shocks imply that anomalous, superdiffusive transport plays a role in the evolution of the energetic particles. Several authors have quantitatively described the anomalous diffusion scalings, implied by the data, by solutions of a formal transport equation with fractional derivatives. Yet the physical basis of the fractional diffusion model remains uncertain. We explore an alternative model of the cosmic-ray transport: a nonlinear diffusion equation that follows from a self-consistent treatment of the resonantly interacting cosmic-ray particles and their self-generated turbulence. The nonlinear model naturally leads to superdiffusive scalings. In the presence of convection, the model yields a power-law dependence of the particle density on the distance upstream of the shock. Although the results do not refute the use of a fractional advection–diffusion equation, they indicate a viable alternative to explain the anomalous diffusion scalings of cosmic-ray particles.

  14. Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra-Santos Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.

  15. Diffuse solar radiation estimation models for Turkey's big cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulgen, Koray; Hepbasli, Arif

    2009-01-01

    A reasonably accurate knowledge of the availability of the solar resource at any place is required by solar engineers, architects, agriculturists, and hydrologists in many applications of solar energy such as solar furnaces, concentrating collectors, and interior illumination of buildings. For this purpose, in the past, various empirical models (or correlations) have been developed in order to estimate the solar radiation around the world. This study deals with diffuse solar radiation estimation models along with statistical test methods used to statistically evaluate their performance. Models used to predict monthly average daily values of diffuse solar radiation are classified in four groups as follows: (i) From the diffuse fraction or cloudness index, function of the clearness index, (ii) From the diffuse fraction or cloudness index, function of the relative sunshine duration or sunshine fraction, (iii) From the diffuse coefficient, function of the clearness index, and (iv) From the diffuse coefficient, function of the relative sunshine duration or sunshine fraction. Empirical correlations are also developed to establish a relationship between the monthly average daily diffuse fraction or cloudness index (K d ) and monthly average daily diffuse coefficient (K dd ) with the monthly average daily clearness index (K T ) and monthly average daily sunshine fraction (S/S o ) for the three big cities by population in Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir). Although the global solar radiation on a horizontal surface and sunshine duration has been measured by the Turkish State Meteorological Service (STMS) over all country since 1964, the diffuse solar radiation has not been measured. The eight new models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface in three big cites are validated, and thus, the most accurate model is selected for guiding future projects. The new models are then compared with the 32 models available in the

  16. Diffusion theory model for optimization calculations of cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Cold neutron sources are becoming increasingly important and common experimental facilities made available at many research reactors around the world due to the high utility of cold neutrons in scattering experiments. The authors describe a simple two-group diffusion model of an infinite slab LD 2 cold source. The simplicity of the model permits to obtain an analytical solution from which one can deduce the reason for the optimum thickness based solely on diffusion-type phenomena. Also, a second more sophisticated model is described and the results compared to a deterministic transport calculation. The good (particularly qualitative) agreement between the results suggests that diffusion theory methods can be used in parametric and optimization studies to avoid the generally more expensive transport calculations

  17. Optimizing the Diffusion Welding Process for Alloy 800H: Thermodynamic, Diffusion Modeling, and Experimental Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizia, R.E.; Clark, D.E.; Glazoff, M.V.; Lister, Tedd E.; Trowbridge, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    A research effort was made to evaluate the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools, Thermo-Calc(copyright) and Dictra(copyright), in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. This would achieve a substantial reduction in the overall number of experiments required to achieve optimal welding and post-weld heat treatment conditions. This problem is important because diffusion welded components of Alloy 800H are being evaluated for use in assembling compact, micro-channel heat exchangers that are being proposed in the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor by the US Department of Energy. The modeling was done in close contact with experimental work. The latter included using the Gleeble 3500 System(reg sign) for welding simulation, mechanical property measurement, and light optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using a 15 μm Ni foil as a joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved, and model refinements to account for the complexity of actual alloy materials are suggested.

  18. Modeling of the interplay between single-file diffusion and conversion reaction in mesoporous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-11

    We analyze the spatiotemporal behavior of species concentrations in a diffusion-mediated conversion reaction which occurs at catalytic sites within linear pores of nanometer diameter. A strict single-file (no passing) constraint occurs in the diffusion within such narrow pores. Both transient and steady-state behavior is precisely characterized by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a spatially discrete lattice–gas model for this reaction–diffusion process considering various distributions of catalytic sites. Exact hierarchical master equations can also be developed for this model. Their analysis, after application of mean-field type truncation approximations, produces discrete reaction–diffusion type equations (mf-RDE). For slowly varying concentrations, we further develop coarse-grained continuum hydrodynamic reaction–diffusion equations (h-RDE) incorporating a precise treatment of single-file diffusion (SFD) in this multispecies system. Noting the shortcomings of mf-RDE and h-RDE, we then develop a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) formulation of appropriate gh-RDE which incorporates an unconventional description of chemical diffusion in mixed-component quasi-single-file systems based on a refined picture of tracer diffusion for finite-length pores. The gh-RDE elucidate the non-exponential decay of the steady-state reactant concentration into the pore and the non-mean-field scaling of the reactant penetration depth. Then an extended model of a catalytic conversion reaction within a functionalized nanoporous material is developed to assess the effect of varying the reaction product – pore interior interaction from attractive to repulsive. The analysis is performed utilizing the generalized hydrodynamic formulation of the reaction-diffusion equations which can reliably capture the complex interplay between reaction and restricted transport for both irreversible and reversible reactions.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE EFFECT OF COSMIC-RAY DIFFUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Takuhito [Computational Science and Engineering Division I, AdvanceSoft Corporation, 4-3, Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Ko, Chung-Ming, E-mail: kuwabrtk@gmail.com, E-mail: cmko@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Institute of Astronomy and Center for Complex Systems, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan 320 (China)

    2015-01-10

    We present the results obtained from the linear stability analysis and 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetorotational instability (MRI), including the effects of cosmic rays (CRs). We took into account the CR diffusion along the magnetic field but neglected the cross-field-line diffusion. Two models are considered in this paper: the shearing box model and differentially rotating cylinder model. We studied how MRI is affected by the initial CR pressure (i.e., energy) distribution. In the shearing box model, the initial state is uniform distribution. Linear analysis shows that the growth rate of MRI does not depend on the value of the CR diffusion coefficient. In the differentially rotating cylinder model, the initial state is a constant angular momentum polytropic disk threaded by a weak uniform vertical magnetic field. Linear analysis shows that the growth rate of MRI becomes larger if the CR diffusion coefficient is larger. Both results are confirmed by MHD simulations. The MHD simulation results show that the outward movement of matter by the growth of MRI is not impeded by the CR pressure gradient, and the centrifugal force that acts on the concentrated matter becomes larger. Consequently, the growth rate of MRI is increased. On the other hand, if the initial CR pressure is uniform, then the growth rate of the MRI barely depends on the value of the CR diffusion coefficient.

  20. Modelling Ni diffusion in bentonite using different sorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingsten, W.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An important component of the multi barrier disposal concept for a radioactive waste repository is the bentonite backfill surrounding the canisters containing vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel located in the tunnels deep within the chosen host rock. The effectiveness of the compacted bentonite barrier is such that calculations have indicated that many radionuclides have decayed to insignificant levels before having diffused through the thickness of bentonite. These calculations are performed using the simple Kd sorption concept in which the values are taken from batch type experiments performed on dispersed systems performed for a single metal at a time, usually at trace concentrations. However, in such complex systems many radionuclides, inactive metal contaminants/ground water components may be simultaneously present in the aqueous phase at a range of concentrations varying with time during the temporal evolution of the repository system. An important aspect influencing the sorption of any radioactive metal under a set of given geochemical conditions is its competition with other metals present, and how this may vary as a function of concentration. Competitive sorption effects are not currently included in safety assessments and are thus an issue which needs to be addressed. Here we provide some first estimates of the potential influence of competitive sorption effects on the migration of radioactive metals through compacted bentonite as a function of their concentration and the concentration of competing metals. Ni(II) and Fe(II) were chosen as possible competing cations since their concentration levels are expected to have values greater than trace levels and effects might be maximal and canister corrosion represents a permanent Fe source at the bentonite interface which could influence bivalent radionuclide diffusion. The modelling of the Ni(II) diffusion/sorption has been carried out using three

  1. Analysis and correction of gradient nonlinearity bias in apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarenko, Dariya I; Ross, Brian D; Chenevert, Thomas L

    2014-03-01

    Gradient nonlinearity of MRI systems leads to spatially dependent b-values and consequently high non-uniformity errors (10-20%) in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements over clinically relevant field-of-views. This work seeks practical correction procedure that effectively reduces observed ADC bias for media of arbitrary anisotropy in the fewest measurements. All-inclusive bias analysis considers spatial and time-domain cross-terms for diffusion and imaging gradients. The proposed correction is based on rotation of the gradient nonlinearity tensor into the diffusion gradient frame where spatial bias of b-matrix can be approximated by its Euclidean norm. Correction efficiency of the proposed procedure is numerically evaluated for a range of model diffusion tensor anisotropies and orientations. Spatial dependence of nonlinearity correction terms accounts for the bulk (75-95%) of ADC bias for FA = 0.3-0.9. Residual ADC non-uniformity errors are amplified for anisotropic diffusion. This approximation obviates need for full diffusion tensor measurement and diagonalization to derive a corrected ADC. Practical scenarios are outlined for implementation of the correction on clinical MRI systems. The proposed simplified correction algorithm appears sufficient to control ADC non-uniformity errors in clinical studies using three orthogonal diffusion measurements. The most efficient reduction of ADC bias for anisotropic medium is achieved with non-lab-based diffusion gradients. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A diffuse radar scattering model from Martian surface rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing of Mars has been done with a variety of instrumentation at various wavelengths. Many of these data sets can be reconciled with a surface model of bonded fines (or duricrust) which varies widely across the surface and a surface rock distribution which varies less so. A surface rock distribution map from -60 to +60 deg latitude has been generated by Christensen. Our objective is to model the diffuse component of radar reflection based on this surface distribution of rocks. The diffuse, rather than specular, scattering is modeled because the diffuse component arises due to scattering from rocks with sizes on the order of the wavelength of the radar beam. Scattering for radio waves of 12.5 cm is then indicative of the meter scale and smaller structure of the surface. The specular term is indicative of large scale surface undulations and should not be causally related to other surface physical properties. A simplified model of diffuse scattering is described along with two rock distribution models. The results of applying the models to a planet of uniform fractional rock coverage with values ranging from 5 to 20% are discussed.

  3. Diffusion approximation of neuronal models revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čupera, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 11-25 ISSN 1547-1063. [International Workshop on Neural Coding (NC) /10./. Praha, 02.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : stochastic model * neuronal activity * first-passage time Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2014

  4. Diffusion in energy materials: Governing dynamics from atomistic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, D.; Kordatos, A.; Filippatos, P. P.; Chroneos, A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding diffusion in energy materials is critical to optimising the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and batteries both of which are of great technological interest as they offer high efficiency for cleaner energy conversion and storage. In the present review, we highlight the insights offered by atomistic modelling of the ionic diffusion mechanisms in SOFCs and batteries and how the growing predictive capability of high-throughput modelling, together with our new ability to control compositions and microstructures, will produce advanced materials that are designed rather than chosen for a given application. The first part of the review focuses on the oxygen diffusion mechanisms in cathode and electrolyte materials for SOFCs and in particular, doped ceria and perovskite-related phases with anisotropic structures. The second part focuses on disordered oxides and two-dimensional materials as these are very promising systems for battery applications.

  5. Estimation and prediction under local volatility jump-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namhyoung; Lee, Younhee

    2018-02-01

    Volatility is an important factor in operating a company and managing risk. In the portfolio optimization and risk hedging using the option, the value of the option is evaluated using the volatility model. Various attempts have been made to predict option value. Recent studies have shown that stochastic volatility models and jump-diffusion models reflect stock price movements accurately. However, these models have practical limitations. Combining them with the local volatility model, which is widely used among practitioners, may lead to better performance. In this study, we propose a more effective and efficient method of estimating option prices by combining the local volatility model with the jump-diffusion model and apply it using both artificial and actual market data to evaluate its performance. The calibration process for estimating the jump parameters and local volatility surfaces is divided into three stages. We apply the local volatility model, stochastic volatility model, and local volatility jump-diffusion model estimated by the proposed method to KOSPI 200 index option pricing. The proposed method displays good estimation and prediction performance.

  6. A multiscale MD-FE model of diffusion in composite media with internal surface interaction based on numerical homogenization procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, M; Milosevic, M; Kojic, N; Kim, K; Ferrari, M; Ziemys, A

    2014-02-01

    Mass transport by diffusion within composite materials may depend not only on internal microstructural geometry, but also on the chemical interactions between the transported substance and the material of the microstructure. Retrospectively, there is a gap in methods and theory to connect material microstructure properties with macroscale continuum diffusion characteristics. Here we present a new hierarchical multiscale model for diffusion within composite materials that couples material microstructural geometry and interactions between diffusing particles and the material matrix. This model, which bridges molecular dynamics (MD) and the finite element (FE) method, is employed to construct a continuum diffusion model based on a novel numerical homogenization procedure. The procedure is general and robust for evaluating constitutive material parameters of the continuum model. These parameters include the traditional bulk diffusion coefficients and, additionally, the distances from the solid surface accounting for surface interaction effects. We implemented our models to glucose diffusion through the following two geometrical/material configurations: tightly packed silica nanospheres, and a complex fibrous structure surrounding nanospheres. Then, rhodamine 6G diffusion analysis through an aga-rose gel network was performed, followed by a model validation using our experimental results. The microstructural model, numerical homogenization and continuum model offer a new platform for modeling and predicting mass diffusion through complex biological environment and within composite materials that are used in a wide range of applications, like drug delivery and nanoporous catalysts.

  7. A multiscale MD–FE model of diffusion in composite media with internal surface interaction based on numerical homogenization procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Kojic, N.; Kim, K.; Ferrari, M.; Ziemys, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mass transport by diffusion within composite materials may depend not only on internal microstructural geometry, but also on the chemical interactions between the transported substance and the material of the microstructure. Retrospectively, there is a gap in methods and theory to connect material microstructure properties with macroscale continuum diffusion characteristics. Here we present a new hierarchical multiscale model for diffusion within composite materials that couples material microstructural geometry and interactions between diffusing particles and the material matrix. This model, which bridges molecular dynamics (MD) and the finite element (FE) method, is employed to construct a continuum diffusion model based on a novel numerical homogenization procedure. The procedure is general and robust for evaluating constitutive material parameters of the continuum model. These parameters include the traditional bulk diffusion coefficients and, additionally, the distances from the solid surface accounting for surface interaction effects. We implemented our models to glucose diffusion through the following two geometrical/material configurations: tightly packed silica nanospheres, and a complex fibrous structure surrounding nanospheres. Then, rhodamine 6G diffusion analysis through an aga-rose gel network was performed, followed by a model validation using our experimental results. The microstructural model, numerical homogenization and continuum model offer a new platform for modeling and predicting mass diffusion through complex biological environment and within composite materials that are used in a wide range of applications, like drug delivery and nanoporous catalysts. PMID:24578582

  8. Asymmetric diffusion model for oblique-incidence reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqin Chen; Liji Cao; Liqun Sun

    2011-01-01

    A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectom-etry. By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model, the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp') away from the incident point; particularly, μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy. The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.%A diffusion theory model induced by a line source distribution is presented for oblique-incidence reflectometry.By fitting to this asymmetric diffusion model,the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients μa and μ's of the turbid medium can both be determined with accuracy of 10% from the absolute profile of the diffuse reflectance in the incident plane at the negative position -1.5 transport mean free path (mfp')away from the incident point;particularly,μ's can be estimated from the data at positive positions within 0-1.0 mfp' with 10% accuracy.The method is verified by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally tested on a phantom.Knowledge about the optical properties,including the absorption coefficient (μa) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's =μs(1-g)),where μs is the scattering coefficient and g is the anisotropy factor of scattering,of biological tissues plays an important role for optical therapeutic and diagnostic techniques in medicine.

  9. Static pressure recovery analysis in the vane island diffuser of a centrifugal pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Qiaorui [National Research Center of Pumps, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Dupont, Patrick; Bayeul-Laine, Annie-Claude; Dazin, Antoine; Roussette, Olivier; Bois, Gerard [LML, UMR CNRS 8107 Ecole Centrale de Lille, Lille (France)

    2016-02-15

    The overall performance of a vane-island type diffuser of a centrifugal pump model was obtained by means of directional probe traverses. These measurements were performed in an air model of a real hydraulic pump for five volume flow rates. Directional probe traverses are performed with a classical three-hole probe to cover most of the complete inlet section of the diffuser from hub to shroud and from pressure to suction side. Existing Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results are also used to compare probe measurement results between the inlet and outlet throats of vane island diffuser at mid-span. Some assistance from already existing unsteady calculation, including leakage effects, is used to evaluate the numerical approach capability and to correctly define the mean initial conditions at impeller's outlet section. Pressure recovery and the measured total pressure loss levels inside this particular vane diffuser geometry are then calculated. Detailed analysis of the flow structure at the inlet section of the vane island diffuser is presented to focus on pressure evolution inside the entire diffuser section for different flow rates. The combined effects of incidence angle and blockage distributions along hub to shroud direction are found to play an important role on loss distribution in such a diffuser.

  10. A novel rumor diffusion model considering the effect of truth in online social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a model to investigate how truth affects rumor diffusion in online social media. Our model reveals a relation between rumor and truth — namely, when a rumor is diffusing, the truth about the rumor also diffuses with it. Two patterns of the agents used to identify rumor, self-identification and passive learning are taken into account. Combining theoretical proof and simulation analysis, we find that the threshold value of rumor diffusion is negatively correlated to the connectivity between nodes in the network and the probability β of agents knowing truth. Increasing β can reduce the maximum density of the rumor spreaders and slow down the generation speed of new rumor spreaders. On the other hand, we conclude that the best rumor diffusion strategy must balance the probability of forwarding rumor and the probability of agents losing interest in the rumor. High spread rate λ of rumor would lead to a surge in truth dissemination which will greatly limit the diffusion of rumor. Furthermore, in the case of unknown λ, increasing β can effectively reduce the maximum proportion of agents who do not know the truth, but cannot narrow the rumor diffusion range in a certain interval of β.

  11. Cosmic ray propagation in a diffusion model: a new estimation of the diffusion parameters and of the secondary antiprotons flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurin, D.

    2001-02-01

    Dark matter is present at numerous scale of the universe (galaxy, cluster of galaxies, universe in the whole). This matter plays an important role in cosmology and can not be totally explained by conventional physic. From a particle physic point of view, there exists an extension of the standard model - supersymmetry - which predicts under certain conditions the existence of new stable and massive particles, the latter interacting weakly with ordinary matter. Apart from direct detection in accelerators, various indirect astrophysical detection are possible. This thesis focuses on one particular signature: disintegration of these particles could give antiprotons which should be measurable in cosmic rays. The present study evaluates the background corresponding to this signal i. e. antiprotons produced in the interactions between these cosmic rays and interstellar matter. In particular, uncertainties of this background being correlated to the uncertainties of the diffusion parameter, major part of this thesis is devoted to nuclei propagation. The first third of the thesis introduces propagation of cosmic rays in our galaxy, emphasizing the nuclear reaction responsibles of the nuclei fragmentation. In the second third, different models are reviewed, and in particular links between the leaky box model and the diffusion model are recalled (re-acceleration and convection are also discussed). This leads to a qualitative discussion about information that one can infer from propagation of these nuclei. In the last third, we finally present detailed solutions of the bidimensional diffusion model, along with constrains obtained on the propagation parameters. The latter is applied on the antiprotons background signal and it concludes the work done in this thesis. The propagation code for nuclei and antiprotons used here has proven its ability in data analysis. It would probably be of interest for the analysis of the cosmic ray data which will be taken by the AMS experiment on

  12. Modified chloride diffusion model for concrete under the coupling effect of mechanical load and chloride salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Mingfeng; Lin, Dayong; Liu, Jianwen; Shi, Chenghua; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Weichao; Yu, Xiaoniu

    2018-03-01

    For the purpose of investigating lining concrete durability, this study derives a modified chloride diffusion model for concrete based on the odd continuation of boundary conditions and Fourier transform. In order to achieve this, the linear stress distribution on a sectional structure is considered, detailed procedures and methods are presented for model verification and parametric analysis. Simulation results show that the chloride diffusion model can reflect the effects of linear stress distribution of the sectional structure on the chloride diffusivity with reliable accuracy. Along with the natural environmental characteristics of practical engineering structures, reference value ranges of model parameters are provided. Furthermore, a chloride diffusion model is extended for the consideration of multi-factor coupling of linear stress distribution, chloride concentration and diffusion time. Comparison between model simulation and typical current research results shows that the presented model can produce better considerations with a greater universality.

  13. Evaluation of the Thermodynamic Models for the Thermal Diffusion Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Bagnoli, Mariana G.; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, several thermodynamic models for the thermal diffusion factors for binary mixtures have been proposed. The goal of this paper is to test some of these models in combination with different equations of state. We tested the following models: those proposed by Rutherford and Drickamer...... we applied different thermodynamic models, such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong and the Peng-Robinson equations of state. The necessity to try different thermo-dynamic models is caused by the high sensitivity of the thermal diffusion factors to the values of the partial molar properties. Two different...... corrections for the determination of the partial molar volumes have been implemented; the Peneloux correction and the correction based on the principle of corresponding states....

  14. Three dimensional simulated modelling of diffusion capacitance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three dimensional (3-D) simulated modelling was developed to analyse the excess minority carrier density in the base of a polycrystalline bifacial silicon solar cell. The concept of junction recombination velocity was ado-pted to quantify carrier flow through the junction, and to examine the solar cell diffusion capacitance for ...

  15. Analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E P; Kassner, K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    We consider a class of analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems. An analytical treatment is possible because the nonlinear reaction term is approximated by a piecewise linear function. As particular examples we choose front and pulse solutions to illustrate the matching procedure in the one-dimensional case.

  16. An improved analytical model of diffusion through the RIST target

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J

    2003-01-01

    The diffusion and effusion through the RIST target is calculated using a more realistic model than previously. Extremely good fits to the data are obtained and new values of the time constants of effusion through the target and the ioniser are found.

  17. Methodology for using prompt gamma activation analysis to measure the binary diffusion coefficient of a gas in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Perez, Carlos A.; Biegalski, Steve R.; Deinert, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Prompt gamma activation analysis is used to study gas diffusion in a porous system. ► Diffusion coefficients are determined using prompt gamma activation analysis. ► Predictions concentrations fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.98. - Abstract: Diffusion plays a critical role in determining the rate at which gases migrate through porous systems. Accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients are essential if gas transport is to be accurately modeled and better techniques are needed that can be used to measure these coefficients non-invasively. Here we present a novel method for using prompt gamma activation analysis to determine the binary diffusion coefficients of a gas in a porous system. Argon diffusion experiments were conducted in a 1 m long, 10 cm diameter, horizontal column packed with a SiO 2 sand. The temporal variation of argon concentration within the system was measured using prompt gamma activation analysis. The binary diffusion coefficient was obtained by comparing the experimental data with the predictions from a numerical model in which the diffusion coefficient was varied until the sum of square errors between experiment and model data was minimized. Predictions of argon concentration using the optimal diffusivity fit experimental measurements with an R 2 of 0.983.

  18. Standard test method for accelerated leach test for diffusive releases from solidified waste and a computer program to model diffusive, fractional leaching from cylindrical waste forms

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can...

  19. An alternative atmospheric diffusion model for control room habitability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) staff uses procedures to evaluate control room designs for compliance with General Design Criterion 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Appendix A, 10 CRF Part 50. These procedures deal primarily with radiation protection. However, other hazardous materials, for example, chlorine, pose a potential threat to control room habitability. The NRC is considering changes in their current procedures to update methods and extend their applicability. Two changes to the current procedures are suggested: using a puff diffusion model to estimate concentrations at air intakes and using a new method to estimate diffusion coefficients

  20. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow.

  1. Bottleneck Analysis of the Mobile Internet Diffusion in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Benseny, Jaume; Finley, Benjamin; Hämmäinen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    According to the ITU, in 2013, only 6% of the population in developing countries had access to broadband Internet. Nevertheless, mobile Internet penetration rates have already exceeded those of fixed telecommunication services and may help in bridging the digital divide. To understand this phenomenon, we model the mobile Internet diffusion process via a system dynamics model that includes user competence, data price, and mobile network capacity as the main contributors to consumer utility and...

  2. On a Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model for Option Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edeki S.O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In financial mathematics, option pricing models are vital tools whose usefulness cannot be overemphasized. Modern approaches and modelling of financial derivatives are therefore required in option pricing and valuation settings. In this paper, we derive via the application of Ito lemma, a pricing model referred to as Generalized Squared Gaussian Diffusion Model (GSGDM for option pricing and valuation. Same approach can be considered via Stratonovich stochastic dynamics. We also show that the classical Black-Scholes, and the square root constant elasticity of variance models are special cases of the GSGDM. In addition, general solution of the GSGDM is obtained using modified variational iterative method (MVIM.

  3. Leaky-box approximation to the fractional diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchaikin, V V; Sibatov, R T; Saenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    Two models based on fractional differential equations for galactic cosmic ray diffusion are applied to the leaky-box approximation. One of them (Lagutin-Uchaikin, 2000) assumes a finite mean free path of cosmic ray particles, another one (Lagutin-Tyumentsev, 2004) uses distribution with infinite mean distance between collision with magnetic clouds, when the trajectories have form close to ballistic. Calculations demonstrate that involving boundary conditions is incompatible with spatial distributions given by the second model.

  4. Intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity MR imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using stretched exponential diffusion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Vincent; Khong, Pek Lan [University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Pok Fu Lam (China); Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On; Sze, Henry Chun Kin [University of Hong Kong, Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Pok Fu Lam (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories (China)

    2015-06-01

    To determine the utility of stretched exponential diffusion model in characterisation of the water diffusion heterogeneity in different tumour stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty patients with newly diagnosed NPC were prospectively recruited. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed using five b values (0-2,500 s/mm{sup 2}). Respective stretched exponential parameters (DDC, distributed diffusion coefficient; and alpha (α), water heterogeneity) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for determination of the predictive powers of DDC and α using t test and ROC curve analyses. The mean ± standard deviation values were DDC = 0.692 ± 0.199 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) for low stage group vs 0.794 ± 0.253 (x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) for high stage group; α = 0.792 ± 0.145 for low stage group vs 0.698 ± 0.155 for high stage group. α was significantly lower in the high stage group while DDC was negatively correlated. DDC and α were both reliable independent predictors (p < 0.001), with α being more powerful. Optimal cut-off values were (sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) DDC = 0.692 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (94.4 %, 64.3 %, 2.64, 0.09), α = 0.720 (72.2 %, 100 %, -, 0.28). The heterogeneity index α is robust and can potentially help in staging and grading prediction in NPC. (orig.)

  5. Intravoxel water diffusion heterogeneity MR imaging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using stretched exponential diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Vincent; Khong, Pek Lan; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lam, Ka On; Sze, Henry Chun Kin; Chan, Queenie

    2015-01-01

    To determine the utility of stretched exponential diffusion model in characterisation of the water diffusion heterogeneity in different tumour stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty patients with newly diagnosed NPC were prospectively recruited. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed using five b values (0-2,500 s/mm 2 ). Respective stretched exponential parameters (DDC, distributed diffusion coefficient; and alpha (α), water heterogeneity) were calculated. Patients were stratified into low and high tumour stage groups based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for determination of the predictive powers of DDC and α using t test and ROC curve analyses. The mean ± standard deviation values were DDC = 0.692 ± 0.199 (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) for low stage group vs 0.794 ± 0.253 (x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) for high stage group; α = 0.792 ± 0.145 for low stage group vs 0.698 ± 0.155 for high stage group. α was significantly lower in the high stage group while DDC was negatively correlated. DDC and α were both reliable independent predictors (p < 0.001), with α being more powerful. Optimal cut-off values were (sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio) DDC = 0.692 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (94.4 %, 64.3 %, 2.64, 0.09), α = 0.720 (72.2 %, 100 %, -, 0.28). The heterogeneity index α is robust and can potentially help in staging and grading prediction in NPC. (orig.)

  6. Modelling Of Eco-innovation Diffusion: The EU Eco-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIJEK TOMASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to carry out a theoretical and empirical analysis of the process of eco-label diffusion. Eco-labels allow consumers to identify products and services that have a reduced environmental impact during their life cycle. Thus, they are aimed at diminishing the information gap between sellers and buyers. The results of the estimation using the Bass model indicate that the diffusion of the EU eco-label has been most dynamic in countries such as Hungary, Poland, Denmark, Germany and France. In turn, the scope of diffusion (absolute saturation level reached the highest value for companies in France and Italy. In addition, the results of the study confirm the stimulating impact of the scope of eco-label diffusion on consumer awareness of environmental issues. This finding points to the need for environmental education among consumers, which could in turn encourage firms to undertake pro-environmental actions.

  7. Robust and fast nonlinear optimization of diffusion MRI microstructure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, R L; Fritz, F J; Tobisch, A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A

    2017-07-15

    Advances in biophysical multi-compartment modeling for diffusion MRI (dMRI) have gained popularity because of greater specificity than DTI in relating the dMRI signal to underlying cellular microstructure. A large range of these diffusion microstructure models have been developed and each of the popular models comes with its own, often different, optimization algorithm, noise model and initialization strategy to estimate its parameter maps. Since data fit, accuracy and precision is hard to verify, this creates additional challenges to comparability and generalization of results from diffusion microstructure models. In addition, non-linear optimization is computationally expensive leading to very long run times, which can be prohibitive in large group or population studies. In this technical note we investigate the performance of several optimization algorithms and initialization strategies over a few of the most popular diffusion microstructure models, including NODDI and CHARMED. We evaluate whether a single well performing optimization approach exists that could be applied to many models and would equate both run time and fit aspects. All models, algorithms and strategies were implemented on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to remove run time constraints, with which we achieve whole brain dataset fits in seconds to minutes. We then evaluated fit, accuracy, precision and run time for different models of differing complexity against three common optimization algorithms and three parameter initialization strategies. Variability of the achieved quality of fit in actual data was evaluated on ten subjects of each of two population studies with a different acquisition protocol. We find that optimization algorithms and multi-step optimization approaches have a considerable influence on performance and stability over subjects and over acquisition protocols. The gradient-free Powell conjugate-direction algorithm was found to outperform other common algorithms in terms of

  8. Diffusion weighted imaging in patients with rectal cancer: Comparison between Gaussian and non-Gaussian models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Manikis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four diffusion models, including mono and bi-exponential both Gaussian and non-Gaussian models, in diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer.Nineteen patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent MRI examination of the rectum before chemoradiation therapy including a 7 b-value diffusion sequence (0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 at a 1.5T scanner. Four different diffusion models including mono- and bi-exponential Gaussian (MG and BG and non-Gaussian (MNG and BNG were applied on whole tumor volumes of interest. Two different statistical criteria were recruited to assess their fitting performance, including the adjusted-R2 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. To decide which model better characterizes rectal cancer, model selection was relied on Akaike Information Criteria (AIC and F-ratio.All candidate models achieved a good fitting performance with the two most complex models, the BG and the BNG, exhibiting the best fitting performance. However, both criteria for model selection indicated that the MG model performed better than any other model. In particular, using AIC Weights and F-ratio, the pixel-based analysis demonstrated that tumor areas better described by the simplest MG model in an average area of 53% and 33%, respectively. Non-Gaussian behavior was illustrated in an average area of 37% according to the F-ratio, and 7% using AIC Weights. However, the distributions of the pixels best fitted by each of the four models suggest that MG failed to perform better than any other model in all patients, and the overall tumor area.No single diffusion model evaluated herein could accurately describe rectal tumours. These findings probably can be explained on the basis of increased tumour heterogeneity, where areas with high vascularity could be fitted better with bi-exponential models, and areas with necrosis would mostly follow mono-exponential behavior.

  9. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this

  10. Logical analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, G; Alexe, S; Axelrod, D E; Hammer, P L; Weissmann, D

    2005-07-01

    The goal of this study is to re-examine the oligonucleotide microarray dataset of Shipp et al., which contains the intensity levels of 6817 genes of 58 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 19 with follicular lymphoma (FL), by means of the combinatorics, optimisation, and logic-based methodology of logical analysis of data (LAD). The motivations for this new analysis included the previously demonstrated capabilities of LAD and its expected potential (1) to identify different informative genes than those discovered by conventional statistical methods, (2) to identify combinations of gene expression levels capable of characterizing different types of lymphoma, and (3) to assemble collections of such combinations that if considered jointly are capable of accurately distinguishing different types of lymphoma. The central concept of LAD is a pattern or combinatorial biomarker, a concept that resembles a rule as used in decision tree methods. LAD is able to exhaustively generate the collection of all those patterns which satisfy certain quality constraints, through a systematic combinatorial process guided by clear optimization criteria. Then, based on a set covering approach, LAD aggregates the collection of patterns into classification models. In addition, LAD is able to use the information provided by large collections of patterns in order to extract subsets of variables, which collectively are able to distinguish between different types of disease. For the differential diagnosis of DLBCL versus FL, a model based on eight significant genes is constructed and shown to have a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 100% on the test set. For the prognosis of good versus poor outcome among the DLBCL patients, a model is constructed on another set consisting also of eight significant genes, and shown to have a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 90% on the test set. The genes selected by LAD also work well as a basis for other kinds of statistical

  11. Mathematical modelling of pasta dough dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuţ SIMION

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the mathematical variation of three main thermodynamic properties (dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of pasta dough obtained by mixing wheat semolina and water with dough humidity and deformation speed (for dynamic viscosity, respectively with dough humidity and temperature (for thermal diffusivity and conductivity. The realized regression analysis of existing graphical data led to the development of mathematical models with a high degree of accuracy. The employed statistical tests (least squares, relative error and analysis of variance revealed that the obtained equations are able to describe and predict the tendency of the dough thermodynamic properties.

  12. Exposure, hazard, and survival analysis of diffusion on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiacheng; Crawford, Forrest W; Kim, David A; Stafford, Derek; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2018-04-29

    Sociologists, economists, epidemiologists, and others recognize the importance of social networks in the diffusion of ideas and behaviors through human societies. To measure the flow of information on real-world networks, researchers often conduct comprehensive sociometric mapping of social links between individuals and then follow the spread of an "innovation" from reports of adoption or change in behavior over time. The innovation is introduced to a small number of individuals who may also be encouraged to spread it to their network contacts. In conjunction with the known social network, the pattern of adoptions gives researchers insight into the spread of the innovation in the population and factors associated with successful diffusion. Researchers have used widely varying statistical tools to estimate these quantities, and there is disagreement about how to analyze diffusion on fully observed networks. Here, we describe a framework for measuring features of diffusion processes on social networks using the epidemiological concepts of exposure and competing risks. Given a realization of a diffusion process on a fully observed network, we show that classical survival regression models can be adapted to estimate the rate of diffusion, and actor/edge attributes associated with successful transmission or adoption, while accounting for the topology of the social network. We illustrate these tools by applying them to a randomized network intervention trial conducted in Honduras to estimate the rate of adoption of 2 health-related interventions-multivitamins and chlorine bleach for water purification-and determine factors associated with successful social transmission. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Diffusion in higher dimensional SYK model with complex fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenhe; Ge, Xian-Hui; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2018-01-01

    We construct a new higher dimensional SYK model with complex fermions on bipartite lattices. As an extension of the original zero-dimensional SYK model, we focus on the one-dimension case, and similar Hamiltonian can be obtained in higher dimensions. This model has a conserved U(1) fermion number Q and a conjugate chemical potential μ. We evaluate the thermal and charge diffusion constants via large q expansion at low temperature limit. The results show that the diffusivity depends on the ratio of free Majorana fermions to Majorana fermions with SYK interactions. The transport properties and the butterfly velocity are accordingly calculated at low temperature. The specific heat and the thermal conductivity are proportional to the temperature. The electrical resistivity also has a linear temperature dependence term.

  14. Fractional Heat Conduction Models and Thermal Diffusivity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Žecová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the fractional heat conduction models and their use for determining thermal diffusivity. A brief historical overview of the authors who have dealt with the heat conduction equation is described in the introduction of the paper. The one-dimensional heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are listed. Analytical and numerical methods of solution of the heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are described. Individual methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the examples of simulations are listed. The proposal and experimental verification of the methods for determining thermal diffusivity using half-order derivative of temperature by time are listed at the conclusion of the paper.

  15. Quantitative Model of Price Diffusion and Market Friction Based on Trading as a Mechanistic Random Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Marcus G.; Farmer, J. Doyne; Gillemot, László; Iori, Giulia; Smith, Eric

    2003-03-01

    We model trading and price formation in a market under the assumption that order arrival and cancellations are Poisson random processes. This model makes testable predictions for the most basic properties of markets, such as the diffusion rate of prices (which is the standard measure of financial risk) and the spread and price impact functions (which are the main determinants of transaction cost). Guided by dimensional analysis, simulation, and mean-field theory, we find scaling relations in terms of order flow rates. We show that even under completely random order flow the need to store supply and demand to facilitate trading induces anomalous diffusion and temporal structure in prices.

  16. A Diffusion Model for Two-sided Service Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Koichi; Yano, Koujin; Funabashi, Motohisa

    A diffusion model is proposed for two-sided service systems. ‘Two-sided’ refers to the existence of an economic network effect between two different and interrelated groups, e.g., card holders and merchants in an electronic money service. The service benefit for a member of one side depends on the number and quality of the members on the other side. A mathematical model by J. H. Rohlfs explains the network (or bandwagon) effect of communications services. In Rohlfs' model, only the users' group exists and the model is one-sided. This paper extends Rohlfs' model to a two-sided model. We propose, first, a micro model that explains individual behavior in regard to service subscription of both sides and a computational method that drives the proposed model. Second, we develop macro models with two diffusion-rate variables by simplifying the micro model. As a case study, we apply the models to an electronic money service and discuss the simulation results and actual statistics.

  17. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  18. Survey on visualization and analysis techniques based on diffusion MRI for in-vivo anisotropic diffusion structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masutani, Yoshitaka; Sato, Tetsuo; Urayama, Shin-ichi; Bihan, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    In association with development of diffusion MR imaging technologies for anisotropic diffusion measurement in living body, related research is explosively increasing including research fields of applied mathematics and visualization in addition to MR imaging, biomedical image technology, and medical science. One of the reasons is that the diffusion MRI data set is a set of high dimensional image information beyond conventional scalar or vector images, and is attractive for the researchers in the related fields. This survey paper is mainly aimed at introducing state-of-the-art of post processing techniques reported in the literature for diffusion MRI data, such as analysis and visualization. (author)

  19. Validation of a Computational Model for the SLS Core Stage Oxygen Tank Diffuser Concept and the Low Profile Diffuser - An Advanced Development Design for the SLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodnick, Jacob; Richardson, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    The Low Profile Diffuser (LPD) project originated as an award from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Development (ADO) office to the Main Propulsion Systems Branch (ER22). The task was created to develop and test an LPD concept that could produce comparable performance to a larger, traditionally designed, ullage gas diffuser while occupying a smaller volume envelope. Historically, ullage gas diffusers have been large, bulky devices that occupy a significant portion of the propellant tank, decreasing the tank volume available for propellant. Ullage pressurization of spacecraft propellant tanks is required to prevent boil-off of cryogenic propellants and to provide a positive pressure for propellant extraction. To achieve this, ullage gas diffusers must slow hot, high-pressure gas entering a propellant tank from supersonic speeds to only a few meters per second. Decreasing the incoming gas velocity is typically accomplished through expansion to larger areas within the diffuser which has traditionally led to large diffuser lengths. The Fluid Dynamics Branch (ER42) developed and applied advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis methods in order to mature the LPD design from and initial concept to an optimized test prototype and to provide extremely accurate pre-test predictions of diffuser performance. Additionally, the diffuser concept for the Core Stage of the Space Launch System (SLS) was analyzed in a short amount of time to guide test data collection efforts of the qualification of the device. CFD analysis of the SLS diffuser design provided new insights into the functioning of the device and was qualitatively validated against hot wire anemometry of the exterior flow field. Rigorous data analysis of the measurements was performed on static and dynamic pressure data, data from two microphones, accelerometers and hot wire anemometry with automated traverse. Feasibility of the LPD concept and validation of the computational model were

  20. Modeling information diffusion in time-varying community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuelian; Zhao, Narisa

    2017-12-01

    Social networks are rarely static, and they typically have time-varying network topologies. A great number of studies have modeled temporal networks and explored social contagion processes within these models; however, few of these studies have considered community structure variations. In this paper, we present a study of how the time-varying property of a modular structure influences the information dissemination. First, we propose a continuous-time Markov model of information diffusion where two parameters, mobility rate and community attractiveness, are introduced to address the time-varying nature of the community structure. The basic reproduction number is derived, and the accuracy of this model is evaluated by comparing the simulation and theoretical results. Furthermore, numerical results illustrate that generally both the mobility rate and community attractiveness significantly promote the information diffusion process, especially in the initial outbreak stage. Moreover, the strength of this promotion effect is much stronger when the modularity is higher. Counterintuitively, it is found that when all communities have the same attractiveness, social mobility no longer accelerates the diffusion process. In addition, we show that the local spreading in the advantage group has been greatly enhanced due to the agglomeration effect caused by the social mobility and community attractiveness difference, which thus increases the global spreading.

  1. An innovation diffusion model for new mobile technologies acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkoczia Nadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to approach the diffusion model developed in 1960 by Frank Bass has been utilized to study the distribution of different types of new products and services. The Bass Model helps by describing the process in which new products are adopted in a market. This model is a useful tool for predicting the first purchase of an innovative product for which there are competing alternatives on the market. It also provides the innovator with information regarding the size of customers and the adoption time for the product. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a monographic study of specific conceptual correlations between the diffusion of technology and marketing management that emphasizes technological uncertainty and market uncertainty as major risks to innovative projects. In the final section, the results of empirical research conducted in Baia-Mare, Romania will be presented in a way that uses diffusion Bass model to estimate the adoption period for new mobile technologies.

  2. Policy Adoption of Forest Management Unit: A Knowledge Diffusion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the policy adoption process of Forest Management Unit (FMU concept, there has been disagreement of stakeholders on FMUs concept. This disagreement is caused by the exchange of knowledge, information, and perception among stakeholders involved. The results of these interactions could speed up, slow down, and prevent the adoption process of FMU policy. The study objective was analyzing process of knowledge diffusion of FMUs development policy and stakeholders interaction in PFMU Batutegi and PFMU Kotaagung Utara, Indonesia. Adoption process was analyzed by the logical diffusion technique based on knowledge time of FMUs concept received and its interaction space. Social interaction among stakeholders was analyzed using method developed by International Development Studies analysis, i.e. interaction among discourse/narrative, actors/networks and politics/interests. The results showed that knowledge diffusion of FMUs concept in both PFMU tends to cascade diffusion. Factors was affecting of it process were network, role of opinion leaders, willingness to know, and understand on FMUs concept. Indicative strategy is needed as anticipating and overcoming an obstacle in its internalization process, i.e. harmonization of legislative and executive relationship, building an opinion the importance of FMU, and optimalizing network for bureaucratic problems.

  3. Single-shot spiral imaging enabled by an expanded encoding model: Demonstration in diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilm, Bertram J; Barmet, Christoph; Gross, Simon; Kasper, Lars; Vannesjo, S Johanna; Haeberlin, Max; Dietrich, Benjamin E; Brunner, David O; Schmid, Thomas; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the quality of single-shot spiral MRI and demonstrate its application for diffusion-weighted imaging. Image formation is based on an expanded encoding model that accounts for dynamic magnetic fields up to third order in space, nonuniform static B 0 , and coil sensitivity encoding. The encoding model is determined by B 0 mapping, sensitivity mapping, and concurrent field monitoring. Reconstruction is performed by iterative inversion of the expanded signal equations. Diffusion-tensor imaging with single-shot spiral readouts is performed in a phantom and in vivo, using a clinical 3T instrument. Image quality is assessed in terms of artefact levels, image congruence, and the influence of the different encoding factors. Using the full encoding model, diffusion-weighted single-shot spiral imaging of high quality is accomplished both in vitro and in vivo. Accounting for actual field dynamics, including higher orders, is found to be critical to suppress blurring, aliasing, and distortion. Enhanced image congruence permitted data fusion and diffusion tensor analysis without coregistration. Use of an expanded signal model largely overcomes the traditional vulnerability of spiral imaging with long readouts. It renders single-shot spirals competitive with echo-planar readouts and thus deploys shorter echo times and superior readout efficiency for diffusion imaging and further prospective applications. Magn Reson Med 77:83-91, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  5. Liver fibrosis: stretched exponential model outperforms mono-exponential and bi-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Park, Yung Nyun; Kim, Eunju; Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2018-07-01

    To compare the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters acquired from three different models for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis (HF). Ninety-five patients underwent DWI using nine b values at 3 T magnetic resonance. The hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from a mono-exponential model, the true diffusion coefficient (D t ), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D p ) and perfusion fraction (f) from a biexponential model, and the distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and intravoxel heterogeneity index (α) from a stretched exponential model were compared with the pathological HF stage. For the stretched exponential model, parameters were also obtained using a dataset of six b values (DDC # , α # ). The diagnostic performances of the parameters for HF staging were evaluated with Obuchowski measures and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The measurement variability of DWI parameters was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CoV). Diagnostic accuracy for HF staging was highest for DDC # (Obuchowski measures, 0.770 ± 0.03), and it was significantly higher than that of ADC (0.597 ± 0.05, p bi-exponential DWI model • Acquisition of six b values is sufficient to obtain accurate DDC and α.

  6. Statistical models of a gas diffusion electrode: II. Current resistent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proksch, D B; Winsel, O W

    1965-07-01

    The authors describe an apparatus for measuring the flow resistance of gas diffusion electrodes which is a mechanical analog of the Wheatstone bridge for measuring electric resistance. The flow resistance of a circular DSK electrode sheet, consisting of two covering layers and a working layer between them, was measured as a function of the gas pressure. While the pressure first was increased and then decreased, a hysteresis occurred, which is discussed and explained by a statistical model of a porous electrode.

  7. An epidemic model of rumor diffusion in online social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun-Jun; Liu, Yun; Shen, Bo; Yuan, Wei-Guo

    2013-01-01

    So far, in some standard rumor spreading models, the transition probability from ignorants to spreaders is always treated as a constant. However, from a practical perspective, the case that individual whether or not be infected by the neighbor spreader greatly depends on the trustiness of ties between them. In order to solve this problem, we introduce a stochastic epidemic model of the rumor diffusion, in which the infectious probability is defined as a function of the strength of ties. Moreover, we investigate numerically the behavior of the model on a real scale-free social site with the exponent γ = 2.2. We verify that the strength of ties plays a critical role in the rumor diffusion process. Specially, selecting weak ties preferentially cannot make rumor spread faster and wider, but the efficiency of diffusion will be greatly affected after removing them. Another significant finding is that the maximum number of spreaders max( S) is very sensitive to the immune probability μ and the decay probability v. We show that a smaller μ or v leads to a larger spreading of the rumor, and their relationships can be described as the function ln(max( S)) = Av + B, in which the intercept B and the slope A can be fitted perfectly as power-law functions of μ. Our findings may offer some useful insights, helping guide the application in practice and reduce the damage brought by the rumor.

  8. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi [Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP.

  9. Diffusion tensor analysis of corpus callosum in progressive supranuclear palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Shoichi; Makino, Takahiro; Shirai, Wakako; Hattori, Takamichi

    2008-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative disease featuring parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and frontal lobe dysfunction. The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. Seven consecutive patients with PSP were compared with 29 age-matched patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured in each area and differences between groups were analyzed. In the PSP group, FA values were significantly decreased in CC1 and CC2, and ADC values were significantly increased in CC1 and CC2. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed excellent reliability of FA and ADC analyses of CC1 for differentiating PSP from PD. The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients. This analysis can be an additional test for further confirmation of the diagnosis of PSP

  10. Computing diffuse fraction of global horizontal solar radiation: A model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, Sokol; Mahdavi, Ardeshir

    2012-06-01

    For simulation-based prediction of buildings' energy use or expected gains from building-integrated solar energy systems, information on both direct and diffuse component of solar radiation is necessary. Available measured data are, however, typically restricted to global horizontal irradiance. There have been thus many efforts in the past to develop algorithms for the derivation of the diffuse fraction of solar irradiance. In this context, the present paper compares eight models for estimating diffuse fraction of irradiance based on a database of measured irradiance from Vienna, Austria. These models generally involve mathematical formulations with multiple coefficients whose values are typically valid for a specific location. Subsequent to a first comparison of these eight models, three better performing models were selected for a more detailed analysis. Thereby, the coefficients of the models were modified to account for Vienna data. The results suggest that some models can provide relatively reliable estimations of the diffuse fractions of the global irradiance. The calibration procedure could only slightly improve the models' performance.

  11. Diffusion Forecasting Model with Basis Functions from QR-Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlim, John; Yang, Haizhao

    2017-12-01

    The diffusion forecasting is a nonparametric approach that provably solves the Fokker-Planck PDE corresponding to Itô diffusion without knowing the underlying equation. The key idea of this method is to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with a discrete representation of the shift (Koopman) operator on a set of basis functions generated via the diffusion maps algorithm. While the choice of these basis functions is provably optimal under appropriate conditions, computing these basis functions is quite expensive since it requires the eigendecomposition of an N× N diffusion matrix, where N denotes the data size and could be very large. For large-scale forecasting problems, only a few leading eigenvectors are computationally achievable. To overcome this computational bottleneck, a new set of basis functions constructed by orthonormalizing selected columns of the diffusion matrix and its leading eigenvectors is proposed. This computation can be carried out efficiently via the unpivoted Householder QR factorization. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm will be shown in both deterministically chaotic and stochastic dynamical systems; in the former case, the superiority of the proposed basis functions over purely eigenvectors is significant, while in the latter case forecasting accuracy is improved relative to using a purely small number of eigenvectors. Supporting arguments will be provided on three- and six-dimensional chaotic ODEs, a three-dimensional SDE that mimics turbulent systems, and also on the two spatial modes associated with the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation obtained from applying the Nonlinear Laplacian Spectral Analysis on the measured Outgoing Longwave Radiation.

  12. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. WILLIAMS [and others

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  13. Yearly, seasonal and monthly daily average diffuse sky radiation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, A.S.; Mujahid, A.M.; Turner, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    A daily average diffuse sky radiation regression model based on daily global radiation was developed utilizing two year data taken near Blytheville, Arkansas (Lat. =35.9 0 N, Long. = 89.9 0 W), U.S.A. The model has a determination coefficient of 0.91 and 0.092 standard error of estimate. The data were also analyzed for a seasonal dependence and four seasonal average daily models were developed for the spring, summer, fall and winter seasons. The coefficient of determination is 0.93, 0.81, 0.94 and 0.93, whereas the standard error of estimate is 0.08, 0.102, 0.042 and 0.075 for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. A monthly average daily diffuse sky radiation model was also developed. The coefficient of determination is 0.92 and the standard error of estimate is 0.083. A seasonal monthly average model was also developed which has 0.91 coefficient of determination and 0.085 standard error of estimate. The developed monthly daily average and daily models compare well with a selected number of previously developed models. (author). 11 ref., figs., tabs

  14. Diffusion Modeling: A Study of the Diffusion of “Jatropha Curcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, the study recommended the use of diffusion networks which integrate interpersonal networks, and multimedia strategies for the effective diffusion of innovation such as Jacodiesel in Adamawa State and other parts of the country. Keywords: Sustainability, Diffusion, Innovation, Communicative Influence, ...

  15. Numerical analysis of anisotropic diffusion effect on ICF hydrodynamic instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal-Loumé M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropic diffusion on hydrodynamic instabilities in the context of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF flows is numerically assessed. This anisotropy occurs in indirect-drive when laminated ablators are used to modify the lateral transport [1,2]. In direct-drive, non-local transport mechanisms and magnetic fields may modify the lateral conduction [3]. In this work, numerical simulations obtained with the code PERLE [4], dedicated to linear stability analysis, are compared with previous theoretical results [5]. In these approaches, the diffusion anisotropy can be controlled by a characteristic coefficient which enables a comprehensive study. This work provides new results on the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM and Darrieus-Landau (DL instabilities.

  16. Bank of models of hydrogen diffusion in irradiated materials for nuclear and thermonuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikhraj, E.V.; Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.; Romanenko, O.G.; Klepikov, A.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    The programs for calculation of one-dimensional hydrogen distribution in diffusion media with traps are proposed. The programs have been described by the differential equations in partial derivatives, taking into account presence of convertible chemical reaction of the first order (model by Hurst-Gauss), presence of convertible chemical reaction of the second order (model by MacNabb and Forster) or presence of two different interchanging diffusion channels with traps under boundary conditions of first, second and third kinds. Programs allows to calculate and to show dynamic distribution and its flow in diffusion media and traps along the sample (both uniform and consisting of several different layers, distinguished by media structure and phase composition) in experiment on hydrogen permeability and thermodesorption. Conditions of flow continuity takes place on the borders of section layers. Code for resolving of inversive problem - extraction of diffusion parameters from an experimental curve of a gas permeation flow for specified above tree models of diffusion is developed also. The programs a written in Pascal in variants for DOS and for Windows-95. The programs could be applied for the analysis of gas release results being obtained from the structural materials samples of nuclear-power installation. 6 refs

  17. Experimental and numerical modeling of chloride diffusivity in hardened cement concrete considering the aggregate shapes and exposure-duration effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jie

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental and numerical model describing the effects of the aggregate shapes and exposure duration of chloride diffusion into cement-based materials. A simple chloride diffusion test was performed on a concrete specimen composed of a mixture of cement mortar with crushed granites and round gravels. A simulation was done and the numerical model developed was applied to the matrix at the meso-scale level and the chloride diffusivity was investigated at 30, 60, and 90 days. The experimental and simulation results showed that the aggregate shape and the exposure duration of chloride diffusing into concrete are of high significance. It was indicated that the model with crushed granite presents a good resistance against chloride ingress, while the model with rounded gravels shows some sensitivity to the chloride penetration. It was also found out that when the time dependence of the diffusion coefficient is not taken into account, the diffusion rate will be overestimated. The meso-scale model developed in this study also provides a new method applied in the analysis of the chloride and water transport that causes damage to concrete considering the particle inclusion and the diffusion duration. Keywords: Meso-scale modeling, Chloride diffusivity, Concrete, Effects of aggregates shape and exposure duration, FEM

  18. Anomalous transport regimes in a stochastic advection-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranikov, I.L.; Kondratenko, P.S.; Matveev, L.V.

    2004-01-01

    A general solution to the stochastic advection-diffusion problem is obtained for a fractal medium with long-range correlated spatial fluctuations. A particular transport regime is determined by two basic parameters: the exponent 2h of power-law decay of the two-point velocity correlation function and the mean advection velocity u. The values of these parameters corresponding to anomalous diffusion are determined, and anomalous behavior of the tracer distribution is analyzed for various combinations of u and h. The tracer concentration is shown to decrease exponentially at large distances, whereas power-law decay is predicted by fractional differential equations. Equations that describe the essential characteristics of the solution are written in terms of coupled space-time fractional differential operators. The analysis relies on a diagrammatic technique and makes use of scale-invariant properties of the medium

  19. Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2004-01-01

    Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge

  20. Trojan War displayed as a full annihilation-diffusion-reaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    The diffusive pair annihilation model with embedded topological domains and archaeological data is applied in an analysis of the hypothetical Trojan-Greek war during the late Bronze Age. Estimations of parameter are explicitly made for critical dynamics of the model. In particular, the 8-metre walls of Troy could be viewed as the effective shield that provided the technological difference between the two armies. Suggestively, the numbers in The Iliad are quite sound, being in accord with Lanchester's laws of warfare.

  1. Thermodynamic modelling of fast dopant diffusion in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, V.; Chroneos, A.; Vallianatos, F.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, nickel and copper fast diffusion in silicon is investigated in the framework of the cBΩ thermodynamic model, which connects point defect parameters with the bulk elastic and expansion properties. All the calculated point defect thermodynamic properties (activation Gibbs free energy, activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume) exhibit temperature dependence due to the non-linear anharmonic behavior of the isothermal bulk modulus of Si. Calculated activation enthalpies (0.15-0.16 eV for Ni and 0.17-0.19 eV for Cu) are in agreement with the reported experimental results. Small values of calculated activation volumes for both dopants (˜4% of the mean atomic volume) are consistent with the interstitial diffusion of Ni and Cu in Si.

  2. Computing diffusivities from particle models out of equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embacher, Peter; Dirr, Nicolas; Zimmer, Johannes; Reina, Celia

    2018-04-01

    A new method is proposed to numerically extract the diffusivity of a (typically nonlinear) diffusion equation from underlying stochastic particle systems. The proposed strategy requires the system to be in local equilibrium and have Gaussian fluctuations but it is otherwise allowed to undergo arbitrary out-of-equilibrium evolutions. This could be potentially relevant for particle data obtained from experimental applications. The key idea underlying the method is that finite, yet large, particle systems formally obey stochastic partial differential equations of gradient flow type satisfying a fluctuation-dissipation relation. The strategy is here applied to three classic particle models, namely independent random walkers, a zero-range process and a symmetric simple exclusion process in one space dimension, to allow the comparison with analytic solutions.

  3. Traveling waves in a diffusive predator-prey model with holling type-III functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wantong; Wu Shiliang

    2008-01-01

    We establish the existence of traveling wave solutions and small amplitude traveling wave train solutions for a reaction-diffusion system based on a predator-prey model with Holling type-III functional response. The analysis is in the three-dimensional phase space of the nonlinear ordinary differential equation system given by the diffusive predator-prey system in the traveling wave variable. The methods used to prove the results are the shooting argument, invariant manifold theory and the Hopf bifurcation theorem

  4. Continuum modelling of silicon diffusion in indium gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Henry Lee, Jr.

    A possible method to overcome the physical limitations experienced by continued transistor scaling and continue improvements in performance and power consumption is integration of III-V semiconductors as alternative channel materials for logic devices. Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) is such a material from the III-V semiconductor family, which exhibit superior electron mobilities and injection velocities than that of silicon. In order for InGaAs integration to be realized, contact resistances must be minimized through maximizing activation of dopants in this material. Additionally, redistribution of dopants during processing must be clearly understood and ultimately controlled at the nanometer-scale. In this work, the activation and diffusion behavior of silicon, a prominent n-type dopant in InGaAs, has been characterized and subsequently modelled using the Florida Object Oriented Process and Device Simulator (FLOOPS). In contrast to previous reports, silicon exhibits non-negligible diffusion in InGaAs, even for smaller thermal budget rapid thermal anneals (RTAs). Its diffusion is heavily concentration-dependent, with broadening "shoulder-like" profiles when doping levels exceed 1-3x1019cm -3, for both ion-implanted and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown cases. Likewise a max net-activation value of ˜1.7x1019cm -3 is consistently reached with enough thermal processing, regardless of doping method. In line with experimental results and several ab-initio calculation results, rapid concentration-dependent diffusion of Si in InGaAs and the upper limits of its activation is believed to be governed by cation vacancies that serve as compensating defects in heavily n-type regions of InGaAs. These results are ultimately in line with an amphoteric defect model, where the activation limits of dopants are an intrinsic limitation of the material, rather than governed by individual dopant species or their methods of incorporation. As a result a Fermi level dependent point

  5. Diffusion of innovations in Axelrod’s model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, Paulo F. C.; Fontanari, José F.

    2015-11-01

    Axelrod's model for the dissemination of culture contains two key factors required to model the process of diffusion of innovations, namely, social influence (i.e., individuals become more similar when they interact) and homophily (i.e., individuals interact preferentially with similar others). The strength of these social influences are controlled by two parameters: $F$, the number of features that characterizes the cultures and $q$, the common number of states each feature can assume. Here we assume that the innovation is a new state of a cultural feature of a single individual -- the innovator -- and study how the innovation spreads through the networks among the individuals. For infinite regular lattices in one (1D) and two dimensions (2D), we find that initially the successful innovation spreads linearly with the time $t$, but in the long-time limit it spreads diffusively ($\\sim t^{1/2}$) in 1D and sub-diffusively ($\\sim t/\\ln t$) in 2D. For finite lattices, the growth curves for the number of adopters are typically concave functions of $t$. For random graphs with a finite number of nodes $N$, we argue that the classical S-shaped growth curves result from a trade-off between the average connectivity $K$ of the graph and the per feature diversity $q$. A large $q$ is needed to reduce the pace of the initial spreading of the innovation and thus delimit the early-adopters stage, whereas a large $K$ is necessary to ensure the onset of the take-off stage at which the number of adopters grows superlinearly with $t$. In an infinite random graph we find that the number of adopters of a successful innovation scales with $t^\\gamma$ with $\\gamma =1$ for $K> 2$ and $1/2 < \\gamma < 1$ for $K=2$. We suggest that the exponent $\\gamma$ may be a useful index to characterize the process of diffusion of successful innovations in diverse scenarios.

  6. Analysis of turbulent conical diffuser flow using second moment closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adane, K.K.; Tachie, M.F.; Ormiston, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    A commercial CFD code, CFX-TASCflow, is used to predict a turbulent conical diffuser flow. The computation was performed using a low-Reynolds number k-ω model, a low-Reynolds number k-ω based non-linear algebraic Reynolds stress model, and a second moment closure with a wall-function. The experimental data of Kassab are used to validate the numerical results. The results show that all the turbulence models reproduce the static pressure coefficient distribution reasonably well. The low Reynolds number k-ω models give better prediction of the friction velocity than the second moment closure. The models also predict the Reynolds shear stress reasonably well but fail to reproduce the correct level of the turbulent kinetic energy. (author)

  7. A current induced diffusion model of gas sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotston, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the experimental results on deuteron trapping in stainless steel targets at low temperatures carried out at Garching and Culham. The model proposes that the ions are trapped in two kinds of sites: Deep sites with high activation energy and shallow sites of low activation energy. Trapped deuterons reach the surface of the target by being expelled from shallow sites by the action of the ion beam and migrate to nearby sites in a random way, thus moving by a bombardment induced diffusion. Ions diffusing to the target surface and being released are said to be sputtered from the target. It has been necessary to assume numerical values for sizes of some of the processes which occur. With a suitable choice of values the model successfully predicts the numbers of deuterons trapped per unit area of the target, the obserbed density profile of the trapped ions and the threshold at which sputtering starts. The model also successfully describes the replacement of the trapped deuterons by protons, when the deuteron beam is replaced by a proton beam. The collision cross-section for beam ions and ions trapped in shallow sites is too large, 4 x 10 -13 cm 2 , for a binary collision and it is tentatively suggested that the ions in the shallow sites may be in small voids in the target which may be connected with blister formation. Comparison of the present model with one being developed to describe the trapping of deuterons in carbon suggests that it may be possible to describe all gas sputtering experiments in terms of diffusion processes. (orig.)

  8. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Nash, Martyn P; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM) model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD) processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  9. A discrete model to study reaction-diffusion-mechanics systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available This article introduces a discrete reaction-diffusion-mechanics (dRDM model to study the effects of deformation on reaction-diffusion (RD processes. The dRDM framework employs a FitzHugh-Nagumo type RD model coupled to a mass-lattice model, that undergoes finite deformations. The dRDM model describes a material whose elastic properties are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Numerically, the dRDM approach combines a finite difference approach for the RD equations with a Verlet integration scheme for the equations of the mass-lattice system. Using this framework results were reproduced on self-organized pacemaking activity that have been previously found with a continuous RD mechanics model. Mechanisms that determine the period of pacemakers and its dependency on the medium size are identified. Finally it is shown how the drift direction of pacemakers in RDM systems is related to the spatial distribution of deformation and curvature effects.

  10. An extended diffusive model for calculating thermal diffusivity from single monopole tokamak heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.

    1990-02-01

    The problem of deducing χ e from measurements of the propagation of a monopole heatpulse is considered. An extended diffusive model, which takes into account perturbed sources and sinks is extended to the case of a monopole heat input. χ e is expressed as a function of two observables, the heat pulse velocity and the radial damping rate. Two simple expressions valid for two different ranges of the radius of the poloidal waist of the beam power profile are given. The expressions are valid in the heat pulse measurement region, extending radially 0.05a beyond the beam power waist to near 0.6a. The inferred χ e is a local value, not an average value of the radial χ e profile. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Sooting Characteristics and Modeling in Counterflow Diffusion Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Soot formation is one of the most complex phenomena in combustion science and an understanding of the underlying physico-chemical mechanisms is important. This work adopted both experimental and numerical approaches to study soot formation in laminar counterfl ow diffusion flames. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the precursors of soot particles, a detailed gas-phase chemical mechanism describing PAH growth upto coronene for fuels with 1 to 4 carbon atoms was validated against laminar premixed and counter- flow diffusion fl ames. Built upon this gas-phase mechanism, a soot model was then developed to describe soot inception and surface growth. This soot model was sub- sequently used to study fuel mixing effect on soot formation in counterfl ow diffusion flames. Simulation results showed that compared to the baseline case of the ethylene flame, the doping of 5% (by volume) propane or ethane in ethylene tends to increase the soot volume fraction and number density while keeping the average soot size almost unchanged. These results are in agreement with experimental observations. Laser light extinction/scattering as well as laser induced fluorescence techniques were used to study the effect of strain rate on soot and PAH formation in counterfl ow diffusion ames. The results showed that as strain rate increased both soot volume fraction and PAH concentrations decreased. The concentrations of larger PAH were more sensitive to strain rate compared to smaller ones. The effect of CO2 addition on soot formation was also studied using similar experimental techniques. Soot loading was reduced with CO2 dilution. Subsequent numerical modeling studies were able to reproduce the experimental trend. In addition, the chemical effect of CO2 addition was analyzed using numerical data. Critical conditions for the onset of soot were systematically studied in counterfl ow diffusion ames for various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and at different strain rates. A sooting

  12. Advanced diffusion model in compacted bentonite based on modified Poisson-Boltzmann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsuji, K.; Tachi, Y.; Nishimaki, Y.

    2012-01-01

    dry density Kunipia-F (-0.129 C m -2 surface charge density). We used Booth equation and Malsh-Grahame equation as the dielectric permittivity dependent on electric field. In this condition field strength come to ∼ 10 9 V m -1 in the vicinity of the interface, then saturation effect by Booth equation is larger than Malsh-Grahame equation. Therefore Na + is strongly eliminated from the interface by Booth equation than Malsh-Grahame equation. While Figure 1(b) shows salinity dependence of the effective diffusivity (D e ) of Sr 2+ /Cs + /I - , calculated by the modified ISD model incorporated the dielectric saturation effects with Booth equation and original one (present ISD model). For Cs + as an example electrostatic potential term in Boltzmann factor of the modified model is larger than the original one, however hydration free energy term in Boltzmann factor cancel out this increment. Consequently D e by the modified model was not mostly changed from the original model. For other ionic species we can be considered as well. The ISD model was modified considering the excluded volume effect which is caused by quantum mechanical short range repulsive force of inter-particle. We used the restricted primitive model for the sake of simplicity. Figure 2 shows the concentration distributions of Na + as numerical solutions of the modified models incorporated the excluded volume effect and the original model, and salinity dependence of D e (b). We used here the Stokes radius (=1.84 x 10 -10 m) as ionic radius in a solution and crystal radius (= 1.16 x 10 -10 m) on the interface. It can be said that the excluded volume effect influence hardly D e as well as the dielectric saturation effects. As results of numerical analysis of the models the considered factors influence hardly D e of Sr 2+ /Cs + /I - . Therefore it was concluded that the disagreements with experimental data observed in present ISD model cannot be improved by considered factors in this study, because ionic

  13. Accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient of proteins by Fourier analysis with whole column imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarabadi, Atefeh S; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-02-17

    Analysis in the frequency domain is considered a powerful tool to elicit precise information from spectroscopic signals. In this study, the Fourier transformation technique is employed to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) of a number of proteins in the frequency domain. Analytical approaches are investigated for determination of D from both experimental and data treatment viewpoints. The diffusion process is modeled to calculate diffusion coefficients based on the Fourier transformation solution to Fick's law equation, and its results are compared to time domain results. The simulations characterize optimum spatial and temporal conditions and demonstrate the noise tolerance of the method. The proposed model is validated by its application for the electropherograms from the diffusion path of a set of proteins. Real-time dynamic scanning is conducted to monitor dispersion by employing whole column imaging detection technology in combination with capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) and the imaging plug flow (iPF) experiment. These experimental techniques provide different peak shapes, which are utilized to demonstrate the Fourier transformation ability in extracting diffusion coefficients out of irregular shape signals. Experimental results confirmed that the Fourier transformation procedure substantially enhanced the accuracy of the determined values compared to those obtained in the time domain.

  14. Application of the evolution theory in modelling of innovation diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of evolution has found numerous analogies and applications in other scientific disciplines apart from biology. In that sense, today the so-called 'memetic-evolution' has been widely accepted. Memes represent a complex adaptable system, where one 'meme' represents an evolutional cultural element, i.e. the smallest unit of information which can be identified and used in order to explain the evolution process. Among others, the field of innovations has proved itself to be a suitable area where the theory of evolution can also be successfully applied. In this work the authors have started from the assumption that it is also possible to apply the theory of evolution in the modelling of the process of innovation diffusion. Based on the conducted theoretical research, the authors conclude that the process of innovation diffusion in the interpretation of a 'meme' is actually the process of imitation of the 'meme' of innovation. Since during the process of their replication certain 'memes' show a bigger success compared to others, that eventually leads to their natural selection. For the survival of innovation 'memes', their manifestations are of key importance in the sense of their longevity, fruitfulness and faithful replicating. The results of the conducted research have categorically confirmed the assumption of the possibility of application of the evolution theory with the innovation diffusion with the help of innovation 'memes', which opens up the perspectives for some new researches on the subject.

  15. Different approach to the modeling of nonfree particle diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Niels

    2018-03-01

    A new approach to the modeling of nonfree particle diffusion is presented. The approach uses a general setup based on geometric graphs (networks of curves), which means that particle diffusion in anything from arrays of barriers and pore networks to general geometric domains can be considered and that the (free random walk) central limit theorem can be generalized to cover also the nonfree case. The latter gives rise to a continuum-limit description of the diffusive motion where the effect of partially absorbing barriers is accounted for in a natural and non-Markovian way that, in contrast to the traditional approach, quantifies the absorptivity of a barrier in terms of a dimensionless parameter in the range 0 to 1. The generalized theorem gives two general analytic expressions for the continuum-limit propagator: an infinite sum of Gaussians and an infinite sum of plane waves. These expressions entail the known method-of-images and Laplace eigenfunction expansions as special cases and show how the presence of partially absorbing barriers can lead to phenomena such as line splitting and band gap formation in the plane wave wave-number spectrum.

  16. Spatiotemporal variability analysis of diffuse radiation in China during 1981-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, X.L.; Zhou, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); He, H.L.; Zhang, L.; Yu, G.R.; Fan, J.W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2013-03-01

    Solar radiation is the primary driver of terrestrial plant photosynthesis and the diffuse component can enhance canopy light use efficiency (LUE), which in turn influences the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. In this study we calculated the spatial data of diffuse radiation in China from 1981 to 2010, using a radiation decomposition model and spatial interpolation method based on observational data. Furthermore, we explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of diffuse radiation using GIS and trend analysis techniques. The results show the following: (1) The spatial patterns of perennial average of annual diffuse radiation during 1981-2010 are complex and inhomogeneous in China, generally lower in the north and higher in the south and west. The perennial average ranges from 1730.20 to 3064.41 MJm{sup -2}yr{sup -1} across the whole country. (2) There is an increasing trend of annual diffuse radiation in China from 1981 to 2010 on the whole, with mean increasing amplitude of 7.03 MJm{sup -2}yr{sup -1} per decade. Whereas a significant downtrend was observed in the first 10 years, distinct anomalies in 1982, 1983, 1991 and 1992 occurred due to the eruptions of El Chinchon and Pinatubo. (3) The spatial distribution of the temporal variability of diffuse radiation showed significant regional heterogeneity in addition to the seasonal differences. Northwestern China has the most evident downtrend, with highest decreasing rate of 6% per decade, while the Tibetan Plateau has the most evident uptrend, with highest increasing rate of up to 9% per decade. Such quantitative spatiotemporal characteristics of diffuse radiation are essential in regional scale modeling of terrestrial carbon dynamics. (orig.)

  17. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments

  18. Diffusion and reaction within porous packing media: a phenomenological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W L; Dockery, J D; Vogel, C R; Sturman, P J

    1993-04-25

    A phenomenological model has been developed to describe biomass distribution and substrate depletion in porous diatomaceous earth (DE) pellets colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential features of the model are diffusion, attachment and detachment to/from pore walls of the biomass, diffusion of substrate within the pellet, and external mass transfer of both substrate and biomass in the bulk fluid of a packed bed containing the pellets. A bench-scale reactor filled with DE pellets was inoculated with P. aeruginosa and operated in plug flow without recycle using a feed containing glucose as the limiting nutrient. Steady-state effluent glucose concentrations were measured at various residence times, and biomass distribution within the pellet was measured at the lowest residence time. In the model, microorganism/substrate kinetics and mass transfer characteristics were predicted from the literature. Only the attachment and detachment parameters were treated as unknowns, and were determined by fitting biomass distribution data within the pellets to the mathematical model. The rate-limiting step in substrate conversion was determined to be internal mass transfer resistance; external mass transfer resistance and microbial kinetic limitations were found to be nearly negligible. Only the outer 5% of the pellets contributed to substrate conversion.

  19. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  20. Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H; Yu, Y; Glimm, J; Li, X-L; Sharp, D H

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mixing flows. The method yields convergent probability distribution functions (PDFs) for temperature and concentration and a chemical reaction rate when applied to reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable flows. Because such a mesh convergence is an unusual and perhaps original capability for LES of RM flows, we review previous validation studies of the principal components of the algorithm. The components are (i) a front tracking code, FronTier, to control numerical mass diffusion and (ii) dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) models to compensate for unresolved scales in the LES. We also review the relevant code comparison studies. We compare our results to a simple model based on 1D diffusion, taking place in the geometry defined statistically by the interface (the 50% isoconcentration surface between the two fluids). Several conclusions important to physics could be drawn from our study. We model chemical reactions with no closure approximations beyond those in the LES of the fluid variables itself, and as with dynamic SGS models, these closures contain no adjustable parameters. The chemical reaction rate is specified by the joint PDF for temperature and concentration. We observe a bimodal distribution for the PDF and we observe significant dependence on fluid transport parameters.

  1. Analysis and visualization methods for interpretation of diffusion MRI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MRI is an imaging technique that is very sensitive to microstructural changes in tissue. Diffusion tensor MRI, the most commonly used method, can estimate the magnitude and anisotropy of diffusion. These tensor-based diffusion parameters have been shown to change in many neuropathological

  2. Compact Models for Defect Diffusivity in Semiconductor Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics Department; Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics Department; Lee, Stephen R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Sciences Department; Foiles, Stephen M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Computational Materials and Data Science Department

    2017-09-01

    Predicting transient effects caused by short - pulse neutron irradiation of electronic devices is an important part of Sandia's mission. For example , predicting the diffusion of radiation - induced point defects is needed with in Sandia's Qualification Alternative to the Sandia Pulsed Reactor (QASPR) pro gram since defect diffusion mediates transient gain recovery in QASPR electronic devices. Recently, the semiconductors used to fabricate radiation - hard electronic devices have begun to shift from silicon to III - V compounds such as GaAs, InAs , GaP and InP . An advantage of this shift is that it allows engineers to optimize the radiation hardness of electronic devices by using alloy s such as InGaAs and InGaP . However, the computer codes currently being used to simulate transient radiation effects in QASP R devices will need to be modified since they presume that defect properties (charge states, energy levels, and diffusivities) in these alloys do not change with time. This is not realistic since the energy and properties of a defect depend on the types of atoms near it and , therefore, on its location in the alloy. In particular, radiation - induced defects are created at nearly random locations in an alloy and the distribution of their local environments - and thus their energies and properties - evolves with time as the defects diffuse through the alloy . To incorporate these consequential effects into computer codes used to simulate transient radiation effects, we have developed procedures to accurately compute the time dependence of defect energies and properties and then formulate them within compact models that can be employed in these computer codes. In this document, we demonstrate these procedures for the case of the highly mobile P interstitial (I P ) in an InGaP alloy. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE

  3. Anomalous diffusion in neutral evolution of model proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik D.; Grishin, Nick V.

    2015-06-01

    Protein evolution is frequently explored using minimalist polymer models, however, little attention has been given to the problem of structural drift, or diffusion. Here, we study neutral evolution of small protein motifs using an off-lattice heteropolymer model in which individual monomers interact as low-resolution amino acids. In contrast to most earlier models, both the length and folded structure of the polymers are permitted to change. To describe structural change, we compute the mean-square distance (MSD) between monomers in homologous folds separated by n neutral mutations. We find that structural change is episodic, and, averaged over lineages (for example, those extending from a single sequence), exhibits a power-law dependence on n . We show that this exponent depends on the alignment method used, and we analyze the distribution of waiting times between neutral mutations. The latter are more disperse than for models required to maintain a specific fold, but exhibit a similar power-law tail.

  4. Stochastic modeling and simulation of reaction-diffusion system with Hill function dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghan; Li, Fei; Wang, Shuo; Cao, Young

    2017-03-14

    Stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems presents great challenges for spatiotemporal biological modeling and simulation. One widely used framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion systems is reaction diffusion master equation (RDME). Previous studies have discovered that for the RDME, when discretization size approaches zero, reaction time for bimolecular reactions in high dimensional domains tends to infinity. In this paper, we demonstrate that in the 1D domain, highly nonlinear reaction dynamics given by Hill function may also have dramatic change when discretization size is smaller than a critical value. Moreover, we discuss methods to avoid this problem: smoothing over space, fixed length smoothing over space and a hybrid method. Our analysis reveals that the switch-like Hill dynamics reduces to a linear function of discretization size when the discretization size is small enough. The three proposed methods could correctly (under certain precision) simulate Hill function dynamics in the microscopic RDME system.

  5. Diffusion layer modeling for condensation with multi-component noncondensable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Many condensation problems involving noncondensable gases have multiple noncondensable species, for example air (with nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases); and other problems where light gases like hydrogen may mix with heavier gases like nitrogen. Particularly when the binary mass diffusion coefficients of the noncondensable species are substantially different, the noncondensable species tend to segregate in the condensation boundary layer. This paper presents a fundamental analysis of the mass transport with multiple noncondensable species, identifying a simple method to calculate an effective mass diffusion coefficient that can be used with the simple diffusion layer model, and discusses in detail the effects of using mass and mole based quantities, and various simplifying approximations, on predicted condensation rates. The results are illustrated with quantitative examples to demonstrate the potential importance of multi-component noncondensable gas effects

  6. Modeling of heat transfer in a horizontal heat-generating layer by an effective diffusivity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Shiah, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of effective diffusivity is employed to model various processes of heat transfer in a volumetrically heated fluid layer subjected to different initial and boundary conditions. The approach, which involves the solution of only heat diffusion equations, is found to give rather accurate predictions of the transient response of an initially stagnant fluid layer to a step input of power as well as the developing and decaying nature of the flow following a step change in the internal Rayleigh number from one state of steady convection to another. The approach is also found to be applicable to various flow regions of a heat-generating fluid layer, and is not limited to the case in which the entire layer is in turbulent motion. The simplicity and accuracy of the method are clearly illustrated in the analysis. Validity of the effective diffusivity approach is demonstrated by comparing the predicted results with corresponding experimental data

  7. The brush model - a new approach to numerical modeling of matrix diffusion in fractured clay stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lege, T.; Shao, H.

    1998-01-01

    A special approach for numerical modeling of contaminant transport in fractured clay stone is presented. The rock matrix and the fractures are simulated with individual formulations for FE grids and transport, coupled into a single model. The capacity of the rock matrix to take up contaminants is taken into consideration with a discrete simulation of matrix diffusion. Thus, the natural process of retardation due to matrix diffusion can be better simulated than by a standard introduction of an empirical parameter into the transport equation. Transport in groundwater in fractured clay stone can be simulated using a model called a 'brush model'. The 'brush handle' is discretized by 2-D finite elements. Advective-dispersive transport in groundwater in the fractures is assumed. The contaminant diffuses into 1D finite elements perpendicular to the fractures, i.e., the 'bristles of the brush'. The conclusion is drawn that matrix diffusion is an important property of fractured clay stone for contaminant retardation. (author)

  8. Improved Modeling and Understanding of Diffusion-Media Wettability on Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Adam

    2010-03-05

    A macroscopic-modeling methodology to account for the chemical and structural properties of fuel-cell diffusion media is developed. A previous model is updated to include for the first time the use of experimentally measured capillary pressure -- saturation relationships through the introduction of a Gaussian contact-angle distribution into the property equations. The updated model is used to simulate various limiting-case scenarios of water and gas transport in fuel-cell diffusion media. Analysis of these results demonstrate that interfacial conditions are more important than bulk transport in these layers, where the associated mass-transfer resistance is the result of higher capillary pressures at the boundaries and the steepness of the capillary pressure -- saturation relationship. The model is also used to examine the impact of a microporous layer, showing that it dominates the response of the overall diffusion medium. In addition, its primary mass-transfer-related effect is suggested to be limiting the water-injection sites into the more porous gas-diffusion layer.

  9. A diffusive ink transport model for lipid dip-pen nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtizberea, A.; Hirtz, M.

    2015-09-01

    Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the process. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity.Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus

  10. Modeling the Determinants Influencing the Diffusion of Mobile Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahaishi, Saleh; Snášel, Václav

    2013-04-01

    Understanding individual acceptance and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the most mature streams of information systems research. In Information Technology and Information System research, numerous theories are used to understand users' adoption of new technologies. Various models were developed including the Innovation Diffusion Theory, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Technology Acceptance Model, and recently, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. This research composes a new hybrid theoretical framework to identify the factors affecting the acceptance and use of Mobile Internet -as an ICT application- in a consumer context. The proposed model incorporates eight constructs: Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Social Influences (SI), Perceived Value (PV), Perceived Playfulness (PP), Attention Focus (AF), and Behavioral intention (BI). Individual differences-namely, age, gender, education, income, and experience are moderating the effects of these constructs on behavioral intention and technology use.

  11. Fractional single-phase-lagging heat conduction model for describing anomalous diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Mishra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fractional single-phase-lagging (FSPL heat conduction model is obtained by combining scalar time fractional conservation equation to the single-phase-lagging (SPL heat conduction model. Based on the FSPL heat conduction model, anomalous diffusion within a finite thin film is investigated. The effect of different parameters on solution has been observed and studied the asymptotic behavior of the FSPL model. The analytical solution is obtained using Laplace transform method. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Numerical examples of particular interest have been studied and discussed in details.

  12. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  13. Nanoscale protein diffusion by STED-based pair correlation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bianchini

    Full Text Available We describe for the first time the combination between cross-pair correlation function analysis (pair correlation analysis or pCF and stimulated emission depletion (STED to obtain diffusion maps at spatial resolution below the optical diffraction limit (super-resolution. Our approach was tested in systems characterized by high and low signal to noise ratio, i.e. Capsid Like Particles (CLPs bearing several (>100 active fluorescent proteins and monomeric fluorescent proteins transiently expressed in living Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, respectively. The latter system represents the usual condition encountered in living cell studies on fluorescent protein chimeras. Spatial resolution of STED-pCF was found to be about 110 nm, with a more than twofold improvement over conventional confocal acquisition. We successfully applied our method to highlight how the proximity to nuclear envelope affects the mobility features of proteins actively imported into the nucleus in living cells. Remarkably, STED-pCF unveiled the existence of local barriers to diffusion as well as the presence of a slow component at distances up to 500-700 nm from either sides of nuclear envelope. The mobility of this component is similar to that previously described for transport complexes. Remarkably, all these features were invisible in conventional confocal mode.

  14. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaiyuan; Yu Chunshui; Zhang Yujin; Wu Xiaoli; Zhu Chaozhe; Chan Piu; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  15. Introducing serendipity in a social network model of knowledge diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Serendipity as a control mechanism for knowledge diffusion in social network. • Local communication enhanced in the periphery of a network. • Prevalence of hub nodes in the network core mitigated. • Potential disruptive effect on network formation of uncontrolled serendipity. - Abstract: In this paper, we study serendipity as a possible strategy to control the behavior of an agent-based network model of knowledge diffusion. The idea of considering serendipity in a strategic way has been first explored in Network Learning and Information Seeking studies. After presenting the major contributions of serendipity studies to digital environments, we discuss the extension to our model: Agents are enriched with random topics for establishing new communication according to different strategies. The results show how important network properties could be influenced, like reducing the prevalence of hubs in the network’s core and increasing local communication in the periphery, similar to the effects of more traditional self-organization methods. Therefore, from this initial study, when serendipity is opportunistically directed, it appears to behave as an effective and applicable approach to social network control.

  16. Zirconium - ab initio modelling of point defects diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasca, Petrica

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium is the main element of the cladding found in pressurized water reactors, under an alloy form. Under irradiation, the cladding elongate significantly, phenomena attributed to the vacancy dislocation loops growth in the basal planes of the hexagonal compact structure. The understanding of the atomic scale mechanisms originating this process motivated this work. Using the ab initio atomic modeling technique we studied the structure and mobility of point defects in Zirconium. This led us to find four interstitial point defects with formation energies in an interval of 0.11 eV. The migration paths study allowed the discovery of activation energies, used as entry parameters for a kinetic Monte Carlo code. This code was developed for calculating the diffusion coefficient of the interstitial point defect. Our results suggest a migration parallel to the basal plane twice as fast as one parallel to the c direction, with an activation energy of 0.08 eV, independent of the direction. The vacancy diffusion coefficient, estimated with a two-jump model, is also anisotropic, with a faster process in the basal planes than perpendicular to them. Hydrogen influence on the vacancy dislocation loops nucleation was also studied, due to recent experimental observations of cladding growth acceleration in the presence of this element [fr

  17. Turing instability for a competitor-competitor-mutualist model with nonlinear cross-diffusion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zijuan; Fu, Shengmao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system modeling a competitor-competitor-mutualist three-species model with diffusion, self-diffusion and nonlinear cross-diffusion and subject to Neumann boundary conditions. First, we establish the persistence of a corresponding reaction-diffusion system without self- and cross-diffusion. Second, the global asymptotic stability of the unique positive equilibrium for weakly coupled PDE system is established by using a comparison method. Moreover, under certain conditions about the intra- and inter-species effects, we prove that the uniform positive steady state is linearly unstable for the cross-diffusion system when one of the cross-diffusions is large enough. The results indicate that Turing instability can be driven solely from strong diffusion effect of the first species (or the second species or the third species) due to the pressure of the second species (or the first species).

  18. Electricity consumption in Morocco: Stochastic Gompertz diffusion analysis with exogenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Nafidi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a means of using stochastic diffusion processes to model the total consumption of electrical power (including distribution and transport losses) in Morocco, as recorded by the official data for total sales published by Office Nationale de l'Electricite (ONE), the Moroccan electricity authority. Two models of univariate stochastic diffusion were used: the time-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (HGDP) and the time-non-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (NHGDP). The methodology proposed is based on the analysis of the trend function; this requires the analyst to obtain fits and forecasts for the consumption of electrical power by means of the estimated trend function (conditioned and non-conditioned). This latter function is obtained from the mean value of the process and the maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the parameters of the model. This estimation and the subsequent statistical inference are based on the discretised observation of the variable 'electricity consumption in Morocco', using annual data for the period 1980-2001. The fit and forecast are improved by using macroeconomic exogenous factors such as the gross domestic product per inhabitant (GDP/inhab), the final domestic consumption (FDC) and the gross fixed capital formation (GFCF). The results obtained show that NHGDP (with the above three exogenous factors) provides an adequate fit and medium-term forecast of electricity consumption in Morocco

  19. Periodic precipitation a microcomputer analysis of transport and reaction processes in diffusion media, with software development

    CERN Document Server

    Henisch, H K

    1991-01-01

    Containing illustrations, worked examples, graphs and tables, this book deals with periodic precipitation (also known as Liesegang Ring formation) in terms of mathematical models and their logical consequences, and is entirely concerned with microcomputer analysis and software development. Three distinctive periodic precipitation mechanisms are included: binary diffusion-reaction; solubility modulation, and competitive particle growth. The book provides didactic illustrations of a valuable investigational procedure, in the form of hypothetical experimentation by microcomputer. The development

  20. Modelling thermal radiation and soot formation in buoyant diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarco Bull, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The radiative heat transfer plays an important role in fire problems since it is the dominant mode of heat transfer between flames and surroundings. It controls the pyrolysis, and therefore the heat release rate, and the growth rate of the fire. In the present work a numerical study of buoyant diffusion flames is carried out, with the main objective of modelling the thermal radiative transfer and the soot formation/destruction processes. In a first step, different radiative property models were tested in benchmark configurations. It was found that the FSCK coupled with the Modest and Riazzi mixing scheme was the best compromise in terms of accuracy and computational requirements, and was a good candidate to be implemented in CFD codes dealing with fire problems. In a second step, a semi-empirical soot model, considering acetylene and benzene as precursor species for soot nucleation, was validated in laminar co flow diffusion flames over a wide range of hydrocarbons (C1-C3) and conditions. In addition, the optically-thin approximation was found to produce large discrepancies in the upper part of these small laminar flames. Reliable predictions of soot volume fractions require the use of an advanced radiation model. Then the FSCK and the semi-empirical soot model were applied to simulate laboratory-scale and intermediate-scale pool fires of methane and propane. Predicted flame structures as well as the radiant heat flux transferred to the surroundings were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. Finally, the interaction between radiation and turbulence was quantified. (author)

  1. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Levi D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huber, Tanja K. [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Breitkreutz, Harald [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische Universität München (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  2. The development of radioactivity diffusion model in global ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Watanabe, H.; Katagiri, H.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactivity diffusion model in global ocean has been developing in order to assess the long-term behavior of radioactive materials for discharge from nuclear facility. The model system consists of two parts. One is to calculate current velocity; and the other is for particle chasing. Both systems are executed by Macintosh personal computer. A lot of techniques to estimate ocean current velocity were investigated in geophysical field. The robust diagnosis model advocated by Sarmiento and Bryan was applied to build the numerical calculation system for getting the current velocity field in global scale. The latitudinal and longitudinal lattices were 2 degrees each and the number of vertical layer was 15. The movement of radioactive materials by current and diffusion were calculated using the particle chasing system. The above-mentioned current velocity field and the initial particle positions at will were read by the system. The movement of a particle was calculated using the interpolated current data step by step. The diffusion of a particle was calculated by random walk method. The model was verified by using the fallout data from atmospheric nuclear test. Yearly and latitudinal fallout data was adopted from UNSCEAR1977. The calculation result was compared with the observation data that includes total amount and vertical profile of Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the North Pacific Ocean. The result of the verification was agreed with the following general knowledge. Though the fallout amount between 40N and 50N was the biggest in the world, the amount in the seawater between 40N and 50N was smaller than that in south of 40N because of horizontal transportation, which carried water from north to south. As for vertical profile, Cs-137 could be accurately calculated except the surface layer. However the observation peak of Pu-239,240 existed deeper than the calculation peak. This model could calculate the vertical profile of Cs-137 because most of Cs exists as dissolved

  3. Pre-Clinical Models of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren J Becher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG is a rare and incurable brain tumor that arises in the brainstem of children predominantly between the ages of six and eight. Its intricate morphology and involvement of normal pons tissue precludes surgical resection, and the standard of care today remains fractionated radiation alone. In the past 30 years, there have been no significant advances made in the treatment of DIPG. This is largely because we lack good models of DIPG and therefore have little biological basis for treatment. In recent years however, due to increased biopsy and acquisition of autopsy specimens, research is beginning to unravel the genetic and epigenetic drivers of DIPG. Insight gleaned from these studies has led to improvements in approaches to both model these tumors in the lab, as well as to potentially treat them in the clinic. This review will detail the initial strides towards modeling DIPG in animals, which included allograft and xenograft rodent models using non-DIPG glioma cells. Important advances in the field came with the development of in vitro cell and in vivo xenograft models derived directly from autopsy material of DIPG patients or from human embryonic stem cells. Lastly, we will summarize the progress made in the development of genetically engineered mouse models of DIPG. Cooperation of studies incorporating all of these modeling systems to both investigate the unique mechanisms of gliomagenesis in the brainstem and to test potential novel therapeutic agents in a preclinical setting will result in improvement in treatments for DIPG patients.

  4. Implicit coupling of turbulent diffusion with chemical reaction mechanisms for prognostic atmospheric dispersion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlowitz, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    In the last few decades the negative impact by humans on the thin atmospheric layer enveloping the earth, the basis for life on this planet, has increased steadily. In order to halt, or at least slow down this development, the knowledge and study of these anthropogenic influence has to be increased and possible remedies have to be suggested. An important tool for these studies are computer models. With their help the atmospheric system can be approximated and the various processes, which have led to the current situation can be quantified. They also serve as an instrument to assess short or medium term strategies to reduce this human impact. However, to assure efficiency as well as accuracy, a careful analysis of the numerous processes involved in the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere is called for. This should help to concentrate on the essentials and also prevent excessive usage of sometimes scarce computing resources. The basis of the presented work is the EUMAC Zooming Model (ETM), and particularly the component calculating the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, the model MARS. The model has two main parts: an explicit solver, where the advection and the horizontal diffusion of pollutants are calculated, and an implicit solution mechanism, allowing the joint computation of the change of concentration due to chemical reactions, coupled with the respective influence of the vertical diffusion of the species. The aim of this thesis is to determine particularly the influence of the horizontal components of the turbulent diffusion on the existing implicit solver of the model. Suggestions for a more comprehensive inclusion of the full three dimensional diffusion operator in the implicit solver are made. This is achieved by an appropriate operator splitting. A selection of numerical approaches to tighten the coupling of the diffusion processes with the calculation of the applied chemical reaction mechanisms are examined. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  5. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  6. A self-consistent spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

    KAUST Repository

    Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Manchon, Aurelien; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    We propose a three-dimensional micromagnetic model that dynamically solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to the full spin-diffusion equation. In contrast to previous methods, we solve for the magnetization dynamics and the electric potential in a self-consistent fashion. This treatment allows for an accurate description of magnetization dependent resistance changes. Moreover, the presented algorithm describes both spin accumulation due to smooth magnetization transitions and due to material interfaces as in multilayer structures. The model and its finite-element implementation are validated by current driven motion of a magnetic vortex structure. In a second experiment, the resistivity of a magnetic multilayer structure in dependence of the tilting angle of the magnetization in the different layers is investigated. Both examples show good agreement with reference simulations and experiments respectively.

  7. A self-consistent spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

    KAUST Repository

    Abert, Claas

    2016-12-17

    We propose a three-dimensional micromagnetic model that dynamically solves the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation coupled to the full spin-diffusion equation. In contrast to previous methods, we solve for the magnetization dynamics and the electric potential in a self-consistent fashion. This treatment allows for an accurate description of magnetization dependent resistance changes. Moreover, the presented algorithm describes both spin accumulation due to smooth magnetization transitions and due to material interfaces as in multilayer structures. The model and its finite-element implementation are validated by current driven motion of a magnetic vortex structure. In a second experiment, the resistivity of a magnetic multilayer structure in dependence of the tilting angle of the magnetization in the different layers is investigated. Both examples show good agreement with reference simulations and experiments respectively.

  8. Decomposition in aluminium alloys: diffuse scattering and crystal modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam-Malik, A.

    1995-01-01

    In the present study the microstructure of metastable precipitates in Al-Ag and Al-Cu, so called pre-precipitates or Guinier-Preston (GP) zones, was investigated. In both systems important aspects of the microstructure are still controversially discussed. In Al-Ag two forms of GP zones are suggested; depending on the aging temperatures above or below about 443 K, ε- or η-zones should evolve. Differences between these two types of zones may be due to differences in internal order and/or composition. In Al-Cu the characterization of GP I zones is difficult because of the strong atomic displacements around the zones. The proper separation of short-range order and displacement scattering within a diffuse scattering experiment is still under discussion. The technique used to determine the short-range order in both alloys was diffuse scattering with neutrons and X-rays. To separate short-range order and displacement scattering, the methods of Georgopoulos-Cohen (X-ray scattering) and Borie-Sparks (neutron scattering) were used. Of main importance is the optimization of the scattering contrast and thus the scattering contribution due to short-range order. Short-range order scattering is rationalized in terms of pair correlations. Crystals may subsequently be modelled to visualize the microstructure. The Al-Ag system was investigated by diffuse X-ray wide-angle scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. The small-angle neutron scattering measurement was necessary since the GP zones in Al-Ag are almost spherical and the main scattering contribution is found close to the origin of reciprocal space. The small-angle scattering is not that important in the case of Al-Cu because the main scattering extends along (100) owing to the planar character of the GP I zones on (100) lattice planes. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  9. Modelling of diffusion from equilibrium diffraction fluctuations in ordered phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapaki, E.; Argyrakis, P.; Tringides, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the collective diffusion coefficient D c at equilibrium are difficult because they are based on monitoring low amplitude concentration fluctuations generated spontaneously, that are difficult to measure experimentally. A new experimental method has been recently used to measure time-dependent correlation functions from the diffraction intensity fluctuations and was applied to measure thermal step fluctuations. The method has not been applied yet to measure superstructure intensity fluctuations in surface overlayers and to extract D c . With Monte Carlo simulations we study equilibrium fluctuations in Ising lattice gas models with nearest neighbor attractive and repulsive interactions. The extracted diffusion coefficients are compared to the ones obtained from equilibrium methods. The new results are in good agreement with the results from the other methods, i.e., D c decreases monotonically with coverage Θ for attractive interactions and increases monotonically with Θ for repulsive interactions. Even the absolute value of D c agrees well with the results obtained with the probe area method. These results confirm that this diffraction based method is a novel, reliable way to measure D c especially within the ordered region of the phase diagram when the superstructure spot has large intensity

  10. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  11. Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.

  12. Study of superionic conductors dynamics by continued diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennai, M.

    1993-12-01

    The superionic conductors form a special category of solids characterized by their remarkable transport properties and are in general, Simplified as being constituted by the superposition of two inter penetrable crystal lattices. The ions of the first one form a rigid structure through which the other ions of opposite charge diffuse in quasi-liquid way. Basing on experimental and theoretical arguments, it was proved necessary to adopt a model of N-body continued diffusion which the basic theory is that of brownian movement. This thesis deals with the study of the dynamic structure factor S (q,w) and its line half width by the method of development in continued fractions issued from the Mori theory. With regard to the analytical difficulty met at the time of the static correlations functions calculation, the homogeneous approximation was applied and the notion of effective strength was introduced. So, it was obtained general relationships which give the static correlation functions, only in term of the static structure factor of liquids and effective potential. 98 refs.; 22 figs. (F.M.)

  13. Diffusion and sorption on hardened cement pastes - experiments and modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, A.; Sarott, F.-A.; Spieler, P.

    1999-08-01

    Large parts of repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste consist of cementitious materials. Radionuclides are transported by diffusion in the cement matrix or, in case of fractured or highly permeable cement, by advection and dispersion. In this work we aim at a mechanistic understanding of diffusion processes of some reactive tracers. On the laboratory scale, ten through-diffusion experiments were performed to study these processes for Cl{sup -}, I{sup -}, Cs{sup +} and Ni{sup 2+} ions in a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) equilibrated with an artificial pore water. Some of the experiments continued up to nearly three years with daily measurements. In all the experiments, a cement disk initially saturated with an artificial pore water was exposed on one side to a highly diluted solution containing the species of interest. On the second side, a near-zero concentration boundary was maintained to drive through-diffusion of the tracer. The changes of concentrations on both sides of the samples were monitored, allowing careful mass balances. From these data, values of the diffusive flux and the mass of tracer taken up by the cementitious material were determined as a function of time. In the subsequent modelling, the time histories of these tracer breakthroughs were fitted using five different models. The simplest model neglects all retarding mechanisms except pure diffusion. More complex models either account for instantaneous equilibrium sorption in form of linear or non-linear (Freundlich) sorption or for first-order sorption kinetics where the forward reaction may be linear or non-linear according to the Freundlich isotherm, while the back-reaction is linear. Hence, the analysis allows the extraction of the diffusion coefficient and parameter values for the sorption isotherm or rate-constants for sorption and desorption. The fits to the experimental data were carried out by an automated Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error

  14. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  15. Automatic simplification of systems of reaction-diffusion equations by a posteriori analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Philip J; Whiteley, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    Many mathematical models in biology and physiology are represented by systems of nonlinear differential equations. In recent years these models have become increasingly complex in order to explain the enormous volume of data now available. A key role of modellers is to determine which components of the model have the greatest effect on a given observed behaviour. An approach for automatically fulfilling this role, based on a posteriori analysis, has recently been developed for nonlinear initial value ordinary differential equations [J.P. Whiteley, Model reduction using a posteriori analysis, Math. Biosci. 225 (2010) 44-52]. In this paper we extend this model reduction technique for application to both steady-state and time-dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems. Exemplar problems drawn from biology are used to demonstrate the applicability of the technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A diffusive ink transport model for lipid dip-pen nanolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtizberea, A; Hirtz, M

    2015-10-14

    Despite diverse applications, phospholipid membrane stacks generated by dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) still lack a thorough and systematic characterization that elucidates the whole ink transport process from writing to surface spreading, with the aim of better controlling the resulting feature size and resolution. We report a quantitative analysis and modeling of the dependence of lipid DPN features (area, height and volume) on dwell time and relative humidity. The ink flow rate increases with humidity in agreement with meniscus size growth, determining the overall feature size. The observed time dependence indicates the existence of a balance between surface spreading and the ink flow rate that promotes differences in concentration at the meniscus/substrate interface. Feature shape is controlled by the substrate surface energy. The results are analyzed within a modified model for the ink transport of diffusive inks. At any humidity the dependence of the area spread on the dwell time shows two diffusion regimes: at short dwell times growth is controlled by meniscus diffusion while at long dwell times surface diffusion governs the process. The critical point for the switch of regime depends on the humidity.

  17. Differences in Gaussian diffusion tensor imaging and non-Gaussian diffusion kurtosis imaging model-based estimates of diffusion tensor invariants in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, S; Giannelli, M; Garaci, F; Floris, R; Duggento, A; Guerrisi, M; Toschi, N

    2016-05-01

    An increasing number of studies have aimed to compare diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-related parameters [e.g., mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)] to complementary new indexes [e.g., mean kurtosis (MK)/radial kurtosis (RK)/axial kurtosis (AK)] derived through diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in terms of their discriminative potential about tissue disease-related microstructural alterations. Given that the DTI and DKI models provide conceptually and quantitatively different estimates of the diffusion tensor, which can also depend on fitting routine, the aim of this study was to investigate model- and algorithm-dependent differences in MD/FA/RD/AD and anisotropy mode (MO) estimates in diffusion-weighted imaging of human brain white matter. The authors employed (a) data collected from 33 healthy subjects (20-59 yr, F: 15, M: 18) within the Human Connectome Project (HCP) on a customized 3 T scanner, and (b) data from 34 healthy subjects (26-61 yr, F: 5, M: 29) acquired on a clinical 3 T scanner. The DTI model was fitted to b-value =0 and b-value =1000 s/mm(2) data while the DKI model was fitted to data comprising b-value =0, 1000 and 3000/2500 s/mm(2) [for dataset (a)/(b), respectively] through nonlinear and weighted linear least squares algorithms. In addition to MK/RK/AK maps, MD/FA/MO/RD/AD maps were estimated from both models and both algorithms. Using tract-based spatial statistics, the authors tested the null hypothesis of zero difference between the two MD/FA/MO/RD/AD estimates in brain white matter for both datasets and both algorithms. DKI-derived MD/FA/RD/AD and MO estimates were significantly higher and lower, respectively, than corresponding DTI-derived estimates. All voxelwise differences extended over most of the white matter skeleton. Fractional differences between the two estimates [(DKI - DTI)/DTI] of most invariants were seen to vary with the invariant value itself as well as with MK

  18. Role of spatial inhomogenity in GPCR dimerisation predicted by receptor association-diffusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sneha A.; Pawar, Aiswarya B.; Dighe, Anish; Athale, Chaitanya A.; Sengupta, Durba

    2017-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) association is an emerging paradigm with far reaching implications in the regulation of signalling pathways and therapeutic interventions. Recent super resolution microscopy studies have revealed that receptor dimer steady state exhibits sub-second dynamics. In particular the GPCRs, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 (M1MR) and formyl peptide receptor (FPR), have been demonstrated to exhibit a fast association/dissociation kinetics, independent of ligand binding. In this work, we have developed a spatial kinetic Monte Carlo model to investigate receptor homo-dimerisation at a single receptor resolution. Experimentally measured association/dissociation kinetic parameters and diffusion coefficients were used as inputs to the model. To test the effect of membrane spatial heterogeneity on the simulated steady state, simulations were compared to experimental statistics of dimerisation. In the simplest case the receptors are assumed to be diffusing in a spatially homogeneous environment, while spatial heterogeneity is modelled to result from crowding, membrane micro-domains and cytoskeletal compartmentalisation or ‘corrals’. We show that a simple association-diffusion model is sufficient to reproduce M1MR association statistics, but fails to reproduce FPR statistics despite comparable kinetic constants. A parameter sensitivity analysis is required to reproduce the association statistics of FPR. The model reveals the complex interplay between cytoskeletal components and their influence on receptor association kinetics within the features of the membrane landscape. These results constitute an important step towards understanding the factors modulating GPCR organisation.

  19. Computational analysis for velocity slip and diffusion species with carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available This article addresses a computational study for carbon nanotubes with diffusion species. Mathematical analysis and modeling are formulated in the presence of slip effect, Darcy porous medium and chemical species. Diffusion coefficients are accounted as equal amount. Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM is implemented in taking care for convergence control parameters. Residual errors and its graphs are plotted for CNTs nanofluids. The current data is compared with the previous published work. The results are found in favorable agreement. Physically interesting parameters are highlighted. The velocity is dominated for MWCNT than SWCNT. The velocity profile increases for power index when m>1 while opposite trend is observed for power index when m<1. Permeability parameter and volume fraction reduce the skin friction coefficient and reverse trend is noticed for slip parameter and wall thickness parameter. Opposite behavior is noticed for concentration profile at surface for homogenous-heterogeneous reactions parameters. Keywords: Chemical species, Carbon nanotubes, Nonuniform stretching sheet, Slip effects

  20. Computational analysis for velocity slip and diffusion species with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Hussain, Zakir; Alsaedi, A.; Hobiny, A.

    This article addresses a computational study for carbon nanotubes with diffusion species. Mathematical analysis and modeling are formulated in the presence of slip effect, Darcy porous medium and chemical species. Diffusion coefficients are accounted as equal amount. Optimal Homotopy Analysis Method (OHAM) is implemented in taking care for convergence control parameters. Residual errors and its graphs are plotted for CNTs nanofluids. The current data is compared with the previous published work. The results are found in favorable agreement. Physically interesting parameters are highlighted. The velocity is dominated for MWCNT than SWCNT. The velocity profile increases for power index when m > 1 while opposite trend is observed for power index when m skin friction coefficient and reverse trend is noticed for slip parameter and wall thickness parameter. Opposite behavior is noticed for concentration profile at surface for homogenous-heterogeneous reactions parameters.

  1. Reaction-diffusion modeling of hydrogen in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensing, Mirko; Matveev, Dmitry; Linsmeier, Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Beryllium will be used as first-wall material for the future fusion reactor ITER as well as in the breeding blanket of DEMO. In both cases it is important to understand the mechanisms of hydrogen retention in beryllium. In earlier experiments with beryllium low-energy binding states of hydrogen were observed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) which are not yet well understood. Two candidates for these states are considered: beryllium-hydride phases within the bulk and surface effects. The retention of deuterium in beryllium is studied by a reaction rate approach using a coupled reaction diffusion system (CRDS)-model relying on ab initio data from density functional theory calculations (DFT). In this contribution we try to assess the influence of surface recombination.

  2. Modeling of immision from power plants using stream-diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanevce, Lj.; Kanevce, G.; Markoski, A.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of simple empirical and integral immision models, comparing with complex three dimensional differential models is given. Complex differential models needs huge computer power, so they can't be useful for practical engineering calculations. In this paper immision modeling, using stream-diffusion approach is presented. Process of dispersion is divided into two parts. First part is called stream part, it's near the source of the pollutants, and it's presented with defected turbulent jet in wind field. This part finished when the velocity of stream (jet) becomes equal with wind speed. Boundary conditions in the end of the first part, are initial for the second, called diffusion part, which is modeling with tri dimensional diffusion equation. Gradient of temperature, wind speed profile and coefficient of diffusion in this model must not be constants, they can change with the height. Presented model is much simpler than the complete meteorological differential models which calculates whole fields of meteorological parameters. Also, it is more complex and gives more valuable results for dispersion of pollutants from widely used integral and empirical models

  3. Novel region of interest interrogation technique for diffusion tensor imaging analysis in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jonathan Y; Middleton, Dana M; Chen, Steven; White, Leonard; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Dickson, Patricia; Vite, Charles; Bradbury, Allison; Provenzale, James M

    2017-08-01

    Purpose We describe a novel technique for measuring diffusion tensor imaging metrics in the canine brain. We hypothesized that a standard method for region of interest placement could be developed that is highly reproducible, with less than 10% difference in measurements between raters. Methods Two sets of canine brains (three seven-week-old full-brains and two 17-week-old single hemispheres) were scanned ex-vivo on a 7T small-animal magnetic resonance imaging system. Strict region of interest placement criteria were developed and then used by two raters to independently measure diffusion tensor imaging metrics within four different white-matter regions within each specimen. Average values of fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and the three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, and λ3) within each region in each specimen overall and within each individual image slice were compared between raters by calculating the percentage difference between raters for each metric. Results The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when pooled by each region and specimen was 1.44% (range: 0.01-5.17%). The mean percentage difference between raters for all diffusion tensor imaging metrics when compared by individual image slice was 2.23% (range: 0.75-4.58%) per hemisphere. Conclusion Our results indicate that the technique described is highly reproducible, even when applied to canine specimens of differing age, morphology, and image resolution. We propose this technique for future studies of diffusion tensor imaging analysis in canine brains and for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of canine brain models of human central nervous system disease.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  5. Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.

    2012-10-01

    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.

  6. HDDM: Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the Drift-Diffusion Model in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecki, Thomas V; Sofer, Imri; Frank, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The diffusion model is a commonly used tool to infer latent psychological processes underlying decision-making, and to link them to neural mechanisms based on response times. Although efficient open source software has been made available to quantitatively fit the model to data, current estimation methods require an abundance of response time measurements to recover meaningful parameters, and only provide point estimates of each parameter. In contrast, hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation methods are useful for enhancing statistical power, allowing for simultaneous estimation of individual subject parameters and the group distribution that they are drawn from, while also providing measures of uncertainty in these parameters in the posterior distribution. Here, we present a novel Python-based toolbox called HDDM (hierarchical drift diffusion model), which allows fast and flexible estimation of the the drift-diffusion model and the related linear ballistic accumulator model. HDDM requires fewer data per subject/condition than non-hierarchical methods, allows for full Bayesian data analysis, and can handle outliers in the data. Finally, HDDM supports the estimation of how trial-by-trial measurements (e.g., fMRI) influence decision-making parameters. This paper will first describe the theoretical background of the drift diffusion model and Bayesian inference. We then illustrate usage of the toolbox on a real-world data set from our lab. Finally, parameter recovery studies show that HDDM beats alternative fitting methods like the χ(2)-quantile method as well as maximum likelihood estimation. The software and documentation can be downloaded at: http://ski.clps.brown.edu/hddm_docs/

  7. HDDM: Hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the Drift-Diffusion Model in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Wiecki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion model is a commonly used tool to infer latent psychological processes underlying decision making, and to link them to neural mechanisms based on reaction times. Although efficient open source software has been made available to quantitatively fit the model to data, current estimation methods require an abundance of reaction time measurements to recover meaningful parameters, and only provide point estimates of each parameter. In contrast, hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation methods are useful for enhancing statistical power, allowing for simultaneous estimation of individual subject parameters and the group distribution that they are drawn from, while also providing measures of uncertainty in these parameters in the posterior distribution. Here, we present a novel Python-based toolbox called HDDM (hierarchical drift diffusion model, which allows fast and flexible estimation of the the drift-diffusion model and the related linear ballistic accumulator model. HDDM requires fewer data per subject / condition than non-hierarchical method, allows for full Bayesian data analysis, and can handle outliers in the data. Finally, HDDM supports the estimation of how trial-by-trial measurements (e.g. fMRI influence decision making parameters. This paper will first describe the theoretical background of drift-diffusion model and Bayesian inference. We then illustrate usage of the toolbox on a real-world data set from our lab. Finally, parameter recovery studies show that HDDM beats alternative fitting methods like the chi-quantile method as well as maximum likelihood estimation. The software and documentation can be downloaded at: http://ski.clps.brown.edu/hddm_docs

  8. A mechanistic model for long-term nuclear waste glass dissolution integrating chemical affinity and interfacial diffusion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teqi [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jivkov, Andrey P., E-mail: andrey.jivkov@manchester.ac.uk [Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Li, Weiping; Liang, Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Hui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Han, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: xyhan_nint@sina.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass in geological repository conditions is critical element of the analysis of repository retention function. Experimental observations of glass alterations provide a general agreement on the following regimes: inter-diffusion, hydrolysis process, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular conditions, resumption of alteration. Of these, the mechanisms controlling the rate drop and the residual rate remain a subject of dispute. This paper offers a critical review of the two most competitive models related to these regimes: affinity–limited dissolution and diffusion barrier. The limitations of these models are highlighted by comparison of their predictions with available experimental evidence. Based on the comprehensive discussion of the existing models, a new mechanistic model is proposed as a combination of the chemical affinity and diffusion barrier concepts. It is demonstrated how the model can explain experimental phenomena and data, for which the existing models are shown to be not fully adequate.

  9. Agent-based Modeling Automated: Data-driven Generation of Innovation Diffusion Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, T.; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation modeling is useful to gain insights into driving mechanisms of diffusion of innovations. This study aims to introduce automation to make identification of such mechanisms with agent-based simulation modeling less costly in time and labor. We present a novel automation procedure in which

  10. Technology diffusion in energy-economy models: The case of Danish vintage models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological vintage models to describe technology diffusion. The focus is on short- to medium-term issues. Three different models of Danish energy supply and demand are used to illustrate...

  11. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO) and 22Na+-Ions through Non-Degraded Hardened Cement Pastes - II. Modelling Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.

    2002-12-01

    In this report, the procedure and the results of an inverse modelling study on the through-diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) and 2 2Na + -ions are presented using high-porous hardened cement pastes with a water/cement ratio of 1.3 in the first stage of the cement degradation. For the analysis two alternative models were applied: 1) a diffusion model where a possible sorption of the tracer was entirely neglected, and 2) a diffusion model with linear sorption. The analysis of the through-diffusion phase allowed extracting values for the effective diffusion coefficient (D e ) and the rock-capacity factor (α). Both models could fit the breakthrough curves equally well, and also mass-balance considerations did not allow to clearly preferring one of the two competing models to the other. But blind-predictions for tracer out-diffusion using the best-fit parameter values deduced from analysing the former through-diffusion phase gave a clear indication that linear sorption had to be included in the diffusion model. The extracted K d values for HTO are in excellent agreement with values from batch sorption experiments and are of the order of 0.8. 10 -3 m 3 /kg. Those for 2 2Na + are of the order of 1.0. 10 -3 m 3 /kg and are by a factor of two larger than values from batch sorption experiments. The values for the effective diffusion coefficients for HTO are of the order of (2-3).10 -1 0 m 2 /s, and those for sodium are roughly by a factor of two smaller than values for HTO. On the one hand, the observed tracer uptake could only partially be addressed to isotope exchange; the most obvious process which could account for the remaining part of the uptaken tracer mass is diffusion into a second type of porosity, the dead-end pores. On the other hand, the results and conclusions drawn are encouraging for future investigations; therefore no major deficiency concerning the applied equipment and the modelling methodology could be detected. In the report, however, some suggestions

  12. Modelling of a diffusion-sorption experiment on sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.A.

    1989-11-01

    The results of a diffusion-sorption experiment on a sample of Darley Dale sandstone, using simulated groundwater spiked with a mixture of 125 I, 85 Sr and 137 Cs, are modelled by a one-dimensional porous medium approach in which sorption is described by Freundlich isotherms. The governing equations are solved analytically for the special case of a linear isotherm, and numerically using the computer code RANCHDIFF for non-linear isotherms. A set of time-dependent, ordinary differential equations is obtained using the Lagrange interpolation technique and integrated by Gear's variable order predictor-corrector method. It is shown that the sorption behaviour of 85 Sr can be modelled successfully by a linear isotherm, using a sorption parameter consistent with batch-sorption tests. The behaviour of 137 Cs may be modelled by a non-linear isotherm, but the amount of 137 Cs sorbed is less than that anticipated from batch-sorption tests. 125 I is assumed to be non-sorbing and is used to determine the porosity of the sandstone. (author) 10 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  13. The dynamics of multimodal integration: The averaging diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon M; Gao, Juan; Koenig, Scott; Palfy, Dylan; L McClelland, James

    2017-12-01

    We combine extant theories of evidence accumulation and multi-modal integration to develop an integrated framework for modeling multimodal integration as a process that unfolds in real time. Many studies have formulated sensory processing as a dynamic process where noisy samples of evidence are accumulated until a decision is made. However, these studies are often limited to a single sensory modality. Studies of multimodal stimulus integration have focused on how best to combine different sources of information to elicit a judgment. These studies are often limited to a single time point, typically after the integration process has occurred. We address these limitations by combining the two approaches. Experimentally, we present data that allow us to study the time course of evidence accumulation within each of the visual and auditory domains as well as in a bimodal condition. Theoretically, we develop a new Averaging Diffusion Model in which the decision variable is the mean rather than the sum of evidence samples and use it as a base for comparing three alternative models of multimodal integration, allowing us to assess the optimality of this integration. The outcome reveals rich individual differences in multimodal integration: while some subjects' data are consistent with adaptive optimal integration, reweighting sources of evidence as their relative reliability changes during evidence integration, others exhibit patterns inconsistent with optimality.

  14. An efficient method for model refinement in diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, A. R.; Khademi, M.

    2007-11-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-linear, ill-posed, boundary value and optimization problem which necessitates regularization. Also, Bayesian methods are suitable owing to measurements data are sparse and correlated. In such problems which are solved with iterative methods, for stabilization and better convergence, the solution space must be small. These constraints subject to extensive and overdetermined system of equations which model retrieving criteria specially total least squares (TLS) must to refine model error. Using TLS is limited to linear systems which is not achievable when applying traditional Bayesian methods. This paper presents an efficient method for model refinement using regularized total least squares (RTLS) for treating on linearized DOT problem, having maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator and Tikhonov regulator. This is done with combination Bayesian and regularization tools as preconditioner matrices, applying them to equations and then using RTLS to the resulting linear equations. The preconditioning matrixes are guided by patient specific information as well as a priori knowledge gained from the training set. Simulation results illustrate that proposed method improves the image reconstruction performance and localize the abnormally well.

  15. The EZ diffusion model provides a powerful test of simple empirical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Donkin, Chris; Vandekerckhove, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Over the last four decades, sequential accumulation models for choice response times have spread through cognitive psychology like wildfire. The most popular style of accumulator model is the diffusion model (Ratcliff Psychological Review, 85, 59-108, 1978), which has been shown to account for data from a wide range of paradigms, including perceptual discrimination, letter identification, lexical decision, recognition memory, and signal detection. Since its original inception, the model has become increasingly complex in order to account for subtle, but reliable, data patterns. The additional complexity of the diffusion model renders it a tool that is only for experts. In response, Wagenmakers et al. (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 3-22, 2007) proposed that researchers could use a more basic version of the diffusion model, the EZ diffusion. Here, we simulate experimental effects on data generated from the full diffusion model and compare the power of the full diffusion model and EZ diffusion to detect those effects. We show that the EZ diffusion model, by virtue of its relative simplicity, will be sometimes better able to detect experimental effects than the data-generating full diffusion model.

  16. Preisach hysteresis model for non-linear 2D heat diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancskar, Ildiko; Ivanyi, Amalia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a non-linear heat diffusion process when the thermal diffusivity behaviour is a hysteretic function of the temperature. Modelling this temperature dependence, the discrete Preisach algorithm as general hysteresis model has been integrated into a non-linear multigrid solver. The hysteretic diffusion shows a heating-cooling asymmetry in character. The presented type of hysteresis speeds up the thermal processes in the modelled systems by a very interesting non-linear way

  17. Biexponential analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging: comparison of three different calculation methods in transplanted kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Philipp; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Pentang, Gael; Buchbender, Christian; Miese, Falk; Schek, Julia; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Lanzman, Rotem S

    2013-12-01

    Biexponential analysis has been used increasingly to obtain contributions of both diffusion and microperfusion to the signal decay in diffusion-weighted imaging DWI of different parts of the body. To compare biexponential diffusion parameters of transplanted kidneys obtained with three different calculation methods. DWI was acquired in 15 renal allograft recipients (eight men, seven women; mean age, 52.4 ± 14.3 years) using a paracoronal EPI sequence with 16 b-values (b = 0-750 s/mm(2)) and six averages at 1.5T. No respiratory gating was used. Three different calculation methods were used for the calculation of biexponential diffusion parameters: Fp, ADCP, and ADCD were calculated without fixing any parameter a priori (calculation method 1); ADCP was fixed to 12.0 µm(2)/ms, whereas Fp and ADCD were calculated using the biexponential model (calculation method 2); multistep approach with monoexponential fitting of the high b-value portion (b ≥ 250 s/mm(2)) for determination of ADCD and assessment of the low b intercept for determination of Fp (calculation method 3). For quantitative analysis, ROI measurements were performed on the according parameter maps. Mean ADCD values of the renal cortex using calculation method 1 were significantly lower than using calculation methods 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between calculation methods 1 and 2 (r = 0.69 (P < 0.005) and calculation methods 1 and 3 (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) as well as calculation methods 2 and 3 (r = 0.98; P < 0.001). Mean Fp values of the renal cortex were higher with calculation method 1 than with calculation methods 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). For Fp, only the correlation between calculation methods 2 and 3 was significant (r = 0.98; P < 0.001). Biexponential diffusion parameters differ significantly depending on the calculation methods used for their calculation.

  18. Discrimination of malignant versus benign mediastinal lymph nodes using diffusion MRI with an IVIM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Li-Ping [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for MR Research, and Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yan, Wan-Pu; Chen, Ke-Neng [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Thoracic Oncosurgery, Beijing (China); Zhong, Zheng [University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for MR Research, and Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Bioengineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Li, Xiao-Ting; Sun, Ying-Shi [Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Ministry of Education, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Cai, Kejia [University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for MR Research, and Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Bioengineering, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhou, Xiaohong Joe [University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for MR Research, and Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Bioengineering, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the value of an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion model for discriminating malignant versus benign mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Thirty-five subjects with enlarged MLN were scanned at 1.5 Tesla. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with eight b-values. IVIM parameters D, D*, and f, as well as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from a mono-exponential model were obtained. 91 nodes (49 malignant and 42 benign) were analysed with pathologic (n=90) or radiologic (n=1) confirmations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The mean values of D, ADC, and f for the malignant group were significantly lower than those for the benign group (p<0.001), while D* showed no significant difference (p=0.281). In the ROC analysis, the combination of D and f produced the largest area under the curve (0.953) compared to ADC or other individual IVIM parameters, leading to the best specificity (92.9%) and diagnostic accuracy (90.1%). This study demonstrates that the combination of IVIM parameters can improve differentiation between malignant and benign MLN as compared to using ADC alone. (orig.)

  19. Fisher statistics for analysis of diffusion tensor directional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Elizabeth B; Rutecki, Paul A; Alexander, Andrew L; Sutula, Thomas P

    2012-04-30

    A statistical approach is presented for the quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) directional information using Fisher statistics, which were originally developed for the analysis of vectors in the field of paleomagnetism. In this framework, descriptive and inferential statistics have been formulated based on the Fisher probability density function, a spherical analogue of the normal distribution. The Fisher approach was evaluated for investigation of rat brain DTI maps to characterize tissue orientation in the corpus callosum, fornix, and hilus of the dorsal hippocampal dentate gyrus, and to compare directional properties in these regions following status epilepticus (SE) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) with values in healthy brains. Direction vectors were determined for each region of interest (ROI) for each brain sample and Fisher statistics were applied to calculate the mean direction vector and variance parameters in the corpus callosum, fornix, and dentate gyrus of normal rats and rats that experienced TBI or SE. Hypothesis testing was performed by calculation of Watson's F-statistic and associated p-value giving the likelihood that grouped observations were from the same directional distribution. In the fornix and midline corpus callosum, no directional differences were detected between groups, however in the hilus, significant (pstatistical comparison of tissue structural orientation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multifractal diffusion entropy analysis: Optimal bin width of probability histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of Multifractal Diffusion Entropy Analysis we propose a method for choosing an optimal bin-width in histograms generated from underlying probability distributions of interest. The method presented uses techniques of Rényi’s entropy and the mean squared error analysis to discuss the conditions under which the error in the multifractal spectrum estimation is minimal. We illustrate the utility of our approach by focusing on a scaling behavior of financial time series. In particular, we analyze the S&P500 stock index as sampled at a daily rate in the time period 1950-2013. In order to demonstrate a strength of the method proposed we compare the multifractal δ-spectrum for various bin-widths and show the robustness of the method, especially for large values of q. For such values, other methods in use, e.g., those based on moment estimation, tend to fail for heavy-tailed data or data with long correlations. Connection between the δ-spectrum and Rényi’s q parameter is also discussed and elucidated on a simple example of multiscale time series.

  1. SC lipid model membranes designed for studying impact of ceramide species on drug diffusion and permeation--part II: diffusion and permeation of model drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochalek, M; Podhaisky, H; Ruettinger, H-H; Wohlrab, J; Neubert, R H H

    2012-10-01

    The barrier function of two quaternary stratum corneum (SC) lipid model membranes, which were previously characterized with regard to the lipid organization, was investigated based on diffusion studies of model drugs with varying lipophilicities. Diffusion experiments of a hydrophilic drug, urea, and more lipophilic drugs than urea (i.e. caffeine, diclofenac sodium) were conducted using Franz-type diffusion cells. The amount of permeated drug was analyzed using either HPLC or CE technique. The subjects of interest in the present study were the investigation of the influence of physicochemical properties of model drugs on their diffusion and permeation through SC lipid model membranes, as well as the study of the impact of the constituents of these artificial systems (particularly ceramide species) on their barrier properties. The diffusion through both SC lipid model membranes and the human SC of the most hydrophilic model drug, urea, was faster than the permeation of the more lipophilic drugs. The slowest rate of permeation through SC lipid systems occurred in the case of caffeine. The composition of SC lipid model membranes has a significant impact on their barrier function. Model drugs diffused and permeated faster through Membrane II (presence of Cer [EOS]). In terms of the barrier properties, Membrane II is much more similar to the human SC than Membrane I. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Separation of type and grade in cervical tumours using non-mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Jessica M.; Collins, David J.; Morgan, Veronica A.; DeSouza, Nandita M.; Orton, Matthew R.; Ind, Thomas E.J.; Attygalle, Ayoma; Hazell, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of empirical diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) models in cervical tumours to investigate whether fitted parameters distinguish between types and grades of tumours. Forty-two patients (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 well/moderately differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated; 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 well/moderately differentiated, two poorly differentiated; three rare types) were imaged at 3 T using nine b-values (0 to 800 s mm -2 ). Mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, statistical, and bi-exponential models were fitted. Model preference was assessed using Bayesian Information Criterion analysis. Differences in fitted parameters between tumour types/grades and correlation between fitted parameters were assessed using two-way analysis of variance and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, respectively. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred by 83 % of tumours with bi-exponential and stretched exponential models preferred by the largest numbers of tumours. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion coefficients from non-mono-exponential models were significantly lower in poorly differentiated tumours than well/moderately differentiated tumours. α (stretched exponential), K (kurtosis), f and D* (bi-exponential) were significantly different between tumour types. Strong correlation was observed between ADC and diffusion coefficients from other models. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred to the mono-exponential model in DW-MRI data from cervical tumours. Parameters of non-mono-exponential models showed significant differences between types and grades of tumours. (orig.)

  3. Separation of type and grade in cervical tumours using non-mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, Jessica M.; Collins, David J.; Morgan, Veronica A.; DeSouza, Nandita M. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, MRI Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Orton, Matthew R. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Ind, Thomas E.J. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Gynaecology Unit, London (United Kingdom); Attygalle, Ayoma; Hazell, Steve [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Assessment of empirical diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) models in cervical tumours to investigate whether fitted parameters distinguish between types and grades of tumours. Forty-two patients (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 well/moderately differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated; 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 well/moderately differentiated, two poorly differentiated; three rare types) were imaged at 3 T using nine b-values (0 to 800 s mm{sup -2}). Mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, statistical, and bi-exponential models were fitted. Model preference was assessed using Bayesian Information Criterion analysis. Differences in fitted parameters between tumour types/grades and correlation between fitted parameters were assessed using two-way analysis of variance and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, respectively. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred by 83 % of tumours with bi-exponential and stretched exponential models preferred by the largest numbers of tumours. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion coefficients from non-mono-exponential models were significantly lower in poorly differentiated tumours than well/moderately differentiated tumours. α (stretched exponential), K (kurtosis), f and D* (bi-exponential) were significantly different between tumour types. Strong correlation was observed between ADC and diffusion coefficients from other models. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred to the mono-exponential model in DW-MRI data from cervical tumours. Parameters of non-mono-exponential models showed significant differences between types and grades of tumours. (orig.)

  4. Two dimensional finite element modelling for dynamic water diffusion through stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Perry; Imhof, Robert E

    2012-10-01

    Solvents penetration through in vivo human stratum corneum (SC) has always been an interesting research area for trans-dermal drug delivery studies, and the importance of intercellular routes (diffuse in between corneocytes) and transcellular routes (diffuse through corneocytes) during diffusion is often debatable. In this paper, we have developed a two dimensional finite element model to simulate the dynamic water diffusion through the SC. It is based on the brick-and-mortar model, with brick represents corneocytes and mortar represents lipids, respectively. It simulates the dynamic water diffusion process through the SC from pre-defined initial conditions and boundary conditions. Although the simulation is based on water diffusions, the principles can also be applied to the diffusions of other topical applied substances. The simulation results show that both intercellular routes and transcellular routes are important for water diffusion. Although intercellular routes have higher flux rates, most of the water still diffuse through transcellular routes because of the high cross area ratio of corneocytes and lipids. The diffusion water flux, or trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), is reversely proportional to corneocyte size, i.e. the larger the corneocyte size, the lower the TEWL, and vice versa. There is also an effect of the SC thickness, external air conditions and diffusion coefficients on the water diffusion through SC on the resulting TEWL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffusion maps, clustering and fuzzy Markov modeling in peptide folding transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedialkova, Lilia V.; Amat, Miguel A.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Hummer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Using the helix-coil transitions of alanine pentapeptide as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the use of diffusion maps in the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Diffusion maps and other nonlinear data-mining techniques provide powerful tools to visualize the distribution of structures in conformation space. The resulting low-dimensional representations help in partitioning conformation space, and in constructing Markov state models that capture the conformational dynamics. In an initial step, we use diffusion maps to reduce the dimensionality of the conformational dynamics of Ala5. The resulting pretreated data are then used in a clustering step. The identified clusters show excellent overlap with clusters obtained previously by using the backbone dihedral angles as input, with small—but nontrivial—differences reflecting torsional degrees of freedom ignored in the earlier approach. We then construct a Markov state model describing the conformational dynamics in terms of a discrete-time random walk between the clusters. We show that by combining fuzzy C-means clustering with a transition-based assignment of states, we can construct robust Markov state models. This state-assignment procedure suppresses short-time memory effects that result from the non-Markovianity of the dynamics projected onto the space of clusters. In a comparison with previous work, we demonstrate how manifold learning techniques may complement and enhance informed intuition commonly used to construct reduced descriptions of the dynamics in molecular conformation space

  6. Diffusion maps, clustering and fuzzy Markov modeling in peptide folding transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedialkova, Lilia V.; Amat, Miguel A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Kevrekidis, Ioannis G., E-mail: yannis@princeton.edu, E-mail: gerhard.hummer@biophys.mpg.de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hummer, Gerhard, E-mail: yannis@princeton.edu, E-mail: gerhard.hummer@biophys.mpg.de [Department of Theoretical Biophysics, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-09-21

    Using the helix-coil transitions of alanine pentapeptide as an illustrative example, we demonstrate the use of diffusion maps in the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Diffusion maps and other nonlinear data-mining techniques provide powerful tools to visualize the distribution of structures in conformation space. The resulting low-dimensional representations help in partitioning conformation space, and in constructing Markov state models that capture the conformational dynamics. In an initial step, we use diffusion maps to reduce the dimensionality of the conformational dynamics of Ala5. The resulting pretreated data are then used in a clustering step. The identified clusters show excellent overlap with clusters obtained previously by using the backbone dihedral angles as input, with small—but nontrivial—differences reflecting torsional degrees of freedom ignored in the earlier approach. We then construct a Markov state model describing the conformational dynamics in terms of a discrete-time random walk between the clusters. We show that by combining fuzzy C-means clustering with a transition-based assignment of states, we can construct robust Markov state models. This state-assignment procedure suppresses short-time memory effects that result from the non-Markovianity of the dynamics projected onto the space of clusters. In a comparison with previous work, we demonstrate how manifold learning techniques may complement and enhance informed intuition commonly used to construct reduced descriptions of the dynamics in molecular conformation space.

  7. Determination of oxygen effective diffusivity in porous gas diffusion layer using a three-dimensional pore network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rui; Zhu Xun; Liao Qiang; Wang Hong; Ding Yudong; Li Jun; Ye Dingding

    2010-01-01

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) models, oxygen effective diffusivity is the most important parameter to characterize the oxygen transport in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). However, its determination is a challenge due to its complex dependency on GDL structure. In the present study, a three-dimensional network consisting of spherical pores and cylindrical throats is developed and used to investigate the effects of GDL structural parameters on oxygen effective diffusivity under the condition with/without water invasion process. Oxygen transport in the throat is described by Fick's law and water invasion process in the network is simulated using the invasion percolation with trapping algorithm. The simulation results reveal that oxygen effective diffusivity is slightly affected by network size but increases with decreasing the network heterogeneity and with increasing the pore connectivity. Impacts of network anisotropy on oxygen transport are also investigated in this paper. The anisotropic network is constructed by constricting the throats in the through-plane direction with a constriction factor. It is found that water invasion has a more severe negative influence on oxygen transport in an anisotropic network. Finally, two new correlations are introduced to determine the oxygen effective diffusivity for the Toray carbon paper GDLs.

  8. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Ostergaard, Leif; Jakobsen, Rikke

    2007-09-01

    To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. We fit our diffusion model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each compartment. A global optimum was found from a wide range of parameter permutations using cluster computing. We also present simulations of cell swelling and changes of exchange rate and intracellular diffusion as possible cellular mechanisms in ischemia. Our model estimates an extracellular volume fraction of 0.19 in accordance with the accepted value from histology. The absolute apparent diffusion coefficient obtained from the model was similar to that of experiments. The model and the experimental results indicate significant differences in diffusion and transverse relaxation between the tissue compartments and slow water exchange. Our model reproduces the signal changes observed in ischemia via physiologically credible mechanisms. Our modeling suggests that transverse relaxation has a profound influence on the diffusion attenuated MR signal. Our simulations indicate cell swelling as the primary cause of the diffusion changes seen in the acute phase of brain ischemia. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Nonlinear variational models for reaction and diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanyi, G.E.

    1983-08-01

    There exists a natural metric w.r.t. which the density dependent diffusion operator is harmonic in the sense of Eells and Sampson. A physical corollary of this statement is the property that any two regular points on the orbit of a reaction or diffusion operator can be connected by a path along which the reaction rate is constant. (author)

  10. Diffusion in Liquids : Equilibrium Molecular Simulations and Predictive Engineering Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study multicomponent diffusion in liquids using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Diffusion plays an important role in mass transport processes. In binary systems, mass transfer processes have been studied extensively using both experiments and molecular simulations.

  11. Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lim, Hyunkyung [STONY BROOK UNIV; Li, Xiao - Lin [STONY BROOK UNIV; Gilmm, James G [STONY BROOK UNIV

    2008-01-01

    We are concerned with the chaotic flow fields of turbulent mixing. Chaotic flow is found in an extreme form in multiply shocked Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows. The goal of a converged simulation for this problem is twofold: to obtain converged solutions for macro solution features, such as the trajectories of the principal shock waves, mixing zone edges, and mean densities and velocities within each phase, and also for such micro solution features as the joint probability distributions of the temperature and species concentration. We introduce parameterized subgrid models of mass and thermal diffusion, to define large eddy simulations (LES) that replicate the micro features observed in the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Schmidt numbers and Prandtl numbers are chosen to represent typical liquid, gas and plasma parameter values. Our main result is to explore the variation of the Schmidt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers by three orders of magnitude, and the mesh by a factor of 8 per linear dimension (up to 3200 cells per dimension), to allow exploration of both DNS and LES regimes and verification of the simulations for both macro and micro observables. We find mesh convergence for key properties describing the molecular level of mixing, including chemical reaction rates between the distinct fluid species. We find results nearly independent of Reynolds number for Re 300, 6000, 600K . Methodologically, the results are also new. In common with the shock capturing community, we allow and maintain sharp solution gradients, and we enhance these gradients through use of front tracking. In common with the turbulence modeling community, we include subgrid scale models with no adjustable parameters for LES. To the authors' knowledge, these two methodologies have not been previously combined. In contrast to both of these methodologies, our use of Front Tracking, with DNS or LES resolution of the momentum equation at or near the Kolmogorov scale, but without

  12. Individual differences in emotion processing: how similar are diffusion model parameters across tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christina J; White, Corey N; Kuchinke, Lars

    2017-11-27

    The goal of this study was to replicate findings of diffusion model parameters capturing emotion effects in a lexical decision task and investigating whether these findings extend to other tasks of implicit emotion processing. Additionally, we were interested in the stability of diffusion model parameters across emotional stimuli and tasks for individual subjects. Responses to words in a lexical decision task were compared with responses to faces in a gender categorization task for stimuli of the emotion categories: happy, neutral and fear. Main effects of emotion as well as stability of emerging response style patterns as evident in diffusion model parameters across these tasks were analyzed. Based on earlier findings, drift rates were assumed to be more similar in response to stimuli of the same emotion category compared to stimuli of a different emotion category. Results showed that emotion effects of the tasks differed with a processing advantage for happy followed by neutral and fear-related words in the lexical decision task and a processing advantage for neutral followed by happy and fearful faces in the gender categorization task. Both emotion effects were captured in estimated drift rate parameters-and in case of the lexical decision task also in the non-decision time parameters. A principal component analysis showed that contrary to our hypothesis drift rates were more similar within a specific task context than within a specific emotion category. Individual response patterns of subjects across tasks were evident in significant correlations regarding diffusion model parameters including response styles, non-decision times and information accumulation.

  13. Synchronized stability in a reaction–diffusion neural network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Hongyong, E-mail: hongyongz@126.com

    2014-11-14

    The reaction–diffusion neural network consisting of a pair of identical tri-neuron loops is considered. We present detailed discussions about the synchronized stability and Hopf bifurcation, deducing the non-trivial role that delay plays in different locations. The corresponding numerical simulations are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. In addition, the numerical results about the effects of diffusion reveal that diffusion may speed up the tendency to synchronization and induce the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. Furthermore, if the parameters are located in appropriate regions, multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability may coexist. - Highlights: • Point to non-trivial role that τ plays in different positions. • Diffusion speeds up the tendency to synchronization. • Diffusion induces the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. • The coexistence of multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability.

  14. Synchronized stability in a reaction–diffusion neural network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Zhao, Hongyong

    2014-01-01

    The reaction–diffusion neural network consisting of a pair of identical tri-neuron loops is considered. We present detailed discussions about the synchronized stability and Hopf bifurcation, deducing the non-trivial role that delay plays in different locations. The corresponding numerical simulations are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results. In addition, the numerical results about the effects of diffusion reveal that diffusion may speed up the tendency to synchronization and induce the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. Furthermore, if the parameters are located in appropriate regions, multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability may coexist. - Highlights: • Point to non-trivial role that τ plays in different positions. • Diffusion speeds up the tendency to synchronization. • Diffusion induces the synchronized equilibrium point to be stable. • The coexistence of multiple unstability and bistability or unstability and bistability

  15. Flow injection analysis simulations and diffusion coefficient determination by stochastic and deterministic optimization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucza, Witold

    2013-07-25

    Stochastic and deterministic simulations of dispersion in cylindrical channels on the Poiseuille flow have been presented. The random walk (stochastic) and the uniform dispersion (deterministic) models have been used for computations of flow injection analysis responses. These methods coupled with the genetic algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods, respectively, have been applied for determination of diffusion coefficients. The diffusion coefficients of fluorescein sodium, potassium hexacyanoferrate and potassium dichromate have been determined by means of the presented methods and FIA responses that are available in literature. The best-fit results agree with each other and with experimental data thus validating both presented approaches. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  17. Bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2006-01-01

    We provide bounds for perpetual American option prices in a jump diffusion model in terms of American option prices in the standard Black-Scholes model. We also investigate the dependence of the bounds on different parameters of the model.

  18. Glioma grade assessment by using histogram analysis of diffusion tensor imaging-derived maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakab, Andras; Berenyi, Ervin; Molnar, Peter; Emri, Miklos

    2011-01-01

    Current endeavors in neuro-oncology include morphological validation of imaging methods by histology, including molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an up-to-date methodology of intracranial diagnostics that has gained importance in studies of neoplasia. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of discriminant analysis applied to histograms of preoperative diffusion tensor imaging-derived images for the prediction of glioma grade validated by histomorphology. Tumors of 40 consecutive patients included 13 grade II astrocytomas, seven oligoastrocytomas, six grade II oligodendrogliomas, three grade III oligoastrocytomas, and 11 glioblastoma multiformes. Preoperative DTI data comprised: unweighted (B 0 ) images, fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and radial diffusivity maps, directionally averaged diffusion-weighted imaging, and trace images. Sampling consisted of generating histograms for gross tumor volumes; 25 histogram bins per scalar map were calculated. The histogram bins that allowed the most precise determination of low-grade (LG) or high-grade (HG) classification were selected by multivariate discriminant analysis. Accuracy of the model was defined by the success rate of the leave-one-out cross-validation. Statistical descriptors of voxel value distribution did not differ between LG and HG tumors and did not allow classification. The histogram model had 88.5% specificity and 85.7% sensitivity in the separation of LG and HG gliomas; specificity was improved when cases with oligodendroglial components were omitted. Constructing histograms of preoperative radiological images over the tumor volume allows representation of the grade and enables discrimination of LG and HG gliomas which has been confirmed by histopathology. (orig.)

  19. Voxel-based analysis of the diffusion tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Gonoi, Wataru; Sasaki, Hiroki; Murakami, Mizuho; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Goto, Masami; Yamada, Haruyasu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for normal development and aging and various disease processes in the central nervous system. The aim of this article is to review the current protocols for DTI acquisition and preprocessing and statistical testing for a voxelwise analysis of DTI, focused on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). We tested the effects of distortion correction induced by gradient nonlinearity on fractional anisotropy (FA) maps or FA skeletons processed via two SPM-based methods (coregistration and FA template methods), or TBSS-based method, respectively. With two SPM-based methods, we found similar results in some points (e.g., significant FA elevation for uncorrected images in anterior-dominant white matter and for corrected images in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles) and different results in other points (e.g., significantly larger FA for corrected images with coregistration method, but significantly smaller with FA template method in bilateral internal capsules, extending to corona radiata, and semioval centers). In contrast, there was no area with significant difference between uncorrected and corrected FA skeletons with TBSS-based method. The discrepancy among these results was not explained in full, but possible explanations were misregistration and smoothing for the SPM-based methods and insensitivity to FA changes outside the local centers of white matter bundles for TBSS-based method. (orig.)

  20. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  1. Asymptotic analysis of discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xia; Yuan, Guang-wei; Shen, Zhi-jun

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by providing well-behaved fully discrete schemes in practice, this paper extends the asymptotic analysis on time integration methods for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion in [2] to space discretizations. Therein studies were carried out on a two-temperature model with Larsen's flux-limited diffusion operator, both the implicitly balanced (IB) and linearly implicit (LI) methods were shown asymptotic-preserving. In this paper, we focus on asymptotic analysis for space discrete schemes in dimensions one and two. First, in construction of the schemes, in contrast to traditional first-order approximations, asymmetric second-order accurate spatial approximations are devised for flux-limiters on boundary, and discrete schemes with second-order accuracy on global spatial domain are acquired consequently. Then by employing formal asymptotic analysis, the first-order asymptotic-preserving property for these schemes and furthermore for the fully discrete schemes is shown. Finally, with the help of manufactured solutions, numerical tests are performed, which demonstrate quantitatively the fully discrete schemes with IB time evolution indeed have the accuracy and asymptotic convergence as theory predicts, hence are well qualified for both non-equilibrium and equilibrium radiation diffusion. - Highlights: • Provide AP fully discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion. • Propose second order accurate schemes by asymmetric approach for boundary flux-limiter. • Show first order AP property of spatially and fully discrete schemes with IB evolution. • Devise subtle artificial solutions; verify accuracy and AP property quantitatively. • Ideas can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems and higher order implicit schemes.

  2. Comparison of non-Gaussian and Gaussian diffusion models of diffusion weighted imaging of rectal cancer at 3.0 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wen, Didi; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Xiaocheng; Ma, Wanling; Zhao, Weiwei; Wang, Mian; Wu, Guosheng; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-12-09

    Water molecular diffusion in vivo tissue is much more complicated. We aimed to compare non-Gaussian diffusion models of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) including intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM), stretched-exponential model (SEM) and Gaussian diffusion model at 3.0 T MRI in patients with rectal cancer, and to determine the optimal model for investigating the water diffusion properties and characterization of rectal carcinoma. Fifty-nine consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma underwent DWI with 16 b-values at a 3.0 T MRI system. DWI signals were fitted to the mono-exponential and non-Gaussian diffusion models (IVIM-mono, IVIM-bi and SEM) on primary tumor and adjacent normal rectal tissue. Parameters of standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow- and fast-ADC, fraction of fast ADC (f), α value and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were generated and compared between the tumor and normal tissues. The SEM exhibited the best fitting results of actual DWI signal in rectal cancer and the normal rectal wall (R 2  = 0.998, 0.999 respectively). The DDC achieved relatively high area under the curve (AUC = 0.980) in differentiating tumor from normal rectal wall. Non-Gaussian diffusion models could assess tissue properties more accurately than the ADC derived Gaussian diffusion model. SEM may be used as a potential optimal model for characterization of rectal cancer.

  3. First atmospheric diffusion experiment compaign at the Angra site. Analysis of the data measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1986-07-01

    An analysis of the data measured during the first atmospheric diffusion experiment campaign at the Angra site is presented. Some time before the diffusion experiments, with tritiated water vapor used as a tracer (HTO) could be started, many preparatory studies had to be concluded due to the local complex terrain surrounded by steep hills on three sides and a bay in the southern direction. An introductory account of these previous steps is given. Tritiated water vapor was released from a 100m-high tower and air humidity sampled at 25 locations as far as 1Km downwind of the source. An elaborated isoconcentration analysis indicates the plume spread has a Gaussian distribution in the horizontal plane up to the edge of the site's area bordered by the hill's top (about 1Km far-off). Nevertheless the Gaussian model has a restricted applicability at some parts of the site because of the terrain unevenness. In general, the results are comparable to those obtained in other countries for complex terrain. Meanwhile, the Angra's experiments seem only to validate the Gaussian model for short range dispersion from an elevated source. For releases in the lowest layer, the Gaussian model might not be valid. The isoconcentration analysis strengthens the assumption of sea breeze recirculation on the site. (Author) [pt

  4. eGSM: A extended Sky Model of Diffuse Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doyeon; Liu, Adrian; Switzer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Both cosmic microwave background and 21cm cosmology observations must contend with astrophysical foreground contaminants in the form of diffuse radio emission. For precise cosmological measurements, these foregrounds must be accurately modeled over the entire sky Ideally, such full-sky models ought to be primarily motivated by observations. Yet in practice, these observations are limited, with data sets that are observed not only in a heterogenous fashion, but also over limited frequency ranges. Previously, the Global Sky Model (GSM) took some steps towards solving the problem of incomplete observational data by interpolating over multi-frequency maps using principal component analysis (PCA).In this poster, we present an extended version of GSM (called eGSM) that includes the following improvements: 1) better zero-level calibration 2) incorporation of non-uniform survey resolutions and sky coverage 3) the ability to quantify uncertainties in sky models 4) the ability to optimally select spectral models using Bayesian Evidence techniques.

  5. Evaluating neighborhood structures for modeling intercity diffusion of large-scale dengue epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Shun; Hu, Ming-Che

    2018-05-03

    Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics. We proposed a framework for assessing the effect of model configurations on dengue incidence in 2014 and 2015, which were the most severe outbreaks in 70 years in Taiwan. Compared with the conventional model configuration in spatial regression analysis, our proposed model used a radiation model, which reflects population flow between townships, as a spatial weight to capture the structure of human mobility. The results of our model demonstrate better model fitting performance, indicating that the structure of human mobility has better explanatory power in dengue diffusion than the geometric structure of administration boundaries and geographic distance between centroids of cities. We also identified spatial-temporal hierarchy of dengue diffusion: dengue incidence would be influenced by its immediate neighboring townships during pre-epidemic and epidemic periods, and also with more distant neighbors (based on mobility) in pre-epidemic periods. Our findings suggest that the structure of population mobility could more reasonably capture urban-to-urban interactions, which implies that the hub cities could be a "bridge" for large-scale transmission and make townships that immediately connect to hub cities more vulnerable to dengue epidemics.

  6. Histogram Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Pediatric Cerebellar Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias W; Narayan, Anand K; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values have been shown to assist in differentiating cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Previous studies have applied only ADC measurements and calculated the mean/median values. Here we investigated the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) histogram characteristics of the entire tumor for differentiation of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. Presurgical DTI data were analyzed with a region of interest (ROI) approach to include the entire tumor. For each tumor, histogram-derived metrics including the 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and skewness were calculated for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivity. The histogram metrics were used as primary predictors of interest in a logistic regression model. Statistical significance levels were set at p histogram skewness showed statistically significant differences for MD between low- and high-grade tumors (P = .008). The 25th percentile for MD yields the best results for the presurgical differentiation between pediatric cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. The analysis of other DTI metrics does not provide additional diagnostic value. Our study confirms the diagnostic value of the quantitative histogram analysis of DTI data in pediatric neuro-oncology. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. A non-local structural derivative model for characterization of ultraslow diffusion in dense colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Ultraslow diffusion has been observed in numerous complicated systems. Its mean squared displacement (MSD) is not a power law function of time, but instead a logarithmic function, and in some cases grows even more slowly than the logarithmic rate. The distributed-order fractional diffusion equation model simply does not work for the general ultraslow diffusion. Recent study has used the local structural derivative to describe ultraslow diffusion dynamics by using the inverse Mittag-Leffler function as the structural function, in which the MSD is a function of inverse Mittag-Leffler function. In this study, a new stretched logarithmic diffusion law and its underlying non-local structural derivative diffusion model are proposed to characterize the ultraslow diffusion in aging dense colloidal glass at both the short and long waiting times. It is observed that the aging dynamics of dense colloids is a class of the stretched logarithmic ultraslow diffusion processes. Compared with the power, the logarithmic, and the inverse Mittag-Leffler diffusion laws, the stretched logarithmic diffusion law has better precision in fitting the MSD of the colloidal particles at high densities. The corresponding non-local structural derivative diffusion equation manifests clear physical mechanism, and its structural function is equivalent to the first-order derivative of the MSD.

  8. Numerical vs. turbulent diffusion in geophysical flow modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, M.; Maurizi, A.; Tampieri, F.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical advection schemes induce the spreading of passive tracers from localized sources. The effects of changing resolution and Courant number are investigated using the WAF advection scheme, which leads to a sub-diffusive process. The spreading rate from an instantaneous source is compared with the physical diffusion necessary to simulate unresolved turbulent motions. The time at which the physical diffusion process overpowers the numerical spreading is estimated, and is shown to reduce as the resolution increases, and to increase as the wind velocity increases.

  9. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before the product being launched. Multiple-unit purchasing behavior can increase sales to make more profit for a firm, and it needs more samples to make the product known much better. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the increase of both external coefficients and internal coefficients has a negative influence on the sampling level, but the internal influence on the subsequent multiple-unit adoptions has little significant influence on the sampling. Using the logistic regression along with linear regression, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all factors, which manifests the external influence and multiunit purchase rate are two most important factors to influence the sampling level and net present value of the new product, and presents a two-stage method to determine the sampling level.

  10. Exciton delocalization incorporated drift-diffusion model for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi Shuai; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the charge-generation process is highly important to understand device physics and optimize power conversion efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Free carriers are generated by both ultrafast exciton delocalization and slow exciton diffusion and dissociation at the heterojunction interface. In this work, we developed a systematic numerical simulation to describe the charge-generation process by a modified drift-diffusion model. The transport, recombination, and collection of free carriers are incorporated to fully capture the device response. The theoretical results match well with the state-of-the-art high-performance organic solar cells. It is demonstrated that the increase of exciton delocalization ratio reduces the energy loss in the exciton diffusion-dissociation process, and thus, significantly improves the device efficiency, especially for the short-circuit current. By changing the exciton delocalization ratio, OSC performances are comprehensively investigated under the conditions of short-circuit and open-circuit. Particularly, bulk recombination dependent fill factor saturation is unveiled and understood. As a fundamental electrical analysis of the delocalization mechanism, our work is important to understand and optimize the high-performance OSCs.

  11. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  12. Gas dynamic analysis of the performance of diffuser augmented ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is considered an ... Maximum power rating ± for a given blade technology ± can be extended substantially by ... twist angles in addition to design parameters such as tip speed ratio with minimum ...

  13. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  14. Mathematical basis for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers by compartmental analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    Using compartmental analysis methods, a mathematical basis is given for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers. Cardiac output is shown to be the product of the blood volume and the sum of the rate constants of tracer egress from blood, modified by a factor reflecting transcapillary diffusibility, the transfer fraction. The return of tracer to the blood and distant (intracellular) events are shown to play no role in the solution. Fractional cardiac output is the ratio of the rate constant of tracer egress from blood to an organ, divided by the sum of the egress constants from blood. Predominantly extracellular ions such as sodium or bromide are best suited for this technique, although theoretically any diffusible tracer whose compartmental model can be solved may be used. It is shown that fractional cardiac output is independent of the transfer fraction, and therefore can be measured accurately by tracers which are not freely diffusible

  15. The analysis of radon diffusion through the buildings materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujic, S.; Radukin-Kosanovic, A.; Bikit, I.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since people most of the time spent indoors it is of great importance to analyse the radon diffusion through different types of materials, in order to prevent the increase of its concentration in the interior of buildings. The paper examined six different types of materials used in construction, mainly in the insulating purposes, in order to determine the material, or a combination of appropriate type and thickness of material which have a smaller value of diffusion coefficient of radon. (author) [sr

  16. Renormalization analysis of catalytic Wright-Fisher diffusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.; Fleischmann, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2006, č. 11 (2006), s. 585-654 ISSN 1083-6489 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : renormalization * catalytic Wright-Fisher diffusion * embedded particle system * extinction * unbounded growth * interacting diffusions * universality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.676, year: 2006

  17. Analysis of current diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of finite gyroradius on the current diffusive ballooning mode is examined. Starting from the reduced MHD equations including turbulent transports, coupling with drift motion and finite gyroradius effect of ions, we derive a ballooning mode equation with complex transport coefficients. The eigenfrequency, saturation level and thermal diffusivity are evaluated numerically from the marginal stability condition. Preliminary results of their parameter dependence is presented. (author)

  18. Nitritation performance and biofilm development of co- and counter-diffusion biofilm reactors: Modeling and experimental comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Rongchang; Terada, Akihiko; Lackner, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the start-up performance and biofilm development in two different biofilm reactors with aim of obtaining partial nitritation. The reactors were both operated under oxygen limited conditions, but differed in geometry. While substrates (O-2, NH3) co......-diffused in one geometry, they counter-diffused in the other. Mathematical simulations of these two geometries were implemented in two 1-D multispecies biofilm models using the AQUASIM software. Sensitivity analysis results showed that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K-i) and maximum specific growth rate...... results showed that the counter-diffusion biofilms developed faster and attained a larger maximum biofilm thickness than the co-diffusion biofilms. Under oxygen limited condition (DO

  19. Small-polaron model of light atom diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1977-01-01

    A number of researchers have treated the diffusion of light interstitials in metals in strict analogy with the theory for the hopping diffusion of electrons in low-mobility insulators. In other words, these authors view the diffusion of light atoms as simply being an example of small-polaron hopping motion. In this paper the motion of a small polaron is introduced, and the mechanism of its motion is described. The experimental results are then succinctly presented. Next the physical assumptions implicit in the theory are compared with the situation which is believed to characterize the existence and motion of light interstitial atoms in metals. Concomitantly, the modifications of the small-polaron theory required in applying it to light atom diffusion are ennumerated

  20. A mathematical model in charactering chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Pecur, I.B.; Baricevic, A.; Stirmer, N; Bjegovic, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic model for predicting chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials is developed based on conductivity theory and Nernst-Einstein equation. The model specifies that chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials can be mathematically described as

  1. A critical discussion of the vacancy diffusion model of ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heera, V.

    1989-01-01

    A simple vacancy diffusion model of ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization of silicon including divacancy formation is developed. The model reproduces some of the experimental findings, as e.g. the dose rate dependence of the crystallization rate. However, the measured activation energy of the ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization cannot be accounted for by vacancy diffusion alone. (author)

  2. Nuclear interaction potential in a folded-Yukawa model with diffuse densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1975-09-01

    The folded-Yukawa model for the nuclear interaction potential is generalized to diffuse density distributions which are generated by folding a Yukawa function into sharp generating distributions. The effect of a finite density diffuseness or of a finite interaction range is studied. The Proximity Formula corresponding to the generalized model is derived and numerical comparison is made with the exact results. (8 figures)

  3. Business models for maximising the diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Blok, V.; Poldner, Kim

    2017-01-01

    r, CSA technological innovation diffusion is subject to socio-economic barriers. The success of innovations is partly dependent on the business models that are used to diffuse them. Within the context of innovations for CSA, the role that innovation providers’ business models play in the successful

  4. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of the space - time diffusion patterns of cholera epidemic in Kumasi, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei, Frank B.; Osei, F.B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Stein, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the joint effects of the two transmission routes of cholera on the space-time diffusion dynamics. Statistical models are developed and presented to investigate the transmission network routes of cholera diffusion. A hierarchical Bayesian modelling approach is employed for a joint

  5. Diffusion-controlled interface kinetics-inclusive system-theoretic propagation models for molecular communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A. K.; Malekian, Reza; Maharaj, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Inspired by biological systems, molecular communication has been proposed as a new communication paradigm that uses biochemical signals to transfer information from one nano device to another over a short distance. The biochemical nature of the information transfer process implies that for molecular communication purposes, the development of molecular channel models should take into consideration diffusion phenomenon as well as the physical/biochemical kinetic possibilities of the process. The physical and biochemical kinetics arise at the interfaces between the diffusion channel and the transmitter/receiver units. These interfaces are herein termed molecular antennas. In this paper, we present the deterministic propagation model of the molecular communication between an immobilized nanotransmitter and nanoreceiver, where the emission and reception kinetics are taken into consideration. Specifically, we derived closed-form system-theoretic models and expressions for configurations that represent different communication systems based on the type of molecular antennas used. The antennas considered are the nanopores at the transmitter and the surface receptor proteins/enzymes at the receiver. The developed models are simulated to show the influence of parameters such as the receiver radius, surface receptor protein/enzyme concentration, and various reaction rate constants. Results show that the effective receiver surface area and the rate constants are important to the system's output performance. Assuming high rate of catalysis, the analysis of the frequency behavior of the developed propagation channels in the form of transfer functions shows significant difference introduce by the inclusion of the molecular antennas into the diffusion-only model. It is also shown that for t > > 0 and with the information molecules' concentration greater than the Michaelis-Menten kinetic constant of the systems, the inclusion of surface receptors proteins and enzymes in the models

  6. Modeling Simple Driving Tasks with a One-Boundary Diffusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Strayer, David

    2014-01-01

    A one-boundary diffusion model was applied to the data from two experiments in which subjects were performing a simple simulated driving task. In the first experiment, the same subjects were tested on two driving tasks using a PC-based driving simulator and the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The diffusion model fit the response time (RT) distributions for each task and individual subject well. Model parameters were found to correlate across tasks which suggests common component processes were being tapped in the three tasks. The model was also fit to a distracted driving experiment of Cooper and Strayer (2008). Results showed that distraction altered performance by affecting the rate of evidence accumulation (drift rate) and/or increasing the boundary settings. This provides an interpretation of cognitive distraction whereby conversing on a cell phone diverts attention from the normal accumulation of information in the driving environment. PMID:24297620

  7. Modeling bioluminescent photon transport in tissue based on Radiosity-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Pu; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Han, Dong; Yang, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is one of the most important non-invasive optical molecular imaging modalities. The model for the bioluminescent photon propagation plays a significant role in the bioluminescence tomography study. Due to the high computational efficiency, diffusion approximation (DA) is generally applied in the bioluminescence tomography. But the diffusion equation is valid only in highly scattering and weakly absorbing regions and fails in non-scattering or low-scattering tissues, such as a cyst in the breast, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the brain and synovial fluid layer in the joints. A hybrid Radiosity-diffusion model is proposed for dealing with the non-scattering regions within diffusing domains in this paper. This hybrid method incorporates a priori information of the geometry of non-scattering regions, which can be acquired by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or x-ray computed tomography (CT). Then the model is implemented using a finite element method (FEM) to ensure the high computational efficiency. Finally, we demonstrate that the method is comparable with Mont Carlo (MC) method which is regarded as a 'gold standard' for photon transportation simulation.

  8. Numerical analysis for the fractional diffusion and fractional Buckmaster equation by the two-step Laplace Adam-Bashforth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonal

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to use the alternative numerical scheme given by Gnitchogna and Atangana for solving partial differential equations with integer and non-integer differential operators. We applied this method to fractional diffusion model and fractional Buckmaster models with non-local fading memory. The method yields a powerful numerical algorithm for fractional order derivative to implement. Also we present in detail the stability analysis of the numerical method for solving the diffusion equation. This proof shows that this method is very stable and also converges very quickly to exact solution and finally some numerical simulation is presented.

  9. Diffusion-controlled reactions modeling in Geant4-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamitros, M., E-mail: matkara@gmail.com [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); Luan, S. [University of New Mexico, Department of Computer Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Allison, J. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Baldacchino, G. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, LIDYL, Radiation Physical Chemistry Group, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS, UMR3299, SIS2M, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Davidkova, M. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Mkalles, Beirut (Lebanon); Friedland, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Ivantchenko, A. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SwHaRD s.r.l., via Buccari 9, 16153 Genova (Italy); Nieminem, P.; Santin, G. [ESA-ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics and Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Stepan, V. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Incerti, S., E-mail: incerti@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2014-10-01

    Context Under irradiation, a biological system undergoes a cascade of chemical reactions that can lead to an alteration of its normal operation. There are different types of radiation and many competing reactions. As a result the kinetics of chemical species is extremely complex. The simulation becomes then a powerful tool which, by describing the basic principles of chemical reactions, can reveal the dynamics of the macroscopic system. To understand the dynamics of biological systems under radiation, since the 80s there have been on-going efforts carried out by several research groups to establish a mechanistic model that consists in describing all the physical, chemical and biological phenomena following the irradiation of single cells. This approach is generally divided into a succession of stages that follow each other in time: (1) the physical stage, where the ionizing particles interact directly with the biological material; (2) the physico-chemical stage, where the targeted molecules release their energy by dissociating, creating new chemical species; (3) the chemical stage, where the new chemical species interact with each other or with the biomolecules; (4) the biological stage, where the repairing mechanisms of the cell come into play. This article focuses on the modeling of the chemical stage. Method This article presents a general method of speeding-up chemical reaction simulations in fluids based on the Smoluchowski equation and Monte-Carlo methods, where all molecules are explicitly simulated and the solvent is treated as a continuum. The model describes diffusion-controlled reactions. This method has been implemented in Geant4-DNA. The keys to the new algorithm include: (1) the combination of a method to compute time steps dynamically with a Brownian bridge process to account for chemical reactions, which avoids costly fixed time step simulations; (2) a k–d tree data structure for quickly locating, for a given molecule, its closest reactants. The

  10. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Cammarano, A.; Capri, E.

    2007-01-01

    of water, potato tissue, and carrot tissue. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene served as model substances. Their transfer from source to sink disk was measured by HPLC to determine a velocity rate constant proportional to the diffusive conductivity. The diffusive flux through the plant...... of the chemical. The findings of this study provide a convenient method to estimate the diffusion of nonvolatile organic chemicals through various plant materials. The application to a radial diffusion model suggests that "growth dilution" renders the concentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in potatoes...... below their equilibrium partitioning level. This is in agreement with field results for the bioconcentration of PAHs in potatoes....

  11. Models for the estimation of diffuse solar radiation for typical cities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirci, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In solar energy applications, diffuse solar radiation component is required. Solar radiation data particularly in terms of diffuse component are not readily affordable, because of high price of measurements as well as difficulties in their maintenance and calibration. In this study, new empirical models for predicting the monthly mean diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface for typical cities in Turkey are established. Therefore, fifteen empirical models from studies in the literature are used. Also, eighteen diffuse solar radiation models are developed using long term sunshine duration and global solar radiation data. The accuracy of the developed models is evaluated in terms of different statistical indicators. It is found that the best performance is achieved for the third-order polynomial model based on sunshine duration and clearness index. - Highlights: • Diffuse radiation is given as a function of clearness index and sunshine fraction. • The diffuse radiation is an important parameter in solar energy applications. • The diffuse radiation measurement is for limited periods and it is very rare. • The new models can be used to estimate monthly average diffuse solar radiation. • The accuracy of the models is evaluated on the basis of statistical indicators

  12. Extracting surface diffusion coefficients from batch adsorption measurement data: application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Khim Hoong

    2017-11-09

    Surface diffusion coefficients may be estimated by fitting solutions of a diffusion model to batch kinetic data. For non-linear systems, a numerical solution of the diffusion model's governing equations is generally required. We report here the application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model to extract surface diffusion coefficients from batch kinetic data. The use of the Langmuir kinetics model in lieu of the conventional surface diffusion model allows derivation of an analytical expression. The parameter estimation procedure requires determining the Langmuir rate coefficient from which the pertinent surface diffusion coefficient is calculated. Surface diffusion coefficients within the 10 -9 to 10 -6  cm 2 /s range obtained by fitting the Langmuir kinetics model to experimental kinetic data taken from the literature are found to be consistent with the corresponding values obtained from the traditional surface diffusion model. The virtue of this simplified parameter estimation method is that it reduces the computational complexity as the analytical expression involves only an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation.

  13. Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening

  14. Diffusion Filters for Variational Data Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in an Intermediate Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential, adaptive, and gradient diffusion filters are implemented into spatial multiscale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR as alternative schemes to model background error covariance matrix for the commonly used correction scale method, recursive filter method, and sequential 3DVAR. The gradient diffusion filter (GDF is verified by a two-dimensional sea surface temperature (SST assimilation experiment. Compared to the existing DF, the new GDF scheme shows a superior performance in the assimilation experiment due to its success in extracting the spatial multiscale information. The GDF can retrieve successfully the longwave information over the whole analysis domain and the shortwave information over data-dense regions. After that, a perfect twin data assimilation experiment framework is designed to study the effect of the GDF on the state estimation based on an intermediate coupled model. In this framework, the assimilation model is subject to “biased” initial fields from the “truth” model. While the GDF reduces the model bias in general, it can enhance the accuracy of the state estimation in the region that the observations are removed, especially in the South Ocean. In addition, the higher forecast skill can be obtained through the better initial state fields produced by the GDF.

  15. Monte Carlo Modelling of Single-Crystal Diffuse Scattering from Intermetallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS reveals detailed structural insights into materials. In particular, it is sensitive to two-body correlations, whereas traditional Bragg peak-based methods are sensitive to single-body correlations. This means that diffuse scattering is sensitive to ordering that persists for just a few unit cells: nanoscale order, sometimes referred to as “local structure”, which is often crucial for understanding a material and its function. Metals and alloys were early candidates for SCDS studies because of the availability of large single crystals. While great progress has been made in areas like ab initio modelling and molecular dynamics, a place remains for Monte Carlo modelling of model crystals because of its ability to model very large systems; important when correlations are relatively long (though still finite in range. This paper briefly outlines, and gives examples of, some Monte Carlo methods appropriate for the modelling of SCDS from metallic compounds, and considers data collection as well as analysis. Even if the interest in the material is driven primarily by magnetism or transport behaviour, an understanding of the local structure can underpin such studies and give an indication of nanoscale inhomogeneity.

  16. Permeability-diffusivity modeling vs. fractional anisotropy on white matter integrity assessment and application in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunov, P; Chiappelli, J; Hong, L E

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) assumes a single pool of anisotropically diffusing water to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and is commonly used to ascertain white matter (WM) deficits in schizophrenia. At higher b-values, diffusion-signal decay becomes bi-exponential, suggesting the presence of two, unrestricted and restricted, water pools. Theoretical work suggests that semi-permeable cellular membrane rather than the presence of two physical compartments is the cause. The permeability-diffusivity (PD) parameters measured from bi-exponential modeling may offer advantages, over traditional DTI-FA, in identifying WM deficits in schizophrenia. Imaging was performed in N = 26/26 patients/controls (age = 20-61 years, average age = 40.5 ± 12.6). Imaging consisted of fifteen b-shells: b = 250-3800 s/mm(2) with 30 directions/shell, covering seven slices of mid-sagittal corpus callosum (CC) at 1.7 × 1.7 × 4.6 mm. 64-direction DTI was also collected. Permeability-diffusivity-index (PDI), the ratio of restricted to unrestricted apparent diffusion coefficients, and the fraction of unrestricted compartment (Mu) were calculated for CC and cingulate gray matter (GM). FA values for CC were calculated using tract-based-spatial-statistics. Patients had significantly reduced PDI in CC (p ≅ 10(- 4)) and cingulate GM (p = 0.002), while differences in CC FA were modest (p ≅ .03). There was no group-related difference in Mu. Additional theoretical-modeling analysis suggested that reduced PDI in patients may be caused by reduced cross-membrane water molecule exchanges. PDI measurements for cerebral WM and GM yielded more robust patient-control differences than DTI-FA. Theoretical work offers an explanation that patient-control PDI differences should implicate abnormal active membrane permeability. This would implicate abnormal activities in ion-channels that use water as substrate for ion exchange, in cerebral tissues of schizophrenia patients.

  17. Integration of plume and puff diffusion models/application of CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira

    The clinical symptoms of patients and other evidences of a gas poisoning accident inside an industrial building strongly suggested an abrupt influx of engine exhaust from a construction vehicle which was operating outside in the open air. But the obviously high level of gas concentration could not be well explained by any conventional steady-state gas diffusion models. The author used an unsteady-state continuous Puff Model to simulate the time-wise changes in air stream with the pollutant gas being continuously emitted, and successfully reproduced the observed phenomena. The author demonstrates that this diffusion formula can be solved analytically by the use of error function as long as the change in wind velocity is stepwise, and clarifies the accurate differences between the unsteady- and steady-states and their convergence profiles. Also, the relationship between the Puff and Plume Models is discussed. The case study included a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to estimate the steady-state air stream and the gas concentration pattern in the affected area. It is well known that clear definition of the boundary conditions is key to successful CFD analysis. The author describes a two-step use of CFD: the first step to define the boundary conditions and the second to determine the steady-state air stream and the gas concentration pattern.

  18. Stalled-Flow and Head-Loss Model for Diffuser Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, S. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Modeling procedure approximates inlet transition zone (blade leading edge to blade throat) of diffuser pump as two-dimensional cascade, properties of which are well known. Model applied to stators as well as rotors. Procedure much faster than previous methods.

  19. Quantum-corrected drift-diffusion models for transport in semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Falco, Carlo; Gatti, Emilio; Lacaita, Andrea L.; Sacco, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a unified framework for Quantum-corrected drift-diffusion (QCDD) models in nanoscale semiconductor device simulation. QCDD models are presented as a suitable generalization of the classical drift-diffusion (DD) system, each particular model being identified by the constitutive relation for the quantum-correction to the electric potential. We examine two special, and relevant, examples of QCDD models; the first one is the modified DD model named Schroedinger-Poisson-drift-diffusion, and the second one is the quantum-drift-diffusion (QDD) model. For the decoupled solution of the two models, we introduce a functional iteration technique that extends the classical Gummel algorithm widely used in the iterative solution of the DD system. We discuss the finite element discretization of the various differential subsystems, with special emphasis on their stability properties, and illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithms and models on the numerical simulation of nanoscale devices in two spatial dimensions

  20. Histogram analysis of noise performance on fractional anisotropy brain MR image with different diffusion gradient numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Joo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Woo, Seung Koo; Suh, Kyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    We wished to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, the noise performance of fractional anisotropy brain images along with the different diffusion gradient numbers by using the histogram method. Diffusion tensor images were acquired using a 3.0 T MR scanner from ten normal volunteers who had no neurological symptoms. The single-shot spin-echo EPI with a Stejskal-Tanner type diffusion gradient scheme was employed for the diffusion tensor measurement. With a b-valuee of 1000 s/mm 2 , the diffusion tensor images were obtained for 6, 11, 23, 35 and 47 diffusion gradient directions. FA images were generated for each DTI scheme. The histograms were then obtained at selected ROIs for the anatomical structures on the FA image. At the same ROI location, the mean FA value and the standard deviation of the mean FA value were calculated. The quality of the FA image was improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased by showing better contrast between the WM and GM. The histogram showed that the variance of FA values was reduced as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. This histogram analysis was in good agreement with the result obtained using quantitative analysis. The image quality of the FA map was significantly improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. The histogram analysis well demonstrated that the improvement in the FA images resulted from the reduction in the variance of the FA values included in the ROI

  1. Diffusion tensor analysis with nuclear magnetic resonance in human central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Naoki

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to measure the diffusivity of water molecules. In central nervous system, anisotropic diffusion, which is characterized by apparent diffusion tensor D app ξ , is thought to be related to neuronal fiber tract orientation. For precise observation of anisotropic diffusion, it is needed to determine the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of D app ξ . Once D app ξ is estimated from a series of diffusion weighted images, a tissue's orthotropic principal axes and diffusivity of each direction are determined from eigenvalues and eigenvectors of D app ξ . There are several methods to represent anisotropic diffusion with D app ξ . Examples are diffusion ellipsoids constructed in each voxel depicting both these principal axes and the mean diffusion length in these directions, trace invariant values and its mapping image, largest eigenvalue, and ratio of largest eigenvalue to the other eigenvalue. In this study, the author investigated practical procedure to analyze diffusion tensor D app ξ using both of spin-echo end echo-planer diffusion weighted imagings with 3-tesla magnetic resonance machine in human brain. The ellipsoid representation provided particularly useful information about microanatomy including neuronal fiber tract orientation and molecular mobility reflective of microstructure. Furthermore, in the lesion of Wallerian degeneration, the loss of anisotropy of local apparent diffusion was observed. It is suggested that the function of axons can be observed via degree of anisotropy of apparent diffusion. Consequently, diffusion tensor analysis is expected to be a powerful, noninvasive method capable of quantitative and functional evaluation of the central nervous system. (author)

  2. A model for self-diffusion of guanidinium-based ionic liquids: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Marco; Seduraman, Abirami; Wu, Ping

    2008-11-06

    We propose a novel self-diffusion model for ionic liquids on an atomic level of detail. The model is derived from molecular dynamics simulations of guanidinium-based ionic liquids (GILs) as a model case. The simulations are based on an empirical molecular mechanical force field, which has been developed in our preceding work, and it relies on the charge distribution in the actual liquid. The simulated GILs consist of acyclic and cyclic cations that were paired with nitrate and perchlorate anions. Self-diffusion coefficients are calculated at different temperatures from which diffusive activation energies between 32-40 kJ/mol are derived. Vaporization enthalpies between 174-212 kJ/mol are calculated, and their strong connection with diffusive activation energies is demonstrated. An observed formation of cavities in GILs of up to 6.5% of the total volume does not facilitate self-diffusion. Instead, the diffusion of ions is found to be determined primarily by interactions with their immediate environment via electrostatic attraction between cation hydrogen and anion oxygen atoms. The calculated average time between single diffusive transitions varies between 58-107 ps and determines the speed of diffusion, in contrast to diffusive displacement distances, which were found to be similar in all simulated GILs. All simulations indicate that ions diffuse by using a brachiation type of movement: a diffusive transition is initiated by cleaving close contacts to a coordinated counterion, after which the ion diffuses only about 2 A until new close contacts are formed with another counterion in its vicinity. The proposed diffusion model links all calculated energetic and dynamic properties of GILs consistently and explains their molecular origin. The validity of the model is confirmed by providing an explanation for the variation of measured ratios of self-diffusion coefficients of cations and paired anions over a wide range of values, encompassing various ionic liquid classes

  3. Global stability and pattern formation in a nonlocal diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenjie; Shi, Junping; Wang, Mingxin

    2018-06-01

    A diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model with nonlocal intraspecific and interspecific competition between species is formulated and analyzed. The nonlocal competition strength is assumed to be determined by a diffusion kernel function to model the movement pattern of the biological species. It is shown that when there is no nonlocal intraspecific competition, the dynamics properties of nonlocal diffusive competition problem are similar to those of classical diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model regardless of the strength of nonlocal interspecific competition. Global stability of nonnegative constant equilibria are proved using Lyapunov or upper-lower solution methods. On the other hand, strong nonlocal intraspecific competition increases the system spatiotemporal dynamic complexity. For the weak competition case, the nonlocal diffusive competition model may possess nonconstant positive equilibria for some suitably large nonlocal intraspecific competition coefficients.

  4. A Process for Modelling Diffuse Scattering from Disordered Molecular Crystals, Illustrated by Application to Monoclinic 9-Chloro-10-methylanthracene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Goossens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse scattering from a crystal contains valuable information about the two-body correlations (related to the nanoscale order in the material. Despite years of development, the detailed analysis of single crystal diffuse scattering (SCDS has yet to become part of the everyday toolbox of the structural scientist. Recent decades have seen the pair distribution function approach to diffuse scattering (in fact, total scattering from powders become a relatively routine tool. However, analysing the detailed, complex, and often highly anisotropic three-dimensional distribution of SCDS remains valuable yet rare because there is no routine method for undertaking the analysis. At present, analysis requires significant investment of time to develop specialist expertise, which means that the analysis of diffuse scattering, which has much to offer, is not incorporated thorough studies of many compounds even though it has the potential to be a very useful adjunct to existing techniques. This article endeavours to outline in some detail how the diffuse scattering from a molecular crystal can be modelled relatively quickly and largely using existing software tools. It is hoped this will provide a template for other studies. To enable this, the entire simulation is included as deposited material.

  5. Analysis of hemodynamics in human skin using photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nina; Marin, Ana; Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel methodology for quantitative analysis of hemodynamics in human skin in vivo. Our approach combines pulsed photothermal radiometry (i.e., time-resolved measurements of midinfrared emission from sample surface after exposure to a short light pulse) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible part of the spectrum. Experimental data are fitted with predictions of a numerical model of light transport in a four-layer skin model (i.e., inverse Monte Carlo), which allows assessment of the layer thicknesses, chromophore contents (e.g., melanin, oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin), as well as scattering properties. The performance is tested in comparison analysis of healthy skin before and during application of a blood pressure cuff (at 200 mm Hg) for 5 minutes.

  6. Comparison of Experimental Methods for Estimating Matrix Diffusion Coefficients for Contaminant Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telfeyan, Katherine Christina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ware, Stuart Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired.

  7. Comparison of experimental methods for estimating matrix diffusion coefficients for contaminant transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfeyan, Katherine; Ware, S. Doug; Reimus, Paul W.; Birdsell, Kay H.

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion cell and diffusion wafer experiments were conducted to compare methods for estimating effective matrix diffusion coefficients in rock core samples from Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). A diffusion wafer method, in which a solute diffuses out of a rock matrix that is pre-saturated with water containing the solute, is presented as a simpler alternative to the traditional through-diffusion (diffusion cell) method. Both methods yielded estimates of effective matrix diffusion coefficients that were within the range of values previously reported for NNSS volcanic rocks. The difference between the estimates of the two methods ranged from 14 to 30%, and there was no systematic high or low bias of one method relative to the other. From a transport modeling perspective, these differences are relatively minor when one considers that other variables (e.g., fracture apertures, fracture spacings) influence matrix diffusion to a greater degree and tend to have greater uncertainty than effective matrix diffusion coefficients. For the same relative random errors in concentration measurements, the diffusion cell method yields effective matrix diffusion coefficient estimates that have less uncertainty than the wafer method. However, the wafer method is easier and less costly to implement and yields estimates more quickly, thus allowing a greater number of samples to be analyzed for the same cost and time. Given the relatively good agreement between the methods, and the lack of any apparent bias between the methods, the diffusion wafer method appears to offer advantages over the diffusion cell method if better statistical representation of a given set of rock samples is desired.

  8. Mathematical models for the diffusion magnetic resonance signal abnormality in patients with prion diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Figini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice signal hyperintensity in the cortex and/or in the striatum on magnetic resonance (MR diffusion-weighted images (DWIs is a marker of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (sCJD. MR diagnostic accuracy is greater than 90%, but the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the signal abnormality are unknown. The aim of this prospective study is to combine an advanced DWI protocol with new mathematical models of the microstructural changes occurring in prion disease patients to investigate the cause of MR signal alterations. This underpins the later development of more sensitive and specific image-based biomarkers. DWI data with a wide a range of echo times and diffusion weightings were acquired in 15 patients with suspected diagnosis of prion disease and in 4 healthy age-matched subjects. Clinical diagnosis of sCJD was made in nine patients, genetic CJD in one, rapidly progressive encephalopathy in three, and Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome in two. Data were analysed with two bi-compartment models that represent different hypotheses about the histopathological alterations responsible for the DWI signal hyperintensity. A ROI-based analysis was performed in 13 grey matter areas located in affected and apparently unaffected regions from patients and healthy subjects. We provide for the first time non-invasive estimate of the restricted compartment radius, designed to reflect vacuole size, which is a key discriminator of sCJD subtypes. The estimated vacuole size in DWI hyperintense cortex was in the range between 3 and 10 µm that is compatible with neuropathology measurements. In DWI hyperintense grey matter of sCJD patients the two bi-compartment models outperform the classic mono-exponential ADC model. Both new models show that T2 relaxation times significantly increase, fast and slow diffusivities reduce, and the fraction of the compartment with slow/restricted diffusion increases compared to unaffected grey matter of

  9. A microscopic model of ballistic-diffusive crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Debarshee; Mohanty, P K

    2014-01-01

    Several low-dimensional systems show a crossover from diffusive to ballistic heat transport when system size is decreased. Although there is some phenomenological understanding of this crossover phenomenon at the coarse-grained level, a microscopic picture that consistently describes both the ballistic and the diffusive transport regimes has been lacking. In this work we derive a scaling form for the thermal current in a class of one dimensional systems attached to heat baths at boundaries and rigorously show that the crossover occurs when the characteristic length scale of the system competes with the system size. (paper)

  10. A fractional Fokker-Planck model for anomalous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Johan, E-mail: anderson.johan@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kim, Eun-jin [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Moradi, Sara [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR7648, LPP, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we present a study of anomalous diffusion using a Fokker-Planck description with fractional velocity derivatives. The distribution functions are found using numerical means for varying degree of fractionality of the stable Lévy distribution. The statistical properties of the distribution functions are assessed by a generalized normalized expectation measure and entropy in terms of Tsallis statistical mechanics. We find that the ratio of the generalized entropy and expectation is increasing with decreasing fractionality towards the well known so-called sub-diffusive domain, indicating a self-organising behavior.

  11. Comparison of diffusion and transport theory analysis with experimental results in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyabama, N.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Lee, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic analysis has been performed by 3 dimensional diffusion and transport methods to calculate the measured control rod worths and subassembly wise power distribution in fast breeder test reactor. Geometry corrections (rectangular to hexagonal and diffusion to transport corrections are estimated for multiplication factors and control rod worths. Calculated control rod worths by diffusion and transport theory are nearly the same and 10% above measured values. Power distribution in the core periphery is over predicted (15%) by diffusion theory. But, this over prediction reduces to 8% by use of the S N method. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 fig

  12. Analysis of the Diffuse Domain Method for Second Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Martin; Elvetun, Ole; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The diffuse domain method for partial differential equations on complicated geometries recently received strong attention in particular from practitioners, but many fundamental issues in the analysis are still widely open. In this paper, we study the diffuse domain method for approximating second

  13. Modeling long-term leaching experiments of full scale cemented wastes: effect of solution composition on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkel, C.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The code PHREECQ V3.1 has been used to simulate leaching experiments performed with cemented simulated waste products in tap water for more than 30 years. In this work the main focus is related with the leaching of Cs explained by diffusion processes. A simplifying model using the code PHREECQ V3.1 was used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the release of Cs from the cement solid to the leaching solution. The model setup bases on four main assumptions: a) the solid as well as the distribution of Cs is homogeneous and of isotropic texture, b) there is no preferential direction regarding cement degradation or water intrusion into the solid, c) the pore space is entirely connected and d) Cs adsorption to the cement or container is negligible. In the modeling the constraint of charge balance was stressed. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) were obtained analytically and from modeling the diffusive release of Cs from cemented waste simulates. The obtained values D e for Cs leaching are in perfect agreement with the values published in literature. Contradictory results to diffusive release were obtained from XRD analysis of the solids, suggesting that water may not have penetrated the cement monoliths entirely, but only to some centimeters depth. XRD analysis have been done to determine the solid phases present in cement and are used to help outlining strength and weaknesses of the different models

  14. Analysis of transient pressure response near a horizontal well - a coupled diffusion-deformation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Wong, R. K. C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Yeung, K. C. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Results of an analysis of transient pressure near a horizontal well using a coupled diffusion-deformation method are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained from the single diffusivity equation. Implications for practical applications such as well testing are addressed. Results indicate that the diffusion-deformation behaviour of porous material affects the transient pressure response near a horizontal well. Evaluation by conventional well testing, based as it is on the single diffusion equation, would likely result in an overestimate of the permeability value. Comparison of results between the coupled diffusion-deformation approach and the single diffusion equation suggests that a better prediction of pressure response could be derived from total compressibility than by using only fluid compressibility. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Connectivity-enhanced diffusion analysis reveals white matter density disruptions in first episode and chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael G. Grazioplene

    Full Text Available Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA is a well-established correlate of schizophrenia, but it remains unclear whether these tensor-based differences are the result of axon damage and/or organizational changes and whether the changes are progressive in the adult course of illness. Diffusion MRI data were collected in 81 schizophrenia patients (54 first episode and 27 chronic and 64 controls. Analysis of FA was combined with “fixel-based” analysis, the latter of which leverages connectivity and crossing-fiber information to assess both fiber bundle density and organizational complexity (i.e., presence and magnitude of off-axis diffusion signal. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia displayed clusters of significantly lower FA in the bilateral frontal lobes, right dorsal centrum semiovale, and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule. All FA-based group differences overlapped substantially with regions containing complex fiber architecture. FA within these clusters was positively correlated with principal axis fiber density, but inversely correlated with both secondary/tertiary axis fiber density and voxel-wise fiber complexity. Crossing fiber complexity had the strongest (inverse association with FA (r = −0.82. When crossing fiber structure was modeled in the MRtrix fixel-based analysis pipeline, patients exhibited significantly lower fiber density compared to controls in the dorsal and posterior corpus callosum (central, postcentral, and forceps major. Findings of lower FA in patients with schizophrenia likely reflect two inversely related signals: reduced density of principal axis fiber tracts and increased off-axis diffusion sources. Whereas the former confirms at least some regions where myelin and or/axon count are lower in schizophrenia, the latter indicates that the FA signal from principal axis fiber coherence is broadly contaminated by macrostructural complexity, and therefore does not necessarily reflect

  16. Measuring and modelling of diffusivities in carbohydrate-rich matrices during thin film drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about moisture diffusivity in solid matrices is a key for understanding drying behaviour of for example probiotic or enzymatic formulations. This paper presents an experimental procedure to determine moisture diffusivity on the basis of thin film drying and gravimetric analysis in a

  17. Thermodynamic model for grain boundary effects on hydrogen solubility, diffusivity and permeability in poly-crystalline tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Takuji, E-mail: oda@snu.ac.kr

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic model to simulate grain boundary effects on hydrogen behaviors in poly-crystalline W was established. • With this model, the effective solubility, diffusivity and permeability of hydrogen are calculated as a function of grain size. • Grain boundary significantly change the hydrogen behaviors in poly-crystalline W up to around 1000 K. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model to evaluate effects of grain boundary (GB) on hydrogen behaviors in poly-crystalline tungsten is established. With this model, the effective solubility, diffusivity and permeability of hydrogen in tungsten equilibrated with surrounding H{sub 2} gas can be calculated as a function of grain size, temperature and H{sub 2} partial pressure. By setting 1.0 eV to the binding energy of hydrogen to GBs and 0.4 eV to the diffusion barrier of hydrogen along GBs, the model reasonably reproduces some experimental data on the effective diffusivity and permeability. Comparisons between calculation results by the model and available experimental data show that GBs significantly affect the hydrogen behaviors up to around 1000 K or higher in practical materials. Therefore, the effects of GBs need to be considered in analysis of experimental results, for which the present model can be utilized, and in prediction of tritium inventory and leakage in fusion reactors.

  18. MR diffusion weighted imaging detecting cerebral infarction: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junle; Xu Min; Wang Peng; Zhang Qiujuan; Guo Youmin; Liu Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI) in hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction by using Meta-analysis. Methods: Based on validity criteria for diagnostic research published by the Cochrane Methods Group on Screening and Diagnostic, studies in English and Chinese from 1997 to 2007 were selected from Medline, Cochrane, Springer, Ovid, Elsevier, LWW and CNKI( China National Knowledge Infrastructure). The characteristics of the included articles were appraised and extracted. Statistical analysis was performed with the software Meta-test 0.6 and Comprehensive meta-analysis 2.0. Heterogeneity of the included articles was tested, which was used to select proper effect model to calculate pooled weighted values of sensitivity and specificity and the corresponding 95% CI. Summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was performed and the area under the curve (Az) was calculated. Publication bias was analyzed by Funnel Plot in Comprehensive Meta- analysis 2.0. A sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: Twelve articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in hyperacute cerebral infarction. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 87%, 180.37 respectively, Az=0.9717. Novice is a main factor for total diagnostic effect (Q=4.34, P>0.05). Non-asymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Fifteen articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed for the value of DWI in both hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction (≤ 24 h). The pooled sensitivity, specificity diagnostic odds ratio was 92%, 91%, 623.62 respectively, Az=0.9659. Fixed effects model used in Meta-analysis for database suggested homogeneity (Q=2.70,P>0.05). Nonasymmetric funnel plot suggested the publication bias. Conclusions As a noninvasive method, diffusion-weighted imaging is valuable in detecting hyperacute and acute cerebral infarction. More support from multi-center prospective researches is

  19. Reaction time for trimolecular reactions in compartment-based reaction-diffusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Chen, Minghan; Erban, Radek; Cao, Yang

    2018-05-01

    Trimolecular reaction models are investigated in the compartment-based (lattice-based) framework for stochastic reaction-diffusion modeling. The formulae for the first collision time and the mean reaction time are derived for the case where three molecules are present in the solution under periodic boundary conditions. For the case of reflecting boundary conditions, similar formulae are obtained using a computer-assisted approach. The accuracy of these formulae is further verified through comparison with numerical results. The presented derivation is based on the first passage time analysis of Montroll [J. Math. Phys. 10, 753 (1969)]. Montroll's results for two-dimensional lattice-based random walks are adapted and applied to compartment-based models of trimolecular reactions, which are studied in one-dimensional or pseudo one-dimensional domains.

  20. Time-of-flight and vector polarization analysis for diffuse neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweika, W.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of pulsed neutron sources for diffuse scattering including time-of-flight (TOF) and polarization analysis is discussed in comparison to the capabilities of the present instrument diffuse neutron scattering at the research center Juelich. We present first results of a new method for full polarization analysis using precessing neutron polarization. A proposal is made for a new type of instrument at pulsed sources, which allows for vector polarization analysis in TOF instruments with multi-detectors

  1. Information diffusion, Facebook clusters, and the simplicial model of social aggregation: a computational simulation of simplicial diffusers for community health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kerk F; Sparks, Lisa; Struppa, Daniele C; Mannucci, Mirco A; Damiano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    By integrating the simplicial model of social aggregation with existing research on opinion leadership and diffusion networks, this article introduces the constructs of simplicial diffusers (mathematically defined as nodes embedded in simplexes; a simplex is a socially bonded cluster) and simplicial diffusing sets (mathematically defined as minimal covers of a simplicial complex; a simplicial complex is a social aggregation in which socially bonded clusters are embedded) to propose a strategic approach for information diffusion of cancer screenings as a health intervention on Facebook for community cancer prevention and control. This approach is novel in its incorporation of interpersonally bonded clusters, culturally distinct subgroups, and different united social entities that coexist within a larger community into a computational simulation to select sets of simplicial diffusers with the highest degree of information diffusion for health intervention dissemination. The unique contributions of the article also include seven propositions and five algorithmic steps for computationally modeling the simplicial model with Facebook data.

  2. Continuous Dependence in Front Propagation for Convective Reaction-Diffusion Models with Aggregative Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Malaguti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a degenerate reaction-diffusion equation, including aggregative movements and convective terms. The model also incorporates a real parameter causing the change from a purely diffusive to a diffusive-aggregative and to a purely aggregative regime. Existence and qualitative properties of traveling wave solutions are investigated, and estimates of their threshold speeds are furnished. Further, the continuous dependence of the threshold wave speed and of the wave profiles on a real parameter is studied, both when the process maintains its diffusion-aggregation nature and when it switches from it to another regime.

  3. Characteristics and Diffusion Model of the Individual Knowledge in the WeChat Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingzhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] According to the model of the individual knowledge diffusion, we conduct a behavior research and analyze the characteristics of that based on WeChat which is the most popular communication platform in China.[Method/process] By analyzing the methods of the diffusion on WeChat, we analyzed the characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion. [Result/conclusion]The characteristics of the individual knowledge diffusion include real-time, short-term, speciality, friendship and transmission.

  4. Tensor Based Representation and Analysis of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    Cartesian tensor bases have been widely used to model spherical functions. In medical imaging, tensors of various orders can approximate the diffusivity function at each voxel of a diffusion-weighted MRI data set. This approximation produces tensor-valued datasets that contain information about the underlying local structure of the scanned tissue.…

  5. Qualitative analysis on a cubic predator-prey system with diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunyi Bie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a cubic predator-prey model with diffusion. We first establish the global stability of the trivial and nontrivial constant steady states for the reaction diffusion system, and then prove the existence and non-existence results concerning non-constant positive stationary solutions by using topological argument and the energy method, respectively.

  6. A real options evaluation model for the diffusion prospects of new renewable power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Madlener, Reinhard; Demirel, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a policy planning model that integrates learning curve information on renewable power generation technologies into a dynamic programming formulation featuring real options analysis. The model recursively evaluates a set of investment alternatives on a year-by-year basis, thereby taking into account that the flexibility to delay an irreversible investment expenditure can profoundly affect the diffusion prospects of renewable power generation technologies. Price uncertainty is introduced through stochastic processes for the average wholesale price of electricity and for input fuel prices. Demand for electricity is assumed to be increasingly price-sensitive, as the electricity market deregulation proceeds, reflecting new options of consumers to react to electricity price changes (such as time-of-use pricing, unbundled electricity services, and choice of supplier). The empirical analysis is based on data for the Turkish electricity supply industry. Apart from general implications for policy-making, it provides some interesting insights about the impact of uncertainty and technical change on the diffusion of various emerging renewable energy technologies

  7. Diffusion-controlled reactions modeling in Geant4-DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karamitros, M.; Luan, S.; Bernal, M. A.; Allison, J.; Baldacchino, G.; Davídková, Marie; Francis, Z.; Friedland, W.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Mantero, A.; Nieminen, P.; Santin, G.; Tran, H. N.; Stepan, V.; Incerti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 274, OCT (2014), s. 841-882 ISSN 0021-9991 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : chemical kinetics simulation * radiation chemistry * Fokker-Planck equation * Smoluchowski diffusion equation * Brownian bridge * dynamical time steps * k-d tree * radiolysis * radiobiology * Geant4-DNA * Brownian dynamics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2014

  8. A model of modulated diffusion. I. Analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, A.; Turcchetti, G.; Vaienti, S.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce an integrable isochronous system and perturb its frequency by an external-deterministic or purely random-noise. Under the perturbation the action variable evolves in time: the corresponding diffusion coefficient is exactly computed and its dependence on the magnitude of the perturbation is carefully investigated. Different behaviors are found and justified: the quasilinear approximation, the superlinear regime, and the ballistic motion

  9. Comparison Of Diffuse Solar Radiation Models Using Data For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of global solar radiation and sunshine duration data during the period from 1984 to 1999 were supplied by IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture) at Onne. The data were used to establish empirical relationships that would connect the daily monthly average diffuse irradiation with both relative ...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of an experimental methodology to determine radionuclide diffusion coefficients in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.; Rigato, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The long-term quantitative analysis of the migration behaviour of the relevant radionuclides (RN) within the geological barrier of a radioactive waste repository requires, amongst other data, the introduction of reliable transport parameters, as diffusion coefficients. Since the determination of diffusion coefficients within crystalline rocks is complex and requires long experimental times even for non-sorbing radionuclides, the data available in the literature are very scarce. The nuclear ion beam technique RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) that is successfully used to determine diffusion profiles in thin film science is here examined as possible suitable technique to determine the diffusion coefficients of different RN within granite. As first step, the technique sensitivity and limitations to analyse diffusion coefficients in granite samples is evaluated, considering that the technique is especially sensitive to heavy elements. The required experimental conditions in terms of experimental times, concentration and methodology of analysis are discussed. The diffusants were selected accounting the RBS sensitivity but also trying to cover different behaviours of critical RN and a wide range of possible oxidation states. In particular, Cs(I) was chosen as representative fission product, while as relevant actinides or homologues, the diffusion of Th(IV), U(IV) and Eu (III) was studied. The diffusion of these above-mentioned cations is compared to the diffusion of Re, and I as representative of anionic species. The methodology allowed evaluating diffusion coefficients in the granite samples and, for most of the elements, the values obtained are in agreement with the values found in the literature. The diffusion coefficients calculated ranged from 10 -13 to 10 -16 m 2 /s. It is remarkable that the RBS technique is especially promising to determine diffusion coefficients of high-sorbing RN and it is applicable to a wide range

  11. Ionic diffusion in the double layer at model electrode/molten salt interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    The anisotropic ionic diffusion coefficients in model electrochemical cells in the molten-salt regime for the electrolyte are evaluated from the ionic density profiles reported in simulation work of Grout and coworkers. A local description of the diffusion processes for counterions and coions in the electrical double layer is obtained from the data. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Alignment dynamics of diffusive scalar gradient in a two-dimensional model flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.

    2018-04-01

    The Lagrangian two-dimensional approach of scalar gradient kinematics is revisited accounting for molecular diffusion. Numerical simulations are performed in an analytic, parameterized model flow, which enables considering different regimes of scalar gradient dynamics. Attention is especially focused on the influence of molecular diffusion on Lagrangian statistical orientations and on the dynamics of scalar gradient alignment.

  13. Business models for maximising the diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Thomas B.; Blok, Vincent; Poldner, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovations will play a prominent role in the transition to climate-smart agriculture (CSA). However, CSA technological innovation diffusion is subject to socio-economic barriers. The success of innovations is partly dependent on the business models that are used to diffuse them.

  14. A fractal derivative model for the characterization of anomalous diffusion in magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Ye, Allen Q.; Chen, Wen; Gatto, Rodolfo G.; Colon-Perez, Luis; Mareci, Thomas H.; Magin, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    Non-Gaussian (anomalous) diffusion is wide spread in biological tissues where its effects modulate chemical reactions and membrane transport. When viewed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), anomalous diffusion is characterized by a persistent or 'long tail' behavior in the decay of the diffusion signal. Recent MRI studies have used the fractional derivative to describe diffusion dynamics in normal and post-mortem tissue by connecting the order of the derivative with changes in tissue composition, structure and complexity. In this study we consider an alternative approach by introducing fractal time and space derivatives into Fick's second law of diffusion. This provides a more natural way to link sub-voxel tissue composition with the observed MRI diffusion signal decay following the application of a diffusion-sensitive pulse sequence. Unlike previous studies using fractional order derivatives, here the fractal derivative order is directly connected to the Hausdorff fractal dimension of the diffusion trajectory. The result is a simpler, computationally faster, and more direct way to incorporate tissue complexity and microstructure into the diffusional dynamics. Furthermore, the results are readily expressed in terms of spectral entropy, which provides a quantitative measure of the overall complexity of the heterogeneous and multi-scale structure of biological tissues. As an example, we apply this new model for the characterization of diffusion in fixed samples of the mouse brain. These results are compared with those obtained using the mono-exponential, the stretched exponential, the fractional derivative, and the diffusion kurtosis models. Overall, we find that the order of the fractal time derivative, the diffusion coefficient, and the spectral entropy are potential biomarkers to differentiate between the microstructure of white and gray matter. In addition, we note that the fractal derivative model has practical advantages over the existing models from the

  15. Diffusion as a Ruler: Modeling Kinesin Diffusion as a Length Sensor for Intraflagellar Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Nathan L; Thomson, Matthew; Marshall, Wallace F

    2018-02-06

    An important question in cell biology is whether cells are able to measure size, either whole cell size or organelle size. Perhaps cells have an internal chemical representation of size that can be used to precisely regulate growth, or perhaps size is just an accident that emerges due to constraint of nutrients. The eukaryotic flagellum is an ideal model for studying size sensing and control because its linear geometry makes it essentially one-dimensional, greatly simplifying mathematical modeling. The assembly of flagella is regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), in which kinesin motors carry cargo adaptors for flagellar proteins along the flagellum and then deposit them at the tip, lengthening the flagellum. The rate at which IFT motors are recruited to begin transport into the flagellum is anticorrelated with the flagellar length, implying some kind of communication between the base and the tip and possibly indicating that cells contain some mechanism for measuring flagellar length. Although it is possible to imagine many complex scenarios in which additional signaling molecules sense length and carry feedback signals to the cell body to control IFT, might the already-known components of the IFT system be sufficient to allow length dependence of IFT? Here we investigate a model in which the anterograde kinesin motors unbind after cargo delivery, diffuse back to the base, and are subsequently reused to power entry of new IFT trains into the flagellum. By mathematically modeling and simulating such a system, we are able to show that the diffusion time of the motors can in principle be sufficient to serve as a proxy for length measurement. We found that the diffusion model can not only achieve a stable steady-state length without the addition of any other signaling molecules or pathways, but also is able to produce the anticorrelation between length and IFT recruitment rate that has been observed in quantitative imaging studies. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical

  16. Modelling cointegration and Granger causality network to detect long-term equilibrium and diffusion paths in the financial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Shupei; Sun, Xiaoqi; Hao, Xiaoqing; An, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Microscopic factors are the basis of macroscopic phenomena. We proposed a network analysis paradigm to study the macroscopic financial system from a microstructure perspective. We built the cointegration network model and the Granger causality network model based on econometrics and complex network theory and chose stock price time series of the real estate industry and its upstream and downstream industries as empirical sample data. Then, we analysed the cointegration network for understanding the steady long-term equilibrium relationships and analysed the Granger causality network for identifying the diffusion paths of the potential risks in the system. The results showed that the influence from a few key stocks can spread conveniently in the system. The cointegration network and Granger causality network are helpful to detect the diffusion path between the industries. We can also identify and intervene in the transmission medium to curb risk diffusion.

  17. Two-state random walk model of lattice diffusion - 1. Self-correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, V.; Venkataraman, G.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion with interruptions (arising from localized oscillations, or traps, or mixing between jump diffusion and fluid-like diffusion, etc.) is a very general phenomenon. Its manifestations range from superionic conductance to the behaviour of hydrogen in metals. Based on a continuous-time random walk approach, we present a comprehensive two-state random walk model for the diffusion of a particle on a lattice, incorporating arbitrary holding-time distributions for both localized residence at the sites and inter-site flights, and also the correct first-waiting-time distributions. A synthesis is thus achieved of the two extremes of jump diffusion (zero flight time) and fluid-like diffusion (zero residence time). Various earlier models emerge as special cases of our theory. Among the noteworthy results obtained are: closed-form solutions (in d dimensions, and with arbitrary directional bias) for temporarily uncorrelated jump diffusion and for the fluid diffusion counterpart; a compact, general formula for the mean square displacement; the effects of a continuous spectrum of time scales in the holding-time distributions, etc. The dynamic mobility and the structure factor for 'oscillatory diffusion' are taken up in part 2. (author)

  18. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  19. Extended diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models for differentiation of low-grade and high-grade brain tumors in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrowes, Delilah; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fangusaro, Jason R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics-Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Chicago, IL (United States); Nelson, Paige C.; Rozenfeld, Michael J. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wadhwani, Nitin R. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) models for differentiation of low- and high-grade tumors in the diagnosis of pediatric brain neoplasms. Sixty-two pediatric patients with various types and grades of brain tumors were evaluated in a retrospective study. Tumor type and grade were classified using the World Health Organization classification (WHO I-IV) and confirmed by pathological analysis. Patients underwent DW-MRI before treatment. Diffusion-weighted images with 16 b-values (0-3500 s/mm{sup 2}) were acquired. Averaged signal intensity decay within solid tumor regions was fitted using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models. Intracellular and extracellular diffusion coefficients (D{sub slow} and D{sub fast}), fractional volumes (V{sub slow} and V{sub fast}), generalized diffusion coefficient (D), spatial constant (μ), heterogeneity index (β), and a diffusion index (index{sub d}iff = μ x V{sub slow}/β) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models with stepwise model selection algorithm and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of each diffusion parameter to distinguish tumor grade. Among all parameter combinations, D and index{sub d}iff jointly provided the best predictor for tumor grades, where lower D (p = 0.03) and higher index{sub d}iff (p = 0.009) were significantly associated with higher tumor grades. In ROC analyses of differentiating low-grade (I-II) and high-grade (III-IV) tumors, index{sub d}iff provided the highest specificity of 0.97 and D provided the highest sensitivity of 0.96. Multi-parametric diffusion measurements using two-compartment and anomalous diffusion models were found to be significant discriminants of tumor grading in pediatric brain neoplasms. (orig.)

  20. Thermal diffusivity measurement of erythritol and numerical analysis of heat storage performance on a fin-type heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamengo, Massimiliano; Funada, Tomohiro; Morikawa, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal diffusivity of Erythritol was measured by temperature wave method. • Thermal diffusivity was measured in function of temperature and during phase change. • Database of temperature-dependent thermal properties is used for numerical analysis. • Heat transfer and heat storage were analyzed in a fin-type heat exchanger. • Use of temperature-dependent properties in calculations lead to longer melting time. - Abstract: Temperature dependency of thermal diffusivity of erythritol was measured by temperature wave analysis (TWA) method. This modulating technique allowed measuring thermal diffusivity continuously, even during the phase transition solid-liquid. Together with specific heat capacity and specific enthalpy measured by differential scanning calorimetry, the values of measured properties were utilized in a bi-dimensional numerical model for analysis of heat transfer and heat storage performance. The geometry of the model is representative of a cross section of a fin-type heat exchanger, in which erythritol is filling the interspaces between fins. Time-dependent temperature change and heat storage performance were analyzed by considering the variation of thermophysical properties as a function of temperature. The numerical method can be utilized for a fast parametric analysis of heat transfer and heat storage performance into heat storage systems of phase-change materials and composites.

  1. In situ gaseous tracer diffusion experiments and predictive modeling at the Greater Confinement Disposal Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.C.

    1985-07-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) at the Nevada Test Site is a research project investigating the feasibility of augered shaft disposal of low-level radioactive waste considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. The GCDT contains environmentally mobile and high-specific-activity sources. Research is focused on providing a set of analytically derived hydrogeologic parameters and an empirical database for application in a multiphase, two-dimensional, transient, predictive performance model. Potential contaminant transport processes at the GCDT are identified and their level of significance is detailed. Nonisothermal gaseous diffusion through alluvial sediments is considered the primary waste migration process. Volatile organic tracers are released in the subsurface and their migration is monitored in situ to determine media effective diffusion coefficients, tortuosity, and sorption-corrected porosity terms. The theoretical basis for volatile tracer experiments is presented. Treatment of thermal and liquid flow components is discussed, as is the basis for eliminating several negligible transport processes. Interpretive techniques include correlation, power spectra, and least squares analysis, a graphical analytical solution, and inverse numerical modeling. Model design and application to the GCDT are discussed. GCDT structural, analytical, and computer facilities are detailed. The status of the current research program is reviewed, and temperature and soil moisture profiles are presented along with results of operational tests on the analytical system. 72 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs

  2. A review of anisotropic conductivity models of brain white matter based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanxiong; Liu, Yang; Hong, Ming; Yu, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    The conductivity of brain tissues is not only essential for electromagnetic source estimation (ESI), but also a key reflector of the brain functional changes. Different from the other brain tissues, the conductivity of whiter matter (WM) is highly anisotropic and a tensor is needed to describe it. The traditional electrical property imaging methods, such as electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), usually fail to image the anisotropic conductivity tensor of WM with high spatial resolution. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a newly developed technique that can fulfill this purpose. This paper reviews the existing anisotropic conductivity models of WM based on the DTI and discusses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as identifies opportunities for future research on this subject. It is crucial to obtain the linear conversion coefficient between the eigenvalues of anisotropic conductivity tensor and diffusion tensor, since they share the same eigenvectors. We conclude that the electrochemical model is suitable for ESI analysis because the conversion coefficient can be directly obtained from the concentration of ions in extracellular liquid and that the volume fraction model is appropriate to study the influence of WM structural changes on electrical conductivity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Predicting the weathering of fuel and oil spills: A diffusion-limited evaporation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate. The information required is the composition of the fluid from gas chromatography or alternatively the distillation data. If the density or a single viscosity measurement is available the accuracy of the predictions is higher. Environmental conditions such as water temperature, air pressure and wind velocity are taken into account. The model was tested with synthetic mixtures, petroleum fuels and crude oils with initial viscosities ranging from 2 to 13,000 cSt. The tested temperatures varied from 0 °C to 23.4 °C and wind velocities from 0.3 to 3.8 m/s. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the diffusion-limited model ranged between 1.62% and 24.87%. In comparison, the AAD of a diffusion-agn