Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2014-07-01
This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a fixed fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to four air to fuel velocity ratios, namely Vr = 20.7, 29, 37.4 and 49.8. A double flame structure could be observed composed of a lower fuel entrainment region and an upper mixing and intense combustion region. The entrainment region was enveloped by an early OH layer, and then merged through a very thin OH neck to an annular OH layer located at the shear layer of the air jet. The two branches of this annular OH layer broaden as they moved downstream and eventfully merged together. Three types of events were observed common to all flames: breaks, closures and growing kernels. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks were counterbalanced by flame closures. These breaks in OH signal were found to occur at locations where locally high velocity flows were impinging on the flame. As the Vr increased to 37.4, the OH layers became discontinuous over the downstream region of the flame, and these regions of low or no OH moved upstream. With further increases in Vr, these OH pockets act as flame kernels, growing as they moved downstream, and became the main mechanism for flame re-ignition. Along the flame length, the direction of the two dimensional principle compressive strain rate axis exhibited a preferred orientation of approximately 45° with respect to the flow direction. Moreover, the OH zones were associated with elongated regions of high vorticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2014-01-01
This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a
On the dynamics of flame edges in diffusion-flame/vortex interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermanns, Miguel; Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)
2007-04-15
We analyze the local flame extinction and reignition of a counterflow diffusion flame perturbed by a laminar vortex ring. Local flame extinction leads to the appearance of flame edges separating the burning and extinguished regions of the distorted mixing layer. The dynamics of these edges is modeled based on previous numerical results, with heat release effects fully taken into account, which provide the propagation velocity of triple and edge flames in terms of the upstream unperturbed value of the scalar dissipation. The temporal evolution of the mixing layer is determined using the classical mixture fraction approach, with both unsteady and curvature effects taken into account. Although variable density effects play an important role in exothermic reacting mixing layers, in this paper the description of the mixing layer is carried out using the constant density approximation, leading to a simplified analytical description of the flow field. The mathematical model reveals the relevant nondimensional parameters governing diffusion-flame/vortex interactions and provides the parameter range for the more relevant regime of local flame extinction followed by reignition via flame edges. Despite the simplicity of the model, the results show very good agreement with previously published experimental results. (author)
Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2014-06-26
This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from
Development of PIV for Microgravity Diffusion Flames
Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William; Urban, David L.; Sunderland, Peter B.
2003-01-01
Results are presented from the application of Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV) to the overfire region of a laminar gas jet diffusion flame in normal gravity. A methane flame burning in air at 0.98 bar was considered. The apparatus demonstrated here is packaged in a drop rig designed for use in the 2.2 second drop tower.
Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2014-01-01
This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary
Characteristics of diffusion flames with accelerated motion
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Lou Bo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present an experiment to study the characteristics of a laminar diffusion flame under acceleration. A Bunsen burner (nozzle diameter 8 mm, using liquefied petroleum gas as its fuel, was ignited under acceleration. The temperature field and the diffusion flame angle of inclination were visualised with the assistance of the visual display technology incorporated in MATLAB™. Results show that the 2-d temperature field under different accelerations matched the variation in average temperatures: they both experience three variations at different time and velocity stages. The greater acceleration has a faster change in average temperature with time, due to the accumulation of combustion heat: the smaller acceleration has a higher average temperature at the same speed. No matter what acceleration was used, in time, the flame angle of inclination increased, but the growth rate decreased until an angle of 90°: this could be explained by analysis of the force distribution within the flame. It is also found that, initially, the growth rate of angle with velocity under the greater acceleration was always smaller than that at lower accelerations; it was also different in flames with uniform velocity fire conditions.
The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame
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Ghiti Nadjib
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.
Edge flame instability in low-strain-rate counterflow diffusion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, June Sung; Hwang, Dong Jin; Park, Jeong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sungcho [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, 315 Maegok-dong, Suncheon, Jeonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In [Environment & amp; Energy Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, P.O. Box 101, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kwon [School of Mechanical & amp; Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, 1000 Sindang-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Dong Soon [Energy System Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)
2006-09-15
Experiments in low-strain-rate methane-air counterflow diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen have been conducted to study flame extinction behavior and edge flame oscillation in which flame length is less than the burner diameter and thus lateral conductive heat loss, in addition to radiative loss, could be high at low global strain rates. The critical mole fraction at flame extinction is examined in terms of velocity ratio and global strain rate. Onset conditions of the edge flame oscillation and the relevant modes are also provided with global strain rate and nitrogen mole fraction in the fuel stream or in terms of fuel Lewis number. It is observed that flame length is intimately relevant to lateral heat loss, and this affects flame extinction and edge flame oscillation considerably. Lateral heat loss causes flame oscillation even at fuel Lewis number less than unity. Edge flame oscillations, which result from the advancing and retreating edge flame motion of the outer flame edge of low-strain-rate flames, are categorized into three modes: a growing, a decaying, and a harmonic-oscillation mode. A flame stability map based on the flame oscillation modes is also provided for low-strain-rate flames. The important contribution of lateral heat loss even to edge flame oscillation is clarified finally. (author)
Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity
Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.
The structure of horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, C.K.; Guerrero, A.
1997-01-01
This paper summarizes a systematic study on the stability, peak temperature and flame length of various horizontal hydrogen-steam diffusion flames in air. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their impact on hydrogen management in a nuclear containment building after a nuclear reactor accident. They show that, for a certain range of emerging hydrogen-steam compositions, a stable diffusion flame can anchor itself at the break in the primary heat transport system. The length of this flame can be up to 100 times the break diameter. This implies that creation of a stable diffusion flame at the break is a possible outcome of the deliberate ignition mitigation scheme. The high temperature and heat flux from a diffusion flame can threaten nearby equipment. However, due to the presence of steam and turbulent mixing with surrounding air, the peak temperatures of these diffusion flames are much lower than the adiabatic constant pressure combustion temperature of a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. These results suggest that the threat of a diffusion flame anchored at the break may be less severe than conservative analysis would indicate. Furthermore, such a flame can remove hydrogen at the source and minimize the possibility of a global gas explosion. (author)
Bhatia, Pramod; Singh, Ravinder
2017-06-01
Diffusion flames are the most common type of flame which we see in our daily life such as candle flame and match-stick flame. Also, they are the most used flames in practical combustion system such as industrial burner (coal fired, gas fired or oil fired), diesel engines, gas turbines, and solid fuel rockets. In the present study, steady-state global chemistry calculations for 24 different flames were performed using an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code (UNICORN). Computation involved simulations of inverse and normal diffusion flames of propane in earth and microgravity condition with varying oxidizer compositions (21, 30, 50, 100 % O2, by mole, in N2). 2 cases were compared with the experimental result for validating the computational model. These flames were stabilized on a 5.5 mm diameter burner with 10 mm of burner length. The effect of oxygen enrichment and variation in gravity (earth gravity and microgravity) on shape and size of diffusion flames, flame temperature, flame velocity have been studied from the computational result obtained. Oxygen enrichment resulted in significant increase in flame temperature for both types of diffusion flames. Also, oxygen enrichment and gravity variation have significant effect on the flame configuration of normal diffusion flames in comparison with inverse diffusion flames. Microgravity normal diffusion flames are spherical in shape and much wider in comparison to earth gravity normal diffusion flames. In inverse diffusion flames, microgravity flames were wider than earth gravity flames. However, microgravity inverse flames were not spherical in shape.
Diffusion Flame Extinction in a Low Strain Flow
Sutula, Jason; Jones, Joshua; Torero, Jose L.; Borlik, Jeffrey; Ezekoye, Ofodike A.
1997-01-01
Diffusion flames are of great interest in fire safety and many industrial processes. Many parameters significantly affect the flame structure, shape and stability, of particular importance are the constraints imposed by geometrical boundaries. Physical boundaries determine the characteristics of the flow, affect heat, fuel, and oxidizer transport from and towards the flame and can act as heat sinks or heat sources. As a result, the existence of a flame, its shape and nature are intimately related to the geometrical characteristics of the environment that surrounds it. The counter-flow configuration provides a constant strain flow, therefore, is ideal to study the structure of diffusion flames. Most studies have concentrated on the high velocity, high strain limit, since buoyantly induced instabilities will disintegrate the planar flame as the velocity decreases. Only recently, experimental studies in micro-gravity conditions have begun to explore the low strain regimes. The main objective of these on-going studies is to determine the effect of radiative heat losses and variable strain on the structure and radiation-induced extinction of diffusion flames. For these programs, size, geometry, and experimental conditions have been chosen to keep the flame unaffected by the physical boundaries. Whether is the burning of condensed or gaseous fuels, for most real situations the boundaries impose a significant effect on the nature of the flame. There is, therefore, a need to better understand the effect that geometrical constraints (i.e. flow nonperpendicular to a fuel surface, heat losses to the boundaries, etc.) might have on the final characteristics of a diffusion flame. Preliminary experiments have shown that, in the absence of gravity, and depending on the distance from the flame to the boundary, three characteristically different regimes can be observed. Close to the boundary, the flame is parabolic, very thin and blue, almost soot-less. Diffusion is the main
Soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames burning simple alkane fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canteenwalla, P.M.; Johnson, M.R. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Thomson, K.A.; Smallwood, G.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology
2007-07-01
A classic problem in combustion involves measurement and prediction of soot emissions from turbulent diffusion flames. Very high-sensitivity measurements of particulate matter (PM) from very low-sooting diffusion flames burning methane and other simple alkane fuels have been enabled from recent advances in laser-induced incandescence (LII). In order to quantify soot emissions from a lab-scale turbulent diffusion flame burner, this paper presented a study that used LII to develop a sampling protocol. The purpose of the study was to develop an experimentally based model to predict PM emissions from flares used in industry using soot emissions from lab-scale flares. Quantitative results of mass of soot emitted per mass of fuel burned were presented across a range of flow conditions and fuels. The experiment used digital imaging to measure flame lengths and estimate flame residence times. Comparisons were also made between current measurements and results of previous researchers for soot in the overfire region. The study also considered the validity applicability of buoyancy based models for predicting and scaling soot emissions. The paper described the experimental setup including sampling system and flame length imaging. Background information on soot yield and a comparison of flame residence time definitions were provided. The results and discussion of results were also presented. It was concluded that the results highlighted the subjective nature of flame length measurements. 10 refs., 4 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Grazia De Giorgi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.
Effect of Low Frequency Burner Vibrations on the Characteristics of Jet Diffusion Flames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Kanthasamy
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Mechanical vibrations introduced in diffusion flame burners significantly affect the flame characteristics. In this experimental study, the effects of axial vibrations on the characteristics of laminar diffusion flames are investigated systematically. The effect of the frequency and amplitude of the vibrations on the flame height oscillations and flame stability is brought out. The amplitude of flame height oscillations is found to increase with increase in both frequency and amplitude of burner vibrations. Vibrations are shown to enhance stability of diffusion flames. Although flame lifts-off sooner with vibrations, stability of the flame increases.
Augmenting the Structures in a Swirling Flame via Diffusive Injection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan Lewis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Small scale experimentation using particle image velocimetry investigated the effect of the diffusive injection of methane, air, and carbon dioxide on the coherent structures in a swirling flame. The interaction between the high momentum flow region (HMFR and central recirculation zone (CRZ of the flame is a potential cause of combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB and occurs when the HMFR squeezes the CRZ, resulting in upstream propagation. The diffusive introduction of methane or carbon dioxide through a central injector increased the size and velocity of the CRZ relative to the HMFR whilst maintaining flame stability, reducing the likelihood of CIVB occurring. The diffusive injection of air had an opposing effect, reducing the size and velocity of the CRZ prior to eradicating it completely. This would also prevent combustion induced vortex breakdown CIVB occurring as a CRZ is fundamental to the process; however, without recirculation it would create an inherently unstable flame.
Gaseous diffusion flames: simple structures and their interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cavaliere, A. [Universita degli Studi Federico II, Naples (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Chimica; Ragucci, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione C,N.R., Naples (Italy)
2001-07-01
This is a synoptic overview of a selection of works dealing with single diffusive structures, with their mutual interaction in simple flows and their statistical modeling in complex flows. The focus is on reacting conditions pertaining to gaseous diffusion flames, but isothermal structures are also described when they are of some conceptual interest. This paper considers only few representative works for each subject, which are functional in explaining the key characteristics of the diffusive structures. The extension, given to single subjects, is not weighed according to the number of related publications but on the relevance to the basic understanding of the general framework concerning diffusion flames. One-dimensional structures are first discussed. They are ordered according to the number of balance equation terms needed for their description. Two-dimensional (2D) structures are then introduced following an order based on their convolution level. Some pioneering work on three-dimensional structures is further quoted. The temporal evolution of simple structures in quiescent or simple flowing 2D systems is considered. The latter case is exploited to present classification of diffusion-controlled mixing regimes. Modeling characterization approach of turbulent diffusion flames is also described in order to yield a self-sufficient didactic presentation. The approach based on the flame surface density model is specifically discussed because of its potential use in the determination of qualitative and quantitative features of simple diffusion flames. (author)
Manias, Dimitrios; Tingas, Alexandros-Efstathios; Hernandez Perez, Francisco E.; Im, Hong G.; Galassi, Riccardo Malpica; Ciottoli, Pietro Paolo; Valorani, Mauro
2018-01-01
The dynamics and structure of two turbulent H2/air premixed flames, representative of the corrugated flamelet (Case 1) and thin reaction zone (Case 2) regimes, are analyzed and compared, using the computational singular perturbation (CSP) tools
Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.
2013-01-01
The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent piloted methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitsch, H.; Steiner, H.
2000-01-01
The Lagrangian Flamelet Model is formulated as a combustion model for large-eddy simulations of turbulent jet diffusion flames. The model is applied in a large-eddy simulation of a piloted partially premixed methane/air diffusion flame (Sandia flame D). The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data of the mean and RMS of the axial velocity and the mixture fraction and the unconditional and conditional averages of temperature and various species mass fractions, including CO and NO. All quantities are in good agreement with the experiments. The results indicate in accordance with experimental findings that regions of high strain appear in layer like structures, which are directed inwards and tend to align with the reaction zone, where the turbulence is fully developed. The analysis of the conditional temperature and mass fractions reveals a strong influence of the partial premixing of the fuel. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow
Alfazazi, Adamu; Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Secco, Andrea; Selim, Hatem; Ju, Yiguang; Sarathy, Mani
2018-01-01
and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass
Zong, Ruowen; Kang, Ruxue; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Zhiyang; Zhi, Youran
2018-01-01
The exploration of microgravity conditions in space is increasing and existing fire extinguishing technology is often inadequate for fire safety in this special environment. As a result, improving the efficiency of portable extinguishers is of growing importance. In this work, a visual study of the effects on methane jet diffusion flames by low frequency sound waves is conducted to assess the extinguishing ability of sound waves. With a small-scale sound wave extinguishing bench, the extinguishing ability of certain frequencies of sound waves are identified, and the response of the flame height is observed and analyzed. Results show that the flame structure changes with disturbance due to low frequency sound waves of 60-100 Hz, and quenches at effective frequencies in the range of 60-90 Hz. In this range, 60 Hz is considered to be the quick extinguishing frequency, while 70-90 Hz is the stable extinguishing frequency range. For a fixed frequency, the flame height decreases with sound pressure level (SPL). The flame height exhibits the greatest sensitivity to the 60 Hz acoustic waves, and the least to the 100 Hz acoustic waves. The flame height decreases almost identically with disturbance by 70-90 Hz acoustic waves.
Tingas, Efstathios-Alexandros; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Im, Hong
2017-11-01
The investigation of turbulent flames at higher Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers has been gaining research interest, due to the advances in the computational power that has facilitated the use of direct numerical simulations (DNS). One of the additional challenges associated with highly turbulent premixed flames is the difficulties in identifying the turbulent flame topologies as the flame structures become severely corrugated or even disrupted by the small scale turbulent eddies. In these conditions, the conventional methods using a scalar iso-surface may lead to uncertainties in describing the flame front dynamics. In this study, the computational singular perturbation (CSP) is utilized as an automated tool to identify the flame front topologies based on the dynamical time scales and eigenvalues. In particular, the tangential stretch rate (TSR) approach, an extended generalized method to depict the dynamics of chemical and transport processes, is used for the flame front identification. The CSP/TSR approach and tools are used to compare the flame fronts of two turbulent H2/air premixed flames and to identify their similarities/differences, from a dynamical point of view. The results for two different combustion regimes are analyzed and compared.
Response of partially premixed flames to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)
2010-09-15
This article describes an experimental investigation of the forced response of a swirl-stabilized partially premixed flame when it is subjected to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations. The flame's response is analyzed using phase-resolved CH{sup *} chemiluminescence images and flame transfer function (FTF) measurements, and compared with the response of a perfectly premixed flame under acoustic perturbations. The nonlinear response of the partially premixed flame is manifested by a partial extinction of the reaction zone, leading to rapid reduction of flame surface area. This nonlinearity, however, is observed only when the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and the equivalence ratio at the combustor inlet is close to zero. The condition, {delta}{phi}{sub {phi}}'-V'{approx}0 , indicates that reactant mixtures with high equivalence ratio impinge on the flame front with high velocity, inducing large fluctuations of the rate of heat release. It is found that the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio nonuniformities is a key parameter governing the linear/nonlinear response of a partially premixed flame, and it is a function of modulation frequency, inlet velocity, fuel injection location, and fuel injector impedance. The results presented in this article will provide insight into the response of a partially premixed flame, which has not been well explored to date. (author)
Pulsed Current-Voltage-Induced Perturbations of a Premixed Propane/Air Flame
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob. B. Schmidt
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of millisecond wide sub-breakdown pulsed voltage-current induced flow perturbation has been measured in premixed laminar atmospheric pressure propane/air flame. The flame equivalence ratios were varied from 0.8 to 1.2 with the flow speeds near 1.1 meter/second. Spatio-temporal flame structure changes were observed through collection of CH (A-X and OH (A-X chemiluminescence and simultaneous spontaneous Raman scattering from N2. This optical collection scheme allows us to obtain a strong correlation between the measured gas temperature and the chemiluminescence intensity, verifying that chemiluminescence images provide accurate measurements of flame reaction zone structure modifications. The experimental results suggest that the flame perturbation is caused by ionic wind originating only from the radial positive space-charge distribution in/near the cathode fall. A net momentum transfer acts along the annular space discharge distribution in the reaction zone at or near the cathode fall which modifies the flow field near the cathodic burner head. This radially inward directed body force appears to enhance mixing similar to a swirl induced modification of the flame structure. The flame fluidic response exhibit a strong dependence on the voltage pulse width ≤10 millisecond.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marschner, Karel; Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří
2015-01-01
A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH 4 in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l −1 and 1.0 ng l −1 , respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l −1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marschner, Karel, E-mail: karel.marschner@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Albertov 8, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Musil, Stanislav; Dědina, Jiří [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the ASCR, v. v. i., Veveří 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic)
2015-07-01
A detailed optimization of relevant experimental parameters of two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry: flame-in-gas-shield atomizer with a two-channel shielding unit and a standard atomizer for atomic fluorescence spectrometry, miniature diffusion flame, was performed. Arsine, generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4} in a flow injection arrangement, was chosen as the model hydride. Analytical characteristics of both the atomizers (sensitivity, noise, limits of detection) were compared. Under optimum conditions sensitivity obtained with flame-in-gas-shield atomizer was approximately twice higher than with miniature diffusion flame. The additional advantage of flame-in-gas-shield atomizer is significantly lower flame emission resulting in a better signal to noise ratio. The resulting arsenic limits of detection for miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were 3.8 ng l{sup −1} and 1.0 ng l{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • We optimized and compared two hydride atomizers for atomic fluorescence spectrometry. • Miniature diffusion flame and flame-in-gas-shield atomizer were optimized. • The limit of detection for arsenic was 1.0 ng l{sup −1}.
Response to acoustic forcing of laminar coflow jet diffusion flames
Chrystie, Robin
2014-04-23
Toward the goal of understanding and controlling instability in combustion systems, we present a fundamental characterization of the interaction of the buoyancy-induced instability in flickering flames with forced excitation of fuel supply. Laminar coflow diffusion flames were acoustically forced, whose frequency responses were recorded as a function of excitation frequency and amplitude. The evolving structure of such flames was also examined through the use of video analysis and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). For specific combinations of excitation frequency and amplitude, the frequency response of the flames was found to couple to that of the forcing, where the contribution of natural puffing frequency disappears. Such instances of coupling exhibited many harmonics of the excitation frequency, related indirectly to the natural puffing frequency. We showed how such harmonics form, through application of PIV, and furthermore unveiled insight into the physics of how the flame couples to the forcing under certain conditions. Our frequency response characterization provides quantitative results, which are of utility for both modeling studies and active-control strategies. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
The turbulence structure in an unconfined swirling diffusion flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finzenhagen, F.; Doherty, T.O.; Bates, C.; Wirtz, S.; Kremer, H.
1999-01-01
Turbulent swirling flows are used in many practical combustion systems. The swirl improves the flame stability as a result of the formation of a central recirculation zone combined with fast mixing at the boundaries of this zone. Knowledge about swirl flames has increased over the last few decades as a result of practical experience and fundamental research. Some important questions concerning the influence of the turbulence structure on the flame stability and chemical kinetics of the combustion process remain unresolved. The structure of turbulence, especially turbulent scales and time dependent effects, at the outlet zone controls the mixing process and therefore the flame properties. Understanding of these complex phenomena is far from complete. The present work describes the results of an experimental study of the turbulence structure of a swirled diffusion flame using laser-optical measurement techniques, e.g. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PW). All the processed information available from the burst-mode Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements has been combined and compared with high spatial resolution PIV measurements of the flow. The extensive statistical post processing of the data has enabled the turbulent microstructure to be characterised. (author)
Modelling thermal radiation and soot formation in buoyant diffusion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demarco Bull, R.A.
2012-01-01
The radiative heat transfer plays an important role in fire problems since it is the dominant mode of heat transfer between flames and surroundings. It controls the pyrolysis, and therefore the heat release rate, and the growth rate of the fire. In the present work a numerical study of buoyant diffusion flames is carried out, with the main objective of modelling the thermal radiative transfer and the soot formation/destruction processes. In a first step, different radiative property models were tested in benchmark configurations. It was found that the FSCK coupled with the Modest and Riazzi mixing scheme was the best compromise in terms of accuracy and computational requirements, and was a good candidate to be implemented in CFD codes dealing with fire problems. In a second step, a semi-empirical soot model, considering acetylene and benzene as precursor species for soot nucleation, was validated in laminar co flow diffusion flames over a wide range of hydrocarbons (C1-C3) and conditions. In addition, the optically-thin approximation was found to produce large discrepancies in the upper part of these small laminar flames. Reliable predictions of soot volume fractions require the use of an advanced radiation model. Then the FSCK and the semi-empirical soot model were applied to simulate laboratory-scale and intermediate-scale pool fires of methane and propane. Predicted flame structures as well as the radiant heat flux transferred to the surroundings were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental data. Finally, the interaction between radiation and turbulence was quantified. (author)
Investigations of Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames at Elevated Pressures
Steinmetz, Scott A.
2016-12-01
Soot is a common byproduct of hydrocarbon based combustion systems. It poses a risk to human and environmental health, and can negatively or positively affect combustor performance. As a result, there is significant interest in understanding soot formation in order to better control it. More recently, the need to study soot formation in engine relevant conditions has become apparent. One engine relevant parameter that has had little focus is the ambient pressure. This body of work focuses on the formation of soot in elevated pressure environments, and a number of investigations are carried out with this purpose. Laminar coflow diffusion flames are used as steady, simple soot producers. First, a commonly studied flame configuration is further characterized. Coflow flames are frequently used for fundamental flame studies, particularly at elevated pressures. However, they are more susceptible to buoyancy induced instabilities at elevated pressures. The velocity of the coflow is known to have an effect on flame stability and soot formation, though these have not been characterized at elevated pressures. A series of flames are investigated covering a range of flowrates, pressures, and nozzle diameters. The stability limits of coflow flames in this range is investigated. Additionally, an alternative strategy for scaling these flames to elevated pressures is proposed. Finally, the effect of coflow rate on soot formation is evaluated. Identification of fundamental flames for coordinated research can facilitate our understanding of soot formation. The next study of this work focuses on adding soot concentration and particle size information to an existing fundamental flame dataset for the purpose of numerical model validation. Soot volume fraction and average particle diameters are successfully measured in nitrogen-diluted ethylene-air laminar coflow flames at pressures of 4, 8, 12, and 16 atm. An increase in particle size with pressure is found up to 12 atm, where particle
Perturbation on diffusion problems in domain with interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watson, F.V.
1985-01-01
A perturbative type algorithm for the solution of linear diffusion equation at two dimensions, in domain with interfaces is presented. The perturbative scheme should be assembled in the weak formulation of diffusion equation, even if the strong solution exists, and when it is taken in terms superiors to first order, it should be calculated analytically, in one of the dimensions to avoid problems of slow convergence. (M.C.K.) [pt
Multi-group diffusion perturbation calculation code. PERKY (2002)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iijima, Susumu; Okajima, Shigeaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2002-12-01
Perturbation calculation code based on the diffusion theory ''PERKY'' is designed for nuclear characteristic analyses of fast reactor. The code calculates reactivity worth on the multi-group diffusion perturbation theory in two or three dimensional core model and kinetics parameters such as effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime and absolute reactivity scale factor ({rho}{sub 0} {delta}k/k) for FCA experiments. (author)
Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame
松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo
2014-01-01
This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.Y. Kiran; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering
2007-07-15
In the present study, experiments were carried out to measure the lift-off height, H{sub L}; flame length, L{sub f} and blow-off velocity for a simple LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) jet diffusion flames. It is observed that lift-off height is proportional to the fuel exit velocity, U{sub f}. A semi-empirical correlation between lift-off height and global strain rate, U{sub f}/D{sub f} is proposed. Two regimes identified either as buoyancy or momentum dominated were characterized by Froude number, Fr. For momentum dominated jet diffusion flames, L{sub f}/D{sub f} remains almost constant and therefore is independent of the Froude number. The NOx emissions, expressed in terms of emission index, EINOx is found to decrease with U{sub f}. This decreasing trend is consistent with the concept that increasing jet velocity reduces the residence time as reported in the literature. The present data is also compared with the available data of propane gas and found to be in good agreement well particularly in trend wise. Besides these data, EINOx scaling law is also reported in the present study. 20 refs., 8 figs.
Turbulent structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao
2013-11-02
The structure and dynamics of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were examined experimentally in a co-flow swirl combustor. The dynamics of the large-scale flame structures, including variations in flame dimensions, the degree of turbulent flame puff interaction, and the turbulent flame puff celerity were determined from high-speed imaging of the luminous flame. All of the tests presented here were conducted with a fixed fuel injection velocity at a Reynolds number of 5000. The flame dimensions were generally found to be more impacted by swirl for the cases of longer injection time and faster co-flow flow rate. Flames with swirl exhibited a flame length up to 34% shorter compared to nonswirled flames. Both the turbulent flame puff separation and the flame puff celerity generally decreased when swirl was imposed. The decreased flame length, flame puff separation, and flame puff celerity are consistent with a greater momentum exchange between the flame and the surrounding co-flow, resulting from an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. Three scaling relations were developed to account for the impact of the injection time, the volumetric fuel-to-air flow rate ratio, and the jet-on fraction on the visible flame length. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Investigation of soot formation and temperature field in laminar diffusion flames of LPG-air mixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahad, Haroun A.K.; Mohammed, Yassar K.A. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Israel)
2000-11-01
Soot formation and burnout were studied at atmospheric pressure in co-flowing, axisymmetric buoyant laminar diffusion flames and double flames of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)-air mixtures. In diffusion flames, two different fuel flow rates were examined. In double flames, three different primary air flow rates were examined. A soot sampling probe and a thermocouple were used to measure the local soot mass concentration and flame temperature, respectively. Flame residence time was predicted using a uniformly accelerated motion model as function of axial distance of the flame. The increase of primary air flow rate was found to suppress the energy transfer from the annular region, at which the soot is produced, to the flame axis. The time required to initiate soot formation at the flame axis becomes longer as the primary air is increased. The trend rate of soot formation was found to be similar along the flame axis in all tested diffusion flames. The increase of primary air by 10% of the stoichiometric air requirement of the fuel results in a 70% reduction in maximum soot concentration. The final exhaust of soot, which is determined by the net effect of soot formation and burnout, is much lower in double flames than that in diffusion flames. (Author)
Validation of a mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model for premixed lean hydrogen flames
Schlup, Jason; Blanquart, Guillaume
2018-03-01
The mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model originally proposed by Chapman and Cowling is validated using multiple flame configurations. Simulations using detailed hydrogen chemistry are done on one-, two-, and three-dimensional flames. The analysis spans flat and stretched, steady and unsteady, and laminar and turbulent flames. Quantitative and qualitative results using the thermal diffusion model compare very well with the more complex multicomponent diffusion model. Comparisons are made using flame speeds, surface areas, species profiles, and chemical source terms. Once validated, this model is applied to three-dimensional laminar and turbulent flames. For these cases, thermal diffusion causes an increase in the propagation speed of the flames as well as increased product chemical source terms in regions of high positive curvature. The results illustrate the necessity for including thermal diffusion, and the accuracy and computational efficiency of the mixture-averaged thermal diffusion model.
Shao, Weiwei; Xiong, Yan; Mu, Kejin; Zhang, Zhedian; Wang, Yue; Xiao, Yunhan
2010-06-01
Flame structures of a syngas swirl-stabilized diffusion flame in a model combustor were measured using the OH-PLIF method under different fuel and air swirl intensity. The flame operated under atmospheric pressure with air and a typical low heating-value syngas with a composition of 28.5% CO, 22.5% H2 and 49% N2 at a thermal power of 34 kW. Results indicate that increasing the air swirl intensity with the same fuel, swirl intensity flame structures showed little difference except a small reduction of flame length; but also, with the same air swirl intensity, fuel swirl intensity showed great influence on flame shape, length and reaction zone distribution. Therefore, compared with air swirl intensity, fuel swirl intensity appeared a key effect on the flame structure for the model combustor. Instantaneous OH-PLIF images showed that three distinct typical structures with an obvious difference of reaction zone distribution were found at low swirl intensity, while a much compacter flame structure with a single, stable and uniform reaction zone distribution was found at large fuel-air swirl intensity. It means that larger swirl intensity leads to efficient, stable combustion of the syngas diffusion flame.
Shishkin, G. I.
2015-11-01
An initial-boundary value problem is considered for a singularly perturbed parabolic convection-diffusion equation with a perturbation parameter ɛ (ɛ ∈ (0, 1]) multiplying the highest order derivative. The stability of a standard difference scheme based on monotone approximations of the problem on a uniform mesh is analyzed, and the behavior of discrete solutions in the presence of perturbations is examined. The scheme does not converge ɛ-uniformly in the maximum norm as the number of its grid nodes is increased. When the solution of the difference scheme converges, which occurs if N -1 ≪ ɛ and N -1 0 ≪ 1, where N and N 0 are the numbers of grid intervals in x and t, respectively, the scheme is not ɛ-uniformly well conditioned or stable to data perturbations in the grid problem and to computer perturbations. For the standard difference scheme in the presence of data perturbations in the grid problem and/or computer perturbations, conditions on the "parameters" of the difference scheme and of the computer (namely, on ɛ, N, N 0, admissible data perturbations in the grid problem, and admissible computer perturbations) are obtained that ensure the convergence of the perturbed solutions. Additionally, the conditions are obtained under which the perturbed numerical solution has the same order of convergence as the solution of the unperturbed standard difference scheme.
Modelling thermal radiation in buoyant turbulent diffusion flames
Consalvi, J. L.; Demarco, R.; Fuentes, A.
2012-10-01
This work focuses on the numerical modelling of radiative heat transfer in laboratory-scale buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Spectral gas and soot radiation is modelled by using the Full-Spectrum Correlated-k (FSCK) method. Turbulence-Radiation Interactions (TRI) are taken into account by considering the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA), the resulting time-averaged Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) being solved by the Finite Volume Method (FVM). Emission TRIs and the mean absorption coefficient are then closed by using a presumed probability density function (pdf) of the mixture fraction. The mean gas flow field is modelled by the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) equation set closed by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ model with algebraic stress/flux models (ASM/AFM), the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model coupled with a presumed pdf approach to account for Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions, and an acetylene-based semi-empirical two-equation soot model. Two sets of experimental pool fire data are used for validation: propane pool fires 0.3 m in diameter with Heat Release Rates (HRR) of 15, 22 and 37 kW and methane pool fires 0.38 m in diameter with HRRs of 34 and 176 kW. Predicted flame structures, radiant fractions, and radiative heat fluxes on surrounding surfaces are found in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data across all the flames. In addition further computations indicate that, for the present flames, the gray approximation can be applied for soot with a minor influence on the results, resulting in a substantial gain in Computer Processing Unit (CPU) time when the FSCK is used to treat gas radiation.
Sooting Characteristics and Modeling in Counterflow Diffusion Flames
Wang, Yu
2013-11-01
Soot formation is one of the most complex phenomena in combustion science and an understanding of the underlying physico-chemical mechanisms is important. This work adopted both experimental and numerical approaches to study soot formation in laminar counterfl ow diffusion flames. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the precursors of soot particles, a detailed gas-phase chemical mechanism describing PAH growth upto coronene for fuels with 1 to 4 carbon atoms was validated against laminar premixed and counter- flow diffusion fl ames. Built upon this gas-phase mechanism, a soot model was then developed to describe soot inception and surface growth. This soot model was sub- sequently used to study fuel mixing effect on soot formation in counterfl ow diffusion flames. Simulation results showed that compared to the baseline case of the ethylene flame, the doping of 5% (by volume) propane or ethane in ethylene tends to increase the soot volume fraction and number density while keeping the average soot size almost unchanged. These results are in agreement with experimental observations. Laser light extinction/scattering as well as laser induced fluorescence techniques were used to study the effect of strain rate on soot and PAH formation in counterfl ow diffusion ames. The results showed that as strain rate increased both soot volume fraction and PAH concentrations decreased. The concentrations of larger PAH were more sensitive to strain rate compared to smaller ones. The effect of CO2 addition on soot formation was also studied using similar experimental techniques. Soot loading was reduced with CO2 dilution. Subsequent numerical modeling studies were able to reproduce the experimental trend. In addition, the chemical effect of CO2 addition was analyzed using numerical data. Critical conditions for the onset of soot were systematically studied in counterfl ow diffusion ames for various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and at different strain rates. A sooting
Diffusion in randomly perturbed dissipative dynamics
Rodrigues, Christian S.; Chechkin, Aleksei V.; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Grebogi, Celso; Klages, Rainer
2014-11-01
Dynamical systems having many coexisting attractors present interesting properties from both fundamental theoretical and modelling points of view. When such dynamics is under bounded random perturbations, the basins of attraction are no longer invariant and there is the possibility of transport among them. Here we introduce a basic theoretical setting which enables us to study this hopping process from the perspective of anomalous transport using the concept of a random dynamical system with holes. We apply it to a simple model by investigating the role of hyperbolicity for the transport among basins. We show numerically that our system exhibits non-Gaussian position distributions, power-law escape times, and subdiffusion. Our simulation results are reproduced consistently from stochastic continuous time random walk theory.
Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow
Alfazazi, Adamu
2018-02-02
Ignition in low temperature combustion engines is governed by a coupling between low-temperature oxidation kinetics and diffusive transport. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the coupled effects of heat release, low-temperature oxidation chemistry, and molecular transport in cool flames is imperative to the advancement of new combustion concepts. This study provides an understanding of the low temperature cool flame behavior of butane isomers in the counterflow configuration through the addition of ozone. The initiation and extinction limits of butane isomers’ cool flames have been investigated under a variety of strain rates. Results revealed that, with ozone addition, establishment of butane cool diffusion flames was successful at low and moderate strain rates. iso-Butane has lower reactivity than n-butane, as shown by higher fuel mole fractions needed for cool flame initiation and lower extinction strain rate limits. Ozone addition showed a significant influence on the initiation and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass spectrometer. Numerical simulations were performed using a detailed chemical kinetic model and molecular transport to simulate the extinction limits of the cool diffusion flames of the tested fuels. The model qualitatively captured experimental trends for both fuels and ozone levels, but over-predicted extinction limits of the flames. Reactions involving low-temperature species predominantly govern extinction limits of cool flames. The simulations were used to understand the effects of methyl branching on the behavior of n-butane and iso-butane cool diffusion flames.
Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner
Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold
2010-01-01
Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...
AC electric field induced vortex in laminar coflow diffusion flames
Xiong, Yuan; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho
2014-01-01
Experiments were performed by applying sub-critical high-voltage alternating current (AC) to the nozzle of laminar propane coflow diffusion flames. Light scattering, laser-induced incandescence and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were used to identify the soot zone, and the structures of OH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particle image velocimetry was adopted to quantify the velocity field. Under certain AC conditions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. The onset conditions for the vortex formation supported the role of an electromagnetic force acting on charged particles in the flame zone. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
AC electric field induced vortex in laminar coflow diffusion flames
Xiong, Yuan
2014-09-22
Experiments were performed by applying sub-critical high-voltage alternating current (AC) to the nozzle of laminar propane coflow diffusion flames. Light scattering, laser-induced incandescence and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were used to identify the soot zone, and the structures of OH and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particle image velocimetry was adopted to quantify the velocity field. Under certain AC conditions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. The onset conditions for the vortex formation supported the role of an electromagnetic force acting on charged particles in the flame zone. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manias, Dimitrios
2018-01-08
The dynamics and structure of two turbulent H2/air premixed flames, representative of the corrugated flamelet (Case 1) and thin reaction zone (Case 2) regimes, are analyzed and compared, using the computational singular perturbation (CSP) tools, by incorporating the tangential stretch rate (TSR) approach. First, the analysis is applied to a laminar premixed H2/air flame for reference. Then, a two-dimensional (2D) slice of Case 1 is studied at three time steps, followed by the comparison between two representative 2D slices of Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. Last, statistical analysis is performed on the full three-dimensional domain for the two cases. The dominant reaction and transport processes are identified for each case and the overall role of kinetics/transport is determined.
Turbulent diffusion in the flame of a rotary kiln
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strekotin, V.V.; Telegin, A.A.; Lisin, F.N.; Malysheva, O.I.
1987-09-01
Experimental data on the distribution of velocities in the stream in the flow of air from models of a burner with a normal annular Laval nozzle and a burner with an increase in the angle of opening of the stream under supersonic conditions were obtained. The results of the work may be used in the design of burners for rotary kilns. According to the experimental data the coefficient of turbulent diffusion reaches a value of 0.0071 m/sup 2//sec for a pure flow and is reduced by 30% with an increase in the dust content from 0 to 1 kg/kg. It is desirable to use the data obtained in calculations of the flame processes and selection of means of intensification of the process of mixing of the fuel with the oxidizer in the presence of dust.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. R. V. Manikantachari
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, effects of burner configurations on the natural oscillations of methane laminar diffusion flames under atmospheric pressure and normal gravity conditions have been studied experimentally. Three regimes of laminar diffusion flames, namely, steady, intermittent flickering and continuous flickering have been investigated. Burner configurations such as straight pipe, contoured nozzle and that having an orifice plate at the exit have been considered. All burners have the same area of cross section at the exit and same burner lip thickness. Flame height data has been extracted from direct flame video using MATLAB. Shadowgraph videos have been captured to analyze the plume width characteristics. Results show that, the oscillation characteristics of the orifice burner is significantly different from the other two burners; orifice burner produces a shorter flame and wider thermal plume width in the steady flame regime and the onset of the oscillation/flickering regimes for the orifice burner occurs at a higher fuel flow rate. In the natural flickering regime, the dominating frequency of flame flickering remains within a small range, 12.5 Hz to 15 Hz, for all the burners and for all fuel flow rates. The time-averaged flame length-scale parameters, such as the maximum and the minimum flame heights, increase with respect to the fuel flow rate, however, the difference in the maximum and the minimum flame heights remains almost constant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, M.; Schuller, T.; Sipp, D.; Schmid, P. J.
2015-01-01
The response of a laminar premixed methane-air flame subjected to flow perturbations around a steady state is examined experimentally and using a linearized compressible Navier-Stokes solver with a one-step chemistry mechanism to describe combustion. The unperturbed flame takes an M-shape stabilized both by a central bluff body and by the external rim of a cylindrical nozzle. This base flow is computed by a nonlinear direct simulation of the steady reacting flow, and the flame topology is shown to qualitatively correspond to experiments conducted under comparable conditions. The flame is then subjected to acoustic disturbances produced at different locations in the numerical domain, and its response is examined using the linearized solver. This linear numerical model then allows the componentwise investigation of the effects of flow disturbances on unsteady combustion and the feedback from the flame on the unsteady flow field. It is shown that a wrinkled reaction layer produces hydrodynamic disturbances in the fresh reactant flow field that superimpose on the acoustic field. This phenomenon, observed in several experiments, is fully interpreted here. The additional perturbations convected by the mean flow stem from the feedback of the perturbed flame sheet dynamics onto the flow field by a mechanism similar to that of a perturbed vortex sheet. The different regimes where this mechanism prevails are investigated by examining the phase and group velocities of flow disturbances along an axis oriented along the main direction of the flow in the fresh reactant flow field. It is shown that this mechanism dominates the low-frequency response of the wrinkled shape taken by the flame and, in particular, that it fully determines the dynamics of the flame tip from where the bulk of noise is radiated
Multiple-diffusion flame synthesis of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Memon, Nasir; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2013-01-01
A multi-element diffusion flame burner (MEDB) is useful in the study of flame synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the growth of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an MEDB is demonstrated. Hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), and argon
Flame Structure and Emissions of Strongly-Pulsed Turbulent Diffusion Flames with Swirl
Liao, Ying-Hao
This work studies the turbulent flame structure, the reaction-zone structure and the exhaust emissions of strongly-pulsed, non-premixed flames with co-flow swirl. The fuel injection is controlled by strongly-pulsing the fuel flow by a fast-response solenoid valve such that the fuel flow is completely shut off between pulses. This control strategy allows the fuel injection to be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions, allowing the flame structure to range from isolated fully-modulated puffs to interacting puffs to steady flames. The swirl level is controlled by varying the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of the tangential air to that of the axial air. For strongly-pulsed flames, both with and without swirl, the flame geometry is strongly impacted by the injection time. Flames appear to exhibit compact, puff-like structures for short injection times, while elongated flames, similar in behaviors to steady flames, occur for long injection times. The flames with swirl are found to be shorter for the same fuel injection conditions. The separation/interaction level between flame puffs in these flames is essentially governed by the jet-off time. The separation between flame puffs decreases as swirl is imposed, consistent with the decrease in flame puff celerity due to swirl. The decreased flame length and flame puff celerity are consistent with an increased rate of air entrainment due to swirl. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, consistent with the rapid quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels, suggesting more rapid and complete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the co-flow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off time. The swirled co-flow air can, in some cases, increase the NO
Effect of diluents on soot precursor formation and temperature in ethylene laminar diffusion flames
Abhinavam Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar
2013-03-01
Soot precursor species concentrations and flame temperature were measured in a diluted laminar co-flow jet diffusion flame at pressures up to eight atmospheres while varying diluent type. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of soot production and oxidation mechanisms, which could potentially lead to a reduction in soot emissions from practical combustion devices. Gaseous samples were extracted from the centerline of an ethylene-air laminar diffusion flame, which was diluted individually with four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) to manipulate flame temperature and transport properties. The diluted fuel and co-flow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear-layer effects, and the mass fluxes were fixed over the pressure range to maintain constant Reynolds number. The flame temperature was measured using a fine gauge R-type thermocouple at pressures up to four atmospheres. Centerline concentration profiles of major non-fuel hydrocarbons collected via extractive sampling with a quartz microprobe and quantification using GC/MS+FID are reported within. The measured hydrocarbon species concentrations are vary dramatically with pressure and diluent, with the helium and carbon dioxide diluted flames yielding the largest and smallest concentrations of soot precursors, respectively. In the case of C2H2 and C6H6, two key soot precursors, helium diluted flames had concentrations more than three times higher compared with the carbon dioxide diluted flame. The peak flame temperature vary with diluents tested, as expected, with carbon dioxide diluted flame being the coolest, with a peak temperature of 1760K at 1atm, and the helium diluted flame being the hottest, with a peak temperature of 2140K. At four atmospheres, the helium diluted flame increased to 2240K, but the CO2 flame temperature increased more, decreasing the difference to approximately 250K. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.
TRAJECTORY AND INCINERATION OF ROGUE DROPLETS IN A TURBULENT DIFFUSION FLAME
The trajectory and incineration efficiency of individual droplet streams of a fuel mixture injected into a swirling gas turbulent diffusion flame were measured as a function of droplet size, droplet velocity, interdroplet spacing, and droplet injection angle. Additional experimen...
Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames
Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot
Soot formation characteristics of gasoline surrogate fuels in counterflow diffusion flames
Choi, Byungchul; Choi, Sangkyu; Chung, Suk-Ho
2011-01-01
The characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot for gasoline surrogate fuels have been investigated in counterflow diffusion flames by adopting laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques
Stochastic Simulation of Soot Formation Evolution in Counterflow Diffusion Flames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Jiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Soot generally refers to carbonaceous particles formed during incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. A typical simulation of soot formation and evolution contains two parts: gas chemical kinetics, which models the chemical reaction from hydrocarbon fuels to soot precursors, that is, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and soot dynamics, which models the soot formation from PAHs and evolution due to gas-soot and soot-soot interactions. In this study, two detailed gas kinetic mechanisms (ABF and KM2 have been compared during the simulation (using the solver Chemkin II of ethylene combustion in counterflow diffusion flames. Subsequently, the operator splitting Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the soot dynamics. Both the simulated data from the two mechanisms for gas and soot particles are compared with experimental data available in the literature. It is found that both mechanisms predict similar profiles for the gas temperature and velocity, agreeing well with measurements. However, KM2 mechanism provides much closer prediction compared to measurements for soot gas precursors. Furthermore, KM2 also shows much better predictions for soot number density and volume fraction than ABF. The effect of nozzle exit velocity on soot dynamics has also been investigated. Higher nozzle exit velocity renders shorter residence time for soot particles, which reduces the soot number density and volume fraction accordingly.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Su Ryong [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
Nonlinear characteristics of cellular counterflow diffusion flame near the radiative extinction limit at large Damköhler number are numerically investigated. Lewis number is assumed to be 0.5 and flame evolution is calculated by imposing an infinitesimal disturbance to a one-dimensional(1-D) steady state flame. The early stage of nonlinear development is very similar to that predicted in a linear stability analysis. The disturbance with the wavenumber of the fastest growing mode emerges and grows gradually. Eventual, an alternating pattern of reacting and quenching stripes is developed. The cellular flame temperature is higher than that of 1-D flame because of the gain of the total enthalpy. As the Damköhler number is further increased, the shape of the cell becomes circular to increase the surface area per unit reacting volume. The cellular flames do not extinguish but survive even above the 1-D steady state extinction condition.
Turbulent structure and emissions of strongly-pulsed jet diffusion flames
Fregeau, Mathieu
-pulsed flames was not strongly impacted by buoyancy. This lack of sensitivity to buoyancy was consistent with offsetting changes in flame puff celerity and time to burnout for the microgravity versus normal-gravity cases. The emissions of CO and NO were examined in the vicinity of the visible flame tip and at the combustor exit for strongly-pulsed flames. The highest exhaust-point emission indices of CO for compact, isolated puffs were as much as a factor of six higher than those of elongated flames with longer injection times. The amount of CO decreased substantially with a decreased amount of flame puff interaction. The higher CO levels for pulsed flames with the shortest injection times were consistent with quenching due to the very rapid mixing and dilution with excess air for the most compact flame puffs. The injection time for which steady-flame emission levels were attained was comparable to the injection time for which the visible flame length approached the flame length of steady flames. The CO emissions, for a given fuelling rate, were strongly dependent on both the injection time and jet-off time for a jet-on fraction less than approximately 50%. The NO levels were generally proportional to the fuelling rate. This work indicates that there are specific combinations of injection time and jet-off time that considerably change the fuel/air mixing, resulting in emissions comparable to those of the steady flame while the flame length is significantly shorter. This points the potential utility of the strongly-pulsed injection technique in the development of compact, low emissions combustors involving turbulent diffusion flames. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Thermal fluid characteristics in diffusion flame formed by coaxial flow configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torii, S. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
2005-07-01
A numerical and experimental study was performed on the thermal transport phenomena of turbulent jet diffusion flames formed by coaxial flow configuration. Consideration was given to the effect of the flow rates of air and fuel on the flame morphology. It was noted that as the air flow rate increases, the augmentation of flow shear effect exerted on the shear layer form between the flame jet and the air flow induced the fuel-to-air mixture. Thermal diffusion was amplified with an increase in the Reynolds number. As the velocity ratio was increased, the streamwise velocity gradient along the radial axis was intensified, resulting in an amplification of thermal diffusion. Details of the experimental apparatus and method were provided, along with governing equations and numerical methods. It was concluded that the suppression of the flame length and an extension of flame blowoff limit caused an annular jet diffusion flame. An increase in the velocity ratio of air to fuel showed the blue flame. When cold and hot gases are injected along the same direction from the annular channel, the flow pattern and isotherms are affected by the velocity ratio. The streamwise velocity gradient along the r axis was intensified with an increase in N. The trend became larger in the vicinity of the injection nozzle. 15 refs., 9 figs.
Flame Structure of Vitiated Fuel-Rich Inverse Diffusion Flames in a Cross-Flow (Postprint)
2011-12-01
downstream of the slot. The flame length increases as the blowing ratio increases as a result of the greater mass of air which reacts. Ignition of...attributed to the greater penetration of the jet into the cross-stream. It is noted that the flame lengths are similar for the different blowing ratios
A computational study of soot formation in opposed-flow diffusion flame interacting with vortices
Selvaraj, Prabhu
2017-01-05
The flame-vortex interaction enables the study of basic phenomena that control the coupling between combustion and turbulence. Employing a gas phase reaction mechanism considering polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a two dimensional counterflow ethylene-air flame is simulated. A reduced mechanism with PAH pathways that includes until coronene and method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) has been employed to calculate the soot characteristics. Interaction of sooting flame with a prescribed decaying random velocity field is being investigated. Counterflow nonpremixed flames at low strain rate sooting conditions are considered. Effects of vortices are studied on the flame structures and its sensitivity on the soot formation characteristics. As the vortex rolls up the flame, integrated soot volume fraction is found to be larger for the air-side vortex. A detailed analysis on the flame structure and its influence on the formation of soot were carried out. The results indicate that the larger PAH species contributes to the soot formation in the airside perturbation regimes, whereas the soot formation is dominated by the soot transport in fuel-side perturbation.
A LES-CMC formulation for premixed flames including differential diffusion
Farrace, Daniele; Chung, Kyoungseoun; Bolla, Michele; Wright, Yuri M.; Boulouchos, Konstantinos; Mastorakos, Epaminondas
2018-05-01
A finite volume large eddy simulation-conditional moment closure (LES-CMC) numerical framework for premixed combustion developed in a previous studyhas been extended to account for differential diffusion. The non-unity Lewis number CMC transport equation has an additional convective term in sample space proportional to the conditional diffusion of the progress variable, that in turn accounts for diffusion normal to the flame front and curvature-induced effects. Planar laminar simulations are first performed using a spatially homogeneous non-unity Lewis number CMC formulation and validated against physical-space fully resolved reference solutions. The same CMC formulation is subsequently used to numerically investigate the effects of curvature for laminar flames having different effective Lewis numbers: a lean methane-air flame with Leeff = 0.99 and a lean hydrogen-air flame with Leeff = 0.33. Results suggest that curvature does not affect the conditional heat release if the effective Lewis number tends to unity, so that curvature-induced transport may be neglected. Finally, the effect of turbulence on the flame structure is qualitatively analysed using LES-CMC simulations with and without differential diffusion for a turbulent premixed bluff body methane-air flame exhibiting local extinction behaviour. Overall, both the unity and the non-unity computations predict the characteristic M-shaped flame observed experimentally, although some minor differences are identified. The findings suggest that for the high Karlovitz number (from 1 to 10) flame considered, turbulent mixing within the flame weakens the differential transport contribution by reducing the conditional scalar dissipation rate and accordingly the conditional diffusion of the progress variable.
Liftoff and blowoff of a diffusion flame between parallel streams of fuel and air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Tarrazo, Eduardo [I.N.T.A. Area de Propulsion-Edificio R02, Ctra. Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2006-01-01
A numerical analysis is presented to describe the liftoff and blowoff of a diffusion flame in the mixing layer between two parallel streams of fuel (mainly methane diluted with nitrogen) and air emerging from porous walls. The analysis, which takes into account the effects of thermal expansion, assumes a one-step overall Arrhenius reaction, where the activation energy E is allowed to vary to reproduce the variations of the planar flame propagation velocity with the equivalence ratio. First, we describe the steady flame-front structure when stabilized close to the porous wall (attached flame regime). Then, we analyze the case where the flame front is located far away from the porous wall, at a distance x{sub f}' such that, upstream of the flame front, the mixing layer has a self-similar structure (lifted flame regime). For steady lifted flames, the results, given here in the case when the fuel and air streams are injected with the same velocity, relate U{sub f}'/S{sub L}, the front velocity (relative to the upstream flow) measured with the planar stoichiometric flame velocity, with the Damkohler number D{sub m}=({delta}{sub m}/{delta}{sub L}){sup 2}, based on the thickness, {delta}{sub m}, of the nonreacting mixing layer at the flame-front position and the laminar flame thickness, {delta}{sub L}. For large values of D{sub m}, the results, presented here for a wide range of dilutions of the fuel stream, provide values of the front propagation velocity that are in good agreement with previous experimental results, yielding well-defined conditions for blowoff. The calculated flame-front velocity can also be used to describe the transient flame-front dynamics after ignition by an external energy source.
Response to acoustic forcing of laminar coflow jet diffusion flames
Chrystie, Robin; Chung, Suk-Ho
2014-01-01
Toward the goal of understanding and controlling instability in combustion systems, we present a fundamental characterization of the interaction of the buoyancy-induced instability in flickering flames with forced excitation of fuel supply. Laminar
Transition of carbon nanostructures in heptane diffusion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Wei-Chieh [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Kun Shan University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China); Lin, Ta-Hui, E-mail: thlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Mechanical Engineering (China)
2017-02-15
The flame synthesis has high potential in industrial production of carbon nanostructure (CNS). Unfortunately, the complexity of combustion chemistry leads to less controlling of synthesized products. In order to improve the understanding of the relation between flames and CNSs synthesized within, experiments were conducted through heptane flames in a stagnation-point liquid-pool system. The operating parameters for the synthesis include oxygen supply, sampling position, and sampling time. Two kinds of nanostructures were observed, carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon nano-onion (CNO). CNTs were synthesized in a weaker flame near extinction. CNOs were synthesized in a more sooty flame. The average diameter of CNTs formed at oxygen concentration of 15% was in the range of 20–30 nm. For oxygen concentration of 17%, the average diameter of CNTs ranged from 24 to 27 nm, while that of CNOs was around 28 nm. For oxygen concentration of 19%, the average diameter of CNOs produced at the sampling position 0.5 mm below the flame front was about 57 nm, while the average diameters of CNOs formed at the sampling positions 1–2.5 mm below the flame front were in the range of 20–25 nm. A transition from CNT to CNO was observed by variation of sampling position in a flame. We found that the morphology of CNS is directly affected by the presence of soot layer due to the carbonaceous environment and the growth mechanisms of CNT and CNO. The sampling time can alter the yield of CNSs depending on the temperature of sampling position, but the morphology of products is not affected.
Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B
2012-01-01
The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ∼10 3 - 5×10 4 W cm -2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.
Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene
Gvozdev, S. V.; Glova, A. F.; Dubrovskii, V. Yu; Durmanov, S. T.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Lysikov, A. Yu; Smirnov, G. V.; Solomakhin, V. B.
2012-04-01
The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ~103 — 5×104 W cm-2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene — ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.
Turbulent jet diffusion flame length evolution with cross flows in a sub-pressure atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qiang; Hu, Longhua; Zhang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Lu, Shouxiang; Ding, Hang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Quantifying turbulent jet diffusion flame length with cross flows. • Unique data revealed for a sub-atmospheric pressure. • Non-dimensional global correlation proposed for flame trajectory-line length. - Abstract: This paper investigates the evolution characteristics of turbulent jet diffusion flame (flame trajectory-line length, flame height in vertical jet direction) with increasing cross flows in a sub-pressure (64 kPa) atmosphere. The combined effect of cross flow and a special sub-pressure atmosphere condition is revealed, where no data is available in the literatures. Experiments are carried out with a wind tunnel built specially in Lhasa city (altitude: 3650 m; pressure: 64 kPa) and in Hefei city (altitude: 50 m; pressure: 100 kPa), using nozzles with diameter of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm and propane as fuel. It is found that, as cross flow air speed increases from zero, the flame trajectory-line length firstly decreases and then becomes almost stable (for relative small nozzle, 3 mm in this study) or increases (for relative large nozzle, 4 mm and 5 mm in this study) beyond a transitional critical cross flow air speed in normal pressure, however decreases monotonically until being blown-out in the sub-pressure atmosphere. The flame height in jet direction decreases monotonically with cross air flow speed and then reaches a steady value in both pressures. For the transitional state of flame trajectory-line length with increasing cross air flow speed, the corresponding critical cross flow air speed is found to be proportional to the fuel jet velocity, meanwhile independent of nozzle diameter. Correlation models are proposed for the flame height in jet direction and the flame trajectory-line length for both ambient pressures, which are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.
Zhou, Zhen; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Shoshin, Yuriy; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.
2017-01-01
The influence of Soret diffusion on lean premixed flames propagating in hydrogen/air mixtures is numerically investigated with a detailed chemical and transport models at normal and elevated pressure and temperature. The Soret diffusion influence on the one-dimensional (1D) flame mass burning rate and two-dimensional (2D) flame propagating characteristics is analysed, revealing a strong dependency on flame stretch rate, pressure and temperature. For 1D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, with an increase of Karlovitz number from 0 to 0.4, the mass burning rate is first reduced and then enhanced by Soret diffusion of H2 while it is reduced by Soret diffusion of H. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 is enhanced by pressure and reduced by temperature. On the contrary, the influence of Soret diffusion of H is reduced by pressure and enhanced by temperature. For 2D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, during the early phase of flame evolution, flames with Soret diffusion display more curved flame cells. Pressure enhances this effect, while temperature reduces it. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated pressure. The influence of Soret diffusion of H on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated temperature. The flame evolution is more affected by Soret diffusion in the early phase of propagation than in the long run due to the local enrichment of H2 caused by flame curvature effects. The present study provides new insights into the Soret diffusion effect on the characteristics of lean hydrogen/air flames at conditions that are relevant to practical applications, e.g. gas engines and turbines.
Zhou, Zhen
2017-04-12
The influence of Soret diffusion on lean premixed flames propagating in hydrogen/air mixtures is numerically investigated with a detailed chemical and transport models at normal and elevated pressure and temperature. The Soret diffusion influence on the one-dimensional (1D) flame mass burning rate and two-dimensional (2D) flame propagating characteristics is analysed, revealing a strong dependency on flame stretch rate, pressure and temperature. For 1D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, with an increase of Karlovitz number from 0 to 0.4, the mass burning rate is first reduced and then enhanced by Soret diffusion of H2 while it is reduced by Soret diffusion of H. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 is enhanced by pressure and reduced by temperature. On the contrary, the influence of Soret diffusion of H is reduced by pressure and enhanced by temperature. For 2D flames, at normal pressure and temperature, during the early phase of flame evolution, flames with Soret diffusion display more curved flame cells. Pressure enhances this effect, while temperature reduces it. The influence of Soret diffusion of H2 on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated pressure. The influence of Soret diffusion of H on the global consumption speed is enhanced at elevated temperature. The flame evolution is more affected by Soret diffusion in the early phase of propagation than in the long run due to the local enrichment of H2 caused by flame curvature effects. The present study provides new insights into the Soret diffusion effect on the characteristics of lean hydrogen/air flames at conditions that are relevant to practical applications, e.g. gas engines and turbines.
Diffusion air effects on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fassani, Fabio Luis; Santos, Alex Alisson Bandeira; Goldstein Junior, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos]. E-mails: fassani@fem.unicamp.br; absantos@fem.unicamp.br; leonardo@fem.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Eletronica Quantica]. E-mail: ferrari@ifi.unicamp.br
2000-07-01
Soot particles are produced during the high temperature pyrolysis or combustion of hydrocarbons. The emission of soot from a combustor, or from a flame, is determined by the competition between soot formation and its oxidation. Several factors affect these processes, including the type of fuel, the air-to-fuel ratio, flame temperature, pressure, and flow pattern. In this paper, the influence of the induced air diffusion on the soot axial distribution concentration in a premixed acetylene/air flame was studied. The flame was generated in a vertical axis burner in which the fuel - oxidant mixture flow was surrounded by a nitrogen discharge coming from the annular region between the burner tube and an external concentric tube. The nitrogen flow provided a shield that protected the flame from the diffusion of external air, enabling its control. The burner was mounted on a step-motor driven, vertical translation table. The use of several air-to-fuel ratios made possible to establish the sooting characteristics of this flame, by measuring soot concentration along the flame height with a non-intrusive laser light absorption technique. (author)
Combustion characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen hybrid fuel turbulent diffusion flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Ghafour, S.A.A.; El-dein, A.H.E.; Aref, A.A.R. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Port-Said (Egypt)
2010-03-15
Combustion characteristics of natural gas - hydrogen hybrid fuel were investigated experimentally in a free jet turbulent diffusion flame flowing into a slow co-flowing air stream. Experiments were carried out at a constant jet exit Reynolds number of 4000 and with a wide range of NG-H{sub 2} mixture concentrations, varied from 100%NG to 50%NG-50% H{sub 2} by volume. The effect of hydrogen addition on flame stability, flame length, flame structure, exhaust species concentration and pollutant emissions was conducted. Results showed that, hydrogen addition sustains a progressive improvement in flame stability and reduction in flame length, especially for relatively high hydrogen concentrations. Hydrogen-enriched flames found to have a higher combustion temperatures and reactivity than natural gas flame. Also, it was found that hydrogen addition to natural gas is an ineffective strategy for NO and CO reduction in the studied range, while a significant reduction in the %CO{sub 2} molar concentration by about 30% was achieved. (author)
The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao
2014-05-28
The CO and NOx exhaust emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally in a coflow swirl combustor. Measurements of emissions were performed on the combustor centerline using standard emission analyzers combined with an aspirated sampling probe located downstream of the visible flame tip. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, which is consistent with the quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels by up to a factor of 2.5, suggesting more rapid and compete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the coflow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off times. The swirled coflow air can, in some cases, increase the NO emissions due to a longer combustion residence time due to the flow recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time. However, the NO emissions do not successfully correlate with the global residence time. For some specific cases, a compact flame with a simultaneous decrease in both CO and NO emissions compared to the steady flames was observed. © Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Impact of co-flow air on buoyant diffusion flames flicker
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gohari Darabkhani, H., E-mail: h.g.darabkhani@gmail.com [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wang, Q.; Chen, L.; Zhang, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
Highlights: {yields} We present the co-flow effects on flickering behaviour of diffusion flames. {yields} Co-flow air is shown to fully suppress the buoyancy driven flame oscillations. {yields} Schlieren and PIV illustrate the shift of outer vortices beyond the flame zone. {yields} Stability controlling parameter as a ratio of air to fuel velocities is presented. {yields} Equation for linear increase in flickering frequency by co-flow air is presented. - Abstract: This paper describes experimental investigation of co-flow air velocity effects on the flickering behaviour of laminar non-lifted methane diffusion flames. Chemiluminescence, high-speed photography, schlieren and Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), have been used to study the changes in the flame/vortex interactions as well as the flame flickering frequency and magnitude by the co-flow air. Four cases of methane flow rates at different co-flow air velocities are investigated. It has been observed that the flame dynamics and stability of co-flow diffusion flames are strongly affected by the co-flow air velocity. When the co-flow velocity has reached a certain value the buoyancy driven flame oscillation was completely suppressed. The schlieren and PIV imaging have revealed that the co-flow of air is able to push the initiation point of the outer toroidal vortices beyond the visible flame to create a very steady laminar flow region in the reaction zone. Then the buoyancy driven instability is only effective in the plume of hot gases above the visible flame. It is observed that a higher co-flow rate is needed in order to suppress the flame flickering at a higher fuel flow rate. Therefore the ratio of the air velocity to the fuel velocity, {gamma}, is a stability controlling parameter. The velocity ratio, {gamma}, was found to be 0.72 for the range of tested flow rates. The dominant flickering frequency was observed to increase linearly with the co-flow rate (a) as; f = 0.33a + 11. The frequency amplitudes
Role of soot in the transport of chlorine in hydrocarbon-air diffusion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkatesh, S.; Saito, K.; Stencel, J.M.; Majidi, V.; Owens, M.
1991-01-01
Soot is an inevitable product of incomplete combustion in many practical combustion systems such as automobiles, incinerators and furnaces. Recent studies on chlorinated hydrocarbon combustion have shown that soot and other praticulates (eg. fly ash) play an important role in secondary reactions leading to the formation of chlorine substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to attain very high destruction efficiencies the fundamental chemical and physical processes that are associated with combustion, and post-combustion cleanup must be well understood. In order to understand the effect of chlorine on the soot formed in a combustion system, fundamental studies using a coflow laminar hydrocarbon-air diffusion flame have been carried out. Phenomenological studies have revealed the effect of chlorine on the visible structure of the flame. Soot inception activation energies were estimated for methane, ethane and ethylene diffusion flames for the case of with and without chlorine addition. No significant difference in the activation energy was estimated for either case. The effect of chlorine on the soot escape rate of an acetylene diffusion flame was estimated. The soot formed in these diffusion flames was analyzed for chlorine using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and by laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). REsults from these techniques indicate the presence of chlorine in the soot formed. In this paper a chemical scheme to explain the chlorine found in the soot is proposed based on known theories of soot formation
Investigations of Sooting Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames at Elevated Pressures
Steinmetz, Scott
2016-01-01
diameters are successfully measured in nitrogen-diluted ethylene-air laminar coflow flames at pressures of 4, 8, 12, and 16 atm. An increase in particle size with pressure is found up to 12 atm, where particle sizes plateau. Particle size in the annulus
Joo, Peter H.
2013-01-01
Sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames of propane/ethylene fuels have been studied experimentally using a light scattering technique, including the effects of dilution, fuel mixing, and strain rate. The results are discussed in view of the threshold soot index (TSI). In soot-formation (SF) flames, where the flame is located on the oxidizer side of the stagnation plane, the sooting limit depends critically on fuel type and subsequently on flame temperature. The sooting limit has a non-linear dependence on the fuel-mixing ratio, which is similar to the non-linear mixing rule for TSI observed experimentally in rich premixed flames, where soot oxidation is absent for both SF and rich premixed flames. In soot-formation-oxidation (SFO) flames, where the flame is located on the fuel side, the sooting limit depends critically on flame temperature, while it is relatively independent on fuel type. This result suggests a linear mixing rule for sooting limits in SFO flames, which is similar to the TSI behavior for coflow diffusion flames. Soot oxidation takes place for both types of flames. The aerodynamic strain effect on the sooting limits has also been studied and an appreciable influence has been observed. Under sooting conditions, soot volume fraction was measured using a light extinction technique. The soot loadings in SF flames of the mixture fuels demonstrated a synergistic effect, i.e., soot production increased for certain mixture fuels as compared to the respective singlecomponent fuels. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.
On Perturbation Components Correspondence between Diffusion and Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Palmiotti
2012-11-01
We have established a correspondence between perturbation components in diffusion and transport theory. In particular we have established the correspondence between the leakage perturbation component of the diffusion theory to that of the group self scattering in transport theory. This has been confirmed by practical applications on sodium void reactivity calculations of fast reactors. Why this is important for current investigations? Recently, there has been a renewed interest in designing fast reactors where the sodium void reactivity coefficient is minimized. In particular the ASTRID8,9 reactor concept has been optimized with this goal in mind. The correspondence on the leakage term that has been established here has a twofold implication for the design of this kind of reactors. First, this type of reactor has a radial reflector; therefore, as shown before, the sodium void reactivity coefficient calculation requires the use of transport theory. The minimization of the sodium reactivity coefficient is normally done by increasing the leakage component that has a negative sign. The correspondence established in this paper allows to directly look at this component in transport theory. The second implication is related to the uncertainty evaluation on sodium void reactivity. As it has shown before, the total sodium void reactivity effect is the result of a large compensation (opposite sign) between the scattering (called often spectral) component and the leakage one. Consequently, one has to evaluate separately the uncertainty on each separate component and then combine them statistically. If one wants to compute the cross section sensitivity coefficients of the two different components, the formulation established in this paper allows to achieve this goal by playing on the contribution to the sodium void reactivity coming from the group self scattering of the sodium cross section.
Propagation and diffusion-limited extinction of nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame in the SHS process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, Atsushi
1994-01-01
Nonadiabatic heterogeneous flame propagation and extinction in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are analyzed based on a premixed mode of propagation for the bulk flame supported by the nonpremixed reaction of dispersed nonmetals in the liquid metal. The formulation allows for volumetric heat loss throughout the bulk flame, finite-rate Arrhenius reaction at the particle surface, and temperature-sensitive Arrhenius mass diffusion in the liquid. Results show that, subsequent to melting of the metal, the flame structure consists of a relatively thin diffusion-consumption/convection zone followed by a relatively thick convection-loss zone, that the flame propagation rate decreases with increasing heat loss, that at a critical heat-loss rate the flame extinguishes as indicated by the characteristic turning-point behavior, that the surface reaction is diffusion limited such that the nonlinear, temperature-sensitive nature of the system is actually a consequence of the Arrhenius mass diffusion, and that extinction is sensitively affected by the mixture ratio, the degree of dilution, the initial temperature of the compact, and the size of the nonmetal particles. An explicit expression is derived for the normalized mass burning rate, which exhibits the characteristic turning point and shows that extinction occurs when this value is reduced to e -1/2 , which is the same as that for the nonadiabatic gaseous premixed flame. It is further shown that the theoretical results agree well with available experimental data, indicating that the present formulation captures the essential features of the nonadiabatic heterogeneous SHS processes and its potential for extension to describe other SHS phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malinowski, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1960-07-01
After classifying the various types of perturbations, the author attempts to explain their causes. He then gives examples of possibilities of suppressing them. (author) [French] Ayant classe les divers types de perturbations en categories, l'auteur essaie d'expliquer les causes de ces perturbations. Il donne ensuite des exemples de possibilites de les supprimer. (auteur)
A multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system for high-pressure diffusion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, Alex M.; Gülder, Ömer L. [Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T6 (Canada)
2016-05-15
Optical diagnostics and physical probing of the soot processes in high pressure combustion pose challenges that are not faced in atmospheric flames. One of the preferred methods of studying soot in atmospheric flames is in situ thermophoretic sampling followed by transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis for soot sizing and morphology. The application of this method of sampling to high pressures has been held back by various operational and mechanical problems. In this work, we describe a rotating disk multi-probe thermophoretic soot sampling system, driven by a microstepping stepper motor, fitted into a high-pressure chamber capable of producing sooting laminar diffusion flames up to 100 atm. Innovative aspects of the sampling system design include an easy and precise control of the sampling time down to 2.6 ms, avoidance of the drawbacks of the pneumatic drivers used in conventional thermophoretic sampling systems, and the capability to collect ten consecutive samples in a single experimental run. Proof of principle experiments were performed using this system in a laminar diffusion flame of methane, and primary soot diameter distributions at various pressures up to 10 atm were determined. High-speed images of the flame during thermophoretic sampling were recorded to assess the influence of probe intrusion on the flow field of the flame.
Experimental investigation of laminar LPG-H{sub 2} jet diffusion flame with preheated reactants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D.P. Mishra; P. Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering
2008-10-15
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of H{sub 2} addition on flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), flame radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission level in LPG-H{sub 2} composite fuel jet diffusion flame for two preheated cases namely, (i) preheated air and (ii) preheated air and fuel. Results show that the H{sub 2} addition leads to a reduction in flame length which may be caused due to an increased gas temperature. Besides this, the flame length is also observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature. The soot free length fraction (SFLF) increases as H{sub 2} is added to fuel stream. This might have been caused by decrease in the C/H ratio in the flame and is favorable to attenuate PAH formation rate. Interestingly, the SFLF is observed to be reduced with increasing reactants temperature that may be due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Moreover, the decreased radiant heat fraction with hydrogen addition is pertinent with the reduction in soot concentration level. The reduction in NOx emission level with H{sub 2} addition to the fuel stream is also observed. On the contrary, NOx emission level is found to be enhanced significantly with reactant temperature that can be attributed to the increase in thermal NOx through Zeldovich mechanism. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Particle Sampling and Real Time Size Distribution Measurement in H2/O2/TEOS Diffusion Flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Choi, M.; Lee, J.S.
2001-01-01
Growth characteristics of silica particles have been studied experimentally using in situ particle sampling technique from H 2 /O 2 /Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) diffusion flame with carefully devised sampling probe. The particle morphology and the size comparisons are made between the particles sampled by the local thermophoretic method from the inside of the flame and by the electrostatic collector sampling method after the dilution sampling probe. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image processed data of these two sampling techniques are compared with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurement. TEM image analysis of two sampling methods showed a good agreement with SMPS measurement. The effects of flame conditions and TEOS flow rates on silica particle size distributions are also investigated using the new particle dilution sampling probe. It is found that the particle size distribution characteristics and morphology are mostly governed by the coagulation process and sintering process in the flame. As the flame temperature increases, the effect of coalescence or sintering becomes an important particle growth mechanism which reduces the coagulation process. However, if the flame temperature is not high enough to sinter the aggregated particles then the coagulation process is a dominant particle growth mechanism. In a certain flame condition a secondary particle formation is observed which results in a bimodal particle size distribution
Propagation of intense laser radiation through a diffusion flame of burning oil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Pleshkov, V M [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2015-06-30
We report the results of measuring the absorption coefficient of radiation from a cw ytterbium fibre single-mode laser with the power up to 1.5 kW by a diffusion flame of oil, burning in the atmosphere air at normal pressure on a free surface. For the constant length (30 mm) and width (30 mm) of the flame and the distance 10 mm between the laser beam axis and the oil surface the dependence of the absorption coefficient, averaged over the flame length, on the mean radiation intensity (varied from 4.5 × 10{sup 3} to 1.2 × 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) entering the flame is obtained. The qualitative explanation of nonmonotonic behaviour of the absorption coefficient versus the intensity is presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Propagation of intense laser radiation through a diffusion flame of burning oil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Pleshkov, V M
2015-01-01
We report the results of measuring the absorption coefficient of radiation from a cw ytterbium fibre single-mode laser with the power up to 1.5 kW by a diffusion flame of oil, burning in the atmosphere air at normal pressure on a free surface. For the constant length (30 mm) and width (30 mm) of the flame and the distance 10 mm between the laser beam axis and the oil surface the dependence of the absorption coefficient, averaged over the flame length, on the mean radiation intensity (varied from 4.5 × 10 3 to 1.2 × 10 6 W cm -2 ) entering the flame is obtained. The qualitative explanation of nonmonotonic behaviour of the absorption coefficient versus the intensity is presented. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Propagation of intense laser radiation through a diffusion flame of burning oil
Gvozdev, S. V.; Glova, A. F.; Dubrovskii, V. Yu; Durmanov, S. T.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Lysikov, A. Yu; Smirnov, G. V.; Pleshkov, V. M.
2015-06-01
We report the results of measuring the absorption coefficient of radiation from a cw ytterbium fibre single-mode laser with the power up to 1.5 kW by a diffusion flame of oil, burning in the atmosphere air at normal pressure on a free surface. For the constant length (30 mm) and width (30 mm) of the flame and the distance 10 mm between the laser beam axis and the oil surface the dependence of the absorption coefficient, averaged over the flame length, on the mean radiation intensity (varied from 4.5 × 103 to 1.2 × 106 W cm-2) entering the flame is obtained. The qualitative explanation of nonmonotonic behaviour of the absorption coefficient versus the intensity is presented.
Experimental Observations on a Low Strain Counter-Flow Diffusion Flame: Flow and Bouyancy Effects
Sutula, J. A.; Torero, J. L.; Ezekoye, O. A.
1999-01-01
Diffusion flames are of great interest in fire safety and many industrial processes. The counter-flow configuration provides a constant strain flow, and therefore is ideal to study the structure of diffusion flames. Most studies have concentrated on the high velocity, high strain limit, since buoyantly induced instabilities will disintegrate the planar flame as the velocity decreases. Only recently, experimental studies in microgravity conditions have begun to explore the low strain regimes. Numerical work has shown the coupling between gas phase reaction rates, soot reaction rates, and radiation. For these programs, size, geometry and experimental conditions have been chosen to keep the flame unaffected by the physical boundaries. When the physical boundaries can not be considered infinitely far from the reaction zone discrepancies arise. A computational study that includes boundary effects and accounts for the deviations occurring when the major potential flow assumptions are relaxed was presented by Borlik et al. This development properly incorporates all heat loss terms and shows the possibility of extinction in the low strain regime. A major constraint of studying the low strain regime is buoyancy. Buoyant instabilities have been shown to have a significant effect on the nature of reactants and heat transport, and can introduce instabilities on the flow that result in phenomena such as flickering or fingering. The counter-flow configuration has been shown to provide a flame with no symmetry disrupting instabilities for inlet velocities greater than 50 mm/s. As the velocity approaches this limit, the characteristic length of the experiment has to be reduced to a few millimetres so as to keep the Rayleigh number (Ra(sub L) = (Beta)(g(sub 0))(L(exp 3) del T)/(alpha(v))) below 2000. In this work, a rectangular counter-flow burner was used to study a two-dimensional counter-flow diffusion flame. Flow visualisation and Particle Image Velocimetry served to describe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, Chae Hoon
2007-01-01
Extinction characteristics of hydrogen-air diffusion flames are investigated numerically by adopting counterflow flame configuration. At various pressures, effect of radiative heat loss on flame extinction is examined. Only gas-phase radiation is considered here. Radiative heat loss depends on flame thickness, temperature, H 2 O concentration, and pressure. From flame structures at various pressures, flame thickness decreases with pressure, but its gradient decreases at high pressure. Flame temperature and mole fraction of H 2 O increase slightly with pressure. Accordingly, as pressure increases, radiative heat loss becomes dominant. When radiative heat loss is considered, radiation-induced extinction is observed at low strain rate in addition to transport-induced extinction. As pressure increases, flammable region shifts to the high-temperature region and then, shrunk to the point on the coordinate plane of flame temperature and strain rate
Ghaderi Yeganeh, Mohammad
Global energy consumption has been increasing around the world, owing to the rapid growth of industrialization and improvements in the standard of living. As a result, more carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide are being released into the environment. Therefore, techniques for achieving combustion at reduced carbon dioxide and nitric oxide emission levels have drawn increased attention. Combustion with a highly preheated air and low-oxygen concentration has been shown to provide significant energy savings, reduce pollution and equipment size, and uniform thermal characteristics within the combustion chamber. However, the fundamental understanding of this technique is limited. The motivation of the present study is to identify the effects of preheated combustion air on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Combustion characteristics of laminar coflow diffusion flames are evaluated for the effects of preheated combustion air temperature under normal and low-gravity conditions. Experimental measurements are conducted using direct flame photography, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics. Laminar coflow diffusion flames are examined under four experimental conditions: normal-temperature/normal-gravity (case I), preheated-temperature/normal gravity (case II), normal-temperature/low-gravity (case III), and preheated-temperature/low-gravity (case IV). Comparisons between these four cases yield significant insights. In our studies, increasing the combustion air temperature by 400 K (from 300 K to 700 K), causes a 37.1% reduction in the flame length and about a 25% increase in peak flame temperature. The results also show that a 400 K increase in the preheated air temperature increases CH concentration of the flame by about 83.3% (CH is a marker for the rate of chemical reaction), and also increases the C2 concentration by about 60% (C2 is a marker for the soot precursor). It can therefore be concluded that preheating the combustion air
Wang, Yu; Park, Sungwoo; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho
2018-01-01
-alkenes through experiments and numerical simulations for counterflow diffusion flames. Soot and PAH formation tendencies of 1-alkene fuels, including ethylene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), 1-butene (1-C4H8), 1-pentene (1-C5H10), 1-hexene (1-C6H12) and 1-octene
Numerical modeling of turbulent jet diffusion flames in the atmospheric surface layer
Hernández, J.; Crespo, A.; Duijm, N.J.
1995-01-01
The evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames of natural gas in air is predicted using a finite-volume procedure for solving the flow equations. The model is three dimensional, elliptic and based on the conserved-scalar approach and the laminar flamelet concept. A laminar flamelet prescription for
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)
AbstractThe effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...
Ozone Activated Cool Diffusion Flames of Butane Isomers in a Counterflow Facility
Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz
2017-04-01
Proceeding from the aim to reduce global pollution emissions from the continuous burning of hydrocarbons stimulated by increasing energy demand, more efficient and ultra-low emissions’ combustion concepts such as the homogenous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) have been developed. These new engines rely on the low temperature chemistry (LTC) combustion concept. A detailed investigation of the properties of cool flames, governed by LTC, is essential for the design of these new engines. The primary goal of this work was to build a fundamental counterflow experiment for cool flames studies in a diffusive system, to better understand combustion in LTC engines. The project was intended to provide a basic understanding of the low-temperature reactivity and cool flames properties of butane isomers under atmospheric pressure conditions. This was achieved by establishing self-sustaining cool flames through a novel technique of ozone addition to an oxygen stream in a non-premixed counterflow model. The ignition and extinction limits of butane isomers’ cool flames have been investigated under a variety of strain rates. Results revealed that establishment of cool flames are favored at lower strain rates. Iso-butane was less reactive than n-butane by showing higher ignition and extinction limits. Ozone addition showed a significant influence on cool flame ignition and sustenance; it was found that increasing ozone concentration in the oxidizer stream dramatically increased the reactivity of both fuels. Results showed increased fuel reactivity as the temperature of the fuel stream outlet increased. 4 A numerical analysis was performed to simulate ignition and extinction of the cool flame in diffusive systems. The results revealed that ignition and extinction limits of cool flames are predominantly governed by LTC. The model qualitatively captured experimental trends for both fuels; however, it overpredicted both ignition and extinction limits under all strain rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatsuta, S. [Asahikawa National College of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Fujita, O.; Ito, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
1998-08-25
The color of laminar diffusion flames burning propane, methane and ethylene was determined by chromaticity coordinates (x, y) defined by the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric system. The differences in flame color attributed to burning condition and fuel types were examined with a colorimeter. Spectroscopic measurement and numerical analysis using a simplified radiation model were also carried out to discuss the determining factors of the flame color. The relation between x and y measured on the central axis of the flames was expressed in the experimental equations. The (x, y) in the luminous region plotted on a chromaticity diagram changed along Planckian locus with the burning conditions. The contribution of the thermal radiation of soot particles and the chemiluminescence to the flame color was successfully evaluated by introducing the concept of additive mixture of color stimuli. The (x, y) profiles from the numerical analysis agreed well with the experimental results. 17 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.
Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.
2015-01-01
With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend
Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.
2015-01-01
With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the CH* spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of CH* chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on CH* concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the CH* emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the CH* concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame CH* concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend, albeit with different peak concentrations. Comparisons with numerical simulations display reasonably good agreement between measured and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonough, J.M.; Menguc, M.P.; Mukerji, S.; Swabb, S.; Manickavasagam, S.; Ghosal, S.
1995-12-31
In this paper, we introduce a methodology to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames via chaotic maps. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames is deterministic in nature, rather than statistical. Out objective is to develop models to mimic these fluctuations. The models will be used eventually in comprehensive algorithms to study the true physics of turbulent flames and the interaction of turbulence with radiation. To this extent, we measured the time series of soot scattering coefficient in an ethylene diffusion flame from light scattering experiments. Following this, corresponding power spectra and delay maps were calculated. It was shown that if the data were averaged, the characteristics of the fluctuations were almost completely washed out. The psds from experiments were successfully modeled using a series of logistic maps.
Effect of ac electric fields on counterflow diffusion flame of methane
Chul Choi, Byung
2012-08-01
The effect of electric fields on the response of diffusion flames in a counterflow has been investigated experimentally by varying the AC voltage and frequency. The result showed that the flame was stationary with high AC frequency above the threshold frequency, and it increased with the applied voltage and then leveled off at 35 Hz. Below the threshold frequency, however, the flame oscillated with a frequency that was synchronized with the applied AC frequency. This oscillation can be attributed to the ionic wind effect due to the generation of bulk flow, which arises from the momentum transfer by molecular collisions between neutral molecules and ions, where the ions in the reaction zone were accelerated by the Lorentz force. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Effect of ac electric fields on counterflow diffusion flame of methane
Chul Choi, Byung; Kuk Kim, Hyung; Chung, Suk-Ho
2012-01-01
The effect of electric fields on the response of diffusion flames in a counterflow has been investigated experimentally by varying the AC voltage and frequency. The result showed that the flame was stationary with high AC frequency above the threshold frequency, and it increased with the applied voltage and then leveled off at 35 Hz. Below the threshold frequency, however, the flame oscillated with a frequency that was synchronized with the applied AC frequency. This oscillation can be attributed to the ionic wind effect due to the generation of bulk flow, which arises from the momentum transfer by molecular collisions between neutral molecules and ions, where the ions in the reaction zone were accelerated by the Lorentz force. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Theory of the propagation dynamics of spiral edges of diffusion flames in von Karman swirling flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urzay, Javier; Williams, Forman A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States); Nayagam, Vedha [National Center for Space Exploration Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)
2011-02-15
This analysis addresses the propagation of spiral edge flames found in von Karman swirling flows induced in rotating porous-disk burners. In this configuration, a porous disk is spun at a constant angular velocity in an otherwise quiescent oxidizing atmosphere. Gaseous methane is injected through the disk pores and burns in a flat diffusion flame adjacent to the disk. Among other flame patterns experimentally found, a stable, rotating spiral flame is observed for sufficiently large rotation velocities and small fuel flow rates as a result of partial extinction of the underlying diffusion flame. The tip of the spiral can undergo a steady rotation for sufficiently large rotational velocities or small fuel flow rates, whereas a meandering tip in an epicycloidal trajectory is observed for smaller rotational velocities and larger fuel flow rates. A formulation of this problem is presented in the equidiffusional and thermodiffusive limits within the framework of one-step chemistry with large activation energies. Edge-flame propagation regimes are obtained by scaling analyses of the conservation equations and exemplified by numerical simulations of straight two-dimensional edge flames near a cold porous wall, for which lateral heat losses to the disk and large strains induce extinction of the trailing diffusion flame but are relatively unimportant in the front region, consistent with the existence of the cooling tail found in the experiments. The propagation dynamics of a steadily rotating spiral edge is studied in the large-core limit, for which the characteristic Markstein length is much smaller than the distance from the center at which the spiral tip is anchored. An asymptotic description of the edge tangential structure is obtained, spiral edge shapes are calculated, and an expression is found that relates the spiral rotational velocity to the rest of the parameters. A quasiestatic stability analysis of the edge shows that the edge curvature at extinction in the tip
Characterization of bluff-body stabilized LPG jet diffusion flame with N{sub 2} dilution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, P.; Mishra, D.P. [Combustion Lab, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016 (India)
2008-10-15
Measurements of several parameters like flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission levels are performed in coaxial LPG jet diffusion flame to provide an insight into the effect of lip thickness and inert addition on flame characteristics. The present measurements reveal that the visible flame length is found to be reduced with increase in lip thickness. In contrast, the flame length for all lip thicknesses gets enhanced by inert addition to the fuel stream, which can be attributed to the reduced diffusivity of the mixture gases. The SFLF is seen to be enhanced with N{sub 2} addition due to decrease in the fuel concentration and flame temperature. However, the SFLF is reduced with increasing lip thickness of the bluff-body which is caused due to the reduction in induction period of soot formation. For all lip thickness, the NO{sub x} emission level is observed to be attenuated with inert (N{sub 2}) addition, which can be ascribed to reduction in residence time of gas mixture. Besides this, NO{sub x} emission level is enhanced with increasing lip thickness. The emission index of CO is found to be increased with nitrogen addition; in contrast, the EICO{sub 2} is seen to be reduced, for all lip thickness. This can be attributed to attrition in residence time with inert addition that tends to inhibit the conversion of CO to CO{sub 2}. Moreover, EICO is also observed to be attenuated while EICO{sub 2} gets enhanced, with increasing lip thickness which might be due to the increased residence time of mixture gases. (author)
Characterization of bluff-body stabilized LPG jet diffusion flame with N2 dilution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, P.; Mishra, D.P.
2008-01-01
Measurements of several parameters like flame length, soot free length fraction (SFLF), radiant fraction, gas temperature and emission levels are performed in coaxial LPG jet diffusion flame to provide an insight into the effect of lip thickness and inert addition on flame characteristics. The present measurements reveal that the visible flame length is found to be reduced with increase in lip thickness. In contrast, the flame length for all lip thicknesses gets enhanced by inert addition to the fuel stream, which can be attributed to the reduced diffusivity of the mixture gases. The SFLF is seen to be enhanced with N 2 addition due to decrease in the fuel concentration and flame temperature. However, the SFLF is reduced with increasing lip thickness of the bluff-body which is caused due to the reduction in induction period of soot formation. For all lip thickness, the NO x emission level is observed to be attenuated with inert (N 2 ) addition, which can be ascribed to reduction in residence time of gas mixture. Besides this, NO x emission level is enhanced with increasing lip thickness. The emission index of CO is found to be increased with nitrogen addition; in contrast, the EICO 2 is seen to be reduced, for all lip thickness. This can be attributed to attrition in residence time with inert addition that tends to inhibit the conversion of CO to CO 2 . Moreover, EICO is also observed to be attenuated while EICO 2 gets enhanced, with increasing lip thickness which might be due to the increased residence time of mixture gases
A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames
Wang, Yu
2013-09-01
A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B
2012-04-30
The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the {approx}10{sup 3} - 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} W cm{sup -2} range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yuenong; Smooke, M.D.
1993-01-01
In this paper we present a primitive variable Newton-based solution method with a block-line linear equation solver for the calculation of reacting flows. The present approach is compared with the stream function-vorticity Newton's method and the SIMPLER algorithm on the calculation of a system of fully elliptic equations governing an axisymmetric methane-air laminar diffusion flame. The chemical reaction is modeled by the flame sheet approximation. The numerical solution agrees well with experimental data in the major chemical species. The comparison of three sets of numerical results indicates that the stream function-vorticity solution using the approximate boundary conditions reported in the previous calculations predicts a longer flame length and a broader flame shape. With a new set of modified vorticity boundary conditions, we obtain agreement between the primitive variable and stream function-vorticity solutions. The primitive variable Newton's method converges much faster than the other two methods. Because of much less computer memory required for the block-line tridiagonal solver compared to a direct solver, the present approach makes it possible to calculate multidimensional flames with detailed reaction mechanisms. The SIMPLER algorithm shows a slow convergence rate compared to the other two methods in the present calculation
NO emission characteristics in counterflow diffusion flame of blended fuel of H2/CO2/Ar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong Park; Kyunghwan Lee; Keeman Lee
2002-01-01
Flame structure and NO emission characteristics in counterflow diffusion flame of blended fuel of H 2 /CO 2 /Ar have been numerically simulated with detailed chemistry. The combination of H 2 , CO 2 and Ar as fuel is selected to clearly display the contribution of hydrocarbon products to flame structure and NO emission characteristics due to the breakdown of CO 2 . A radiative heat loss term is involved to correctly describe the flame dynamics especially at low strain rates. The detailed chemistry adopts the reaction mechanism of GRI 2.11, which consists of 49 species and 279 elementary reactions. All mechanisms including thermal, NO 2 , N 2 O and Fenimore are taken into account to separately evaluate the effects of CO 2 addition on NO emission characteristics. The increase of added CO 2 quantity causes flame temperature to fall since at high strain rates a diluent effect is prevailing and at low strain rates the breakdown of CO 2 produces relatively populous hydrocarbon products and thus the existence of hydrocarbon products inhibits chain branching. It is also found that the contribution of NO production by N 2 O and NO 2 mechanisms are negligible and that thermal mechanism is concentrated on only the reaction zone. As strain rate and CO 2 quantity increase, NO production is remarkably augmented. (Author)
Bisetti, Fabrizio; El Morsli, Mbark
2012-01-01
Simulations of ion and electron transport in flames routinely adopt plasma fluid models, which require transport coefficients to compute the mass flux of charged species. In this work, the mobility and diffusion coefficient of thermal electrons
Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam; Zhang, Ji; Fang, Tiegang; Roberts, William L.
2014-01-01
Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both
Influence of thermal radiation on soot production in Laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demarco, R.; Nmira, F.; Consalvi, J.L.
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of radiative heat transfer on soot production in laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames. Twenty-four C 1 –C 3 hydrocarbon–air flames, consisting of normal (NDF) and inverse (IDF) diffusion flames at both normal gravity (1 g) and microgravity (0 g), and covering a wide range of conditions affecting radiative heat transfer, were simulated. The numerical model is based on the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model, a semi-empirical two-equation acetylene/benzene based soot model and the Statistical Narrow Band Correlated K (SNBCK) model coupled to the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to compute thermal radiation. Predictions relative to velocity, temperature, soot volume fraction and radiative losses are on the whole in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that, for all the flames considered, thermal radiation is a crucial process with a view to providing accurate predictions for temperatures and soot concentrations. It becomes increasingly significant from IDFs to NDFs and its influence is much greater as gravity is reduced. The radiative contribution of gas prevails in the weakly-sooting IDFs and in the methane and ethane NDFs, whereas soot radiation dominates in the other flames. However, both contributions are significant in all cases, with the exception of the 1 g IDFs investigated where soot radiation can be ignored. The optically-thin approximation (OTA) was also tested and found to be applicable as long as the optical thickness, based on flame radius and Planck mean absorption coefficient, is less than 0.05. The OTA is reasonable for the IDFs and for most of the 1 g NDFs, but it fails to predict the radiative heat transfer for the 0 g NDFs. The accuracy of radiative-property models was then assessed in the latter cases. Simulations show that the gray approximation can be applied to soot but not to combustion gases. Both the non-gray and gray soot versions of the Full Spectrum Correlated
Effect of H2 addition on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Gan, Lu; Ji, Xuanyu; Wang, Hu; Guo, Qiang; Song, Decai; Ji, Pengyu
2015-01-01
Highlights: • DME- and H 2 -dominated combustion regimes were quantitatively characterized. • The flame structure changed significantly when H 2 addition was above 60 vol.%. • An empirical correlation for normalized flame entrainment rate was developed. • The optimal H 2 addition to DME was 60 vol.% in the practical engineering. - Abstract: In this paper, experiments and numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the effect of H 2 addition on dimethyl ether (DME) jet diffusion flame behaviors, in terms of thermal and chemical structures, reaction zone size, flame entrainment, and NOx and CO emission indices. A wide range of H 2 additions from pure DME to pure H 2 were involved herein, while maintaining the volumetric flow rate of fuel mixture constant. The results indicate that when H 2 mole fraction in the fuel mixture exceeded 60%, the blended fuel was converted to H 2 -dominated. Besides, the flames behaved rather distinctly at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. With the increment in H 2 addition, flame temperature, H 2 , H, O, and OH concentrations increased gradually, but concentrations of the intermediate hydrocarbons (such as CO, CH 2 O, CH 2 , and CH 3 ) decreased on the contrary. Additionally, after the flame became H 2 -dominated, the species concentrations varied increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. The reaction zone length and width decreased nearly linearly with H 2 addition at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. But the decreasing speed of reaction zone length became faster after the flame was converted to H 2 -dominated. At the DME-dominated regime, the dependence of flame entrainment coefficient (C e ) on H 2 addition was rather small. While at the H 2 -dominated regime, C e increased increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. Moreover, with the increment in H 2 addition, NOx emission index increased and CO emission index decreased gradually. In addition, at the DME-dominated regime, NOx emission index increased fairly slowly
Effects of N2 gas on preheated laminar LPG jet diffusion flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, D.P.; Kumar, P.
2010-01-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the inert gas effect on flame length, NO x and soot free length fraction (SFLF) in a laminar LPG diffusion flame. Besides this, flame radiant fraction and temperature are also measured to explain observed NO x emission and SFLF. The inert is added to both air and fuel stream at each base line condition by maintaining a constant mass flow rate in each stream. Results indicate that inert addition leads to a significant enhancement in flame length for air-diluted stream than fuel-diluted stream. However, the flame length is observed to reduce with increasing reactant temperature. It is also observed that the SFLF increases with addition of N 2 for fuel-diluted stream. In contrast, SFLF remains almost constant when N 2 is added to air stream. The decrease in fuel concentration and gas temperature caused by inert addition leads to reduction in soot volume fraction and hence enhances SFLF. Interestingly, the SFLF reduces with increasing reactant temperature, due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Besides this, the reduction in NO x emission level with inert addition is also observed. For all the three cases, the air dilution proved to be much efficient in reducing NO x emission level as compared to fuel dilution. This can be attributed to the differences in reduced gas temperature and residence time between air and fuel-diluted streams. On the contrary, NO x emission level enhances significantly with increasing reactant temperature as a result of increase in thermal NO x through Zeldovich mechanism.
Effects of N{sub 2} gas on preheated laminar LPG jet diffusion flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, D.P.; Kumar, P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)
2010-11-15
This paper presents an experimental investigation of the inert gas effect on flame length, NO{sub x} and soot free length fraction (SFLF) in a laminar LPG diffusion flame. Besides this, flame radiant fraction and temperature are also measured to explain observed NO{sub x} emission and SFLF. The inert is added to both air and fuel stream at each base line condition by maintaining a constant mass flow rate in each stream. Results indicate that inert addition leads to a significant enhancement in flame length for air-diluted stream than fuel-diluted stream. However, the flame length is observed to reduce with increasing reactant temperature. It is also observed that the SFLF increases with addition of N{sub 2} for fuel-diluted stream. In contrast, SFLF remains almost constant when N{sub 2} is added to air stream. The decrease in fuel concentration and gas temperature caused by inert addition leads to reduction in soot volume fraction and hence enhances SFLF. Interestingly, the SFLF reduces with increasing reactant temperature, due to reduction in induction period of soot formation caused by enhanced flame temperature. Besides this, the reduction in NO{sub x} emission level with inert addition is also observed. For all the three cases, the air dilution proved to be much efficient in reducing NO{sub x} emission level as compared to fuel dilution. This can be attributed to the differences in reduced gas temperature and residence time between air and fuel-diluted streams. On the contrary, NO{sub x} emission level enhances significantly with increasing reactant temperature as a result of increase in thermal NO{sub x} through Zeldovich mechanism. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amal S. Zakhary
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Catalytic combustion of stabilized confined turbulent gaseous diffusion flames using Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 disc burners situated in the combustion domain under both fuel-rich and fuel-lean conditions was experimentally studied. Commercial LPG fuel having an average composition of: 23% propane, 76% butane, and 1% pentane was used. The thermal structure of these catalytic flames developed over Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 burners were examined via measuring the mean temperature distribution in the radial direction at different axial locations along the flames. Under-fuel-rich condition the flames operated over Pt catalytic disc attained high temperature values in order to express the progress of combustion and were found to achieve higher activity as compared to the flames developed over Pd catalytic disc. These two types of catalytic flames demonstrated an increase in the reaction rate with the downstream axial distance and hence, an increase in the flame temperatures was associated with partial oxidation towards CO due to the lack of oxygen. However, under fuel-lean conditions the catalytic flame over Pd catalyst recorded comparatively higher temperatures within the flame core in the near region of the main reaction zone than over Pt disc burner. These two catalytic flames over Pt and Pd disc burners showed complete oxidation to CO2 since the catalytic surface is covered by more rich oxygen under the fuel-lean condition.
Connelly, Blair C.
In order to reduce the emission of pollutants such as soot and NO x from combustion systems, a detailed understanding of pollutant formation is required. In addition to environmental concerns, this is important for a fundamental understanding of flame behavior as significant quantities of soot lower local flame temperatures, increase overall flame length and affect the formation of such temperature-dependent species as NOx. This problem is investigated by carrying out coupled computational and experimental studies of steady and time-varying sooting, coflow diffusion flames. Optical diagnostic techniques are a powerful tool for characterizing combustion systems, as they provide a noninvasive method of probing the environment. Laser diagnostic techniques have added advantages, as systems can be probed with high spectral, temporal and spatial resolution, and with species selectivity. Experimental soot volume fractions were determined by using two-dimensional laser-induced incandescence (LII), calibrated with an on-line extinction measurement, and soot pyrometry. Measurements of soot particle size distributions are made using time-resolved LII (TR-LII). Laser-induced fluorescence measurements are made of NO and formaldehyde. These experimental measurements, and others, are compared with computational results in an effort to understand and model soot formation and to examine the coupled relationship of soot and NO x formation.
Choi, Byungchul
2011-03-26
Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar diffusion flames were performed to identify the effect of fuel mixing on soot formation in a counterflow burner. In this experiment, the volume fraction, number density, and particle size of soot were investigated using light extinction/scattering systems. The experimental results showed that the synergistic effect of an ethylene-propane flame is appreciable. Numerical simulations showed that the benzene (C6H6) concentration in mixture flames was higher than in ethylene-base flames because of the increase in the concentration of propargyl radicals. Methyl radicals were found to play an important role in the formation of propargyl, and the recombination of propargyl with benzene was found to lead to an increase in the number density for cases exhibiting synergistic effects. These results imply that methyl radicals play an important role in soot formation, particularly with regard to the number density. © 2011 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Soot particle size measurements in ethylene diffusion flames at elevated pressures
Steinmetz, Scott
2016-05-07
Soot particle size is investigated in laminar nitrogen-diluted ethylene coflow diffusion flames at 4, 8, 12 and 16 atm. Line of sight attenuation and scattering are used to measure two-dimensional soot volume fraction and particle size fields for the first time at elevated pressures. Soot volume fraction dependence on pressure is consistent with the observations of similar studies, scaling approximately with the square of pressure. Scattering intensity is analyzed through Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans polydisperse fractal aggregate theories to provide two estimates of particle size. An increase in overall particle sizes with pressure is found, consistent with similar one-dimensional studies. Particle diameters in the annulus of the flame increase faster with pressure than those on centerline. Contrary to previous studies, the dependence of particle size on pressure was found to taper off between 8 and 12 atm, with little observed growth beyond 12 atm. The measurements provide additional data for one of the International Sooting Flame (ISF) workshop\\'s target pressurized flames.
Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane
Hong, Jongsup
2013-03-01
A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the
Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2015-01-01
Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV
Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2015-10-29
Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV
A perturbational h4 exponential finite difference scheme for the convective diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, G.Q.; Gao, Z.; Yang, Z.F.
1993-01-01
A perturbational h 4 compact exponential finite difference scheme with diagonally dominant coefficient matrix and upwind effect is developed for the convective diffusion equation. Perturbations of second order are exerted on the convective coefficients and source term of an h 2 exponential finite difference scheme proposed in this paper based on a transformation to eliminate the upwind effect of the convective diffusion equation. Four numerical examples including one- to three-dimensional model equations of fluid flow and a problem of natural convective heat transfer are given to illustrate the excellent behavior of the present exponential schemes. Besides, the h 4 accuracy of the perturbational scheme is verified using double precision arithmetic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. D. Gopalakrishnan
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Numerical investigation of laminar diffusion flames established on a flat plate in a parallel air stream is presented. A numerical model with a multi-step chemical kinetics mechanism, variable thermo-physical properties, multi-component species diffusion and a radiation sub-model is employed for this purpose. Both upward and downward injection of fuel has been considered in a normal gravity environment. The thermal and aerodynamic structure of the flame has been explained with the help of temperature and species contours, net reaction rate of fuel and streamlines. Flame characteristics and stability aspects for several air and fuel velocity combinations have been studied. An important characteristic of a laminar boundary layer diffusion flame with upward injection of fuel is the velocity overshoot that occurs near the flame zone. This is not observed when the fuel is injected in the downward direction. The flame standoff distance is slightly higher for the downward injection of fuel due to increase in displacement thickness of boundary layer. Influence of an obstacle, namely the backward facing step, on the flame characteristics and stability aspects is also investigated. Effects of air and fuel velocities, size and location of the step are studied in detail. Based on the air and fuel velocities, different types of flames are predicted. The use of a backward-facing step as a flame holding mechanism for upward injection of fuel, results in increased stability limits due to the formation of a recirculation zone behind the step. The predicted stability limits match with experimentally observed limits. The step location is seen to play a more important role as compared to the step height in influencing the stability aspects of flames.
Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min
2016-01-01
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Xiong, Yuan
2016-06-24
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Analysis of Diffusion Problems using Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Poor, A. Tahmasebi; Jorjani, A.
2010-01-01
In this paper, variational iteration method and homotopy perturbation method are applied to different forms of diffusion equation. The diffusion equations have found wide applications in heat transfer problems, theory of consolidation and many other problems in engineering. The methods proposed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, A.V.; Yu, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Bryden, K.M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Acoustic spectral characteristics independent of equivalence ratio and flow velocity. • Combustion noise dependent on global equivalence ratio and flow velocity. • Increased global equivalence ratio decreased the frequency of peak. • Decay and growth coefficients largely independent of different flow conditions. • Acoustic radiation coherent up to 1.5 kHz for spatially separated microphones. - Abstract: Next generation of combustors are expected to provide significant improvement on efficiency and reduced pollutants emission. In such combustors, the challenges of local flow, pressure, chemical composition and thermal signatures as well as their interactions will require detailed investigation for seeking optimum performance. Sensor networks with a large number of sensors will be employed in future smart combustors, which will allow one to obtain fast and comprehensive information on the various ongoing processes within the system. In this paper sensor networks with specific focus on an array of homogeneous microphones are used examine the spectral characteristics of combustion noise from a non-premixed combustor. A non-premixed double concentric swirl-flame burner was used. Noise spectra were determined experimentally for the non-premixed swirl flame at various fuel–air ratios using an array of homogeneous condenser microphones. Multiple microphones positioned at discrete locations around the turbulent diffusion flame, provided an understanding of the total sound power and their spectral characteristics. The growth and decay coefficients of total sound power were investigated at different test conditions. The signal coherence between different microphone pairs was also carried out to determine the acoustic behavior of a swirl stabilized turbulent diffusion flame. The localization of acoustic sources from the multiple microphones was examined using the noise spectra. The results revealed that integration of multiple sensors in combustors
Influence of thermal radiation on soot production in Laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames
Demarco, R.; Nmira, F.; Consalvi, J. L.
2013-05-01
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of radiative heat transfer on soot production in laminar axisymmetric diffusion flames. Twenty-four C1-C3 hydrocarbon-air flames, consisting of normal (NDF) and inverse (IDF) diffusion flames at both normal gravity (1 g) and microgravity (0 g), and covering a wide range of conditions affecting radiative heat transfer, were simulated. The numerical model is based on the Steady Laminar Flamelet (SLF) model, a semi-empirical two-equation acetylene/benzene based soot model and the Statistical Narrow Band Correlated K (SNBCK) model coupled to the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to compute thermal radiation. Predictions relative to velocity, temperature, soot volume fraction and radiative losses are on the whole in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that, for all the flames considered, thermal radiation is a crucial process with a view to providing accurate predictions for temperatures and soot concentrations. It becomes increasingly significant from IDFs to NDFs and its influence is much greater as gravity is reduced. The radiative contribution of gas prevails in the weakly-sooting IDFs and in the methane and ethane NDFs, whereas soot radiation dominates in the other flames. However, both contributions are significant in all cases, with the exception of the 1 g IDFs investigated where soot radiation can be ignored. The optically-thin approximation (OTA) was also tested and found to be applicable as long as the optical thickness, based on flame radius and Planck mean absorption coefficient, is less than 0.05. The OTA is reasonable for the IDFs and for most of the 1 g NDFs, but it fails to predict the radiative heat transfer for the 0 g NDFs. The accuracy of radiative-property models was then assessed in the latter cases. Simulations show that the gray approximation can be applied to soot but not to combustion gases. Both the non-gray and gray soot versions of the Full Spectrum Correlated k (FSCK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Praveen Pandey
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Residence time and thermo-chemical environment are important factors in the soot-formation process in flames. Studies have revealed that flow-dynamics plays a dominant role in soot formation process. For understanding the effect of flow dynamics on soot formation and physical structure of the soot formed in different combustion environments two types of laminar diffusion flames of Acetylene and air, a normal diffusion flame (NDF and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF have been investigated. The fuel and air supply in the reaction zone in two flame types were kept constant but the interchange of relative position of fuel and air altered the burner exit Reynolds and Froude numbers of gases, fuel/air velocity ratio and flame shape. Soot samples were collected using thermophoretic sampling on transmission electron microscope (TEM grids at different flame heights and were analyzed off-line in a Transmission Electron Microscope. Soot primary particle size, soot aggregate size and soot volume fraction were measured using an image analysis software. In NDF the maximum flame temperature was about 1525 K and 1230 K for IDF. The soot primary particles are distinctly smaller in size in IDF (between 19 – 26 nm compared to NDF (between 29–34 nm. Both NDF and IDF show chainlike branched structure of soot agglomerate with soot particles of a nearly spherical shape. The average number of soot primary particles per aggregate in NDF was in the range of 24 to 40 and in IDF it varied between 16 to 24. Soot volume fraction was between 0.6 to 1.5 ppm in NDF where as it was less than 0.2 ppm in IDF. The change in sooting characteristics of the two flame types is attributed to changed fuel/air velocity ratio, entrainment of gas molecules and thermophoresis on soot particles.
Goh, Sien Fong
An experimental and numerical study of a turbulent smoke point diffusion flame in a quiescent and cross-flow condition was performed. The fuel mass flow rate of a turbulent smoke point flame was determined at a quiescent condition and in cross-flow with velocity ranging from 2 to 4 m/s. This fuel mass flow rate is defined as the Critical Fuel Mass Flow Rate (CFMFR). At a fuel mass flow rate below the CFMFR the flame produces smoke. In the dilution study, an amount of inert gas (nitrogen) was added to the fuel stream to achieve the smoke point condition for ten different fractions of CFMFR. From this dilution study, three regions were defined, the chemically-dominated region, transition region, and momentum-dominated region. The first objective of this study was to determine the factors behind the distinction of these three regions. The second objective was to understand the effect of cross-flow velocity on the smoke point flame structure. The flame temperature, radiation, geometrical dimension of flame, velocity, and global emissions and in-flame species concentration were measured. The third objective was to study a numerical model that can simulate the turbulent smoke point flame structure. The dilution study showed that the flames in quiescent condition and in the 3.5 and 4 m/s cross-flow condition had the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 20% CFMFR, the transition region at 20% to 40% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 40% to 100% CFMFR. On the other hand, the flame in cross-flow of 2 to 3 m/s showed the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 10% CFMFR, the transition region at 10% to 30% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 30% to 100% CFMFR. The chemically-dominated flame had a sharp dual-peak structure for the flame temperature, CO2 and NO concentration profiles at 25% and 50% flame length. However, the momentum-dominated region flame exhibited a dual peak structure only at 25% flame length. The decrease of flow rate from 30% to 10% CFMFR
Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames
Moshammer, Kai
2016-10-17
This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.
Multiple-diffusion flame synthesis of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Memon, Nasir
2013-09-01
A multi-element diffusion flame burner (MEDB) is useful in the study of flame synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, the growth of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2) using an MEDB is demonstrated. Hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar) are utilized to establish the flame, whereas titanium tetraisopropoxide is used as the precursor for TiO2. The nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, with elemental mapping (of C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The growth of pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles occurs when Ar and H2 are used as the precursor carrier gas, while the growth of carbon-coated nanoparticles ensues when Ar and ethylene (C2H4) are used as the precursor carrier gas. A uniform coating of 3-5nm of carbon is observed around TiO2 particles. The growth of highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles is dependent on the gas flow rate of the precursor carrier and amorphous particles are observed at high flow rates. Carbon coating occurs only on crystalline nanoparticles, suggesting a possible growth mechanism of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Aromatic ring formation in opposed-flow diffusive 1,3-butadiene flames
Moshammer, Kai; Seidel, Lars; Wang, Yu; Selim, Hatem; Sarathy, Mani; Mauss, Fabian; Hansen, Nils
2016-01-01
This paper is concerned with the formation of one- and two-ring aromatic species in near atmospheric-pressure opposed-flow diffusion flames of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-CH). The chemical structures of two different 1,3-CH/Ar-O/Ar flames were explored using flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry with both electron and single-photon ionization. We provide mole fraction profiles of 47 components as function of distance from the fuel outlet and compare them to chemically detailed modeling results. To this end, the hierarchically developed model described by Seidel et al. [16] has been updated to accurately comprise the chemistry of 1,3-butadiene. Generally a very good agreement is observed between the experimental and modeling data, allowing for a meaningful reaction path analysis. With regard to the formation of aromatic species up to naphthalene, it was essential to improve the fulvene and the C chemistry description in the mechanism. In particular, benzene is found to be formed mainly via fulvene through the reactions of the CH isomers with CH The n-CH radical reacts with CH forming 1,3-pentadiene (CH), which is subsequently oxidized to form the naphthalene precursor cyclopentadienyl (CH). Oxidation of naphthalene is predicted to be a contributor to the formation of phenylacetylene (CH), indicating that consumption reactions can be of similar importance as molecular growth reactions.
Soot formation characteristics of gasoline surrogate fuels in counterflow diffusion flames
Choi, Byungchul
2011-01-01
The characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot for gasoline surrogate fuels have been investigated in counterflow diffusion flames by adopting laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques for both soot formation and soot formation/oxidation flames. Tested fuels were three binary mixtures from the primary reference fuels of n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene. The result showed that PAH and soot maintained near zero level for all mixtures of n-heptane/iso-octane case under present experimental conditions. For n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene mixtures, PAH initially increased and then decreased with the toluene ratio, exhibiting a synergistic effect. The soot formation increased monotonically with the toluene ratio, however the effect of toluene on soot formation was minimal for relatively small toluene ratios. These results implied that even though toluene had a dominant role in soot and PAH formations, small amount of toluene had a minimal effect on soot formation. Numerical simulations have also been conducted by adopting recently proposed two kinetic mechanisms. The synergistic behavior of aromatic rings was predicted similar to the experimental PAH measurement, however, the degree of the synergistic effect was over-predicted for the soot formation flame, indicating the need for refinements in the kinetic mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.
Pollutant emission and noise radiation from open and impinging inverse diffusion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choy, Y.S.; Zhen, H.S.; Leung, C.W.; Li, H.B.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The effect of burner geometry (d air and S) on inverse diffusion flames is studied. ► With fixed air/fuel supplies, a smaller d air curtails NO x emission but augments noise radiation. ► With fixed air/fuel supplies, a larger S reduces NO x emission but increases noise radiation. ► Both NO x emission and noise radiation are maximum under stoichiometric combustion. ► Impinging flames are nosier than corresponding open flames due to the mirror effect of the plate. -- Abstract: This paper reports an experimental investigation of the pollutant emission and noise radiation characteristics of both open and impinging inverse diffusion flames (IDFs), produced by five burners of different air port diameter (d air = 5, 6 and 6.84 mm) and air-to-fuel spacing (S = 8, 11.5 and 15 mm). The effects of d air , S, overall equivalence ratio φ and nozzle-to-plate spacing H on the pollutant emissions of CO and NO x and the noise radiation are examined. The results show that at fixed air flow rate, a smaller d air curtails NO x emission but augments noise radiation, indicative of a role played by turbulence, which tends to decrease pollutant emission and increase noise radiation. A larger S reduces NO x emission but increases noise radiation, indicating that different flame zones may be responsible for pollutant emission and noise radiation. When the IDF is under stoichiometric φ = 1.6, both the NO x emission and noise radiation are highest, as a result of maximum heat release rate. A comparison of EINO x for the open and impinging IDFs shows that the impinging IDFs emit more NO x probably due to the absence of NO reburning. The impinging IDFs have higher noise radiation than the corresponding open IDFs. A higher level of noise radiation from the impinging IDFs is observed as the target plate is brought closer to the burner.
Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao
2012-04-01
We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)
Charge-induced secondary atomization in diffusion flames of electrostatic sprays
Gomez, Alessandro; Chen, Gung
1994-01-01
The combustion of electrostatic sprays of heptane in laminar counterflow diffusion flames was experimentally studied by measuring droplet size and velocity distributions, as well as the gas-phase temperature. A detailed examination of the evolution of droplet size distribution as droplets approach the flame shows that, if substantial evaporation occurs before droplets interact with the flame, an initially monodisperse size distribution becomes bimodal. A secondary sharp peak in the size histogram develops in correspondence of diameters about one order of magnitude smaller than the mean. No evaporation mechanism can account for the development of such bimodality, that can be explained only in terms of a disintegration of droplets into finer fragments of size much smaller than that of the parent. Other evidence in support of this interpretation is offered by the measurements of droplet size-velocity correlation and velocity component distributions, showing that, as a consequence of the ejection process, the droplets responsible for the secondary peak have velocities uncorrelated with the mean flow. The fission is induced by the electric charge. When a droplet evaporates, in fact, the electric charge density on the droplet surface increases while the droplet shrinks, until the so-called Rayleigh limit is reached at which point the repulsion of electric charges overcomes the surface tension cohesive force, ultimately leading to a disintegraton into finer fragments. We report on the first observation of such fissions in combustion environments. If, on the other hand, insufficient evaporation has occurred before droplets enter the high temperature region, there appears to be no significant evidence of bimodality in their size distribution. In this case, in fact, the concentration of flame chemi-ions or, in the case of positively charged droplets, electrons may be sufficient for them to neutralize the charge on the droplets and to prevent disruption.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdul-Sater, Hassan; Krishnamoorthy, Gautham
2013-01-01
Twenty four, laboratory scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion oxy-methane flames were simulated employing different radiation modeling options and their predictions compared against experimental measurements of: temperature, flame length and radiant fraction. The models employed were: gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model, non-adiabatic extension of the equilibrium based mixture fraction model and investigations into the effects of: the thermal boundary conditions, soot and turbulence radiation interactions (TRI). Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Flame lengths determined through the axial profiles of OH confirmed with the experimental trends by increasing with increase in fuel-inlet Reynolds numbers and decreasing with the increase in O 2 composition in oxidizer. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. There were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The inclusion of soot model and TRI model did not affect our predictions as a result of low soot volume fractions and the radiation emission enhancement to the temperature fluctuations being localized to the flame sheet. -- Highlights: • Twenty four, lab scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion, oxy-methane flames were simulated. • Equilibrium model adequately predicted the temperature and flame lengths. • The experimental trends in radiant fractions were replicated. • Gray and non-gray model differences in radiant fractions were amplified at low Re. • Inclusion of soot and TRI models did not affect our predictions
Effect of pointed and diffused air injection on premixed flame confined in a Rijke tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilaj N. Deshmukh
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The coupling between pressure fluctuations and unsteady heat release in a combustion systems results in acoustic oscillations inside the combustion system. These acoustic oscillations, when grow sufficiently, may cause serious structural damage thereby reducing the lifespan of jet engines, gas turbines, and industrial burners. The aim of the first part of study is to define acoustically stable and unstable regions. The second part is focused on studying the effect of change in pressure field near the flame on the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations of instability. This study is carried out for three-burner positions and equivalence ratio of 0.7 by varying heat supply and total flow rate. The results show two acoustically unstable regions for 0.1 and 0.2 burner positions and only one acoustically unstable region for 0.25 burner position. The effect of pointed injection and diffused injection over a premixed flame on the sound pressure level was studied. The results show for burner position of x/L = 0.2 there is 25 dB suppression is possible using pointed injection at higher total flow rate. The experiment of diffused injection shows sound amplification more than 12 dB was observed.
Simulation of Electron and Ion Transport in Methane-Air Counterflow Diffusion Flames
Choi, Sangkyu; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Chung, Suk Ho
2010-11-01
The spatial distribution of charged species in a methane-air counterflow diffusion flame is simulated with a detailed ion chemistry. The electric field induced by the distribution of charged species is calculated and compared to that obtained invoking the ambipolar diffusion assumption. The two calculations showed identical profiles for charged species and electric field. The profiles of ion mole fractions show two peaks: one near the maximum temperature and a second peak on the oxidizer side. The major ions near the maximum temperature are electron, C2H3O+ and H3O+. CHO3- and H3O+ contribute to the second peak. These profiles are quite different from those adopting a simplified three-step mechanism based solely on E-, CHO+ and H3O+, which shows only a single peak. Reaction pathway analyses showed that near the flame region, the proton is transferred by the path of CHO+ -> H3O+ -> C2H3O+ -> CHO+ in a circulating manner. In the second peak, CHO3- is produced though the pathway of E- -> O- -> OH- -> CHO3-. The sensitivity of the charged species profiles to transport properties is investigated, and it is found that the variation of charged species profiles near peak temperature is relatively small, while on the oxidizer side, it is quite sensitive to transport properties.
Fuel density effect on near nozzle flow field in small laminar coflow diffusion flames
Xiong, Yuan
2015-01-01
Flow characteristics in small coflow diffusion flames were investigated with a particular focus on the near-nozzle region and on the buoyancy force exerted on fuels with densities lighter and heavier than air (methane, ethylene, propane, and n-butane). The flow-fields were visualized through the trajectories of seed particles. The particle image velocimetry technique was also adopted for quantitative velocity field measurements. The results showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle, emphasizing the importance of the relative density of the fuel to that of the air on the flow-field. Nozzle heating influenced the near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels (methane and ethylene). Numerical simulations were also conducted, focusing specifically on the effect of specifying inlet boundary conditions for fuel. The results showed that a fuel inlet boundary with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to permit satisfactory prediction of the flow-field. The calculated temperature fields also indicated the importance of the selection of the location of the inlet boundary, especially in testing various combustion models that include soot in small coflow diffusion flames. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matti Maricq, M. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)
2011-01-15
Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)
Numerical Solutions of Singularly Perturbed Reaction Diffusion Equation with Sobolev Gradients
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Nauman Raza
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Critical points related to the singular perturbed reaction diffusion models are calculated using weighted Sobolev gradient method in finite element setting. Performance of different Sobolev gradients has been discussed for varying diffusion coefficient values. A comparison is shown between the weighted and unweighted Sobolev gradients in two and three dimensions. The superiority of the method is also demonstrated by showing comparison with Newton's method.
Bisetti, Fabrizio
2012-12-01
Simulations of ion and electron transport in flames routinely adopt plasma fluid models, which require transport coefficients to compute the mass flux of charged species. In this work, the mobility and diffusion coefficient of thermal electrons in atmospheric premixed methane/air flames are calculated and analyzed. The electron mobility is highest in the unburnt region, decreasing more than threefold across the flame due to mixture composition effects related to the presence of water vapor. Mobility is found to be largely independent of equivalence ratio and approximately equal to 0.4m 2V -1s -1 in the reaction zone and burnt region. The methodology and results presented enable accurate and computationally inexpensive calculations of transport properties of thermal electrons for use in numerical simulations of charged species transport in flames. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.
Experimental Characterization of Soot Formation in Diffusion Flames and Explosive Fireballs
2012-04-01
profiles for the opposed jet burner using Unicorn and Chemkin Pro, ethylene/air flame, Wang-Colket mechanism. .............................33 Figure...35 Figure 31. Flame simulations using UNICORN (Katta et al...two-dimensional (2-D) flame simulation computer code UNICORN (Katta et al., 2006) with those obtained using the one- dimensional (1-D) flame
Perturbation theory for the effective diffusion constant in a medium of random scatterers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, D S; Drummond, I T; Horgan, R R; Lefevre, A
2004-01-01
We develop perturbation theory and physically motivated resummations of the perturbation theory for the problem of a tracer particle diffusing in a random medium. The random medium contains point scatterers of density ρ uniformly distributed throughout the material. The tracer is a Langevin particle subjected to the quenched random force generated by the scatterers. Via our perturbative analysis, we determine when the random potential can be approximated by a Gaussian random potential. We also develop a self-similar renormalization group approach based on thinning out the scatterers; this scheme is similar to that used with success for diffusion in Gaussian random potentials and agrees with known exact results. To assess the accuracy of this approximation scheme, its predictions are confronted with results obtained by numerical simulation
Numerical modeling of soot formation in a turbulent C2H4/air diffusion flame
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manedhar Reddy Busupally
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Soot formation in a lifted C2H4-Air turbulent diffusion flame is studied using two different paths for soot nucleation and oxidation; by a 2D axisymmetric RANS simulation using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The turbulence-chemistry interactions are modeled using two different approaches: steady laminar flamelet approach and flamelet-generated manifold. Chemical mechanism is represented by POLIMI to study the effect of species concentration on soot formation. P1 approximation is employed to approximate the radiative transfer equation into truncated series expansion in spherical harmonics while the weighted sum of gray gases is invoked to model the absorption coefficient while the soot model accounts for nucleation, coagulation, surface growth, and oxidation. The first route for nucleation considers acetylene concentration as a linear function of soot nucleation rate, whereas the second route considers two and three ring aromatic species as function of nucleation rate. Equilibrium-based and instantaneous approach has been used to estimate the OH concentration for soot oxidation. Lee and Fenimore-Jones soot oxidation models are studied to shed light on the effect of OH on soot oxidation. Moreover, the soot-radiation interactions are also included in terms of absorption coefficient of soot. Furthermore, the soot-turbulence interactions have been invoked using a temperature/mixture fraction-based single variable PDF. Both the turbulence-chemistry interaction models are able to accurately predict the flame liftoff height, and for accurate prediction of flame length, radiative heat loss should be accounted in an accurate way. The soot-turbulence interactions are found sensitive to the PDF used in present study.
Strain rate effect on sooting characteristics in laminar counterflow diffusion flames
Wang, Yu
2016-01-20
The effects of strain rate, oxygen enrichment and fuel type on the sooting characteristics of counterflow diffusion flames were studied. The sooting structures and relative PAH concentrations were measured with laser diagnostics. Detailed soot modeling using recently developed PAH chemistry and surface reaction mechanism was performed and the results were compared with experimental data for ethylene flames, focusing on the effects of strain rates. The results showed that increase in strain rate reduced soot volume fraction, average size and peak number density. Increase in oxygen mole fraction increased soot loading and decreased its sensitivity on strain rate. The soot volume fractions of ethane, propene and propane flames were also measured as a function of global strain rate. The sensitivity of soot volume fraction to strain rate was observed to be fuel dependent at a fixed oxygen mole fraction, with the sensitivity being higher for more sooting fuels. However, when the soot loadings were matched at a reference strain rate for different fuels by adjusting oxygen mole fraction, the dependence of soot loading on strain rate became comparable among the tested fuels. PAH concentrations were shown to decrease with increase in strain rate and the dependence on strain rate is more pronounced for larger PAHs. Soot modeling was performed using detailed PAH growth chemistry with molecular growth up to coronene. A qualitative agreement was obtained between experimental and simulation results, which was then used to explain the experimentally observed strain rate effect on soot growth. However, quantitatively, the simulation result exhibits higher sensitivity to strain rate, especially for large PAHs and soot volume fractions.
Formation of Soot in Counterflow Diffusion Flames with Carbon Dioxide Dilution
Wang, Yu
2016-05-04
Experimental and numerical modeling studies have been performed to investigate the effect of CO2 dilution on soot formation in ethylene counterflow diffusion flames. Thermal and chemical effects of CO2 addition on soot growth was numerically identified by using a fictitious CO2 species, which was treated as inert in terms of chemical reactions. The results showed that CO2 addition reduces soot formation both thermodynamically and chemically. In terms of chemical effect, the addition of CO2 decreases soot formation through various pathways, including: (1) reduced soot precursor (PAH) formation leading to lower inception rates and soot number density, which in turn results in lower surface area for soot mass addition; (2) reduced H, CH3, and C3H3 concentrations causing lower H abstraction rate and therefore less active site per surface area for soot growth; and (3) reduced C2H2 mole fraction and thus a slower C2H2 mass addition rate. In addition, the sooting limits were also measured for ethylene counterflow flames in both N2 and CO2 atmosphere and the results showed that sooting region was significantly reduced in the CO2 case compared to the N2 case. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Zhi; Shen Yi-Qing
2012-01-01
The high resolution numerical perturbation (NP) algorithm is analyzed and tested using various convective-diffusion equations. The NP algorithm is constructed by splitting the second order central difference schemes of both convective and diffusion terms of the convective-diffusion equation into upstream and downstream parts, then the perturbation reconstruction functions of the convective coefficient are determined using the power-series of grid interval and eliminating the truncated errors of the modified differential equation. The important nature, i.e. the upwind dominance nature, which is the basis to ensuring that the NP schemes are stable and essentially oscillation free, is firstly presented and verified. Various numerical cases show that the NP schemes are efficient, robust, and more accurate than the original second order central scheme
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cuoci, Alberto; Frassoldati, Alessio; Faravelli, Tiziano
2013-01-01
In the present paper, synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry is used to study the detailed chemistry of co-flow methane diffusion flames with different dilution ratios. The experimental results constitute a comprehensive characterization of species important for PAH and soot formation...
Zimmer, L.; Pereira, F.M.; van Oijen, J.A.; de Goey, L.P.H.
2017-01-01
A numerical model is developed aiming at investigating soot formation in ethylene counterflow diffusion flames. The mass and energy coupling between soot solid particles and gas-phase species is investigated in detail. A semi-empirical two-equation model is chosen for predicting soot mass fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, J.R.
1985-01-01
It is now possible to analyze the time-dependent, fully three-dimensional behavior of hydrogen diffusion flames in nuclear reactor containments. This analysis involves coupling the full Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species transport to the global chemical kinetics of hydrogen combustion. A transport equation for the subgrid scale turbulent kinetic energy density is solved to produce the time and space dependent turbulent transport coefficients. The heat transfer coefficient governing the exchange of heat between fluid computational cells adjacent to wall cells is calculated by a modified Reynolds analogy formulation. The analysis of a MARK-III containment indicates very complex flow patterns that greatly influence fluid and wall temperatures and heat fluxes. 18 refs., 24 figs
Cao, Su; Ma, Bin; Giassi, Davide; Bennett, Beth Anne V.; Long, Marshall B.; Smooke, Mitchell D.
2018-03-01
In this study, the influence of pressure and fuel dilution on the structure and geometry of coflow laminar methane-air diffusion flames is examined. A series of methane-fuelled, nitrogen-diluted flames has been investigated both computationally and experimentally, with pressure ranging from 1.0 to 2.7 atm and CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.50 to 0.65. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modelled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretised on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, chemiluminescence measurements of CH* were taken to determine its relative concentration profile and the structure of the flame front. A thin-filament ratio pyrometry method using a colour digital camera was employed to determine the temperature profiles of the non-sooty, atmospheric pressure flames, while soot volume fraction was quantified, after evaluation of soot temperature, through an absolute light calibration using a thermocouple. For a broad spectrum of flames in atmospheric and elevated pressures, the computed and measured flame quantities were examined to characterise the influence of pressure and fuel dilution, and the major conclusions were as follows: (1) maximum temperature increases with increasing pressure or CH4 concentration; (2) lift-off height decreases significantly with increasing pressure, modified flame length is roughly independent of pressure, and flame radius decreases with pressure approximately as P-1/2; and (3) pressure and fuel stream dilution significantly affect the spatial distribution and the peak value of the soot volume fraction.
A computational study of soot formation in opposed-flow diffusion flame interacting with vortices
Selvaraj, Prabhu; Im, Hong G.
2017-01-01
ethylene-air flame is simulated. A reduced mechanism with PAH pathways that includes until coronene and method of moments with interpolative closure (MOMIC) has been employed to calculate the soot characteristics. Interaction of sooting flame with a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhen, H.S.; Leung, C.W.; Cheung, C.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong (China)
2011-02-15
Two swirl-stabilized flames, a premixed flame (PMF-s) and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF-s), were investigated experimentally in order to obtain information on their thermal, emission and heat transfer characteristics. The two flames, having different global air/fuel mixing mechanisms, were compared under identical air and fuel flow rates. Results showed that the two flames have similar visual features such as flame shape, size and structure because the Reynolds number and the swirl number which are important parameters representative of the aerodynamic characteristics of a swirling jet flow, are almost the same for the two flames. The minor dissimilarity in flame color and flame length indicates that the IDF-s is more diffusional. Both the PMF-s and IDF-s are stabilized by the internal recirculation zone (IRZ) and the IDF-s is more stable. Flame temperature is uniformly distributed in the IRZ due to the strong mixing caused by flow recirculation. The highest flame temperature is achieved at the main reaction zone and it is higher for the PMF-s due to more rapid and localized heat release. For the IDF-s, the thermal NO mechanism dominates the NO{sub x} formation. For the PMF-s, both the thermal and prompt mechanisms tend to play important roles in the global NO{sub x} emission under rich conditions. The comparison of EINO{sub x} and EICO shows that the PMF-s has lower level of NO{sub x} emission under lean combustion and lower level of CO emission under all conditions. The reason is that the air/fuel premixing in the PMF-s significantly enhances the mixedness of the supplied air/fuel mixture. The analysis of the behaviors of the impinging PMF-s and IDF-s heat transfer reveals that because the PMF-s has more rapid and localized heat release at the main reaction zone, the peak heat flux is higher than that of the IDF-s and the IDF-s has more uniform heating effect. A comparison of the overall heat transfer rates shows that, due to more complete combustion, the PMF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen, H.S.; Leung, C.W.; Cheung, C.S.
2011-01-01
Two swirl-stabilized flames, a premixed flame (PMF-s) and an inverse diffusion flame (IDF-s), were investigated experimentally in order to obtain information on their thermal, emission and heat transfer characteristics. The two flames, having different global air/fuel mixing mechanisms, were compared under identical air and fuel flow rates. Results showed that the two flames have similar visual features such as flame shape, size and structure because the Reynolds number and the swirl number which are important parameters representative of the aerodynamic characteristics of a swirling jet flow, are almost the same for the two flames. The minor dissimilarity in flame color and flame length indicates that the IDF-s is more diffusional. Both the PMF-s and IDF-s are stabilized by the internal recirculation zone (IRZ) and the IDF-s is more stable. Flame temperature is uniformly distributed in the IRZ due to the strong mixing caused by flow recirculation. The highest flame temperature is achieved at the main reaction zone and it is higher for the PMF-s due to more rapid and localized heat release. For the IDF-s, the thermal NO mechanism dominates the NO x formation. For the PMF-s, both the thermal and prompt mechanisms tend to play important roles in the global NO x emission under rich conditions. The comparison of EINO x and EICO shows that the PMF-s has lower level of NO x emission under lean combustion and lower level of CO emission under all conditions. The reason is that the air/fuel premixing in the PMF-s significantly enhances the mixedness of the supplied air/fuel mixture. The analysis of the behaviors of the impinging PMF-s and IDF-s heat transfer reveals that because the PMF-s has more rapid and localized heat release at the main reaction zone, the peak heat flux is higher than that of the IDF-s and the IDF-s has more uniform heating effect. A comparison of the overall heat transfer rates shows that, due to more complete combustion, the PMF-s has higher overall
Dense fluid self-diffusion coefficient calculations using perturbation theory and molecular dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
COELHO L. A. F.
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure to correlate self-diffusion coefficients in dense fluids by using the perturbation theory (WCA coupled with the smooth-hard-sphere theory is presented and tested against molecular simulations and experimental data. This simple algebraic expression correlates well the self-diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, ethylene, and sulfur hexafluoride. We have also performed canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulations by using the Hoover-Nosé thermostat and the mean-square displacement formula to compute self-diffusion coefficients for the reference WCA intermolecular potential. The good agreement obtained from both methods, when compared with experimental data, suggests that the smooth-effective-sphere theory is a useful procedure to correlate diffusivity of pure substances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claude Rodrigue Bambe Moutsinga
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Most existing multivariate models in finance are based on diffusion models. These models typically lead to the need of solving systems of Riccati differential equations. In this paper, we introduce an efficient method for solving systems of stiff Riccati differential equations. In this technique, a combination of Laplace transform and homotopy perturbation methods is considered as an algorithm to the exact solution of the nonlinear Riccati equations. The resulting technique is applied to solving stiff diffusion model problems that include interest rates models as well as two and three-factor stochastic volatility models. We show that the present approach is relatively easy, efficient and highly accurate.
A robust computational technique for a system of singularly perturbed reaction–diffusion equations
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Kumar Vinod
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a singularly perturbed system of reaction–diffusion Boundary Value Problems (BVPs is examined. To solve such a type of problems, a Modified Initial Value Technique (MIVT is proposed on an appropriate piecewise uniform Shishkin mesh. The MIVT is shown to be of second order convergent (up to a logarithmic factor. Numerical results are presented which are in agreement with the theoretical results.
Park, Sungwoo
2017-02-05
Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.
Park, Sungwoo; Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani
2017-01-01
Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.
Soot modeling of counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene-based binary mixture fuels
Wang, Yu
2015-03-01
A soot model was developed based on the recently proposed PAH growth mechanism for C1-C4 gaseous fuels (KAUST PAH Mechanism 2, KM2) that included molecular growth up to coronene (A7) to simulate soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene and its binary mixtures with methane, ethane and propane based on the method of moments. The soot model has 36 soot nucleation reactions from 8 PAH molecules including pyrene and larger PAHs. Soot surface growth reactions were based on a modified hydrogen-abstraction-acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism in which CH3, C3H3 and C2H radicals were included in the hydrogen abstraction reactions in addition to H atoms. PAH condensation on soot particles was also considered. The experimentally measured profiles of soot volume fraction, number density, and particle size were well captured by the model for the baseline case of ethylene along with the cases involving mixtures of fuels. The simulation results, which were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data in the effects of binary fuel mixing on the sooting structures of the measured flames, showed in particular that 5% addition of propane (ethane) led to an increase in the soot volume fraction of the ethylene flame by 32% (6%), despite the fact that propane and ethane are less sooting fuels than is ethylene, which is in reasonable agreement with experiments of 37% (14%). The model revealed that with 5% addition of methane, there was an increase of 6% in the soot volume fraction. The average soot particle sizes were only minimally influenced while the soot number densities were increased by the fuel mixing. Further analysis of the numerical data indicated that the chemical cross-linking effect between ethylene and the dopant fuels resulted in an increase in PAH formation, which led to higher soot nucleation rates and therefore higher soot number densities. On the other hand, the rates of soot surface growth per unit surface area through the HACA mechanism were
Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam
2014-05-20
Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Solution to the Diffusion equation for multi groups in X Y geometry using Linear Perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mugica R, C.A.
2004-01-01
Diverse methods exist to solve numerically the neutron diffusion equation for several energy groups in stationary state among those that highlight those of finite elements. In this work the numerical solution of this equation is presented using Raviart-Thomas nodal methods type finite element, the RT0 and RT1, in combination with iterative techniques that allow to obtain the approached solution in a quick form. Nevertheless the above mentioned, the precision of a method is intimately bound to the dimension of the approach space by cell, 5 for the case RT0 and 12 for the RT1, and/or to the mesh refinement, that makes the order of the problem of own value to solve to grow considerably. By this way if it wants to know an acceptable approach to the value of the effective multiplication factor of the system when this it has experimented a small perturbation it was appeal to the Linear perturbation theory with which is possible to determine it starting from the neutron flow and of the effective multiplication factor of the not perturbed case. Results are presented for a reference problem in which a perturbation is introduced in an assemble that simulates changes in the control bar. (Author)
Cao, S.; Ma, B.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Giassi, D.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Long, M. B.; Smooke, M. D.
2014-01-01
The influences of fuel dilution, inlet velocity, and gravity on the shape and structure of laminar coflow CH4-air diffusion flames were investigated computationally and experimentally. A series of nitrogen-diluted flames measured in the Structure and Liftoff in Combustion Experiment (SLICE) on board the International Space Station was assessed numerically under microgravity (mu g) and normal gravity (1g) conditions with CH4 mole fraction ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 and average inlet velocity ranging from 23 to 90 cm/s. Computationally, the MC-Smooth vorticity-velocity formulation was employed to describe the reactive gaseous mixture, and soot evolution was modeled by sectional aerosol equations. The governing equations and boundary conditions were discretized on a two-dimensional computational domain by finite differences, and the resulting set of fully coupled, strongly nonlinear equations was solved simultaneously at all points using a damped, modified Newton's method. Experimentally, flame shape and soot temperature were determined by flame emission images recorded by a digital color camera. Very good agreement between computation and measurement was obtained, and the conclusions were as follows. (1) Buoyant and nonbuoyant luminous flame lengths are proportional to the mass flow rate of the fuel mixture; computed and measured nonbuoyant flames are noticeably longer than their 1g counterparts; the effect of fuel dilution on flame shape (i.e., flame length and flame radius) is negligible when the flame shape is normalized by the methane flow rate. (2) Buoyancy-induced reduction of the flame radius through radially inward convection near the flame front is demonstrated. (3) Buoyant and nonbuoyant flame structure is mainly controlled by the fuel mass flow rate, and the effects from fuel dilution and inlet velocity are secondary.
Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V
2014-01-01
We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanders, H.; Gokalp, I. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Laboratoire de Combustion Systemes Reactifs
1996-12-31
The suitability of the turbulent combustion flamelets model in order to predict the index of NO{sub x} production in turbulent flames of hydrogen diffusion is analyzed. In the flamelet approach, the turbulent flame is equivalent to a group of laminar flames submitted to a mechanical stretching which generates a chemical disequilibrium. This effect can be described by the stretching or by the scalar dissipation ratio. A numerical modeling is performed in order to evaluate the advantages of both approaches and to compare the behaviour of the NO{sub x} emission index with the experiments of Chen and Driscoll. This study shows that predictions of NO{sub x} emission indexes have a correct behaviour with respect to the Damkoehler number only when the scalar dissipation ratio is used as a parameter to describe the chemical state outside equilibrium. Predictions of the flamelet models are improving when the Damkoehler number increases. On the other hand, the absolute NO{sub x} concentrations are overestimated and can be due to the effects of differential diffusion. (J.S.) 14 refs.
Wang, Yu
2018-02-19
Alkenes are important components in transportation fuels, and are known to have increased sooting tendencies compared to analogous saturated hydrocarbons with the same carbon number. This work aims to understand the sooting tendencies of various 1-alkenes through experiments and numerical simulations for counterflow diffusion flames. Soot and PAH formation tendencies of 1-alkene fuels, including ethylene (C2H4), propene (C3H6), 1-butene (1-C4H8), 1-pentene (1-C5H10), 1-hexene (1-C6H12) and 1-octene (1-C8H16), were experimentally studied using laser induced-incandescence (LII) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques, respectively. From the LII results, 1-C4H8 was found to be the most sooting fuel, followed by C3H6 > 1-C5H10 > 1-C6H12 > 1-C8H16 > C2H4. The LIF data with a detection wavelength of 500 nm indicated the PAH formation tendencies followed the order of 1-C4H8 > 1-C5H10 ∼1-C6H12 > C3H6 > 1-C8H16 > C2H4, which were different from the order of sooting tendencies. Numerical simulations with a comprehensive chemical kinetic model including PAH growth chemistry for the tested 1-alkene fuels were conducted to elucidate the aromatic formation pathways and rationalize the experimentally observed trends. The numerical results highlighted the importance of intermediate species with odd carbon numbers in aromatic species formation, such as propargyl, allyl, cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Their concentration differences, which could be traced back to the parent fuel molecules through rate of production analysis, rationalize the experimentally observed differences in soot and PAH formation tendencies.
Singh, Ajay V; Gollner, Michael J
2016-06-01
Modeling the realistic burning behavior of condensed-phase fuels has remained out of reach, in part because of an inability to resolve the complex interactions occurring at the interface between gas-phase flames and condensed-phase fuels. The current research provides a technique to explore the dynamic relationship between a combustible condensed fuel surface and gas-phase flames in laminar boundary layers. Experiments have previously been conducted in both forced and free convective environments over both solid and liquid fuels. A unique methodology, based on the Reynolds Analogy, was used to estimate local mass burning rates and flame heat fluxes for these laminar boundary layer diffusion flames utilizing local temperature gradients at the fuel surface. Local mass burning rates and convective and radiative heat feedback from the flames were measured in both the pyrolysis and plume regions by using temperature gradients mapped near the wall by a two-axis traverse system. These experiments are time-consuming and can be challenging to design as the condensed fuel surface burns steadily for only a limited period of time following ignition. The temperature profiles near the fuel surface need to be mapped during steady burning of a condensed fuel surface at a very high spatial resolution in order to capture reasonable estimates of local temperature gradients. Careful corrections for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples are also essential for accurate measurements. For these reasons, the whole experimental setup needs to be automated with a computer-controlled traverse mechanism, eliminating most errors due to positioning of a micro-thermocouple. An outline of steps to reproducibly capture near-wall temperature gradients and use them to assess local burning rates and heat fluxes is provided.
The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames
Liao, Ying-Hao; Hermanson, James C.
2014-01-01
recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time
A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames
Wang, Yu; Raj, Abhijeet Dhayal; Chung, Suk-Ho
2013-01-01
was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms
Ozone Activated Cool Diffusion Flames of Butane Isomers in a Counterflow Facility
Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz
2017-01-01
ignition engines (HCCI) have been developed. These new engines rely on the low temperature chemistry (LTC) combustion concept. A detailed investigation of the properties of cool flames, governed by LTC, is essential for the design of these new engines
Modelling of a 400 kW natural gas diffusion flame using finite-rate chemistry schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, Christian; Kremer, Hans; Brink, Anders; Kilpinen, Pia; Hupa, Mikko
1999-01-01
The Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model combined with three different reaction mechanisms is applied to simulate a fuel-rich 400 kW natural gas diffusion flame. The chemical schemes include a global 2-step and a global 4-step approach as well as a reduced 4-step mechanism systematically derived from an elementary scheme. The species and temperature distributions resulting from the different schemes are studied in detail and compared to each other and to experiments. Furthermore the method of implementing finite-rate chemistry to the Eddy-Dissipation Combustion Model is discussed. (author)
Hong, Sungmin; Lee, Wook; Song, Han Ho; Kang, Seongwon
2014-11-01
A turbulent diffusion flame with hybrid fuel of methane and hydrogen is analyzed to investigate the effects of operating conditions on flame shape, rate of fuel consumption and pollutant formation. Various combinations of operating parameter, i.e. hydrogen concentration, background pressure and temperature, are examined in relatively high pressure and temperature conditions that can be found at the end of compression stroke in an internal combustion engine. A flamelet-progress variable approach (FPVA) and a dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model are used for large eddy simulation (LES). A comparison with previous experiments and simulations in the standard condition shows a good agreement in the statistics of flow fields and chemical compositions, as well as in the resultant trends by similar parametric studies. As a result, the effects of added hydrogen are found to be consistent for most of the chemical species in the range of background pressure and temperature conditions. However, the flow fields of some species such as OH, NO, CO at a higher pressure and temperature state show a behavior different from the standard condition. Finally, hydrogen addition is shown to improve flame stability which is measured by the pressure fluctuations in all the tested conditions.
Queiros-Conde, D.; Foucher, F.; Mounaïm-Rousselle, C.; Kassem, H.; Feidt, M.
2008-12-01
Multi-scale features of turbulent flames near a wall display two kinds of scale-dependent fractal features. In scale-space, an unique fractal dimension cannot be defined and the fractal dimension of the front is scale-dependent. Moreover, when the front approaches the wall, this dependency changes: fractal dimension also depends on the wall-distance. Our aim here is to propose a general geometrical framework that provides the possibility to integrate these two cases, in order to describe the multi-scale structure of turbulent flames interacting with a wall. Based on the scale-entropy quantity, which is simply linked to the roughness of the front, we thus introduce a general scale-entropy diffusion equation. We define the notion of “scale-evolutivity” which characterises the deviation of a multi-scale system from the pure fractal behaviour. The specific case of a constant “scale-evolutivity” over the scale-range is studied. In this case, called “parabolic scaling”, the fractal dimension is a linear function of the logarithm of scale. The case of a constant scale-evolutivity in the wall-distance space implies that the fractal dimension depends linearly on the logarithm of the wall-distance. We then verified experimentally, that parabolic scaling represents a good approximation of the real multi-scale features of turbulent flames near a wall.
Xia, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Shun-Li; Xin, Xiang-Peng
2018-03-01
In this paper, we propose the concept of the perturbed invariant subspaces (PISs), and study the approximate generalized functional variable separation solution for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with weak source by the approximate generalized conditional symmetries (AGCSs) related to the PISs. Complete classification of the perturbed equations which admit the approximate generalized functional separable solutions (AGFSSs) is obtained. As a consequence, some AGFSSs to the resulting equations are explicitly constructed by way of examples.
CITATION-LDI2, 2-D Multigroup Diffusion, Perturbation, Criticality Search, for PC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and trigonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data. This version of CITATION was released by ORNL as CITATION - Rev. 2, Supplement 3 in July 1972 and ran on mainframes. It was first ported to PC by AECL in October 1988. CITATION-PC included in the March 1996 package involved minor changes including the removal of overlay statements introduced in 1988. CITALDI-PC is a new modified version with list-directed input. The codes in this package accept cross sections in CITATION format. Macroscopic data may be entered according to format specifications in Section 008 of the published report. Microscopic data format is specified in Section 105. There are no codes in RSIC's code collection to generate data in CITATION format. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit, finite difference approximations in space and time have been implemented. The neutron-flux-eigenvalue problems are solved by direct iteration to determine the multiplication factor or the nuclide densities required for a critical system
CITATION, 3-D Multigroup Diffusion with 1. Order Perturbation and Criticality Search
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, T.B.; Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.
1995-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite-difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group-to-group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal-z, and trigonal-z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first-order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data. CITATION-2-3-VP2 is a vectorized version for FACOM VP-100 and VP-200 vector computers. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit, finite-difference approximations in space and time have been implemented. The neutron-flux-eigenvalue problems are solved by direct iteration to determine the multiplication factor or the nuclide densities required for a critical system. CITATION-2-3-VP2: Algorithms for the inner-outer iterative calculations are adapted to vector computers. The SLOR method, which is used in the original CITATION code, and the SOR method, which is adopted in the revised code, are vectorized by odd-even mesh ordering. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: CITATION has been designed to attack problems which can be run in a reasonable amount of time. Storage of data is allocated dynamically to give the user flexibility in dimensioning. Typically, a finite-difference diffusion problem could have 200 depleting zones, 10,000 nuclide densities, and 30,000 space-energy point flux values
Numerical study of turbulent normal diffusion flame CH4-air stabilized by coaxial burner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riahi Zouhair
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The practical combustion systems such as combustion furnaces, gas turbine, engines, etc. employ non-premixed combustion due to its better flame stability, safety, and wide operating range as compared to premixed combustion. The present numerical study characterizes the turbulent flame of methane-air in a coaxial burner in order to determine the effect of airflow on the distribution of temperature, on gas consumption and on the emission of NOx. The results in this study are obtained by simulation on FLUENT code. The results demonstrate the influence of different parameters on the flame structure, temperature distribution and gas emissions, such as turbulence, fuel jet velocity, air jet velocity, equivalence ratio and mixture fraction. The lift-off height for a fixed fuel jet velocity is observed to increase monotonically with air jet velocity. Temperature and NOx emission decrease of important values with the equivalence ratio, it is maximum about the unity.
Berkel, van M.; Zwart, Heiko J.; Tamura, N.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Inagaki, S.; de Baar, M.R.; Ida, K.
2014-01-01
In this paper, a number of new approximations are introduced to estimate the perturbative diffusivity (χ), convectivity (V), and damping (τ) in cylindrical geometry. For this purpose, the harmonic components of heat waves induced by localized deposition of modulated power are used. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashir, Babak; Tabejamaat, Sadegh; Jalalatian, Nafiseh
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Characteristics of C 3 H 8 –H 2 bluff-body stabilized flames are investigated. • Decreasing the bluff-body lip thickness led into enhanced flame length. • CO mass fraction is increased with reducing hydrogen content in the fuel stream. • Augmenting hydrogen content increased the maximum temperature. • Jet-like zone in propane–hydrogen bluff-body stabilized flames is very unstable. - Abstract: At the beginning of this study, the well-known turbulent bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame of HM1 is simulated by a coupled flamelet/radiation approach. The HM1 flame comprises a CH 4 :H 2 [50:50 Vol.] jet flame at a Reynolds number of 15,800. The results showed reasonable agreement for the flow field and species. Afterwards, the abovementioned approach is employed to investigate the effects of hydrogen addition on bluff-body stabilized flames of propane–hydrogen. Adding hydrogen to the blended fuel of propane/hydrogen shifts the recirculation zone outwards the bluff-body and thus culminates in increased flame length. Besides this, the flame length is predicted to be enhanced with decreasing the lip thickness of the bluff-body configuration. The CO emission level is found to be decreased with hydrogen addition in near-burner and far field regions which might be attributed to the decrease of inflow carbon atoms. The local radiative heat power reveals higher values for fuel blends with decreased contents of hydrogen at the recirculation and jet-like zones. This might be attributed to the increased local heat release rate due to breaking further carbon bonds
Linear analysis of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in shock-flame interactions
Massa, L.; Jha, P.
2012-05-01
Shock-flame interactions enhance supersonic mixing and detonation formation. Therefore, their analysis is important to explosion safety, internal combustion engine performance, and supersonic combustor design. The fundamental process at the basis of the interaction is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability supported by the density difference between burnt and fresh mixtures. In the present study we analyze the effect of reactivity on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with particular emphasis on combustion lengths that typify the scaling between perturbation growth and induction. The results of the present linear analysis study show that reactivity changes the perturbation growth rate by developing a pressure gradient at the flame surface. The baroclinic torque based on the density gradient across the flame acts to slow down the instability growth of high wave-number perturbations. A gasdynamic flame representation leads to the definition of a Peclet number representing the scaling between perturbation and thermal diffusion lengths within the flame. Peclet number effects on perturbation growth are observed to be marginal. The gasdynamic model also considers a finite flame Mach number that supports a separation between flame and contact discontinuity. Such a separation destabilizes the interface growth by augmenting the tangential shear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.
1995-01-01
The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes for thousands of candidate loading patterns. For this reason, the computational capability to efficiently and accurately evaluate a reactor core's eigenvalue and power distribution versus burnup using a nodal diffusion generalized perturbation theory (GPT) model is developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward nonlinear iterative nodal expansion method (NEM) to explicitly enable the preservation of the finite difference matrix structure. This key feature considerably simplifies the mathematical formulation of NEM GPT and results in reduced memory storage and CPU time requirements versus the traditional response-matrix approach to NEM. In addition, a treatment within NEM GPT can account for localized nonlinear feedbacks, such as that due to fission product buildup and thermal-hydraulic effects. When compared with a standard nonlinear iterative NEM forward flux solve with feedbacks, the NEM GPT model can execute between 8 and 12 times faster. These developments are implemented within the PWR in-core nuclear fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, combining the robustness of its adaptive simulated annealing stochastic optimization algorithm with an NEM GPT neutronics model that efficiently and accurately evaluates core attributes associated with objective functions and constraints of candidate loading patterns
Reynolds averaged modelling of low momentum propane jet diffusion flames in cross flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majeski, A.J.; Chui, E.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Kostiuk, L.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2003-07-01
It is common practice to use continuous low flow rate flares to dispose of unwanted or by-product combustible gases resulting from the manufacturing process or oil recovery operations. This study evaluates the usefulness of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling in the context of low momentum flux reacting jets. The experimental data was gathered at the University of Alberta's Combustion Wind Tunnel. This data was used to compare data obtained from the CFD simulations. Only a small subset of the experimental conditions was used for the computational model. No attempt was made to fine tune any of the individual models. They were all part of the commercial CFD software package CFX-TASC flow, by ANSYS Inc. Flame length and angle results compared favourably with experiments. The shape of the plume changed significantly in the far field. This could be explained by distortion caused by the turbulence model used. A flame front model was incorporated in an effort to estimate combustion efficiency. The results obtained were not conclusive. 20 refs., 4 figs.
Bomba, A. Ya.; Safonik, A. P.
2018-03-01
A mathematical model of the process of aerobic treatment of wastewater has been refined. It takes into account the interaction of bacteria, as well as of organic and biologically nonoxidizing substances under conditions of diffusion and mass transfer perturbations. An algorithm of the solution of the corresponding nonlinear perturbed problem of convection-diffusion-mass transfer type has been constructed, with a computer experiment carried out based on it. The influence of the concentration of oxygen and of activated sludge on the quality of treatment is shown. Within the framework of the model suggested, a possibility of automated control of the process of deposition of impurities in a biological filter depending on the initial parameters of the water medium is suggested.
Bomba, A. Ya.; Safonik, A. P.
2018-05-01
A mathematical model of the process of aerobic treatment of wastewater has been refined. It takes into account the interaction of bacteria, as well as of organic and biologically nonoxidizing substances under conditions of diffusion and mass transfer perturbations. An algorithm of the solution of the corresponding nonlinear perturbed problem of convection-diffusion-mass transfer type has been constructed, with a computer experiment carried out based on it. The influence of the concentration of oxygen and of activated sludge on the quality of treatment is shown. Within the framework of the model suggested, a possibility of automated control of the process of deposition of impurities in a biological filter depending on the initial parameters of the water medium is suggested.
Mameri, A.; Tabet, F.; Hadef, A.
2017-08-01
This study addresses the influence of several operating conditions (composition and ambient pressure) on biogas diffusion flame structure and NO emissions with particular attention on thermal and chemical effect of CO2. The biogas flame is modeled by a counter flow diffusion flame and analyzed in mixture fraction space using flamelet approach. The GRI Mech-3.0 mechanism that involves 53 species and 325 reactions is adopted for the oxidation chemistry. It has been observed that flame properties are very sensitive to biogas composition and pressure. CO2 addition decreases flame temperature by both thermal and chemical effects. Added CO2 may participate in chemical reaction due to thermal dissociation (chemical effect). Excessively supplied CO2 plays the role of pure diluent (thermal effect). The ambient pressure rise increases temperature and reduces flame thickness, radiation losses and dissociation amount. At high pressure, recombination reactions coupled with chain carrier radicals reduction, diminishes NO mass fraction.
Dinesh Kumar, S.; Nageshwar Rao, R.; Pramod Chakravarthy, P.
2017-11-01
In this paper, we consider a boundary value problem for a singularly perturbed delay differential equation of reaction-diffusion type. We construct an exponentially fitted numerical method using Numerov finite difference scheme, which resolves not only the boundary layers but also the interior layers arising from the delay term. An extensive amount of computational work has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Pellett, G. L.; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.; Guerra, Rosemary
1989-01-01
Coaxial tubular opposed jet burners (OJB) were used to form dish shaped counterflow diffusion flames (CFDF), centered by opposing laminar jets of H2, N2 and both clean and contaminated air (O2/N2 mixtures) in an argon bath at 1 atm. Jet velocities for flame extinction and restoration limits are shown versus wide ranges of contaminant and O2 concentrations in the air jet, and also input H2 concentration. Blowoff, a sudden breaking of CFDF to a stable ring shape, occurs in highly stretched stagnation flows and is generally believed to measure kinetically limited flame reactivity. Restore, a sudden restoration of central flame, is a relatively new phenomenon which exhibits a H2 dependent hysteresis from Blowoff. For 25 percent O2 air mixtures, mole for mole replacement of 25 percent N2 contaminant by steam increased U(air) or flame strength at Blowoff by about 5 percent. This result is consistent with laminar burning velocity results from analogous substitution of steam for N2 in a premixed stoichiometric H2-O2-N2 (or steam) flame, shown by Koroll and Mulpuru to promote a 10 percent increase in experimental and calculated laminar burning velocity, due to enhanced third body efficiency of water in: H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M. When the OJB results were compared with Liu and MacFarlane's experimental laminar burning velocity of premixed stoichiometric H2 + air + steam, a crossover occurred, i.e., steam enhanced OJB flame strength at extinction relative to laminar burning velocity.
Implementation of two-equation soot flamelet models for laminar diffusion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carbonell, D.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, Colom 11, E-08222, Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)
2009-03-15
The two-equation soot model proposed by Leung et al. [K.M. Leung, R.P. Lindstedt, W.P. Jones, Combust. Flame 87 (1991) 289-305] has been derived in the mixture fraction space. The model has been implemented using both Interactive and Non-Interactive flamelet strategies. An Extended Enthalpy Defect Flamelet Model (E-EDFM) which uses a flamelet library obtained neglecting the soot formation is proposed as a Non-Interactive method. The Lagrangian Flamelet Model (LFM) is used to represent the Interactive models. This model uses direct values of soot mass fraction from flamelet calculations. An Extended version (E-LFM) of this model is also suggested in which soot mass fraction reaction rates are used from flamelet calculations. Results presented in this work show that the E-EDFM predict acceptable results. However, it overpredicts the soot volume fraction due to the inability of this model to couple the soot and gas-phase mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that the LFM is not able to predict accurately the soot volume fraction. On the other hand, the extended version proposed here has been shown to be very accurate. The different flamelet mathematical formulations have been tested and compared using well verified reference calculations obtained solving the set of the Full Transport Equations (FTE) in the physical space. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merci, Bart [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Roekaerts, Dirk [Department of Multi-Scale Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Naud, Bertrand [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
2006-02-01
Numerical simulation results are presented for a turbulent nonpremixed flame with local extinction and reignition. The transported scalar PDF approach is applied to the turbulence-chemistry interaction. The turbulent flow field is obtained with a nonlinear two-equation turbulence model. A C{sub 1} skeletal scheme is used as the chemistry model. The performance of three micromixing models is compared: the interaction by exchange with the mean model (IEM), the modified Curl's coalescence/dispersion model (CD) and the Euclidean minimum spanning tree model (EMST). With the IEM model, global extinction occurs. With the standard value of model constant C{sub f}=2, the CD model yields a lifted flame, unlike the experiments, while with the EMST model the correct flame shape is obtained. However, the conditional variances of the thermochemical quantities are underestimated with the EMST model, due to a lack of local extinction in the simulations. With the CD model, the flame becomes attached when either the value of C{sub f} is increased to 3 or the pilot flame thermal power is increased by a factor of 1.5. With increased value of C{sub f} better results for mixture fraction variance are obtained with both the CD and the EMST model. Lowering the value of C{sub f} leads to better predictions for mean temperature with EMST, but at the cost of stronger overprediction of mixture fraction variance. These trends are explained as a consequence of variance production by macroscopic inhomogeneity and the specific properties of the micromixing models. Local time stepping is applied so that convergence is obtained more quickly. Iteration averaging reduces statistical error so that the limited number of 50 particles per cell is sufficient to obtain accurate results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ukpebor, E.E.; Sadiku, Y.T.; Ahonkhai, S.I.
2005-01-01
Monitoring of NO/sub 2/ in different indoor environments (without cooking and with cooking using different fuels) was done. Flames diffusion tubes were used for the monitoring. The sampling duration was two weeks. The highest NO/sub 2/ concentration of 38.61 ppb (73.74 mug/m3) was monitored in the room where the cooking was done with a gas burner. This was followed by the room with firewood cooking, where the concentration was 36.75 ppb (70.19 mug/m3) and the least concentration of 24.05 ppb (46.80 mug/m3) was noted in the room, where kerosene stove was used for cooking. It is of significance to observe that the WHO annual average guideline value of 40 mug/m3 was exceeded in al the rooms where cooking was done. Levels obtained in this study, therefore, suggest a need for precautionary mitigation. However, the outdoor concentration of NO/sub 2/ was almost the same as that obtained indoors in the rooms without cooking. This suggests high penetration indoors of outdoor NO/sub 2/. A background level of 3.40 ppb (6.49 mug/m3) was established for the environment in Ugbowo, Benin City, Nigeria. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaud Mbainguebem
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This work which is in the fire safety framework is focused on a numerical study of the production of soot in a laminar diffusion flame, under different conditions of micro-gravity in unsteady regime. It is intended to evaluate the temperature and rate at which the production of soot is predominant, to quantify their concentrations and volume fraction in dispersion. It has been accomplished by modification of the ReactingFOAM application source code of the OpenFOAM-2.3.0 by introducing for the first time, the equations of concentration transport and of volume fractions of soot. The results of the different values of gravity obtained are compared with the normal value of gravity and we ascertain that the results obtained were satisfactory and show the ability of the code to predict the speed and temperature of the formation of soot, their concentrations and their volume fractions. The maximum peak of the volume fraction varies from 7 × 10−8 to 4.5 × 10−6. The maximum temperature, which was 2423 K before changing the code, is about 2410 K after implementation of our modifications due to the taking into account of the numerical model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)
1993-10-25
This paper reports on experiments for acoustic excitation of plane shear structured flame. Flows of air separated into the higher velocity side and the lower velocity side by a partition on the center of a flow path merge at the measuring point to form a mixed layer with coherent structure. Fuel is supplied to this mixed layer with the flows so adjusted that the generated flame will attach to the partition on the lower velocity side. Acoustic excitation (at a sound pressure level of 100 dB to 120 dB) is performed in a speaker fitted on a wall on the higher velocity side. The paper mentions the results of the experiments as follows: the acoustic excitation produces such changes to diffusion flame in the plane shear layer as shorter flame and blue flame combustion and clarification of flame structures; as seen from spectral characteristics of temperature change in the flames, a flame acoustically excited strongly presents remarkable improvements in periodicity of the structure; as seen from sound pressure distribution in the flow direction at the measuring point, the flame zone of the flame acoustically excited strongly is positioned at the middle of the node and loop of a standing wave. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
A singular perturbation limit of diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition
Kagaya, Takashi; Tonegawa, Yoshihiro
2016-01-01
We study a general asymptotic behavior of critical points of a diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition defined on a domain $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^n$. We show that the limit varifold derived from the diffused energy satisfies a generalized contact angle condition on the boundary under a set of assumptions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labor, S.
2003-07-15
Monocrystalline sapphire microspheres are generated through the melting of alumina (AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles in a flame. The alumina particles are injected in a very peculiar O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} confined diffusion flame as it is a downwards vertical flame having fuel in periphery of a central powdered oxygen jet. Quantitative measurements were carried out (ADL, PIV) and supplemented by a numerical study (N3S-Natur). (1) The laminar behavior of the isothermal conditions is kept through reactive flow. Therefore, particles will mainly collide due to speed gradients. (2) It has been shown that an axial particle will have a transit time int the high temperature zone very different to that of an off-line one. (3) The PIV date proved that the particle density was not homogeneous. (4) The hydrogen jet hardly influences the flame aerodynamic structure. Conversely, the central oxygen jet is at premium due to its effect on both the flame speed and temperature distribution. (author)
Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade; Mohammad Reza Khani; Rouzbeh Riazi; Mohammad Hossein Sabour
2017-01-01
The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of ...
Loboda, E. L.; Matvienko, O. V.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Reyno, V. V.
2017-11-01
The paper represents experimental studying the pulsations of temperature fields and the structure of a flow in the flame formed during the combustion of certain fuels. Also, the paper provides the mathematical modeling of a flow in the flame formed during the combustion of diesel fuels, as well as the comparison with experimental data and the estimation of the scale for turbulent vortices in flame. The experimental results are in satisfactory agreement with numerical modeling, which confirms the hypothesis of similarity for the pulsations of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic parameters.
Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics
Kedia, K.S.; Altay, H.M.; Ghoniem, A.F.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange
Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames
Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry
2018-01-01
A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhowal, Arup Jyoti, E-mail: arupjyoti.bhowal@heritageit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Chowbaga Road, Anandapur, Kolkata-700 107, West Bengal (India); Mandal, Bijan Kumar, E-mail: bkm375@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)
2016-07-12
An effort has been made for a quantitative assessment of the soot formed under steady state in a methane air co flow diffusion flame by a numerical simulation at normal gravity and at lower gravity levels of 0.5 G, 0.1 G and 0.0001 G (microgravity). The peak temperature at microgravity is reduced by about 50 K than that at normal gravity level. There is an augmentation of soot formation at lower gravity levels. Peak value at microgravity multiplies by a factor of ∼7 of that at normal gravity. However, if radiation is not considered, soot formation is found to be much more.
Danby, Sean James
conducted using non-invasive laser diagnostics, such as particle image velocimetry and planer laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical. The dependence of heat release rate on temperature provides an estimation of the strain rate dependence of the reaction rate. Findings include a direct effect of stretch rate on temperature along the flame reaction zone; however the trend depends on thermo-diffusive stability. For both fuels at a thermo-diffusively unstable mixture, by increasing the vortex strength, the stretch rate increases, while the temperature decreases. The thermo-diffusively stable flames (propane with φ ≤ 1.08) generally show an opposite trend to the unstable flames. By increasing the vortex strength, the thermo-diffusively stable flames tend to have a reduction in stretch rate, which allows an increase in temperature along the flame-vortex interface. Overall, an increase in stretch rate causes all flames to reduce the average reaction zone temperature regardless of thermo-diffusive stability. The formation of surface structure corrugation in thermo-diffusively unstable flames requires an external (to the flame) perturbation. This perturbation is generally in the form heat loss due to either a high stretch rate from an aerodynamic perturbation (vortex) or a localized thermodynamic heat sink (electrodes).
Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei
2018-04-01
We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.
Amin, Hafiz M.F.
2016-06-27
The soot formed in an N-diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame at elevated pressure was investigated using two angle light scattering/extinction technique. To provide a well-controlled pressurized environment for the flame, a novel pressure vessel was built with the required optical access. The soot parameters were measured along the centerline of the counterflow flame. These properties included soot volume fraction (f ), primary particle diameter (d ), population averaged radius of gyration (R ) and number density of primary particles (n ). The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for Fractal Aggregates (RDG-FA) was used to retrieve these properties from scattering and extinction measurements. Soot volume fraction was measured via light extinction from 2 to 5atm while maintaining the same global strain rate at all pressures. Scattered light from soot particles was measured at 45° and 135° and primary particle diameter was calculated using scattering/extinction ratio and the radius of gyration was determined from the dissymmetry ratio. Soot volume fraction, primary particle diameter and radius of gyration all increased with pressure while the number density of primary particles decreased with increasing pressure.
Amin, Hafiz M.F.; Roberts, William L.
2016-01-01
The soot formed in an N-diluted ethylene/air counterflow diffusion flame at elevated pressure was investigated using two angle light scattering/extinction technique. To provide a well-controlled pressurized environment for the flame, a novel pressure vessel was built with the required optical access. The soot parameters were measured along the centerline of the counterflow flame. These properties included soot volume fraction (f ), primary particle diameter (d ), population averaged radius of gyration (R ) and number density of primary particles (n ). The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory for Fractal Aggregates (RDG-FA) was used to retrieve these properties from scattering and extinction measurements. Soot volume fraction was measured via light extinction from 2 to 5atm while maintaining the same global strain rate at all pressures. Scattered light from soot particles was measured at 45° and 135° and primary particle diameter was calculated using scattering/extinction ratio and the radius of gyration was determined from the dissymmetry ratio. Soot volume fraction, primary particle diameter and radius of gyration all increased with pressure while the number density of primary particles decreased with increasing pressure.
Ortiz Montalvo, D. L.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Soto-García, L. L.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.
2006-12-01
Combustion generated particles are a concern to both climate and public health due to their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation and alter cloud properties, and because they are small enough to be inhaled and deposit in the lungs where they may cause respiratory and other health problems. Specific concern is focused on particles that originate from the combustion of diesel fuel. Diesels particles are composed mainly of carbonaceous material, especially in locations where diesel fuel sulfur is low. These particles are black due to the strongly light absorbing nature of the refractory carbon components, appropriately called black carbon (BC). This research project focuses on the uncertainty in the measurement of BC mass concentration, which is typically determined by analysis of particles collected on a filter using a thermal-optical analysis (TOA) method. Many studies have been conducted to examine the accuracy of the commonly used variations of the TOA method, which vary in their sample heating protocol, carrier gas, and optical measurement. These studies show that BC measurements are inaccurate due to the presence of organic carbon (OC) in the aerosols. OC may co-evolve with BC or char to form BC during analysis, both of which make it difficult to distinguish between the OC and BC in the sample. The goal of this study is to develop the capability of producing standard samples of known amounts of BC, either alone or mixed with other aerosol constituents, and then evaluate which TOA methods accurately determine the BC amount. An inverted diffusion flame of methane and air was used to produce particle samples containing only BC as well as samples of BC mixed with humic acid (HA). Our study found that HA is light absorbing and catalyzes the combustion of BC. It is expected that both of these attributes will challenge the ability of TOA methods in distinguishing between OC and BC, such as the simple two step TOA method which relies solely on temperature to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tournarie, Max
1959-01-01
The total diffusing power for a crystallite of any form containing a centrosymmetric defect has been established. The antisymmetrical part of the deformation potential only contributes very slightly to the primary dissymmetry. We then go on to study the case of a group of defects of the same type. The calculation converges sufficiently to describe the thermal agitation of an infinite crystal. Reprint of a paper published in 'Comptes Rendus des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences', t. 248, p. 2103-2105, sitting of April 6, 1959 [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tzannis, A P; Beaud, P; Frey, H M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
Resonant Holographic Interferometry is a method based on the anomalous dispersion of light having a frequency close to an electronic transition of a molecule. We propose a novel single-laser, two-colour setup for recording resonant holograms and apply it to 2D species concentration measurements. The second colour is generated by optical phase-conjugation from Stimulated Brillouin scattering in a cell. Phase-Conjugate Resonant Holographic Interferometry (PCRHI) is demonstrated in a 2D NH{sub 3}/O{sub 2} flame yielding interferograms that contain information on the NH radical distribution in the flame. Experimental results are quantified by applying a numerical computation of the Voigt profiles. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.
Impact of flame-wall interaction on premixed flame dynamics and transfer function characteristics
Kedia, K.S.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we numerically investigate the response of a perforated-plate stabilized laminar methane-air premixed flame to imposed inlet velocity perturbations. A flame model using detailed chemical kinetics mechanism is applied and heat exchange between the burner plate and the gas mixture is incorporated. Linear transfer functions, for low mean inlet velocity oscillations, are analyzed for different equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, plate thermal conductivity and distance between adjacent holes. The oscillations of the heat exchange rate at the top of the burner surface plays a critical role in driving the growth of the perturbations over a wide range of conditions, including resonance. The flame response to the perturbations at its base takes the form of consumption speed oscillations in this region. Flame stand-off distance increases/decreases when the flame-wall interaction strengthens/weakens, impacting the overall dynamics of the heat release. The convective lag between the perturbations and the flame base response govern the phase of heat release rate oscillations. There is an additional convective lag between the perturbations at the flame base and the flame tip which has a weaker impact on the heat release rate oscillations. At higher frequencies, the flame-wall interaction is weaker and the heat release oscillations are driven by the flame area oscillations. The response of the flame to higher amplitude oscillations are used to gain further insight into the mechanisms. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitry V. Lukyanenko
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work develops a theory of the asymptotic-numerical investigation of the moving fronts in reaction-diffusion-advection models. By considering the numerical solution of the singularly perturbed Burgers’s equation we discuss a method of dynamically adapted mesh construction that is able to significantly improve the numerical solution of this type of equations. For the construction we use a priori information that is based on the asymptotic analysis of the problem. In particular, we take into account the information about the speed of the transition layer, its width and structure. Our algorithms are able to reduce significantly complexity and enhance stability of the numerical calculations in comparison with classical approaches for solving this class of problems. The numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.The article is published in the authors’ wording.
Wang, Yu
2014-05-01
The effect of the strain rate on the sooting limits in counterflow diffusion flames was investigated in various gaseous hydrocarbon fuels by varying the nitrogen dilution in the fuel and oxidizer streams. The sooting limit was defined as the critical fuel and oxygen mole fraction at which soot started to appear in the elastic light scattering signal. The sooting region for normal alkane fuels at a specified strain rate, in terms of the fuel and oxygen mole fraction, expanded as the number of carbon atoms increased. The alkene fuels (ethylene, propene) tested had a higher propensity for sooting as compared with alkane fuels with the same carbon numbers (ethane, propane). Branched iso-butane had a higher propensity for sooting than did n-butane. An increase in the strain rate reduced the tendency for sooting in all the fuels tested. The sensitivity of the sooting limit to the strain rate was more pronounced for less sooting fuels. When plotted in terms of calculated flame temperature, the critical oxygen mole fraction exhibited an Arrhenius form under sooting limit conditions, which can be utilized to significantly reduce the effort required to determine sooting limits at different strain rates. We found that the limiting temperatures of soot formation flames are viable sooting metrics for quantitatively rating the sooting tendency of various fuels, based on comparisons with threshold soot index and normalized smoke point data. We also introduce a sooting temperature index and a sooting sensitivity index, two quantitative measures to describe sooting propensity and its dependence on strain rate. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Chung, Yong Ho
2013-03-01
This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams mapping the flame extinction response of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames to varying global strain rates in terms of burner diameter, burner gap, and velocity ratio. A critical nitrogen mole fraction exists beyond which the flame cannot be sustained; the critical nitrogen mole fraction versus global strain rate curves have C-shapes for various burner diameters, burner gaps, and velocity ratios. At sufficiently high strain-rate flames, these curves collapse into one curve; therefore, the flames follow the one-dimensional flame response of a typical diffusion flame. Low strain-rate flames are significantly affected by radial conductive heat loss, and therefore flame length. Three flame extinction modes are identified: flame extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame with or without oscillations at the outer-edge flame prior to the extinction, and flame extinction through a flame hole at the flame center. The extinction modes are significantly affected by the behavior of the outer-edge flame. Detailed explanations are provided based on the measured flame-surface temperature and numerical evaluation of the fractional contribution of each term in the energy equation. Radial conductive heat loss at the flame edge to ambience is the main mechanism of extinction through shrinkage of the outer-edge flame in low strain-rate flames. Reduction of the burner diameter can extend the flame extinction mode by shrinking the outer-edge flame in higher strain-rate flames. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HADEF AMAR
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Highly exothermic reactions are responsible for the formation of harmful polluting chemical species to humans and the biosphere. In this context, nitrogen oxides (NOx are pollutants that are the subject of special attention on the part of regulators. In this work we studied the impact of a co-flow swirl on the internal structure of a turbulent diffusion flame H2-N2/Air and its role in reducing the formation of NO, which is modeled by the concept of laminar flamelet, while the flow field is modeled by the standard model k-ε, with a correction term for round jets.The results show good agreement with data from the experimental data.
Nishihara, Munetake; Freund, Jonathan B.; Glumac, Nick G.; Elliott, Gregory S.
2018-03-01
This paper presents dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements for simultaneous detection of flow temperature and relative concentration, applied to the characterization of a discharge-coupled reacting jet in a cross flow. The diagnostic is hydrogen Q-branch based, providing a much wider dynamic range compared to detection in the S-branch. For a previously developed dielectric barrier discharge, aligned co-axially with the fuel jet, OH planar laser induced fluorescence measurements show that the disturbance in the flame boundary leads to mixing enhancement. The H2-N2 dual-pump CARS measurement was used to map two-dimensional temperature distributions. The increase of the maximum temperature was up to 300 K, with 50% more H2 consumption, providing the reason for the decrease in the flame length by 25%. The increase of the relative H2O-H2 fraction was accompanied with a temperature increase, which indicates local equivalence ratios of below 1. The H2-O2 dual-pump measurements confirmed that the fuel-oxidizer ratios remain in the fuel-lean side at most of the probed locations.
van Loon, J.Th.; Bailey, M.; Tatton, B.L.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; Evans, C.J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Howarth, I.D.; Richter, P.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.; Walborn, N.R.
2013-01-01
Context. The Tarantula Nebula (a.k.a. 30 Dor) is a spectacular star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), seen through gas in the Galactic disc and halo. Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) offer a unique probe of the diffuse, cool-warm gas in these regions. Aims. The aim is to use DIBs
Characteristics of Oscillating Flames in a Coaxial Confined Jet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Suk Cha
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Flame characteristics when a non-premixed n-butane jet is ejected into a coaxial cylindrical tube are investigated experimentally. Flame stability depends mainly on the characteristics of flame propagation as well as air entrainment which depend on the jet momentum and on the distance between the nozzle exit and the base of a confined tube. As flow rate increases, the flame lifts off from a nozzle attached diffusion flame and a stationary lifted flame can be stabilized. The liftoff height increases nearly linearly with the average velocity at the nozzle exit. The lifted flame has a tribrachial flame structure, which consists of a rich premixed flame, a lean premixed flame, and a diffusion flame, all extending from a single location. As flow rate further increases, periodically oscillating flames are observed inside the confined tube. Once flame oscillation occurs, the flame undergoes relatively stable oscillation such that it has nearly constant oscillation amplitude and frequency. The criteria of flame oscillation are mapped as functions of nozzle diameter, the distance between nozzle and tube, and jet velocity. This type of flame oscillation can be characterized by Strouhal number in terms of flame oscillation amplitude, frequency, and jet velocity. Buoyancy driven flame oscillation which is one of the viable mechanism for flame oscillation is modeled and the results agrees qualitatively with experimental results, suggesting that the oscillation is due to periodic blowoff and flashback under the influence of buoyancy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghazaleh Esmaeelzade
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The effect of upstream velocity perturbations on the response of a premixed flame was investigated in terms of the flame transfer function dependency on excitation frequency. In this study, the assumption of constant flame speed was extended and the effect of flame speed development was considered; i.e., the flame speed would grow with the time after ignition or with the distance from a flame-holder. In the present study, the kinematics of a conical flame was investigated by linearization of the front tracking equation of flame to uniform and convected fluctuations of the flow velocity and the response was compared with that of a V-shaped flame and the experimental data in the previous studies. The results show that the effect of flame speed development could influence a decreasing gain and increase the phase of the flame response to the uniform velocity oscillations in low and moderate frequencies. Comparing the variations in the gain of flame response upon normalized frequency, show that a conical flame has lower values than the V-flame. In other words, these flames might be less susceptible to combustion instabilities than the V-flames. Furthermore, the variations in phase of the V-flames responses, which show a quasi-linear behavior with normalized frequency, have higher values than the saturated behavior in phase of the conical flame responses. Also, considering that the flame speed development induces an increase in the gain and phase of the conical flame response to the convected velocity oscillations in certain frequencies; because the developed flame front has longer length in comparison to the flame front in constant flame speed model. Therefore, the flame length may be longer than convective wavelength and the heat release would be generated in different points of the flame; consequently the flow oscillations might exert a stronger impact on the unsteady heat release fluctuations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeuchi, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueda, T; Mizumoto, M [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Amari, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-10-25
A stability limit of the diffusion flame with fuel injection from a porous wall in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is measured as functions of fuel (CH4) concentration of CH4/N2 injectant mixture ({chi}) and its injection velocity (v). The free stream velocity (U{infinity}) is set as 0.6 m/s. The thermal condition at the wall is controlled by setting temperature at the upstream end of the porous wall as a reference temperature. When v >20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the separation of leading flame edge with decreasing {chi}. The value of {chi} at the stability limit is constant without regard to v as long as the wall temperature is kept constant. As the wall temperature is decreased the value of {chi} increases. The separation is supposed to take place as a result of the limit of the reaction rate. When v <20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the oscillation. The value of {chi} at the stability limit increases drastically with decreasing v. The oscillation takes place mainly due to the repeat of the extinction due to heat loss to the wall and the flame propagation in the combustible layer. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Sabbi, Elena, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others
2015-08-10
Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.
Ismail, Mohamed
2016-01-19
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ismail, Mohamed A. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia); Memon, Nasir K., E-mail: nmemon@qf.org.qa [HBKU, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) (Qatar); Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H. [KAUST, Imaging and Characterization Lab (Saudi Arabia); Chung, Suk Ho [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia)
2016-01-15
Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO{sub 2}), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}), silica-coated (Si–TiO{sub 2}), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO{sub 2}) TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO{sub 2}. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO{sub 2} and V–TiO{sub 2}, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO{sub 2}, Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, and Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. For C–TiO{sub 2} and Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO{sub 2}. With regards to Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO{sub 2} particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards
Ismail, Mohamed; Memon, Nasir K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubaschewski, O.
1983-01-01
The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes
Extinction of corrugated hydrogen/air flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizomoto, M.; Asaka, Y.; Ikai, S.; Law, C.K.
1982-01-01
Recent studies on flammability limits reveal the importance of flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and molecular and thermal diffusivities in determining the extinguishability and the associated limits of premixed fuel/air flames. In particular, it is found that conditions which favor extinction of a lean flame may cause intensification of a rich flame. In the present study the authors have experimentally determined the extinction characteristics and limits of highly curved hydrogen/air flames as represented by the opening of bunsen flame tips. Results show that the tip opens at a constant fuel equivalence ratio of phi = 1.15, regardless of the velocity and uniformity of the upstream flow. This critical mixture concentration, while being rich, is still on the lean side of that corresponding to the maximum burning velocity (phi = 1.8), implying that for highly diffusive systems, the relevant reference concentration is that for maximum burning velocity instead of stoichiometry
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...
Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool; Katsuki, Masashi
2008-01-01
Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results
Prediction of flame formation in highly preheated air combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jang Sik; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Katsuki, Masashi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)
2008-11-15
Fundamental information about the ignition position and shape of a flame in highly preheated air combustion was obtained, and the suitability of the suggested reduced kinetic mechanism that reflects the characteristics of the highly preheated air combustion was demonstrated. Flame lift height and flame length with variations of premixed air temperature and oxygen concentration were measured by CH chemiluminescence intensity, and were computed with a reduced kinetic mechanism. Flame attached near a fuel nozzle started to lift when preheated air temperature became close to auto-ignition temperature and/or oxygen concentration reduced. The flame lift height increased but the flame length decreased with decreasing preheated air temperature and flame length reversed after a minimum value. Calculated results showed good agreement with those of experiment within tolerable error. Flame shape shifted from diffusion flame shape to partial premixed flame shape with increasing lift height and this tendency was also observed in the computation results
Rakha, Ihsan Allah
2015-01-01
The steady coflow diffusion flame is a widely used configuration for studying combustion kinetics, flame dynamics, and pollutant formation. In the current work, a set of diluted ethylene-air coflow flames are simulated to study the formation, growth
Chowdhury, Snehaunshu; Boyette, Wesley; Roberts, William L.
2017-01-01
In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating
Chowdhury, Snehaunshu
2017-01-23
In this study, we demonstrate the use of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) as an effective tool to measure the probability density functions (PDFs) of soot nanoparticles in turbulent flames. Time-averaged soot PDFs necessary for validating existing soot models are reported at intervals of ∆x/D∆x/D = 5 along the centerline of turbulent, non-premixed, C2H4/N2 flames. The jet exit Reynolds numbers of the flames investigated were 10,000 and 20,000. A simplified burner geometry based on a published design was chosen to aid modelers. Soot was sampled directly from the flame using a sampling probe with a 0.5-mm diameter orifice and diluted with N2 by a two-stage dilution process. The overall dilution ratio was not evaluated. An SMPS system was used to analyze soot particle concentrations in the diluted samples. Sampling conditions were optimized over a wide range of dilution ratios to eliminate the effect of agglomeration in the sampling probe. Two differential mobility analyzers (DMAs) with different size ranges were used separately in the SMPS measurements to characterize the entire size range of particles. In both flames, the PDFs were found to be mono-modal in nature near the jet exit. Further downstream, the profiles were flatter with a fall-off at larger particle diameters. The geometric mean of the soot size distributions was less than 10 nm for all cases and increased monotonically with axial distance in both flames.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seregin, A.S.
2000-01-01
In the paper the formulae for perturbation theory functionals calculation are given and equations are based on improved coarse mesh discretization of diffusion problem in 3-dimensional geometry (Hex-Z). Expressions for the reactivity effect components and reactivity coefficients, written in the framework of the first order perturbation theory, are presented. On this basis the formulae for estimation of the sensitivity coefficients of different reactivity effects group cross-sections were derived. Expressions for the reactivity effect and its components obtained in the framework of the strict perturbation theory, are also presented in the paper. (author)
Flames in vortices & tulip-flame inversion
Dold, J. W.
This article summarises two areas of research regarding the propagation of flames in flows which involve significant fluid-dynamical motion [1]-[3]. The major difference between the two is that in the first study the fluid motion is present before the arrival of any flame and remains unaffected by the flame [1, 2] while, in the second study it is the flame that is responsible for all of the fluid dynamical effects [3]. It is currently very difficult to study flame-motion in which the medium is both highly disturbed before the arrival of a flame and is further influenced by the passage of the flame.
Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Hee Jang
2009-01-01
This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO 2 /H 2 O 2 should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames
Analysis of flame shapes in turbulent hydrogen jet flames with coaxial air
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Hee Jang [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
2009-06-15
This paper addresses the characteristics of flame shapes and flame length in three types of coaxial air flames realizable by varying coaxial air and/or fuel velocity. Forcing coaxial air into turbulent jet flames induces substantial changes in flame shapes and NOx emissions through the complex flow interferences that exist within the mixing region. Mixing enhancement driven by coaxial air results in flame volume decrease, and such a diminished flame volume finally reduces NOx emissions significantly by decreasing NOx formation zone where a fuel/air mixture burns. It is found that mixing in the vicinity of high temperature zone mainly results from the increase of diffusive flux than the convective flux, and that the increase of mass diffusion is amplified as coaxial air is increased. Besides, it is reaffirmed that nonequilibrium chemistry including HO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be taken into account for NOx prediction and scaling analysis by comparing turbulent combustion models. In addition, it is found that coaxial air can break down the self-similarity law of flames by changing mixing mechanism, and that EINOx scaling parameters based on the self-similarity law of simple jet flames may not be eligible in coaxial air flames
Stability and Behaviors of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen Micro Flames
Yoshimoto, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Koichiro; Kitamura, Hideki; Tanigawa, Ryoichi
The flame stability limits essentially define the fundamental operation of the combustion system. Recently the micro diffusion flame has been remarked. The critical conditions of the flame stability limit are highly dependent on nozzle diameter, species of fuel and so on. The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane and Hydrogen is formed by using the micro-scale nozzle of which inner diameter is less than 1mm. The configurations and behaviors of the flame are observed directly and visualized by the high speed video camera The criteria of stability limits are proposed for the micro diffusion flame. The objectives of the present study are to get further understanding of lifting/blow-off for the micro diffusion flame. The results obtained are as follows. (1) The behaviors of the flames are classified into some regions for each diffusion flame. (2) The micro diffusion flame of Methane/Propane cannot be sustained, when the nozzle diameter is less than 0.14 mm. (3) The diffusion flame cannot be sustained below the critical fuel flow rate. (4) The minimum flow which is formed does not depends on the average jet velocity, but on the fuel flow rate. (5) the micro flame is laminar. The flame length is decided by fuel flow rate.
Flame Dynamics and Chemistry in LRE Combustion Instability
2016-12-22
negative temperature coefficient phenomenon and engine knock. In this work, the coupling of cool flame chemistry and convective– diffusive transport...note, practical engine conditions are highly turbulent, and the autoignition phenomenon depends on both chemistry and turbulent mixing. For example...negative temperature coefficient (NTC) phenomenon and engine knock. In this work, the coupling of cool flame chemistry and convective–diffusive
Gravitational Effects on Cellular Flame Structure
Dunsky, C. M.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.
1991-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted of the effect of gravity on the structure of downwardly propagating, cellular premixed propane-oxygen-nitrogen flames anchored on a water-cooled porous-plug burner. The flame is subjected to microgravity conditions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, and flame characteristics are recorded on high-speed film. These are compared to flames at normal gravity conditions with the same equivalence ratio, dilution index, mixture flow rate, and ambient pressure. The results show that the cellular instability band, which is located in the rich mixture region, changes little under the absence of gravity. Lifted normal-gravity flames near the cellular/lifted limits, however, are observed to become cellular when gravity is reduced. Observations of a transient cell growth period following ignition point to heat loss as being an important mechanism in the overall flame stability, dominating the stabilizing effect of buoyancy for these downwardly-propagating burner-anchored flames. The pulsations that are observed in the plume and diffusion flame generated downstream of the premixed flame in the fuel rich cases disappear in microgravity, verifying that these fluctuations are gravity related.
2012-11-21
examination of some of the aromatics show that the model captures well benzene from toluene decomposition in BF, but underpredicts styrene and ethylbenzene ...critical toluene pyrolysis products and stable soot precursors were compared with computational models using two semi-detailed chemical mechanisms... ethylbenzene , which at least one of the mechanisms reproduces quite well. The largest measured species in the incipiently sooting flame is indene, whose
Flame Speed and Self-Similar Propagation of Expanding Turbulent Premixed Flames
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Zhu, Delin; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
In this Letter we present turbulent flame speeds and their scaling from experimental measurements on constant-pressure, unity Lewis number expanding turbulent flames, propagating in nearly homogeneous isotropic turbulence in a dual-chamber, fan-stirred vessel. It is found that the normalized turbulent flame speed as a function of the average radius scales as a turbulent Reynolds number to the one-half power, where the average radius is the length scale and the thermal diffusivity is the transport property, thus showing self-similar propagation. Utilizing this dependence it is found that the turbulent flame speeds from the present expanding flames and those from the Bunsen geometry in the literature can be unified by a turbulent Reynolds number based on flame length scales using recent theoretical results obtained by spectral closure of the transformed G equation.
M. Al-Noman, Saeed
2016-07-07
Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high-temperature coflow air are studied numerically. Several flame configurations are investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. At a relatively low initial temperature, a non-autoignited nozzle-attached flame is simulated at relatively low jet velocity. When the initial temperature is higher than that required for autoignition, two regimes are investigated: an autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge structure and an autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion. The autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial edge exhibited three branches: lean and rich premixed flame wings and a trailing diffusion flame. Characteristics of kinetic structure for autoignited lifted flames are discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of stoichiometric mixture. Results showed that a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. The autoignited lifted flame with Mild combustion occurs when methane fuel is highly diluted with nitrogen. The kinetic structure analysis shows that the characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to nozzle-attached flame was investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction. As the maximum flame temperature increases with decreasing liftoff height, the kinetic structure showed a transition behavior from autoignition to flame propagation of a lean premixed flame. © 2016 The Combustion Institute
Structure of Unsteady Partially Premixed Flames and the Existence of State Relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh K. Aggarwal
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, we examine the structure and existence of state relationships in unsteady partially premixed flames (PPFs subjected to buoyancy-induced and external perturbations. A detailed numerical model is employed to simulate the steady and unsteady two-dimensional PPFs established using a slot burner under normal and zero-gravity conditions. The coflow velocity is parametrically varied. The methane-air chemistry is modeled using a fairly detailed mechanism that contains 81 elementary reactions and 24 species. Validation of the computational model is provided through comparisons of predictions with nonintrusive measurements. The combustion proceeds in two reaction zones, one a rich premixed zone and the other a nonpremixed zone. These reaction zones are spatially separated, but involve strong interactions between them due to thermochemistry and scalar transport. The fuel is mostly consumed in the premixed zone to produce CO and H2, which are transported to and consumed in the nonpremixed zone. The nonpremixed zone in turn provides heat and H-atoms to the premixed zone. For the range of conditions investigated, the zero-g partially premixed flames exhibit a stable behavior and a remarkably strong resistance to perturbations. In contrast, the corresponding normal-gravity flames exhibit oscillatory behavior at low coflow velocities but a stable behavior at high coflow velocities, and the behavior can be explained in terms of a global and convective instabilities. The effects of coflow and gravity on the flames are characterized through a parameter VR, defined as the ratio of coflow velocity to jet velocity. For VR ≤ 1 (low coflow velocity regime, the structures of both 0- and 1-g flames are strongly sensitive to changes in VR, while they are only mildly affected by coflow in the high coflow velocity regime (VR > 1. In addition, the spatio-temporal characteristics of the 0- and 1-g flames are markedly different in the first regime, but are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))
1993-11-25
The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Wu, Fujia; Law, Chung
2012-11-01
In this work we clarify the role of Markstein diffusivity on turbulent flame speed and it's scaling, from analysis and experimental measurements on constant-pressure expanding flames propagating in near isotropic turbulence. For all C0-C4 hydrocarbon-air mixtures presented in this work and recently published C8 data from Leeds, the normalized turbulent flame speed data of individual mixtures approximately follows the recent theoretical and experimental ReT, f 0 . 5 scaling, where the average radius is the length scale and thermal diffusivity is the transport property. We observe that for a constant ReT, f 0 . 5 , the normalized turbulent flame speed decreases with increasing Mk. This could be explained by considering Markstein diffusivity as the large wavenumber, flame surface fluctuation dissipation mechanism. As originally suggested by the theory, replacing thermal diffusivity with Markstein diffusivity in the turbulence Reynolds number definition above, the present and Leeds dataset could be scaled by the new ReT, f 0 . 5 irrespective of the fuel considered, equivalence ratio, pressure and turbulence intensity for positive Mk flames. This work was supported by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001198 and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Al-Noman, Saeed M.
2016-06-01
mainly between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge. On the other hand, they were formed just prior to the flame edge for the non-autoignited lifted flames. The effect of fuel pyrolysis and partial oxidation were found to be important in explaining autoignited liftoff heights, especially in the Mild combustion regime. Flame structures of autoignited flames were investigated numerically for syngas (CO/H2) and methane fuels. The simulations of syngas fuel accounting for the differential diffusion have been performed by adopting several kinetic mechanisms to test the models ability in predicting the flame behaviors observed previously. The results agreed well with the observed nozzle-attached flame characteristics in case of non-autoignited flames. For autoignited lifted flames in high temperature regime, a unique autoignition behavior can be predicted having HO2 and H2O2 radicals in a broad region between the nozzle and stabilized lifted flame edge. Autoignition characteristics of laminar nonpremixed methane jet flames in high- temperature coflow air were studied numerically. Several flame configurations were investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. Characteristics of chemical kinetics structures for autoignited lifted flames were discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of premixed mixtures. Results showed that for autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial structure, a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. Characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to a nozzle-attached flame was also investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction.
Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions
Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.
2018-03-01
Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.
Direct numerical simulations of non-premixed ethylene-air flames: Local flame extinction criterion
Lecoustre, Vivien R.
2014-11-01
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of ethylene/air diffusion flame extinctions in decaying two-dimensional turbulence were performed. A Damköhler-number-based flame extinction criterion as provided by classical large activation energy asymptotic (AEA) theory is assessed for its validity in predicting flame extinction and compared to one based on Chemical Explosive Mode Analysis (CEMA) of the detailed chemistry. The DNS code solves compressible flow conservation equations using high order finite difference and explicit time integration schemes. The ethylene/air chemistry is simulated with a reduced mechanism that is generated based on the directed relation graph (DRG) based methods along with stiffness removal. The numerical configuration is an ethylene fuel strip embedded in ambient air and exposed to a prescribed decaying turbulent flow field. The emphasis of this study is on the several flame extinction events observed in contrived parametric simulations. A modified viscosity and changing pressure (MVCP) scheme was adopted in order to artificially manipulate the probability of flame extinction. Using MVCP, pressure was changed from the baseline case of 1 atm to 0.1 and 10 atm. In the high pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame is extinction-free, whereas in the low pressure MVCP case, the simulated flame features frequent extinction events and is close to global extinction. Results show that, despite its relative simplicity and provided that the global flame activation temperature is correctly calibrated, the AEA-based flame extinction criterion can accurately predict the simulated flame extinction events. It is also found that the AEA-based criterion provides predictions of flame extinction that are consistent with those provided by a CEMA-based criterion. This study supports the validity of a simple Damköhler-number-based criterion to predict flame extinction in engineering-level CFD models. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartlett, R.; Kirtman, B.; Davidson, E.R.
1978-01-01
After noting some advantages of using perturbation theory some of the various types are related on a chart and described, including many-body nonlinear summations, quartic force-field fit for geometry, fourth-order correlation approximations, and a survey of some recent work. Alternative initial approximations in perturbation theory are also discussed. 25 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mugica R, C.A. [IPN, ESFM, Depto. de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2004-07-01
Diverse methods exist to solve numerically the neutron diffusion equation for several energy groups in stationary state among those that highlight those of finite elements. In this work the numerical solution of this equation is presented using Raviart-Thomas nodal methods type finite element, the RT0 and RT1, in combination with iterative techniques that allow to obtain the approached solution in a quick form. Nevertheless the above mentioned, the precision of a method is intimately bound to the dimension of the approach space by cell, 5 for the case RT0 and 12 for the RT1, and/or to the mesh refinement, that makes the order of the problem of own value to solve to grow considerably. By this way if it wants to know an acceptable approach to the value of the effective multiplication factor of the system when this it has experimented a small perturbation it was appeal to the Linear perturbation theory with which is possible to determine it starting from the neutron flow and of the effective multiplication factor of the not perturbed case. Results are presented for a reference problem in which a perturbation is introduced in an assemble that simulates changes in the control bar. (Author)
Luca, Stefano; Bisetti, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
A set of lifted tribrachial n-heptane flames in a laminar jet configuration are simulated. The simulations are performed using finite rate chemistry and detailed transport, and aim at investigating the propagation of tribrachial flames. Varying the inlet velocity of the fuel, different stabilization heights are obtained, and the dependence of the stabilization height in the inlet velocity is compared with experimental data. A detailed analysis of the flame geometry is performed by comparingthe flame structure to that of unstretched premixed flames. Issues related to differential diffusion effects, flame stretch, and transport of heat and mass from the burnt gases to the flame front are discussed.
Luca, Stefano
2015-03-30
A set of lifted tribrachial n-heptane flames in a laminar jet configuration are simulated. The simulations are performed using finite rate chemistry and detailed transport, and aim at investigating the propagation of tribrachial flames. Varying the inlet velocity of the fuel, different stabilization heights are obtained, and the dependence of the stabilization height in the inlet velocity is compared with experimental data. A detailed analysis of the flame geometry is performed by comparingthe flame structure to that of unstretched premixed flames. Issues related to differential diffusion effects, flame stretch, and transport of heat and mass from the burnt gases to the flame front are discussed.
Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air
Al-Noman, Saeed M.
2018-05-16
Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.
Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether in heated coflow air
Al-Noman, Saeed M.; Choi, Byung Chul; Chung, Suk-Ho
2018-01-01
Autoignited lifted flames of dimethyl ether (DME) in laminar nonpremixed jets with high-temperature coflow air have been studied experimentally. When the initial temperature was elevated to over 860 K, an autoignition occurred without requiring an external ignition source. A planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique for formaldehyde (CH2O) visualized qualitatively the zone of low temperature kinetics in a premixed flame. Two flame configurations were investigated; (1) autoignited lifted flames with tribrachial edge having three distinct branches of a lean and a rich premixed flame wings with a trailing diffusion flame and (2) autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion when the fuel was highly diluted. For the autoignited tribrachial edge flames at critical autoignition conditions, exhibiting repetitive extinction and re-ignition phenomena near a blowout condition, the characteristic flow time (liftoff height scaled with jet velocity) was correlated with the square of the ignition delay time of the stoichiometric mixture. The liftoff heights were also correlated as a function of jet velocity times the square of ignition delay time. Formaldehydes were observed between the fuel nozzle and the lifted flame edge, emphasizing a low-temperature kinetics for autoignited lifted flames, while for a non-autoignited lifted flame, formaldehydes were observed near a thin luminous flame zone.For the autoignited lifted flames with mild combustion, especially at a high temperature, a unique non-monotonic liftoff height behavior was observed; decreasing and then increasing liftoff height with jet velocity. This behavior was similar to the binary mixture fuels of CH4/H2 and CO/H2 observed previously. A transient homogeneous autoignition analysis suggested that such decreasing behavior with jet velocity can be attributed to partial oxidation characteristics of DME in producing appreciable amounts of CH4/CO/H2 ahead of the edge flame region.
An Optical Study of Processes in Hydrogen Flame in a Tube
2002-07-01
growth of the hydrogen- flame length with the hydrogen flow rate was observed, whereas for a turbulent hydrogen jet (Reynolds number Re > 104 [5]), the... flame length remained almost constant and varied only weakly with the flow rate of hydrogen. For a subsonic jet flow, flame images display an...There are some data in the literature which show how the diffusive- flame length varies with the rate of hydrogen flow [4, 7]. The length of a
On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread
Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L
2007-01-01
Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...
Chaotic radiation/turbulence interactions in flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.
1998-11-01
In this paper, the authors present a review of their recent efforts to model chaotic radiation-turbulence interactions in flames. The main focus is to characterize soot volume fraction fluctuations in turbulent diffusion flames, as they strongly contribute to these interaction. The approach is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuations of properties in turbulent flames are deterministic in nature, rather than random. The authors first discuss the theoretical details and then they briefly outline the experiments conducted to measure the scattered light signals from fluctuating soot particles along the axis of an ethylene-air diffusion flame. They compare the power spectra and time series obtained from experiments against the ad-hoc and rigorous models derived using a series of logistic maps. These logistic maps can be used in simulation of the fluctuations in these type of flames, without extensive computational effort or sacrifice of physical detail. Availability of accurate models of these kinds allows investigation of radiation-turbulence interactions at a more fundamental level than it was previously possible.
Early structure of LPG partially premixed conically stabilized flames
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2013-01-01
This paper presents experimental investigation of LPG partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized within a conical nozzle burner under constant degree of partial premixing. The stability limits and mean flame structure are presented based on the mean gas temperature and the concentration of CO, O 2, NO, and HC at the flame early region of reaction. The investigation covered the influence of the nozzle cone angle, the jet exit velocity and the jet equivalence ratio. The stability results show that the flames with cone are more stable than those without cone. For conical stabilized flames, the stability results exhibit three different sensitivity regions between the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The inflame measurements prove that the flame stability could be attributed to the triple flame structure at the flame leading edge. The data show that the triple flame structure is influenced by cone angle, the jet velocity and the equivalence ratio. The flame is believed to be controlled by the recirculation flow inside the cone. Increasing the cone angle induced higher air entrainment to the reaction zone as depicted by a higher O 2 concentration within the flame leading edge. Increasing the jet velocity to a certain limit enhances the intensity of combustion at the flame leading edge, while excessive increase in jet velocity reduces this intensity. At a fixed jet velocity the higher the equivalence ratio, the higher the amount of fuel diffused and engulfed to the reaction zone, the more delay of the combustion completion and the higher the emission concentrations of the flame. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
C. Colloca TS/FM
2004-01-01
TS/FM group informs you that, for the progress of the works at the Prévessin site entrance, some perturbation of the traffic may occur during the week between the 14th and 18th of June for a short duration. Access will be assured at any time. For more information, please contact 160239. C. Colloca TS/FM
1993-04-14
flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I simultaneously with h. L(t) was found to be nearly uncorrelated with h(t...variation of 7i/2 /76 with ýh. These experiments included measuring the flame length L simultaneously with h, and measuring the visible radiation I...Measurements of Liftoff Height and Flame Length ... 66 4.5 Simultaneous Measurements of Liftoff Height and Radiation ....... 71 4.6 D scussion
The acoustic response of burner-stabilised flat flames : a two-dimensional numerical analysis
Rook, R.; Goey, de L.P.H.
2003-01-01
The response of burner-stabilized flat flames to acoustic perturbations is studied numerically. So far, one-dimensional models have been used to study this system. However, in most practical surface burners, the scale of the perforations in the burner plate is of the order of the flame thickness.
Saturation mechanism of the heat release response of a premixed swirl flame using LES
Krediet, H.J.; Beck, C. H.; Krebs, W.; Kok, J. B.W.
2013-01-01
The nonlinear heat release response of a premixed swirl flame to velocity perturbations is investigated using Large Eddy Simulation. The nonlinear heat release response is required for the prediction of thermoacoustic limit cycle pressure amplitudes and is represented here by the Flame Describing
Measurements of turbulent premixed flame dynamics using cinema stereoscopic PIV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinberg, Adam M.; Driscoll, James F. [University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ceccio, Steven L. [University of Michigan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2008-06-15
A new experimental method is described that provides high-speed movies of turbulent premixed flame wrinkling dynamics and the associated vorticity fields. This method employs cinema stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and has been applied to a turbulent slot Bunsen flame. Three-component velocity fields were measured with high temporal and spatial resolutions of 0.9 ms and 140{mu}m, respectively. The flame-front location was determined using a new multi-step method based on particle image gradients, which is described. Comparisons are made between flame fronts found with this method and simultaneous CH-PLIF images. These show that the flame contour determined corresponds well to the true location of maximum gas density gradient. Time histories of typical eddy-flame interactions are reported and several important phenomena identified. Outwardly rotating eddy pairs wrinkle the flame and are attenuated at they pass through the flamelet. Significant flame-generated vorticity is produced downstream of the wrinkled tip. Similar wrinkles are caused by larger groups of outwardly rotating eddies. Inwardly rotating pairs cause significant convex wrinkles that grow as the flame propagates. These wrinkles encounter other eddies that alter their behavior. The effects of the hydrodynamic and diffusive instabilities are observed and found to be significant contributors to the formation and propagation of wrinkles. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lockett, R D
2006-01-01
Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio φ > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lockett, R D [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)
2006-07-15
Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio {phi} > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks.
Numerical simulation of nitrogen oxide formation in lean premixed turbulent H2/O2/N2 flames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Day, Marc S.; Bell, John B.; Gao, Xinfeng
2011-01-01
Lean premixed hydrogen flames are thermodiffusively unstable and burn in cellular structures. Within these cellular structures the flame is locally enriched by preferential diffusion of hydrogen, leading to local hotspots that burn more intensely than an idealized flat steady flame at comparable ...
Aerothermodynamic properties of stretched flames in enclosures
Rotman, D. A.; Oppenheim, A. K.
Flames are stretched by being pulled along their frontal surface by the flow field in which they reside. Their trajectories tend to approach particle paths, acquiring eventually the role of contact boundaries, -interfaces between the burnt and unburnt medium that may broaden solely as a consequence of diffusion. Fundamental properties of flow fields governing such flames are determined here on the basis of the zero Mach number model, providng a rational method of approach to the computational analysis of combustion fields in enclosures where, besides the aerodynamic properties flow, the thermodynamic process of compression must be taken into account. To illustrate its application, the method is used to reveal the mechanism of formation of a tulip-shape flame in a rectangular enclosure under nonturbulent flow conditions.
Stability analysis of confined V-shaped flames in high-velocity streams.
El-Rabii, Hazem; Joulin, Guy; Kazakov, Kirill A
2010-06-01
The problem of linear stability of confined V-shaped flames with arbitrary gas expansion is addressed. Using the on-shell description of flame dynamics, a general equation governing propagation of disturbances of an anchored flame is obtained. This equation is solved analytically for V-flames anchored in high-velocity channel streams. It is demonstrated that dynamics of the flame disturbances in this case is controlled by the memory effects associated with vorticity generated by the perturbed flame. The perturbation growth rate spectrum is determined, and explicit analytical expressions for the eigenfunctions are given. It is found that the piecewise linear V structure is unstable for all values of the gas expansion coefficient. Despite the linearity of the basic pattern, however, evolutions of the V-flame disturbances are completely different from those found for freely propagating planar flames or open anchored flames. The obtained results reveal strong influence of the basic flow and the channel walls on the stability properties of confined V-flames.
Stabilization and structure of n-heptane tribrachial flames in axisymmetric laminar jets
Bisetti, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
A set of tribrachial flames of n-heptane/air is simulated with finite rate chemistry and detailed transport in a realistic laminar jet configuration for which experimental data are available. The flames differ by the temperature of the unburnt mixture and stabilization height, which controls the mixture fraction gradient ahead of the flame front. The simulations reproduce the lift-off heights in the experiments, showing that the flame stabilizes further downstream as the unburnt temperature decreases. For the lowest unburnt temperature, resulting in a weak mixture fraction gradient at the tribrachial point, positive stretch along the rich premixed wing leads to an increase in the rate of chemical reaction in the whole flame. The tribrachial flame burning velocity exceeds that in the unstretched, one-dimensional flame. For the highest temperature, the flame stabilizes closest to the nozzle. Large flame tilt, large mixture fraction gradient, and small radius of curvature lead to a reduction in the heat release rate and the flame propagates slower than its one-dimensional counterpart. The observed behavior is explained with a detailed analysis of the flame geometry, differential diffusion effects, flame stretch, and transport of heat and mass from the burnt gases to the flame front. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Application of linear and higher perturbation theory in reactor physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woerner, D.
1978-01-01
For small perturbations in the material composition of a reactor according to the first approximation of perturbation theory the eigenvalue perturbation is proportional to the perturbation of the system. This assumption is true for the neutron flux not influenced by the perturbance. The two-dimensional code LINESTO developed for such problems in this paper on the basis of diffusion theory determines the relative change of the multiplication constant. For perturbations varying the neutron flux in the space of energy and position the eigenvalue perturbation is also influenced by this changed neutron flux. In such cases linear perturbation theory yields larger errors. Starting from the methods of calculus of variations there is additionally developed in this paper a perturbation method of calculation permitting in a quick and simple manner to assess the influence of flux perturbation on the eigenvalue perturbation. While the source of perturbations is evaluated in isotropic approximation of diffusion theory the associated inhomogeneous equation may be used to determine the flux perturbation by means of diffusion or transport theory. Possibilities of application and limitations of this method are studied in further systematic investigations on local perturbations. It is shown that with the integrated code system developed in this paper a number of local perturbations may be checked requiring little computing time. With it flux perturbations in first approximation and perturbations of the multiplication constant in second approximation can be evaluated. (orig./RW) [de
El-Asrag, Hossam A.
2011-01-01
Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.
Effect of Lewis number on ball-like lean limit flames
Zhou, Zhen
2017-10-13
The lean limit flames for three different fuel compositions premixed with air, representing three different mixture Lewis numbers, stabilized inside a tube in a downward flow are examined by experiments and numerical simulations. The CH* chemiluminescence distribution in CH4–air and CH4–H2–air flames and the OH* chemiluminescence distribution in H2–air flames are recorded in the experiments. Cell-like flames are observed for the CH4–air mixture for all tested equivalence ratios. However, for CH4–H2–air and H2–air flames, ball-like lean limit flames are observed. Flame temperature fields are measured using Rayleigh scattering. The experimentally observed lean limit flames are predicted qualitatively by numerical simulation with the mixture-averaged transport model and skeletal mechanism of CH4. The results of the simulations show that the entire lean limit flames of CH4–H2–air and H2–air mixtures are located inside a recirculation zone. However, for the lean limit CH4–air flame, only the leading edge is located inside the recirculation zone. A flame structure with negative flame displacement speed is observed for the leading edges of the predicted lean limit flames with all three different fuel compositions. As compared with 1D planar flames, the fuel transport caused by convection is less significant in the present 2D lean limit flames for the three different fuel compositions. For the trailing edges of the three predicted lean limit flames, a diffusion dominated flame structure is observed.
PIV Measurements in Weakly Buoyant Gas Jet Flames
Sunderland, Peter B.; Greenbberg, Paul S.; Urban, David L.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William
2001-01-01
Despite numerous experimental investigations, the characterization of microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames remains incomplete. Measurements to date have included shapes, temperatures, soot properties, radiative emissions and compositions, but full-field quantitative measurements of velocity are lacking. Since the differences between normal-gravity and microgravity diffusion flames are fundamentally influenced by changes in velocities, it is imperative that the associated velocity fields be measured in microgravity flames. Velocity measurements in nonbuoyant flames will be helpful both in validating numerical models and in interpreting past microgravity combustion experiments. Pointwise velocity techniques are inadequate for full-field velocity measurements in microgravity facilities. In contrast, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can capture the entire flow field in less than 1% of the time required with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Although PIV is a mature diagnostic for normal-gravity flames , restrictions on size, power and data storage complicate these measurements in microgravity. Results from the application of PIV to gas jet flames in normal gravity are presented here. Ethane flames burning at 13, 25 and 50 kPa are considered. These results are presented in more detail in Wernet et al. (2000). The PIV system developed for these measurements recently has been adapted for on-rig use in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower.
Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Sang Kyu [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Seong [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Suk Ho [Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)
2014-09-15
The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, H{sub 2}, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} and CO+H{sub 2} by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H{sub 2} , CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}, CO+H{sub 2}, and rich C{sub 3}H{sub 8} premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2}, CO+H{sub 2}, and lean C{sub 3}H{sub 8} premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H{sub 2} mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H{sub 2}.
Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Sang Kyu; Cho, Eun Seong; Chung, Suk Ho
2014-01-01
The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , H 2 , CO and for the mixture fuels of CH 4 +H 2 and CO+H 2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H 2 , CH 4 , CH 4 +H 2 , CO+H 2 , and rich C 3 H 8 premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H 2 , CH 4 , CH 4 +H 2 , CO+H 2 , and lean C 3 H 8 premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H 2 mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH 4 +H 2 cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H 2 .
Quantification of extinction mechanism in counterflow premixed flames
Choi, Sangkyu
2014-09-01
The extinction mechanisms of stretched premixed flames have been investigated numerically for the fuels of CH4, C3H8, H2, CO and for the mixture fuels of CH4+H2 and CO+H2 by adopting symmetric double premixed flames in a counterflow configuration. The local equilibrium temperature concept was used as a measure of energy loss or gain in order to quantify the extinction mechanism by preferential diffusion and/or incomplete reaction. The energy loss ratio from preferential diffusion arising from non-unity Lewis number and the loss ratio from incomplete reaction were calculated at various equivalence ratios near flame extinction. The results showed that the extinction of lean H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and rich C3H8 premixed flames was caused by incomplete reaction due to insufficient reaction time, indicating that the effective Lewis number was smaller than unity, while the effect of preferential diffusion resulted in energy gain. However, the extinction of rich H2, CH4, CH4+H2, CO+H2, and lean C3H8 premixed flames was affected by the combined effects of preferential diffusion and incomplete reaction indicating that the effective Lewis number was larger than unity. In CO premixed flames, incomplete reaction was dominant in both lean and rich cases due to the effective Lewis number close to unity. The effect of H2 mixing to CO is found to be quite significant as compared to CH4+H2 cases, which can alter the flame behavior of CO flames to that of H2.
Structural aspects of coaxial oxy-fuel flames
Ditaranto, M.; Sautet, J. C.; Samaniego, J. M.
Oxy-fuel combustion has been proven to increase thermal efficiency and to have a potential for NOx emission reduction. The study of 25-kW turbulent diffusion flames of natural gas with pure oxygen is undertaken on a coaxial burner with quarl. The structural properties are analysed by imaging the instantaneous reaction zone by OH* chemiluminescence and measuring scalar and velocity profiles. The interaction between the flame front and the shear layers present in the coaxial jets depends on the momentum ratio which dictates the turbulent structure development. Flame length and NOx emission sensitivity to air leaks in the combustion chamber are also investigated.
Unsteady Flame Embedding (UFE) Subgrid Model for Turbulent Premixed Combustion Simulations
El-Asrag, Hossam
2010-01-04
We present a formulation for an unsteady subgrid model for premixed combustion in the flamelet regime. Since chemistry occurs at the unresolvable scales, it is necessary to introduce a subgrid model that accounts for the multi-scale nature of the problem using the information available on the resolved scales. Most of the current models are based on the laminar flamelet concept, and often neglect the unsteady effects. The proposed model\\'s primary objective is to encompass many of the flame/turbulence interactions unsteady features and history effects. In addition it provides a dynamic and accurate approach for computing the subgrid flame propagation velocity. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames. A set of elemental one dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure at the subgrid level. The stretched flame calculations are performed on the stagnation line of a strained flame using the unsteady filtered strain rate computed from the resolved- grid. The flame iso-surface is tracked using an accurate high-order level set formulation to propagate the flame interface at the coarse resolution with minimum numerical diffusion. In this paper the solver and the model components are introduced and used to investigate two unsteady flames with different Lewis numbers in the thin reaction zone regime. The results show that the UFE model captures the unsteady flame-turbulence interactions and the flame propagation speed reasonably well. Higher propagation speed is observed for the lower than unity Lewis number flame because of the impact of differential diffusion.
Ranga Dinesh, K.K.J.; Jiang, X.; Oijen, van J.A.
2014-01-01
A non-premixed impinging jet flame is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics in order to investigate the influence of fuel variability on flame surface, flame normal, flame index and Wobbe index for hydrogen-enriched combustion. Analyses indicate
Flame oscillations in tubes with nonslip at the walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akkerman, V' yacheslav; Bychkov, Vitaly; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)
2006-06-15
A laminar premixed flame front propagating in a two-dimensional tube is considered with nonslip at the walls and with both ends open. The problem of flame propagation is solved using direct numerical simulations of the complete set of hydrodynamic equations including thermal conduction, diffusion, viscosity, and chemical kinetics. As a result, it is shown that flame interaction with the walls leads to the oscillating regime of burning. The oscillations involve variations of the curved flame shape and the velocity of flame propagation. The oscillation parameters depend on the characteristic tube width, which controls the Reynolds number of the flow. In narrow tubes the oscillations are rather weak, while in wider tubes they become stronger with well-pronounced nonlinear effects. The period of oscillations increases for wider tubes, while the average flame length scaled by the tube diameter decreases only slightly with increasing tube width. The average flame length calculated in the present work is in agreement with that obtained in the experiments. Numerical results reduce the gap between the theory of turbulent flames and the experiments on turbulent combustion in tubes. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico
2014-12-15
In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.
Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parra-Santos Teresa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.
Effect of unequal fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers on flame dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States)
2006-12-15
The interaction of non-unity Lewis number (due to preferential diffusion and/or unequal rates of heat and mass transfer) with the coupled effect of radiation, chemistry and unsteadiness alters several characteristics of a flame. The present study numerically investigates this interaction with a particular emphasis on the effect of unequal and non-unity fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers in a transient diffusion flame. The unsteadiness is simulated by considering the flame subjected to modulations in reactant concentration. Flames with different Lewis numbers (ranging from 0.5 to 2) and subjected to different modulating frequencies are considered. The results show that the coupled effect of Lewis number and unsteadiness strongly influences the flame dynamics. The impact is stronger at high modulating frequencies and strain rates, particularly for large values of Lewis numbers. Compared to the oxidizer side Lewis number, the fuel side Lewis number has greater influence on flame dynamics. (author)
El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.
2011-01-01
simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re
Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames
Han, Jie
2015-10-20
This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in shock-flame interactions
Massa, Luca; Pallav Jha Collaboration
2011-11-01
Shock-flame interactions occur in supersonic mixing and detonation formation. Therefore, their analysis is important to explosion safety, internal combustion engine performance, and supersonic combustor design. The fundamental process at the basis of the interaction is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability supported by the density difference between burnt and fresh mixtures. In the present study we analyze the effect of reactivity on the Richtmyer- Meshkov instability with particular emphasis on combustion lengths that typify the scaling between perturbation growth and induction. The results of the present linear analysis study show that reactivity changes the perturbation growth rate by developing a non-zero pressure gradient at the flame surface. The baroclinic torque based on the density gradient across the flame acts to slow down the instability growth for high wave numbers. A non-hydrodynamic flame representation leads to the definition of an additional scaling Peclet number, the effects of which are investigated. It is found that an increased flame-contact separation destabilizes the contact discontinuity by augmenting the tangential shear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Young Min; Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Sang Moon; Kim, Nam Il
2009-01-01
Characteristics of a counter flowing diffusion flame, which is formulated by an oppositely-injected methane-jet flow in a narrow channel of a uniform air flow. The location of the flame fronts and the flame lengths were compared by changing the flow rates of fuel. To distinguish the effects of the narrow channel on the diffusion flame, a numerical simulation for an ideal two-dimensional flame was conducted. Overall trends of the flame behavior were similar in both numerical and experimental results. With the increase of the ratio of jet velocity to air velocity flame front moved farther upstream. It is thought that the flow re-direction in the channel suppresses fuel momentum more significantly due to the higher temperature and increased viscosity of burned gas. Actual flames in a narrow channel suffer heat loss to the ambient and it has finite length of diffusion flame in contrast to the numerical results of infinite flame length. Thus a convective heat loss was additionally employed in numerical simulation and closer results were obtained. These results can be used as basic data in development of a small combustor of a nonpremixed flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, Young Min; Lee, Min Jung; Cho, Sang Moon; Kim, Nam Il [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2009-04-15
Characteristics of a counter flowing diffusion flame, which is formulated by an oppositely-injected methane-jet flow in a narrow channel of a uniform air flow. The location of the flame fronts and the flame lengths were compared by changing the flow rates of fuel. To distinguish the effects of the narrow channel on the diffusion flame, a numerical simulation for an ideal two-dimensional flame was conducted. Overall trends of the flame behavior were similar in both numerical and experimental results. With the increase of the ratio of jet velocity to air velocity flame front moved farther upstream. It is thought that the flow re-direction in the channel suppresses fuel momentum more significantly due to the higher temperature and increased viscosity of burned gas. Actual flames in a narrow channel suffer heat loss to the ambient and it has finite length of diffusion flame in contrast to the numerical results of infinite flame length. Thus a convective heat loss was additionally employed in numerical simulation and closer results were obtained. These results can be used as basic data in development of a small combustor of a nonpremixed flame.
Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames, I: Formulation and planar flame results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2010-05-15
A strained flamelet model is proposed for turbulent premixed flames using scalar dissipation rate as a parameter. The scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable is a suitable quantity to describe the flamelet structure since it is governed by convection-diffusion-reaction balance and it is defined at every location in the flamelets, which are represented by laminar flames in reactant-to-product opposed flow configuration. The mean reaction rate is obtained by using the flamelets reaction rate and the joint pdf of the progress variable and its dissipation rate. The marginal pdf of the progress variable is presumed to be {beta}-pdf and the pdf of the conditional dissipation rate is taken to be log-normal. The conditional mean dissipation rate is obtained from modelled mean dissipation rate. This reaction rate closure is assessed using RANS calculations of statistically planar flames in the corrugated flamelets and thin reaction zones regimes. The flame speeds calculated using this closure are close to the experimental data of Abdel-Gayed et al. (1987) for flames in both the regimes. Comparisons with other reaction rate closures showed the benefits of the strained flamelets approach. (author)
Analysis of Flame Characteristics in a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent Lifted Jet Flame via DNS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiou Wang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A fully compressible 3D solver for reacting flows has been developed and applied to investigate a turbulent lifted jet flame in a vitiated coflow by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS to validate the solver and analyze the flame characteristics. An eighth-order central differencing scheme is used for spatial discretization and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is employed for time integration. The DNS results agree well with the experimental measurements for the conditional means of reactive scalars. However, the lift-off height is under predicted. The mean axial velocity develops into a self-similar profile after x/D = 6. The normalized flame index is employed to characterize the combustion regime. It is found that at the flame base the gradients of the reactants are opposed and diffusion combustion is dominant. Further downstream, the contribution of premixed combustion increases and peaks at x/D = 8. Finally, the stabilization process is examined. The turbulent lifted flame is proved to stabilize in the lean mixtures and low scalar dissipation rate regions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)
2010-09-15
The present paper describes a methodology to improve the accuracy of prediction of the eigenfrequencies and growth rates of self-induced instabilities and demonstrates its application to a laboratory-scale, swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed, gas turbine combustor. The influence of the spatial heat release distribution is accounted for using local flame transfer function (FTF) measurements. The two-microphone technique and CH{sup *} chemiluminescence intensity measurements are used to determine the input (inlet velocity perturbation) and the output functions (heat release oscillation), respectively, for the local flame transfer functions. The experimentally determined local flame transfer functions are superposed using the flame transfer function superposition principle, and the result is incorporated into an analytic thermoacoustic model, in order to predict the linear stability characteristics of a given system. Results show that when the flame length is not acoustically compact the model prediction calculated using the local flame transfer functions is better than the prediction made using the global flame transfer function. In the case of a flame in the compact flame regime, accurate predictions of eigenfrequencies and growth rates can be obtained using the global flame transfer function. It was also found that the general response characteristics of the local FTF (gain and phase) are qualitatively the same as those of the global FTF. (author)
Design and construction of gas-fed burners for laboratory studies of flame structure
Dan Jimenez; Mark A. Finney; Jack Cohen
2010-01-01
The study of buoyant convection for diffusion flames in wildland fires is critical to understanding heating and cooling dynamics related to particle ignition. Studies based on solid biomass fuels are made difficult by short flame residence time associated with fine fuels. An alternative is to use artificial fuel gas rather than relying on pyrolysis of solid fuels to...
Supersingular quantum perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detwiler, L.C.; Klauder, J.R.
1975-01-01
A perturbation potential is called supersingular whenever generally every matrix element of the perturbation in the unperturbed eigenstates is infinite. It follows that supersingular perturbations do not have conventional perturbation expansions, say for energy eigenvalues. By invoking variational arguments, we determine the asymptotic behavior of the energy eigenvalues for asymptotically small values of the coupling constant of the supersingular perturbation
Onset of Darrieus-Landau Instability in Expanding Flames
Mohan, Shikhar; Matalon, Moshe
2017-11-01
The effect of small amplitude perturbations on the propagation of circular flames in unconfined domains is investigated, computationally and analytically, within the context of the hydrodynamic theory. The flame, treated as a surface of density discontinuity separating fresh combustible mixture from the burnt gas, propagates at a speed dependent upon local curvature and hydrodynamic strain. For mixtures with Lewis numbers above criticality, thermodiffusive effects have stabilizing influences which largely affect the flame at small radii. The amplitude of these disturbances initially decay and only begin to grow once a critical radius is reached. This instability is hydrodynamic in nature and is a consequence of thermal expansion. Through linear stability analysis, predictions of critical flame radius at the onset of instability are obtained as functions of Markstein length and thermal expansion coefficients. The flame evolution is also examined numerically where the motion of the interface is tracked via a level-set method. Consistent with linear stability results, simulations show the flame initially remaining stable and the existence of a particular mode that will be first to grow and later determine the cellular structure observed experimentally at the onset of instability.
Strained flamelets for turbulent premixed flames II: Laboratory flame results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolla, H.; Swaminathan, N. [Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)
2010-07-15
The predictive ability of strained flamelets model for turbulent premixed flames is assessed using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations of laboratory flames covering a wide range of conditions. Reactant-to-product (RtP) opposed flow laminar flames parametrised using the scalar dissipation rate of reaction progress variable are used as strained flamelets. Two turbulent flames: a rod stabilised V-flame studied by Robin et al. [Combust. Flame 153 (2008) 288-315] and a set of pilot stabilised Bunsen flames studied by Chen et al. [Combust. Flame 107 (1996) 223-244] are calculated using a single set of model parameters. The V-flame corresponds to the corrugated flamelets regime. The strained flamelet model and an unstrained flamelet model yield similar predictions which are in good agreement with experimental measurements for this flame. On the other hand, for the Bunsen flames which are in the thin reaction zones regime, the unstrained flamelet model predicts a smaller flame brush compared to experiment. The predictions of the strained flamelets model allowing for fluid-dynamics stretch induced attenuation of the chemical reaction are in good agreement with the experimental data. This model predictions of major and minor species are also in good agreement with experimental data. The results demonstrate that the strained flamelets model using the scalar dissipation rate can be used across the combustion regimes. (author)
Perturbation studies on KAHTER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rueckert, M.; Jonas, H.; Neef, R. D.
1974-10-15
The paper describes experimental and analytical results by both transport theory and diffusion theory calculations of perturbation tests in the KAHTER pebble bed critical experiment. The fission-weighted adjoint flux is measured from in-core detector responses by introducing a Cf-source into the core. Adjoint-weighted reactivities are calculated and compared to reactivity measurements for the introduction of a fuel and graphite pebble onto the top of the critical pile, the central rod worth, and the effect of replacing B4C with varying amounts of HfC in the central rod. In addition, analytical studies were made of the sensitivity of criticality to the fuel to graphite pebble ratio as measured in tests and of the effect of the upper void cavity as simulated in tests by placing cadmium layer across the top of the pebble pile to force a zero flux boundary condition.
Migration of Organophosphate Flame Retardants from Closed Cell Foam to Settled Dust
Many industrial and consumer products, such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building materials are manufactured with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs can leach or diffuse out of the products and are released to the surround...
Migration of Organophorus Flame Retardants From Closed cell form to Settled Dust
Many industrial and consumer products, such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building materials are manufactured with organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs can leach or diffuse out of the products and are released to the surround...
Loboda, E. L.; Anufriev, I. S.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Kop'yev, E. P.; Reyno, Vladimir
2017-11-01
The paper represents experimental studying the scales of turbulent vortices in diffusion flames by using the measurements of thermodynamic characteristics obtained by thermography and the aerodynamic characteristics obtained by the PIV method.
Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames
Xiong, Yuan; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed
Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, A.; Verleur, R.
2010-01-01
In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,
Linear response of stretch-affected premixed flames to flow oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, H.Y.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lieuwen, T. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
2009-04-15
The linear response of 2D wedge-shaped premixed flames to harmonic velocity disturbances was studied, allowing for the influence of flame stretch manifested as variations in the local flame speed along the wrinkled flame front. Results obtained from analyzing the G-equation show that the flame response is mainly characterized by a Markstein number {sigma}{sub C}, which measures the curvature effect of the wrinkles, and a Strouhal number, St{sub f}, defined as the angular frequency of the disturbance normalized by the time taken for the disturbance to propagate the flame length. Flame stretch is found to become important when the disturbance frequency satisfies {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{sup 2}{proportional_to} O(1), i.e. St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1/2}). Specifically, for disturbance frequencies below this order, stretch effects are small and the flame responds as an unstretched one. When the disturbance frequencies are of this order, the transfer function, defined as the ratio of the normalized fluctuation of the heat release rate to that of the velocity, is contributed mostly from fluctuations of the flame surface area, which is now affected by stretch. Finally, as the disturbance frequency increases to St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1}), i.e. {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{proportional_to} O(1), the direct contribution from the stretch-affected flame speed fluctuation to the transfer function becomes comparable to that of the flame surface area. The present study phenomenologically explains the experimentally observed filtering effect in which the flame wrinkles developed at the flame base decay along the flame surface for large frequency disturbances as well as for thermal-diffusively stable and weakly unstable mixtures. (author)
Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames : flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling
Ramaekers, W.J.S.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.
2012-01-01
In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold
A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-15
A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahbari, Alireza; Shakibi, Ashkan; Bidabadi, Mehdi
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
Dynamics of premixed flames in a narrow channel with a step-wise wall temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurdyumov, Vadim N. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pizza, Gianmarco [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland); Frouzakis, Christos E. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich CH-8092 (Switzerland); Mantzaras, John [Combustion Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen CH-5232 (Switzerland)
2009-11-15
The effect of channel height, inflow velocity and wall temperature on the dynamics and stability of unity Lewis number premixed flames in channels with specified wall temperature is investigated with steady and transient numerical simulations using a two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. The simplified model is capable of capturing many of the transitions and the combustion modes observed experimentally and in direct numerical simulations in micro- and meso-scale channels, and indicates that the thermal flame/wall interaction is the mechanism leading to the observed flame instabilities. Finally, an ad-hoc one-dimensional model based on the flame-sheet approximation is tested in its capacity to reproduce some of the flame dynamics of the two-dimensional thermo-diffusive model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunyadi, M.; Iski, N.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Eleven regions of eight Central European countries have launched the FLAME Project in 2010 (Future Laboratory for the diffusion and Application of innovation in Material Sciences and Engineering) to start and manage a new initiative of a network for innovation activities in the MS and E sector. The project aimed at supporting actors in the field of materials science and exploiting their research and commercial potentials. FLAME partners encourage trans-regional cooperation between R and D centres, universities, start-ups and SMEs by helping companies to distribute their innovations and supporting research in transferring results to the market. The project will implement a new cooperation model: the 'Future Lab', where duly trained 'regional facilitation coaches' will assist SMEs in accessing the whole Central European MS and E market and research potential. Each Future Lab will be specialized on thematic fields and help to make efficient use of local and regional potentials. The three Future Labs will be hosted by the Austrian, Italian and Slovenian partner organizations. Figure 1. Competence and innovation landscape on the FLAME website. Source: http://www.flameurope.eu/mse-actors-145.html As the first step of project implementation in 2011 the competence and innovation maps within the participating regions were elaborated in order to list the relevant actors in the MS and E sector (Figure 1). In 2011, each project partner delegated two regional professionals as facilitation coaches to attend four training weeks across Europe. The facilitation coaches play an active role in the exchange of information and in motivating collaboration between research institutions and enterprises on technology based projects. The training sessions were located at four of the project partners: Kapfenberg/Austria (lead partner - Area m Styria); Warsaw/Poland (PP2 - Warsaw University of Technology); Debrecen/Hungary (PP5 - Atomki); Milan/Italy (PP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2005-09-01
During the DFI process, high velocity flame jets impinge upon the material being heated, creating a high heat transfer rate. As a result, refractory walls and exhaust gases are cooler, which increases thermal efficiency and lowers NOx emissions. Because the jet nozzles are located a few inches from the load, furnace size can be reduced significantly.
Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2009-01-01
This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum
Flame visualization in power stations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA - Fossil Power Plants, Arnhem (Netherlands)
1993-01-01
The shapes and temperature of flames in power stations, fired with powder coal and gas, have been measured optically. Spectral information in the visible and near infrared is used. Coal flames are visualized in the blue part of the spectrum, natural gas flames are viewed in the light of CH-emission. Temperatures of flames are derived from the best fit of the Planck-curve to the thermal radiation spectrum of coal and char, or to that of soot in the case of gas flames. A measuring method for the velocity distribution inside a gas flame is presented, employing pulsed alkali salt injection. It has been tested on a 100 kW natural gas flame. 3 refs., 9 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)
1996-09-01
Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.
Ethanol flame synthesis of carbon nanotubes in deficient oxygen environments
Hu, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Ta-Hui
2016-04-01
In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized using ethanol diffusion flames in a stagnation-flow system composed of an upper oxidizer duct and a lower liquid pool. In the experiments, a gaseous mixture of oxygen and nitrogen flowed from the upper oxidizer duct, and then impinged onto the vertically aligned ethanol pool to generate a planar and steady diffusion flame in a deficient oxygen environment. A nascent nickel mesh was used as the catalytic metal substrate to collect deposited materials. The effect of low oxygen concentration on the formation of CNTs was explored. The oxygen concentration significantly influenced the flame environment and thus the synthesized carbon products. Lowering the oxygen concentration increased the yield, diameter, and uniformity of CNTs. The optimal operating conditions for CNT synthesis were an oxygen concentration in the range of 15%-19%, a flame temperature in the range of 460 °C-870 °C, and a sampling position of 0.5-1 mm below the upper edge of the blue flame front. It is noteworthy that the concentration gradient of C2 species and CO governed the CNT growth directly. CNTs were successfully fabricated in regions with uniform C2 species and CO distributions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joulain, P.
2003-09-01
The combustion of a flat plate in a boundary layer under microgravity conditions, which was first described by Emmons, is studied using a gaseous burner. Magnitude of injection and blowing velocities are chosen to be characteristic of pyrolyzing velocity of solid fuels and of ventilation systems in space stations. These velocities are about 10 cm/s for oxidizer flow and 0.4 cm/s for fuel flow. In this configuration, flame layout results from a coupled interaction between oxidizer flow, fuel flow and thermal expansion. Influences of these parameters are studied by means of flame length and standoff distance measurements using CH* chemiluminescence's and visible emission of the flame. Flow was also studied with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). At first with inert flows, with and without injection to identify burner effects on it, and then with a reacting flow in a microgravity environment. Thermal expansion effects have been shown by means of the acceleration of oxidizer flow. Three dimensional effects, which are strongly marked for high injection velocities did not were studied, but three dimensional tools adaptability (wavelength and polarizing coding laser tomography) to parabolic flights particular conditions were investigate. Flame sensitivity to g-jitters was studied using a local modified Richardson number introduced by Torero and g-jitters effect on flame were investigated according to g-jitters frequency and range involved by parabolic flights. (author)
Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame
Mannaa, Ossama
2012-06-01
The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spherical premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly propagating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been investigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The combustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.
Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.
2015-01-01
Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.
Flame-Resistant Composite Materials For Structural Members
Spears, Richard K.
1995-01-01
Matrix-fiber composite materials developed for structural members occasionally exposed to hot, corrosive gases. Integral ceramic fabric surface layer essential for resistance to flames and chemicals. Endures high temperature, impedes flame from penetrating to interior, inhibits diffusion of oxygen to interior where it degrades matrix resin, resists attack by chemicals, helps resist erosion, and provides additional strength. In original intended application, composite members replace steel structural members of rocket-launching structures that deteriorate under combined influences of atmosphere, spilled propellants, and rocket exhaust. Composites also attractive for other applications in which corrosion- and fire-resistant structural members needed.
Effect of pressure on the lean limit flames of H2-CH4-air mixture in tubes
Zhou, Zhen; Shoshin, Yuriy; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; van Oijen, Jeroen A.; de Goey, Laurentius P.H.
2017-01-01
The lean limit flames of H2-CH4-air mixtures stabilized inside tubes in a downward flow are experimentally and numerically investigated at elevated pressures ranging from 2 to 5 bar. For the shapes of lean limit flames, a change from ball-like flame to cap-like flame is experimentally observed with the increase of pressure. This experimentally observed phenomenon is qualitatively predicted by numerical simulations. The structure of ball-like and cap-like lean limit flames at all tested pressures is analysed in detail based on the numerical predictions. The results show that the lean limit flames are located inside a recirculation zone at all tested pressures. For the leading edges of the lean limit flames at all tested pressures, the fuel transport is controlled by both convection and diffusion. For the trailing edge of the ball-like lean limit flame at 2 bar, the fuel transport is dominated by diffusion. However, with increasing pressure, the transport contribution caused by convection in the trailing edges of the lean limit flames increases. Finally, the influence of transport and chemistry on the predicted ultra lean flames and lean flammability limit is analysed at elevated pressures.
Effect of pressure on the lean limit flames of H2-CH4-air mixture in tubes
Zhou, Zhen
2017-05-25
The lean limit flames of H2-CH4-air mixtures stabilized inside tubes in a downward flow are experimentally and numerically investigated at elevated pressures ranging from 2 to 5 bar. For the shapes of lean limit flames, a change from ball-like flame to cap-like flame is experimentally observed with the increase of pressure. This experimentally observed phenomenon is qualitatively predicted by numerical simulations. The structure of ball-like and cap-like lean limit flames at all tested pressures is analysed in detail based on the numerical predictions. The results show that the lean limit flames are located inside a recirculation zone at all tested pressures. For the leading edges of the lean limit flames at all tested pressures, the fuel transport is controlled by both convection and diffusion. For the trailing edge of the ball-like lean limit flame at 2 bar, the fuel transport is dominated by diffusion. However, with increasing pressure, the transport contribution caused by convection in the trailing edges of the lean limit flames increases. Finally, the influence of transport and chemistry on the predicted ultra lean flames and lean flammability limit is analysed at elevated pressures.
Subwoofer and nanotube butterfly acoustic flame extinction
Aliev, Ali E.; Mayo, Nathanael K.; Baughman, Ray H.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed
2017-01-01
Nonchemical flame control using acoustic waves from a subwoofer and a lightweight carbon nanotube thermoacoustic projector was demonstrated. The intent was to manipulate flame intensity, direction and propagation. The mechanisms of flame suppression using low frequency acoustic waves were discussed.
Gas concentration and temperature in acoustically excited Delft turbulent jet flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ana Maura A. Rocha; Joao A. Carvalho Jr.; Pedro T. Lacava [Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)
2008-11-15
This paper shows the experimental results for changes in the flame structure when acoustic fields are applied in natural gas Delft turbulent diffusion flames. The acoustic field (pulsating combustion) generates zones of intense mixture of reactants in the flame region, promoting a more complete combustion and, consequently, lower pollutant emissions, increase in convective heat transfer rates, and lower fuel consumption. The results show that the presence of the acoustic field changes drastically the flame structure, mainly in the burner natural frequencies. However, for higher acoustic amplitudes, or acoustic pressures, a hydrogen pilot flame is necessary in order to keep the main flame anchored. In the flame regions where the acoustic field is more intense, premixed flame characteristics were observed. Besides, the pulsating regime modifies the axial and radial combustion structure, which could be verified by the radial distribution of concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, and by the temperature profile. The experiments also presented the reduction of flame length with the increase of acoustic amplitude. 30 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.
On the theory of turbulent flame velocity
Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Petchenko, Arkady
2012-01-01
The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much large...
Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R.; Mazaheri, K.
2013-01-01
In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.
Investigation of a flame holder geometry effect on flame structure in non-premixed combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashemi, S. A.; Hajialigol, N.; Fattahi, A.; Heydari, R. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [University of Tarbiat Moddares, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-11-15
In this paper the effect of flame holder geometry on flame structure is studied. The obtained numerical results using realizable k-ε and β-PDF models show a good agreement with experimental data. The results show that increasing in flame holder length decreases flame length and increases flame temperature. Additionally, it is observed that flame lengths decrease by increasing in flame holder radius and increase for larger radii. Furthermore in various radii, the flame temperature is higher for smaller flame lengths. It was found that behavior of flame structure is mainly affected by the mass flow rate of hot gases that come near the reactant by the recirculation zone.
Developments in perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.
1976-01-01
Included are sections dealing with perturbation expressions for reactivity, methods for the calculation of perturbed fluxes, integral transport theory formulations for reactivity, generalized perturbation theory, sensitivity and optimization studies, multigroup calculations of bilinear functionals, and solution of inhomogeneous Boltzmann equations with singular operators
Cellular structure of lean hydrogen flames in microgravity
Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.
1990-01-01
Detailed, time-dependent, two-dimensional numerical simulations of premixed laminar flames have been used to study the initiation and subsequent development of cellular structures in lean hydrogen-air flames. The model includes detailed hydrogen-oxygen combustion with 24 elementary reactions of eight reactive species and a nitrogen diluent, molecular diffusion of all species, thermal conduction, viscosity, and convection. This model has been used to study the nonlinear evolution of cellular flame structure and shows that cell splitting, as observed in experiments, can be predicted numerically for sufficiently reactive mixtures. The structures that evolved also resembled the cellular structures observed in experiments. The present study shows that the 'cell-split limit' postulated from experimental observations is an intrinsic property of the mixture and that external factors such as heat losses are not necessary to cause this limit.
Transport perturbation theory in nuclear reactor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishigori, Takeo; Takeda, Toshikazu; Selvi, S.
1985-01-01
Perturbation theory is formulated on the basis of transport theory to obtain a formula for the reactivity changes due to possible variations of cross sections. Useful applications to cell homogenization are presented for the whole core calculation in transport and in diffusion theories. (author)
Dynamics and structure of stretched flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1993-12-01
This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.
Self Induced Buoyant Blow Off in Upward Flame Spread on Thin Solid Fuels
Johnston, Michael C.; T'ien, James S.; Muff, Derek E.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.
2013-01-01
) is as follows: The observed one-sided extinction is a blow- off induced by buoyant entrainment. It is known that the flammable diffusion flame regime is bounded by quenching and blow ]off limits when varying incoming air velocity. The narrowest samples tested (between 2 and 5 cm) begin within the flammable range, but as the flame grows, the buoyancy driven air velocity increases at the neighborhood of the flame base. The initially stable flame crosses the extinguishment boundary resulting in a flame blow-off. When one-side of the flame extinguishes, the remaining side shrinks due to the reduced heat transfer to the solid. This reduces the induced velocity and the flame becomes stable. It is proposed that this may have implications to upward flame growth beyond this experiment.
Methane Formation by Flame-Generated Hydrogen Atoms in the Flame Ionization Detector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard
1996-01-01
, and conceivably all hydrocarbons are quantitatively converted into methane at temperatures below 600 C, that is, before the proper combustion has started. The splitting of the C-C bonds is preceded by hydrogenation of double and triple bonds and aromatic rings. The reactions, no doubt, are caused by hydrogen...... atoms, which are formed in the burning hydrogen and which diffuse into the inner core of the flame. The quantitative formation of methane appears to explain the "equal per carbon" rule for the detector response of hydrocarbons, since all carbons are "exchanged" for methane molecules....
UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser
Shirley, John A.
1990-01-01
Raman spectra of H2 and H2O in flames excited by a narrowband KrF excimer laser are reported. Observations are made over a porous-plug, flat-flame burner reacting H2 in air, fuel-rich with nitrogen dilution to control the temperature, and with an H2 diffusion flame. Measurements made from UV Raman spectra show good agreement with measurements made by other means, both for gas temperature and relative major species concentrations. Laser-induced fluorescence interferences arising from OH and O2 are observed in emission near the Raman spectra. These interferences do not preclude Raman measurements, however.
One-dimensional flame instability and control of burning in fire-chamber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor E. Volkov
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The flame stability with regard to one-dimensional exponential perturbations both for the combustion in the fire-chamber and the flame propagating in closed tubes or chambers is investigated. It is proved that both stability and instability are possible for the combustion process. At the same time the one-dimensional flame instability is guaranteed near the front wall of the fire-chamber where the fuel supply is realized. Therefore the control of combustion in the fire-chamber leads to support of the flame at the maximum possible distance from the front wall of the fire-chamber to prevent the vibratory combustion or to diminish intensity of pulsations if these pulsations are inevitable.
Application of generalized perturbation theory to flux disadvantage factor calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallam, O.H.; Akimov, I.S.; Naguib, K.; Hamouda, I.
1979-01-01
The possibility of using the generalized perturbation theory to calculate the perturbation of the flux disadvantage factors of reactor cell, resulting from the variation of the cell parameters, is studied. For simplicity the one-group diffusion approximation is considered. All necessary equations are derived for variations both of the cell dimensions. Numerical results are presented in the paper
Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.
1993-01-01
Some fundamentals of the ion chemistry of flames are summarized. Mechanistic aspects of ionic reactions in flames have been studied using a VG PlasmaQuad, the ICP-system being substituted by a simple quartz burner. Simple hydrocarbon flames as well as sulfur-containing flames have been investigated...
Chung, Yong Ho; Park, Daegeun; Park, Jeong; Kwon, Oh Boong; Yun, Jin Han; Keel, Sang In
2013-01-01
This study of nitrogen-diluted non-premixed counterflow flames with finite burner diameters investigates the important role of the outer-edge flame on flame extinction through experimental and numerical analyses. It explores flame stability diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.
1997-01-01
Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs
Physical and Chemical Processes in Turbulent Flames
2015-06-23
equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average flame radius. Assuming... flame length ratio obtained directly from the experiments, without any assumption. As explained earlier (Eq. 2.8) the length ratio, (LR=dl(G0)/dl0) is...spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to
Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames
Xiong, Yuan
2015-04-01
Electric field can be a viable method in controlling various combustion properties. Comparing to traditional actuators, an application of electric field requires very small power consumption. Especially, alternating current (AC) has received attention recently, since it could modulate flames appreciably even for the cases when direct current (DC) has minimal effects. In this study, the effect of AC electric fields on small coflow diffusion flames is focused with applications of various laser diagnostic techniques. Flow characteristics of baseline diffusion flames, which corresponds to stationary small coflow diffusion flames when electric field is not applied, were firstly investigated with a particular focus on the flow field in near-nozzle region with the buoyancy force exerted on fuels due to density differences among fuel, ambient air, and burnt gas. The result showed that the buoyancy force exerted on the fuel as well as on burnt gas significantly distorted the near-nozzle flow-fields. In the fuels with densities heavier than air, recirculation zones were formed very close to the nozzle exit. Nozzle heating effect influenced this near-nozzle flow-field particularly among lighter fuels. Numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed that a fuel inlet boundary condition with a fully developed velocity profile for cases with long fuel tubes should be specified inside the fuel tube to obtain satisfactory agreement in both the flow and temperature fields with those from experiment. With sub-critical AC applied to the baseline flames, particle image velocimetry (PIV), light scattering, laser-induced incandescence (LII), and laser-induced fluores- cence (LIF) techniques were adopted to identify the flow field and the structures of OH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), soot zone. Under certain AC condi- tions of applied voltage and frequency, the distribution of PAHs and the flow field near the nozzle exit were drastically altered from the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, J.C.
1985-01-01
Progress in quantum chromodynamics in the past year is reviewed in these specific areas: proof of factorization for hadron-hadron collisions, fast calculation of higher order graphs, perturbative Monte Carlo calculations for hadron-hadron scattering, applicability of perturbative methods to heavy quark production, and understanding of the small-x problem. 22 refs
Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...
Perturbative and constructive renormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veiga, P.A. Faria da
2000-01-01
These notes are a survey of the material treated in a series of lectures delivered at the X Summer School Jorge Andre Swieca. They are concerned with renormalization in Quantum Field Theories. At the level of perturbation series, we review classical results as Feynman graphs, ultraviolet and infrared divergences of Feynman integrals. Weinberg's theorem and Hepp's theorem, the renormalization group and the Callan-Symanzik equation, the large order behavior and the divergence of most perturbation series. Out of the perturbative regime, as an example of a constructive method, we review Borel summability and point out how it is possible to circumvent the perturbation diseases. These lectures are a preparation for the joint course given by professor V. Rivasseau at the same school, where more sophisticated non-perturbative analytical methods based on rigorous renormalization group techniques are presented, aiming at furthering our understanding about the subject and bringing field theoretical models to a satisfactory mathematical level. (author)
Extinction of laminar partially premixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aggarwal, Suresh K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor Street, Room 2039, MC-251, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 (United States)
2009-12-15
Flame extinction represents one of the classical phenomena in combustion science. It is important to a variety of combustion systems in transportation and power generation applications. Flame extinguishment studies are also motivated from the consideration of fire safety and suppression. Such studies have generally considered non-premixed and premixed flames, although fires can often originate in a partially premixed mode, i.e., fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed as they are transported to the reaction zone. Several recent investigations have considered this scenario and focused on the extinction of partially premixed flames (PPFs). Such flames have been described as hybrid flames possessing characteristics of both premixed and non-premixed flames. This paper provides a review of studies dealing with the extinction of PPFs, which represent a broad family of flames, including double, triple (tribrachial), and edge flames. Theoretical, numerical and experimental studies dealing with the extinction of such flames in coflow and counterflow configurations are discussed. Since these flames contain both premixed and non-premixed burning zones, a brief review of the dilution-induced extinction of premixed and non-premixed flames is also provided. For the coflow configuration, processes associated with flame liftoff and blowout are described. Since lifted non-premixed jet flames often contain a partially premixed or an edge-flame structure prior to blowout, the review also considers such flames. While the perspective of this review is broad focusing on the fundamental aspects of flame extinction and blowout, results mostly consider flame extinction caused by the addition of a flame suppressant, with relevance to fire suppression on earth and in space environment. With respect to the latter, the effect of gravity on the extinction of PPFs is discussed. Future research needs are identified. (author)
Flame analysis using image processing techniques
Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng
2018-04-01
This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.
Stratified turbulent Bunsen flames: flame surface analysis and flame surface density modelling
Ramaekers, W. J. S.; van Oijen, J. A.; de Goey, L. P. H.
2012-12-01
In this paper it is investigated whether the Flame Surface Density (FSD) model, developed for turbulent premixed combustion, is also applicable to stratified flames. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent stratified Bunsen flames have been carried out, using the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) reduction method for reaction kinetics. Before examining the suitability of the FSD model, flame surfaces are characterized in terms of thickness, curvature and stratification. All flames are in the Thin Reaction Zones regime, and the maximum equivalence ratio range covers 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. For all flames, local flame thicknesses correspond very well to those observed in stretchless, steady premixed flamelets. Extracted curvature radii and mixing length scales are significantly larger than the flame thickness, implying that the stratified flames all burn in a premixed mode. The remaining challenge is accounting for the large variation in (subfilter) mass burning rate. In this contribution, the FSD model is proven to be applicable for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of stratified flames for the equivalence ratio range 0.1⩽φ⩽1.3. Subfilter mass burning rate variations are taken into account by a subfilter Probability Density Function (PDF) for the mixture fraction, on which the mass burning rate directly depends. A priori analysis point out that for small stratifications (0.4⩽φ⩽1.0), the replacement of the subfilter PDF (obtained from DNS data) by the corresponding Dirac function is appropriate. Integration of the Dirac function with the mass burning rate m=m(φ), can then adequately model the filtered mass burning rate obtained from filtered DNS data. For a larger stratification (0.1⩽φ⩽1.3), and filter widths up to ten flame thicknesses, a β-function for the subfilter PDF yields substantially better predictions than a Dirac function. Finally, inclusion of a simple algebraic model for the FSD resulted only in small additional deviations from DNS data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delabroy, O.; Haile, E.; Veynante, D.; Lacas, F.; Candel, S. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France)
1996-12-31
The control of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions will become a major challenge in the forthcoming years, in the domain of automotive industry or industrial burners. Pulsed combustion offers an imaginative solution which does not affect the combustion efficiency. In this paper, the efficiency of this method is demonstrated using the burner of a 20 kW domestic boiler. The actuator is simply installed on the air intake. Two types of actuators have been tested successfully: a loudspeaker and a rotative valve. Both can produce 100 to 1000 Hz frequencies and can lead to a reduction of 20% of NO{sub x} emissions. The feasibility of the concept is also demonstrated on a 840 kW liquid fuel-oil burner. The mechanisms involved during an excitation are explained using the CH{sup *} radical imaging. Results show an important reorganization of the flow and of the flame structure. During each excitation cycle, an annular swirl occurs at the leading edge of the flame catching and develops during downflow convection. These results give precious information on this new concept of nitrogen oxides reduction using acoustic excitation. (J.S.) 18 refs.
Simulations of Flame Acceleration and DDT in Mixture Composition Gradients
Zheng, Weilin; Kaplan, Carolyn; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine
2017-11-01
Unsteady, multidimensional, fully compressible numerical simulations of methane-air in an obstructed channel with spatial gradients in equivalence ratios have been carried to determine the effects of the gradients on flame acceleration and transition to detonation. Results for gradients perpendicular to the propagation direction were considered here. A calibrated, optimized chemical-diffusive model that reproduces correct flame and detonation properties for methane-air over a range of equivalence ratios was derived from a combination of a genetic algorithm with a Nelder-Mead optimization scheme. Inhomogeneous mixtures of methane-air resulted in slower flame acceleration and longer distance to DDT. Detonations were more likely to decouple into a flame and a shock under sharper concentration gradients. Detailed analyses of temperature and equivalence ratio illustrated that vertical gradients can greatly affect the formation of hot spots that initiate detonation by changing the strength of leading shock wave and local equivalence ratio near the base of obstacles. This work is supported by the Alpha Foundation (Grant No. AFC215-20).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H Y; Merino, J L Florenciano; Dagaut, P
2011-01-01
A numerical study was performed to give a quantitative description of a heavily sooting, nonpremixed laminar flame established in a shear boundary layer in microgravity. Controlling mechanisms of three dimensional flow, combustion, soot and radiation are coupled. Soot volume fraction were predicted by using three approaches, referred respectively to as the fuel, acetylene and PAH inception models. It is found that the PAH inception model, which is based on the formation of two and three-ringed aromatic species, reproduces correctly the experimental data from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame. The PAH inception model serves later to better understand flame quenching, flame stand-off distance and soot formation as a function of the dimensionless volume coefficient, defined as C q = V F /V ox where V F is the fuel injection velocity, and V ox air stream velocity. The present experiments showed that a blue unstable flame, negligible radiative feedback, may change to a yellow stable flame, significant radiative loss with an increase of C q ; this experimental trend was numerically reproduced. The flame quenching occurs at the trailing edge due to radiative heat loss which is significantly amplified by increasing V F or decreasing V ox , favouring soot formation. Along a semi-infinite fuel zone, the ratio, d f /d b , where d f is the flame standoff distance, and d b the boundary layer thickness, converges towards a constant value of 1.2, while soot resides always within the boundary layer far away from the flame sheet.
Turbulent Jet Flames Into a Vitiated Coflow. PhD Thesis awarded Spring 2003
Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Cabra, Ricardo
2004-01-01
Examined is the vitiated coflow flame, an experimental condition that decouples the combustion processes of flows found in practical combustors from the associated recirculating fluid mechanics. The configuration consists of a 4.57 mm diameter fuel jet into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean premixed flame. The 210 mm diameter coflow isolates the jet flame from the cool ambient, providing a hot environment similar to the operating conditions of advanced combustors; this important high temperature element is lacking in the traditional laboratory experiments of jet flames into cool (room) air. A family of flows of increasing complexity is presented: 1) nonreacting flow, 2) all hydrogen flame (fuel jet and premixed coflow), and 3) set of methane flames. This sequence of experiments provides a convenient ordering of validation data for combustion models. Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF diagnostics at the Turbulent Diffusion Flame laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories produced instantaneous multiscalar point measurements. These results attest to the attractive features of the vitiated coflow burner and the well-defined boundary conditions provided by the coflow. The coflow is uniform and steady, isolating the jet flame from the laboratory air for a downstream distance ranging from z/d = 50-70. The statistical results show that differential diffusion effects in this highly turbulent flow are negligible. Complementing the comprehensive set of multiscalar measurements is a parametric study of lifted methane flames that was conducted to analyze flame sensitivity to jet and coflow velocity, as well as coflow temperature. The linear relationship found between the lift-off height and the jet velocity is consistent with previous experiments. New linear sensitivities were found correlating the lift-off height to coflow velocity and temperature. A blow-off study revealed that the methane flame blows off at a common coflow temperature (1260 K), regardless of
Choi, Byungchul
2012-06-01
The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, A.H.
1986-03-01
A brief review of some of the recent progress in perturbative QCD is given (heavy quark production, small-x physics, minijets and related topics, classical simulations in high energy reactions, coherence and the string effect)
Properties of flames propagating in rich propane-air mixtures at microgravity
Wang, S. F.; Pu, Y. K.; Jia, F.; Jarosinski, J.
Under normal gravity conditions it was found that the rich flammability limits for propane-air mixture are 9 2 C 3 H 8 equivalence ratio phi 2 42 for upward and 6 3 C 3 H 8 phi 1 60 for downward propagating flames An extremely large concentration gap exists between these two limits which is attributed to the influence of buoyancy and preferential diffusion in the mixture The present study enables a better understanding of flame behaviors in rich propane-air mixtures through microgravity experiments in which flame propagation can be examined in the absence of buoyancy The experiments were carried out in a cubic closed vessel of 80 mm inner length made of quartz glass A high-speed camera recorded flame propagation in the combustion vessel while the pressure history was measured by a transducer to indicate corresponding changes in heat release rate and the temperature development was measured by a thermocouple During the microgravity experiments the vessel was located inside a drop tower assembly The experimental data were compared with similar experiments conducted under normal gravity The flame characteristics were investigated for mixture concentrations between 6 5 C 3 H 8 and 9 2 C 3 H 8 Reliable data related to laminar burning velocity and flame thickness were obtained Some new details of the flame propagation near rich flammability limits were deduced Comparative experiments revealed the influence of gravity on combustion processes of rich propane-air
Development and application of a computer model for large-scale flame acceleration experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marx, K.D.
1987-07-01
A new computational model for large-scale premixed flames is developed and applied to the simulation of flame acceleration experiments. The primary objective is to circumvent the necessity for resolving turbulent flame fronts; this is imperative because of the relatively coarse computational grids which must be used in engineering calculations. The essence of the model is to artificially thicken the flame by increasing the appropriate diffusivities and decreasing the combustion rate, but to do this in such a way that the burn velocity varies with pressure, temperature, and turbulence intensity according to prespecified phenomenological characteristics. The model is particularly aimed at implementation in computer codes which simulate compressible flows. To this end, it is applied to the two-dimensional simulation of hydrogen-air flame acceleration experiments in which the flame speeds and gas flow velocities attain or exceed the speed of sound in the gas. It is shown that many of the features of the flame trajectories and pressure histories in the experiments are simulated quite well by the model. Using the comparison of experimental and computational results as a guide, some insight is developed into the processes which occur in such experiments. 34 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs
Perturbation theory for continuous stochastic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chechetkin, V.R.; Lutovinov, V.S.
1987-01-01
The various general perturbational schemes for continuous stochastic equations are considered. These schemes have many analogous features with the iterational solution of Schwinger equation for S-matrix. The following problems are discussed: continuous stochastic evolution equations for probability distribution functionals, evolution equations for equal time correlators, perturbation theory for Gaussian and Poissonian additive noise, perturbation theory for birth and death processes, stochastic properties of systems with multiplicative noise. The general results are illustrated by diffusion-controlled reactions, fluctuations in closed systems with chemical processes, propagation of waves in random media in parabolic equation approximation, and non-equilibrium phase transitions in systems with Poissonian breeding centers. The rate of irreversible reaction X + X → A (Smoluchowski process) is calculated with the use of general theory based on continuous stochastic equations for birth and death processes. The threshold criterion and range of fluctuational region for synergetic phase transition in system with Poissonian breeding centers are also considered. (author)
Generalized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knecht, M.; Stern, J.
1994-01-01
The Generalized Chiral Perturbation Theory enlarges the framework of the standard χPT (Chiral Perturbation Theory), relaxing certain assumptions which do not necessarily follow from QCD or from experiment, and which are crucial for the usual formulation of the low energy expansion. In this way, experimental tests of the foundations of the standard χPT become possible. Emphasis is put on physical aspects rather than on formal developments of GχPT. (author). 31 refs
Research on flame retardation of wool fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enomoto, Ichiro; Ametani, Kazuo; Sawai, Takeshi
1990-01-01
Flame retardant, vinyl phosphonate oligomer, was uniformly impregnated in wool fibers, and by irradiating low energy electron beam or cobalt-60 gamma ray, the flame retardation of fabrics was attempted, as the results, the following knowledges were obtained. At the rate of sticking of flame retardant lower than that in cotton fabrics, sufficient flame retarding property can be given. The flame retarding property withstands 30 times of washing. The lowering of strength due to the processing hardly arose. For the flame retardation, gamma-ray was more effective than electron beam. Since the accidents of burning clothes have occurred frequently, their flame retardation has been demanded. So far the flame retardation of cotton fabrics has been advanced, but this time the research on the flame retardation of wool fabrics was carried out by the same method. The experimental method is explained. As for the performance of the processed fabrics, the rate of sticking of the flame retardant, the efficiency of utilization, the flame retarding property, the endurance in washing and the tensile and tearing strength were examined. As the oxygen index was higher, the flame retarding property was higher, and in the case of the index being more than 27, the flame retarding property is sufficient, that is, the rate of sticking of 6% in serge and 5% in muslin. (K.I.)
Analysis of the step responses of laminar premixed flames to forcing by non-thermal plasma
Lacoste, Deanna A.
2016-07-16
The step responses of lean methane-air flames to non-thermal plasma forcing is reported. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner, with a nozzle made of a quartz tube. The equivalence ratio is 0.95, allowing stabilization of the flame in a V-shape or an M-shape geometry, over a central stainless steel rod. The plasma is produced by short pulses of 10-ns duration, 8-kV maximum voltage amplitude, applied at 10 kHz. The central rod is used as a cathode, while the anode is a stainless steel ring, fixed on the outer surface of the quartz tube. Plasma forcing is produced by positive or negative steps of plasma. The step response of the flame is investigated through heat release rate (HRR) fluctuations, to facilitate comparisons with flame response to acoustic perturbations. The chemiluminescence of CH* between two consecutive pulses was recorded using an intensified camera equipped with an optical filter to estimate the HRR fluctuations. First, the results show that the flame does not respond to each single plasma pulse, but is affected only by the average plasma power, confirming the step nature of the forcing. The temporal evolutions of HRR are analyzed and the flame transfer functions are determined. A forcing mechanism, as a local increase in the reactivity of the fluid close to the rod, is proposed and compared with numerical simulations. Experiments and numerical simulations are in good qualitative agreement. © 2016.
Asymptotic analysis to the effect of temperature gradient on the propagation of triple flames
Al-Malki, Faisal
2018-05-01
We study asymptotically in this paper the influence of the temperature gradient across the mixing layer on the propagation triple flames formed inside a porous wall channel. The study begins by formulating the problem mathematically using the thermo-diffusive model and then presents a thorough asymptotic analysis of the problem in the limit of large activation energy and thin flames. Analytical formulae for the local burning speed, the flame shape and the propagation speed in terms of the temperature gradient parameter have been derived. It was shown that varying the feed temperatures can significantly enhance the burning of the reactants up to a critical threshold, beyond which no solutions can be obtained. In addition, the study showed that increasing the temperature at the boundaries will modify the usual triple structure of the flame by inverting the upper premixed branch and extending it to the boundary, which may have great implications on the safety of the adopted combustion chambers.
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Zhou, Hua; Li, Shan; Wang, Hu; Ren, Zhuyin
2015-11-01
Predictive simulations of turbulent premixed flames over a wide range of Damköhler numbers in the framework of Probability Density Function (PDF) method still remain challenging due to the deficiency in current micro-mixing models. In this work, a hybrid micro-mixing model, valid in both the flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime, is proposed. A priori testing of this model is first performed by examining the conditional scalar dissipation rate and conditional scalar diffusion in a 3-D direct numerical simulation dataset of a temporally evolving turbulent slot jet flame of lean premixed H2-air in the thin reaction zone regime. Then, this new model is applied to PDF simulations of the Piloted Premixed Jet Burner (PPJB) flames, which are a set of highly shear turbulent premixed flames and feature strong turbulence-chemistry interaction at high Reynolds and Karlovitz numbers. Supported by NSFC 51476087 and NSFC 91441202.
Flame visualization in power stations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulshof, H J.M.; Thus, A W; Verhage, A J.L. [KEMA Fossil Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)
1994-01-01
The study on the title subject is aimed at the determination of the form of the flame and the radiation temperature of the flames of the burners in electric power plants. The adjustment of the burners in a boiler is assessed on the basis of the total performance, in which the NO[sub x]- and CO-concentrations in the flue gases are normative. By comparing the burners mutually, deviating adjustments can be observed, applying optical monitoring techniques. Measurements have been carried out of the coal flames in the unit Gelderland13 of the Dutch energy production company EPON and of the gas flames at the Claus plant A and B of the Dutch energy company EPZ. The final aim of the title study is to draft guidelines, based on the measured flame data, by means of which for every individual burner the adjustment of the fuel supply, the relation with the air supply and the swirl of the combustion air can be optimized
Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam
The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam
Al-Noman, Saeed M.
2016-01-01
temperature coflow air were studied numerically. Several flame configurations were investigated by varying the initial temperature and fuel mole fraction. Characteristics of chemical kinetics structures for autoignited lifted flames were discussed based on the kinetic structures of homogeneous autoignition and flame propagation of premixed mixtures. Results showed that for autoignited lifted flame with tribrachial structure, a transition from autoignition to flame propagation modes occurs for reasonably stoichiometric mixtures. Characteristics of Mild combustion can be treated as an autoignited lean premixed lifted flame. Transition behavior from Mild combustion to a nozzle-attached flame was also investigated by increasing the fuel mole fraction.
Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horlick, G.
1980-01-01
Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons
Understanding and predicting soot generation in turbulent non-premixed jet flames.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Hai (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Kook, Sanghoon; Doom, Jeffrey; Oefelein, Joseph Charles; Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Pickett, Lyle M.
2010-10-01
This report documents the results of a project funded by DoD's Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) on the science behind development of predictive models for soot emission from gas turbine engines. Measurements of soot formation were performed in laminar flat premixed flames and turbulent non-premixed jet flames at 1 atm pressure and in turbulent liquid spray flames under representative conditions for takeoff in a gas turbine engine. The laminar flames and open jet flames used both ethylene and a prevaporized JP-8 surrogate fuel composed of n-dodecane and m-xylene. The pressurized turbulent jet flame measurements used the JP-8 surrogate fuel and compared its combustion and sooting characteristics to a world-average JP-8 fuel sample. The pressurized jet flame measurements demonstrated that the surrogate was representative of JP-8, with a somewhat higher tendency to soot formation. The premixed flame measurements revealed that flame temperature has a strong impact on the rate of soot nucleation and particle coagulation, but little sensitivity in the overall trends was found with different fuels. An extensive array of non-intrusive optical and laser-based measurements was performed in turbulent non-premixed jet flames established on specially designed piloted burners. Soot concentration data was collected throughout the flames, together with instantaneous images showing the relationship between soot and the OH radical and soot and PAH. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for ethylene combustion, including fuel-rich chemistry and benzene formation steps, was compiled, validated, and reduced. The reduced ethylene mechanism was incorporated into a high-fidelity LES code, together with a moment-based soot model and models for thermal radiation, to evaluate the ability of the chemistry and soot models to predict soot formation in the jet diffusion flame. The LES results highlight the importance of including an optically-thick radiation
30 CFR 14.20 - Flame resistance.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flame resistance. 14.20 Section 14.20 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... § 14.20 Flame resistance. Conveyor belts for use in underground coal mines must be flame-resistant and...
TURBULENT OXYGEN FLAMES IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.
2011-01-01
In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared against three-dimensional simulations for a range of Damkoehler numbers (Da 16 ) at a fixed Karlovitz number. The simulations suggest that turbulence does not significantly affect the oxygen flame when Da 16 16 >1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives the propagation of a flame that is narrower than the corresponding inductive flame would be. Furthermore, burning under these conditions appears to occur as part of a combined carbon-oxygen turbulent flame with complex compound structure. The simulations do not appear to support the possibility of a transition to detonation in the oxygen flame, but do not preclude it either.
Hysteresis and transition in swirling nonpremixed flames
Tummers, M.J.; Hübner, A.W.; van Veen, E.H.; Hanjalic, K.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.
2009-01-01
Strongly swirling nonpremixed flames are known to exhibit a hysteresis when transiting from an attached long, sooty, yellow flame to a short lifted blue flame, and vice versa. The upward transition (by increasing the air and fuel flow rates) corresponds to a vortex breakdown, i.e. an abrupt change
DNS of spark ignition and edge flame propagation in turbulent droplet-laden mixing layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neophytou, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2010-06-15
A parametric study of forced ignition at the mixing layer between air and air carrying fine monosized fuel droplets is done through one-step chemistry direct numerical simulations to determine the influence of the size and volatility of the droplets, the spark location, the droplet-air mixing layer initial thickness and the turbulence intensity on the ignition success and the subsequent flame propagation. The propagation is analyzed in terms of edge flame displacement speed, which has not been studied before for turbulent edge spray flames. Spark ignition successfully resulted in a tribrachial flame if enough fuel vapour was available at the spark location, which occurred when the local droplet number density was high. Ignition was achieved even when the spark was offset from the spray, on the air side, due to the diffusion of heat from the spark, provided droplets evaporated rapidly. Large kernels were obtained by sparking close to the spray, since fuel was more readily available. At long times after the spark, for all flames studied, the probability density function of the displacement speed was wide, with a mean value in the range 0.55-0.75S{sub L}, with S{sub L} the laminar burning velocity of a stoichiometric gaseous premixed flame. This value is close to the mean displacement speed in turbulent edge flames with gaseous fuel. The displacement speed was negatively correlated with curvature. The detrimental effect of curvature was attenuated with a large initial kernel and by increasing the thickness of the mixing layer. The mixing layer was thicker when evaporation was slow and the turbulence intensity higher. However, high turbulence intensity also distorted the kernel which could lead to high values of curvature. The edge flame reaction component increased when the maximum temperature coincided with the stoichiometric contour. The results are consistent with the limited available experimental evidence and provide insights into the processes associated with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dasnieres de Veigy, A.; Ouvry, S.; Paris-6 Univ., 75
1992-06-01
The problem of the statistical mechanics of an anyon gas is addressed. A perturbative analysis in the anyonic coupling constant α is reviewed, and the thermodynamical potential is computed at first and second order. An adequate second quantized formalism (field theory at finite temperature) is proposed. At first order in perturbation theory, the results are strikingly simple: only the second virial coefficient close to bosonic statistics is corrected. At second order, however, the complexity of the anyon model appears. One can compute exactly the perturbative correction to each cluster coefficient. However, and contrary to first order, a closed expression for the equation of state seems out of reach. As an illustration, the perturbative expressions of a 3 , a 4 , a 5 and a 6 are given at second order. Finally, using the same formalism, the equation of state of an anyon gas in a constant magnetic field is analyzed at first order in perturbation theory. (K.A.) 16 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs
Bounds for the propagation speed of combustion flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fort, Joaquim; Campos, Daniel; Gonzalez, Josep R; Velayos, Joaquim
2004-01-01
We focus on a combustion model for premixed flames based on two coupled equations determining the spatial dynamics of temperature and fuel density. We rewrite these equations as a classical reaction-diffusion model, so that we can apply some known methods for the prediction of lower and upper bounds to the front speed. The predictions are compared to simulations, which show that our new bounds substantially improve those following from the linearization method, used in the previous work of Fort et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6953). Radiative losses lead to pulses rather than fronts. We find a bound for their speed which (in contrast to the linearization one) correctly predicts the order of magnitude of the flame speed
Bounds for the propagation speed of combustion flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fort, Joaquim [Departament de FIsica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Campos, Daniel [Grup de FIsica EstadIstica, Departament de FIsica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Gonzalez, Josep R [Grup de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Velayos, Joaquim [Grup de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)
2004-07-23
We focus on a combustion model for premixed flames based on two coupled equations determining the spatial dynamics of temperature and fuel density. We rewrite these equations as a classical reaction-diffusion model, so that we can apply some known methods for the prediction of lower and upper bounds to the front speed. The predictions are compared to simulations, which show that our new bounds substantially improve those following from the linearization method, used in the previous work of Fort et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6953). Radiative losses lead to pulses rather than fronts. We find a bound for their speed which (in contrast to the linearization one) correctly predicts the order of magnitude of the flame speed.
Flame synthesis of carbon nano onions using liquefied petroleum gas without catalyst
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhand, Vivek; Prasad, J. Sarada; Rao, M. Venkateswara; Bharadwaj, S.; Anjaneyulu, Y.; Jain, Pawan Kumar
2013-01-01
Densely agglomerated, high specific surface area carbon nano onions with diameter of 30–40 nm have been synthesized. Liquefied petroleum gas and air mixtures produced carbon nano onions in diffusion flames without catalyst. The optimized oxidant to fuel ratio which produces carbon nano onions has been found to be 0.1 slpm/slpm. The experiment yielded 70% pure carbon nano onions with a rate of 5 g/h. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and Raman spectrum reveal the densely packed sp 2 hybridized carbon with (002) semi-crystalline hexagonal graphite reflection. The carbon nano onions are thermally stable up to 600 °C. - Highlights: ►Flame synthesized carbon nano onions with 30–40 nm diameters. ►LPG/air, diffusion type flame used in absence of catalyst to produce nano onions. ►Carbon nano onion production rate is 5 g/hr and with 70% purity.
The modelling of direct chemical kinetic effects in turbulent flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindstet, R.P. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2000-06-01
Combustion chemistry-related effects have traditionally been of secondary importance in the design of gas turbine combustors. However, the need to deal with issues such as flame stability, relight and pollutant emissions has served to bring chemical kinetics and the coupling of finite rate chemistry with turbulent flow fields to the centre of combustor design. Indeed, improved cycle efficiency and more stringent environmental legislation, as defined by the ICAO, are current key motivators in combustor design. Furthermore, lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) combustion systems, increasingly used for power generation, often operate close to the lean blow-off limit and are prone to extinction/reignition type phenomena. Thus, current key design issues require that direct chemical kinetic effects be accounted for accurately in any simulation procedure. The transported probability density function (PDF) approach uniquely offers the potential of facilitating the accurate modelling of such effects. The present paper thus assesses the ability of this technique to model kinetically controlled phenomena, such as carbon monoxide emissions and flame blow-off, through the application of a transported PDF method closed at the joint scalar level. The closure for the velocity field is at the second moment level, and a key feature of the present work is the use of comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanisms. The latter are derived from recent work by Lindstedt and co-workers that has resulted in a compact 141 reactions and 28 species mechanism for LNG combustion. The systematically reduced form used here features 14 independent C/H/O scalars, with the remaining species incorporated via steady state approximations. Computations have been performed for hydrogen/carbon dioxide and methane flames. The former (high Reynolds number) flames permit an assessment of the modelling of flame blow-off, and the methane flame has been selected to obtain an indication of the influence of differential
Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan Zhenghua
1999-01-01
Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall
Numerical Investigation of Soot Formation in Non-premixed Flames
Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin
2017-05-01
Soot is a carbon particulate formed as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels. Due to the health hazard posed by the carbon particulate, government agencies have applied strict regulations to control soot emissions from road vehicles, airplanes, and industrial plants. Thus, understanding soot formation and evolution is critical. Practical combustion devices operate at high pressure and in the turbulent regime. Elevated pressures and turbulence on soot formation significantly and fundamental understanding of these complex interactions is still poor. In this study, the effects of pressure and turbulence on soot formation and growth are investigated numerically. As the first step, the evolution of the particle size distribution function (PSDF) and soot particles morphology are investigated in turbulent non-premixed flames. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code is developed and used. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of an n-heptane turbulent non-premixed flame. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Secondly, the effect of the flow and mixing fields on soot formation at atmospheric and elevated pressures is investigated in coflow laminar diffusion flames. The experimental observation and the numerical prediction of the spatial distribution are in good agreement. Based on the common scaling methodology of the flames (keeping the Reynolds number constant), the scalar dissipation rate decreases as pressure increases, promoting the formation of PAH species and soot. The decrease of the scalar dissipation rate significantly contributes to soot formation occurring closer to the nozzle and outward on the flames wings as pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noda, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Hashimoto, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, T [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1994-07-25
The effect of fuel dilution on growth of flames formed in 2-D mixing layers was studied by numerical simulation. The methane mass fraction of fuel was adjusted to 1.0, 0.3 and 0.2 through dilution by nitrogen, while the oxygen mass fraction of an oxidizer was fixed at 0.27. Flame structure was complicated due to the flows separated by flame at the leading edge of flames, and three peaks of the second Damkohler number were observed. Fuel dilution by nitrogen caused blow-off of flames, and the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames was essential to blow-off of diffused flames. In the case where vortices were observed in a flow field, the first Damkohler number was important which was determined by the hydrodynamic characteristic time of coherent vortices and the chemical characteristic time of flame propagation based on the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames. The diffused flames were elongated by shearing force, and an exothermic reaction was suppressed and a flame stabilization decreased with a decrease in second Damkohler number. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1996-06-01
After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)
The effect of CO{sub 2} dissolved in a diesel fuel on the jet flame characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao Jin; Huang Zhen; Qiao Xinqi; Hou Yuchun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). Research Institute of Internal Combustion Engine
2008-03-15
This paper is concerned with an experimental study of the jet diffusion flame characteristics of fuel containing CO{sub 2}. Using diesel fuel containing dissolved CO{sub 2} gas, experiments were performed under atmospheric conditions with a diesel hole-type nozzle of 0.19 mm orifice diameter at constant injection pressure. In this study, four different CO{sub 2} mass fraction in diesel fuel such as 3.13%, 7.18%, 12.33% and 17.82% were used to study the effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on the jet flame characteristics. Jet flame characteristics were measured by direct photography, meanwhile the image colorimetry is used to assess the qualitative features of jet flame temperature. Experimental results show that the CO{sub 2} gas dilution effect and the atomization effect have a great influence on the flame structure and average temperature. When the injection pressure of diesel fuel increased from 4 MPa to 6 MPa, the low temperature flame length increased from 18.4 cm to 21.7 cm and the full temperature flame length decreased from 147.6 cm to 134.7 cm. With the increase of CO{sub 2} gas dissolved in the diesel fuel, the jet flame full length decreased for the jet atomization being improved greatly meanwhile the low temperature flame length increased for the CO{sub 2} gas dilution effect; with the increase of CO{sub 2} gas dissolved in the diesel fuel, the average temperature of flame increases firstly and then falls. Experimental results validate that higher injection pressure will improve jet atomization and then increased the flame average temperature. 27 refs., 13 figs.
The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey
Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.
2011-01-01
We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on
Nonlinear spherical perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy
Pratap Rajvanshi, Manvendra; Bagla, J. S.
2018-06-01
Observations have confirmed the accelerated expansion of the universe. The accelerated expansion can be modelled by invoking a cosmological constant or a dynamical model of dark energy. A key difference between these models is that the equation of state parameter w for dark energy differs from ‑1 in dynamical dark energy (DDE) models. Further, the equation of state parameter is not constant for a general DDE model. Such differences can be probed using the variation of scale factor with time by measuring distances. Another significant difference between the cosmological constant and DDE models is that the latter must cluster. Linear perturbation analysis indicates that perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy do not grow to have a significant amplitude at small length scales. In this paper we study the response of quintessence dark energy to non-linear perturbations in dark matter. We use a fully relativistic model for spherically symmetric perturbations. In this study we focus on thawing models. We find that in response to non-linear perturbations in dark matter, dark energy perturbations grow at a faster rate than expected in linear perturbation theory. We find that dark energy perturbation remains localised and does not diffuse out to larger scales. The dominant drivers of the evolution of dark energy perturbations are the local Hubble flow and a supression of gradients of the scalar field. We also find that the equation of state parameter w changes in response to perturbations in dark matter such that it also becomes a function of position. The variation of w in space is correlated with density contrast for matter. Variation of w and perturbations in dark energy are more pronounced in response to large scale perturbations in matter while the dependence on the amplitude of matter perturbations is much weaker.
Choi, Byungchul; Chung, Suk-Ho
2012-01-01
and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between
Computational Fluid-Particle Dynamics for the Flame Synthesis of Alumina Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Tue; Pratsinis, Sotirie E.; Livbjerg, Hans
2000-01-01
A mathematical model for the dynamics of particle growth during synthesis of ultra fine particles in diffusion flames is presented. The model includes the kinetics of particle coalescence and coagulation, and when combined with a calculation of the temperature, velocity and gas composition distri...
Flex-flame burner and combustion method
Soupos, Vasilios; Zelepouga, Serguei; Rue, David M.; Abbasi, Hamid A.
2010-08-24
A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, B.H.Y.; Chan, C.K. [Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2006-10-15
In this paper, a 2-dimensional rod-stabilized V-shaped flame is simulated using contour advection with surgery as well as the random vortex method. Effects of turbulence on various quantities, such as flame brush thickness and flame surface density, are investigated. The flame surface density S is estimated using the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation, which involves the use of a mean orientation factor {sigma}{sub c}. As a comparison, values of S are also obtained using Shepherd's model, which employs the values of mean flame surface area and mean flame length. Local flame structure is characterized in terms of turbulent flame brush, orientation factor, and flame surface density. Profiles of S obtained using the two different models are compared and show that discrepancy is more evident with increasing turbulence intensity. (author)
Preheating curvaton perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastero-Gil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S.F.
2005-01-01
We discuss the potentially important role played by preheating in certain variants of the curvaton mechanism in which isocurvature perturbations of a D-flat (and F-flat) direction become converted to curvature perturbations during reheating. We discover that parametric resonance of the isocurvature components amplifies the superhorizon fluctuations by a significant amount. As an example of these effects we develop a particle physics motivated model which involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the μ term, the right-handed neutrino mass scale, and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale. The role of the curvaton field can be played either by usual Higgs field, or the lightest right-handed sneutrino. Our new results show that it is possible to achieve the correct curvature perturbations for initial values of the curvaton fields of order the weak scale. In this model we show that the prediction for the spectral index of the final curvature perturbation only depends on the mass of the curvaton during inflation, where consistency with current observational data requires the ratio of this mass to the Hubble constant to be 0.3
String perturbation theory diverges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.
1988-01-01
We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suslov, I.M.
2005-01-01
Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lüscher, Martin
2015-01-01
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
2015-01-01
We study irreducible time-homogenous Markov chains with finite state space in discrete time. We obtain results on the sensitivity of the stationary distribution and other statistical quantities with respect to perturbations of the transition matrix. We define a new closeness relation between transition matrices, and use graph-theoretic techniques, in contrast with the matrix analysis techniques previously used.
Scalar cosmological perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uggla, Claes; Wainwright, John
2012-01-01
Scalar perturbations of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies can be analyzed in a variety of ways using Einstein's field equations, the Ricci and Bianchi identities, or the conservation equations for the stress-energy tensor, and possibly introducing a timelike reference congruence. The common ground is the use of gauge invariants derived from the metric tensor, the stress-energy tensor, or from vectors associated with a reference congruence, as basic variables. Although there is a complication in that there is no unique choice of gauge invariants, we will show that this can be used to advantage. With this in mind our first goal is to present an efficient way of constructing dimensionless gauge invariants associated with the tensors that are involved, and of determining their inter-relationships. Our second goal is to give a unified treatment of the various ways of writing the governing equations in dimensionless form using gauge-invariant variables, showing how simplicity can be achieved by a suitable choice of variables and normalization factors. Our third goal is to elucidate the connection between the metric-based approach and the so-called 1 + 3 gauge-invariant approach to cosmological perturbations. We restrict our considerations to linear perturbations, but our intent is to set the stage for the extension to second-order perturbations. (paper)
Generalized perturbation series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baird, L.C.; Stinchcomb, G.
1973-01-01
An approximate solution of the Green's function equation may be used to generate an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation. This is accomplished through an iterative procedure. The procedure is equivalent to a perturbation expansion if the approximate Green's function is exact with respect to some reference potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Naeem Shahid, M.
2009-01-01
We study the effects of the perturbation which violates the permutation symmetry of three Majorana neutrinos but preserves the well known (23) interchange symmetry. This is done in the presenceof an arbitrary Majorana phase which serves to insure the degeneracy of the three neutrinos at the unper...... at the unperturbed level....
Feier, Ioan I., Jr.
The effect of flame radiation on concurrent-flow flame spread over a thin solid sample of finite width in a low-speed wind tunnel is modeled using three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes equations and three-dimensional flame radiation transfer equations. The formulation includes the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species: fuel vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. The SN discrete ordinates method is used to solve the radiation transfer equation with a mean absorption coefficient kappa = Ckappa p, where kappap is the Planck mean absorption coefficient of the gas mixture. The varying parameter C has a value between 0 and 1; C represents the strength of flame radiation. In addition, the solid fuel absorptivity alpha is varied to ascertain the effect of flame radiation heat feedback to the solid. The flow tunnel modeled has a dimension of 10x10x30 cm, the solid fuel has a width of 6-cm with two 1-cm inert strips as edges. Incoming forced flow velocity (5 cm/s) of 21% oxygen is assumed. For comparison with the three-dimensional results, corresponding two-dimensional computations are also performed. Detailed spatial flame profiles, solid surface profiles, and heat fluxes are presented. Increasing the flame radiation strength decreases the flame length. Although flame radiation provides an additional heat transfer mechanism to preheat the solid, it is insufficient to offset the decreased convective heating due to the shorter flame; the net effect is a slower spread rate. The percentage of unreacted fuel vapor that escapes from the flame is under 2%. It is theorized that some of the pyrolyzed fuel vapor diffuses sideway and reacts at the flame edges. A radiative energy balance is analyzed also. Flame radiative feedback to the solid plays a more important role in two-dimensional flames. With high solid fuel absorptivity, a peak in the flame spread rate occurs at an intermediate value of flame radiation strength---due to the competition between two
Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Dave, Himanshu L.; Arias, Paul G.; Im, Hong G.
2015-01-01
Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.
Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.
2015-11-21
Interactions of turbulence, molecular transport, and energy transport, coupled with chemistry play a crucial role in the evolution of flame surface geometry, propagation, annihilation, and local extinction/re-ignition characteristics of intensely turbulent premixed flames. This study seeks to understand how these interactions affect flame surface annihilation of lean hydrogen–air premixed turbulent flames. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are conducted at different parametric conditions with a detailed reaction mechanism and transport properties for hydrogen–air flames. Flame particle tracking (FPT) technique is used to follow specific flame surface segments. An analytical expression for the local displacement flame speed (Sd) of a temperature isosurface is considered, and the contributions of transport, chemistry, and kinematics on the displacement flame speed at different turbulence-flame interaction conditions are identified. In general, the displacement flame speed for the flame particles is found to increase with time for all conditions considered. This is because, eventually all flame surfaces and their resident flame particles approach annihilation by reactant island formation at the end of stretching and folding processes induced by turbulence. Statistics of principal curvature evolving in time, obtained using FPT, suggest that these islands are ellipsoidal on average enclosing fresh reactants. Further examinations show that the increase in Sd is caused by the increased negative curvature of the flame surface and eventual homogenization of temperature gradients as these reactant islands shrink due to flame propagation and turbulent mixing. Finally, the evolution of the normalized, averaged, displacement flame speed vs. stretch Karlovitz number are found to collapse on a narrow band, suggesting that a unified description of flame speed dependence on stretch rate may be possible in the Lagrangian description.
Kumar, Praveen
The demand for sustainable alternative fuels is ever-increasing in the power generation, transportation, and energy sectors due to the inherent non-sustainable characteristics and political constraints of current energy resources. A number of alternative fuels derived from cellulosic biomass, algae, or waste are being considered, along with the conversion of electricity to non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia (NH3). The latter is receiving attention recently because it is a non-carbon fuel that is readily produced in large quantities, stored and transported with current infrastructure, and is often a byproduct of biomass or waste conversion processes. However, pure or anhydrous ammonia combustion is severely challenging due to its high auto-ignition temperature (650 °C), low reactivity, and tendency to promote NOx formation. As such, the present study focuses on two major aspects of the ammonia combustion. The first is an applied investigation of the potential to achieve pure NH3 combustion with low levels of emissions in flames of practical interest. In this study, a swirl-stabilized flame typically used in fuel-oil home-heating systems is optimized for NH3 combustion, and measurements of NO and NH3 are collected for a wide range of operating conditions. The second major focus of this work is on fundamental investigation of NO x formation mechanisms in flames with high levels of NH3 in H2. For laminar premixed and diffusion jet flames, experimental measurements of flame speeds, exhaust-gas sampling, and in-situ NO measurements (NO PLIF) are compared with numerically predicted flames using complex chemical kinetics within CHEMKIN and reacting CFD codes i.e., UNICORN. From the preliminary testing of the NOx formation mechanisms, (1) Tian (2) Konnov and (3) GRI-Mech3.0 in laminar premixed H2/NH 3 flames, the Tian and Konnov mechanisms are found to capture the reduction in measured flame speeds with increasing NH3 in the fuel mixture, both qualitatively and
Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems
Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Ross, Howard D.; Marchese, Anthony; Perry, David; Kulis, Michael
2001-01-01
Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized previously, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our progress on furthering the knowledge of layered combustion, in which a fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. We present experimental and numerical results for flame spread through propanol-air layers formed near the flash point temperature (25 C) or near the stoichiometric temperature (33 C). Both the model and experimental results show that the removal of gravity results in a faster spreading flame, by as much as 80% depending on conditions. This is exactly the opposite effect as that predicted by an earlier model reported. We also found that having a gallery lid results in faster flame spread, an effect more pronounced at normal gravity, demonstrating the importance of enclosure geometry. Also reported here is the beginning of our spectroscopic measurements of fuel vapor.
The anchoring mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame
Kedia, Kushal S.
2014-09-01
The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanism of the laminar premixed flame anchoring near a heat-conducting bluff-body. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. No artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions were imposed. Simulations show a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. A steel bluff-body resulted in a slightly larger recirculation zone than a ceramic bluff-body; the size of which grew as the equivalence ratio was decreased. A significant departure from the conventional two-zone flame-structure is shown in the anchoring region. In this region, the reaction zone is associated with a large negative energy convection (directed from products to reactants) resulting in a negative flame-displacement speed. It is shown that the premixed flame anchors at an immediate downstream location near the bluff-body where favorable ignition conditions are established; a region associated with (1) a sufficiently high temperature impacted by the conjugate heat exchange between the heat-conducting bluff-body and the hot reacting flow and (2) a locally maximum stoichiometry characterized by the preferential diffusion effects. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Flame stability and emission characteristics of turbulent LPG IDF in a backstep burner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Mahesh; D.P. Mishra [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Combustion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering
2008-09-15
The stability characteristics and emissions from turbulent LPG inverse diffusion flame (IDF) in a backstep burner are reported in this paper. The blow-off velocity of turbulent LPG IDF is observed to increase monotonically with fuel jet velocity. In contrast to normal diffusion flames (NDF), the flame in the present IDF burner gets blown out without getting lifted-off from the burner surface. The soot free length fraction, SFLF, defined as the ratio of visible premixing length, H{sub p}, to visible flame length, H{sub f}, is used for qualitative estimation of soot reduction in this IDF burner. The SFLF is found to increase with central air jet velocity indicating the occurrence of extended premixing zone in the vicinity of flame base. Interestingly, the soot free length fraction (SFLF) is found to be correlated well with the newly devised parameter, global momentum ratio. The peak value of EINOX happens to occur closer to stoichiometric overall equivalence ratio. 16 refs., 9 figs.
Mixed phase Pt-Ru catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell anode by flame aerosol synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakraborty, Debasish; Bischoff, H.; Chorkendorff, Ib
2005-01-01
A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst wa......Ru1/Vulcan carbon. The kinetics of methanol oxidation on the mixed phase catalyst was also explored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. (c) 2005 The Electrochemical Society.......A spray-flame aerosol catalyzation technique was studied for producing Pt-Ru anode electrodes for the direct methanol fuel cell. Catalysts were produced as aerosol nanoparticles in a spray-flame reactor and deposited directly as a thin layer on the gas diffusion layer. The as-prepared catalyst...... was found to be a mixture of nanocrystalline, mostly unalloyed Pt and an amorphous phase mostly of Ru and to a lesser extent of Pt oxides on top of the crystalline phase. The flame-produced Pt1Ru1 demonstrated similar onset potential but similar to 60% higher activity compared to commercially available Pt1...
Plasma diffusion in systems with disrupted magnetic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, D.K.; Pogutse, O.P.
1982-01-01
Plasma diffusion is analyzed in the case in which the system of magnetic surfaces is disrupted by a stochastic perturbation of the magnetic field. The diffusion coefficient is related to the statistical properties of the field. The statistical characteristics of the field are found when the magnetic surfaces near the separatrix are disrupted by an external perturbation. The diffusion coefficient is evaluated in the region in which the magnetic surfaces are disrupted. In this region the diffusion coefficient is of the Bohm form
Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.
1990-05-01
The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs
Speed ot travelling waves in reaction-diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benguria, R.D.; Depassier, M.C.; Mendez, V.
2002-01-01
Reaction diffusion equations arise in several problems of population dynamics, flame propagation and others. In one dimensional cases the systems may evolve into travelling fronts. Here we concentrate on a reaction diffusion equation which arises as a simple model for chemotaxis and present results for the speed of the travelling fronts. (Author)
Smoldering and Flame Resistant Textiles via Conformal Barrier Formation.
Zammarano, Mauro; Cazzetta, Valeria; Nazaré, Shonali; Shields, J Randy; Kim, Yeon Seok; Hoffman, Kathleen M; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Davis, Rick
2016-12-07
A durable and flexible silicone-based backcoating (halogen free) is applied to the backside of an otherwise smoldering-prone and flammable fabric. When exposed to fire, cyclic siloxanes (produced by thermal decomposition of the backcoating) diffuse through the fabric in the gas phase. The following oxidation of the cyclic siloxanes forms a highly conformal and thermally stable coating that fully embeds all individual fibers and shields them from heat and oxidation. As a result, the combustion of the fabric is prevented. This is a novel fire retardant mechanism that discloses a powerful approach towards textiles and multifunctional flexible materials with combined smoldering/flaming ignition resistance and fire-barrier properties.
Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study
Liu, X.
2017-07-04
Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.
Effect of burner geometry on swirl stabilized methane/air flames: A joint LES/OH-PLIF/PIV study
Liu, X.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Gong, C.; Bai, X.S.; Zheng, H.T.; Roberts, William L.
2017-01-01
Large eddy simulation (LES) using a transported PDF model and OH-PLIF/PIV experiments were carried out to investigate the quarl effects on the structures of swirl stabilized methane/air flames. Two different quarls were investigated, one straight cylindrical quarl and one diverging conical quarl. The experiments show that the flames are significantly different with the two quarls. With the straight cylindrical quarl a compact blue flame is observed while with the diverging conical quarl the flame appears to be long and yellow indicating a sooty flame structure. The PIV results show the formation of a stronger flow recirculation inside the diverging conical quarl than that in the straight quarl. LES results reveal further details of the flow and mixing process inside the quarl. The results show that with the diverging quarl vortex breakdown occurs much earlier towards the upstream of the quarl. As a result the fuel is convected into the air flow tube and a diffusion flame is stabilized inside the air flow tube upstream the quarl. With the straight quarl, vortex breakdown occurs at a downstream location in the quarl. The scalar dissipation rate in the shear layer of the fuel jet is high, which prevents the stabilization of a diffusion flame in the proximity of the fuel nozzle; instead, a compact partially premixed flame with two distinct heat release layers is stablized in a downstream region in the quarl, which allows for the fuel and air to mix in the quarl before combustion and a lower formation rate of soot. The results showed that the Eulerian Stochastic Fields transported PDF method can well predict the details of the swirl flame dynamics.
Studying the perturbative Reggeon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, S.; Ross, D.A.
2000-01-01
We consider the flavour non-singlet Reggeon within the context of perturbative QCD. This consists of ladders built out of ''reggeized'' quarks. We propose a method for the numerical solution of the integro-differential equation for the amplitude describing the exchange of such a Reggeon. The solution is known to have a sharp rise at low values of Bjorken-x when applied to non-singlet quantities in deep-inelastic scattering. We show that when the running of the coupling is taken into account this sharp rise is further enhanced, although the Q 2 dependence is suppressed by the introduction of the running coupling. We also investigate the effects of simulating non-perturbative physics by introducing a constituent mass for the soft quarks and an effective mass for the soft gluons exchanged in the t-channel. (orig.)
Renormalized Lie perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.
1981-07-01
A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another
Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames
Choin, Byung Chul
2012-01-01
Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.
Nonperturbative perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.
1989-01-01
In this talk we describe a recently proposed graphical perturbative calculational scheme for quantum field theory. The basic idea is to expand in the power of the interaction term. For example, to solve a λφ 4 theory in d-dimensional space-time, we introduce a small parameter δ and consider a λ(φ 2 ) 1+δ field theory. We show how to expand such a theory as a series in powers of δ. The resulting perturbation series appears to have a finite radius of convergence and numerical results for low-dimensional models are good. We have computed the two-point and four-point Green's functions to second order in powers of δ and the 2n-point Green's functions (n>2) to order δ. We explain how to renormalize the theory and show that, to first order in powers of δ, when δ>0 and d≥4 the theory is free. This conclusion remains valid to second order in powers of δ, and we believe that it remains valid to all orders in powers of δ. The new perturbative scheme is consistent with global supersymmetry invariance. We examine a two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theory in which we do not know of any other means for doing analytical calculations. We illustrate the power of this new technique by computing the ground-state energy density E to second order in this new perturbation theory. We show that there is a beautiful and delicate cancellation between infinite classes of graphs which leads to the result that E=0. (orig.)
Perturbed asymptotically linear problems
Bartolo, R.; Candela, A. M.; Salvatore, A.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is investigating the existence of solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems on open bounded domains when the nonlinearity is subcritical and asymptotically linear at infinity and there is a perturbation term which is just continuous. Also in the case when the problem has not a variational structure, suitable procedures and estimates allow us to prove that the number of distinct crtitical levels of the functional associated to the unperturbed problem is "stable" unde...
Twisting perturbed parafermions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.V. Belitsky
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The near-collinear expansion of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory at strong coupling is governed by the dynamics of stings propagating on the five sphere. The pentagon transitions in the operator product expansion which systematize the series get reformulated in terms of matrix elements of branch-point twist operators in the two-dimensional O(6 nonlinear sigma model. The facts that the latter is an asymptotically free field theory and that there exists no local realization of twist fields prevents one from explicit calculation of their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. This complication is bypassed making use of the equivalence of the sigma model to the infinite-level limit of WZNW models perturbed by current–current interactions, such that one can use conformal symmetry and conformal perturbation theory for systematic calculations. Presently, to set up the formalism, we consider the O(3 sigma model which is reformulated as perturbed parafermions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2016-05-15
Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) often lead to the decrease of plasma performance and can lead to disruptions, which makes them a major impediment in the development of operating scenarios in present toroidal fusion devices. Recent gyrokinetic simulations predict a decrease of plasma turbulence and cross-field transport at the O-point of the islands, which in turn affects the NTM dynamics. In this paper, a heat transport model of magnetic islands employing spatially non-uniform cross-field thermal diffusivity (χ{sub ⊥}) is presented. This model is used to derive χ{sub ⊥} at the O-point from electron temperature data measured across 2/1 NTM islands in DIII-D. It was found that χ{sub ⊥} at the O-point is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the background plasma transport, in qualitative agreement with gyrokinetic predictions. As the anomalously large values of χ{sub ⊥} are often attributed to turbulence driven transport, the reduction of the O-point χ{sub ⊥} is consistent with turbulence reduction found in recent experiments. Finally, the implication of reduced χ{sub ⊥} at the O-point on NTM dynamics was investigated using the modified Rutherford equation that predicts a significant effect of reduced χ{sub ⊥} at the O-point on NTM saturation.
Huang, Rong Fung; Kivindu, Reuben Mwanza; Hsu, Ching Min
2018-06-01
The flame behavior and thermal structure of combusting plane jets with and without self-excited transverse oscillations were investigated experimentally. The transversely-oscillating plane jet was generated by a specially designed fluidic oscillator. Isothermal flow patterns were observed using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Meanwhile, the flame behaviour was studied using instantaneous and long-exposure photography techniques. Temperature distributions and combustion-product concentrations were measured using a fine-wire type R thermocouple and a gas analyzer, respectively. The results showed that the combusting transversely-oscillating plane jets had distributed turbulent blue flames with plaited-like edges, while the corresponding combusting non-oscillating plane jet had laminar blue-edged flames in the near field. At a high Reynolds number, the transversely-oscillating jet flames were significantly shorter and wider with shorter reaction-dominated zones than those of the non-oscillating plane jet flames. In addition, the transversely-oscillating combusting jets presented larger carbon dioxide and smaller unburned hydrocarbon concentrations, as well as portrayed characteristics of partially premixed flames. The non-oscillating combusting jets presented characteristics of diffusion flames, and the transversely-oscillating jet flame had a combustion performance superior to its non-oscillating plane jet flame counterpart. The high combustion performance of the transversely-oscillating jets was due to the enhanced entrainment, mixing, and lateral spreading of the jet flow, which were induced by the vortical flow structure generated by lateral periodic jet oscillations, as well as the high turbulence created by the breakup of the vortices.
Huang, Rong Fung; Kivindu, Reuben Mwanza; Hsu, Ching Min
2017-12-01
The flame behavior and thermal structure of combusting plane jets with and without self-excited transverse oscillations were investigated experimentally. The transversely-oscillating plane jet was generated by a specially designed fluidic oscillator. Isothermal flow patterns were observed using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method. Meanwhile, the flame behaviour was studied using instantaneous and long-exposure photography techniques. Temperature distributions and combustion-product concentrations were measured using a fine-wire type R thermocouple and a gas analyzer, respectively. The results showed that the combusting transversely-oscillating plane jets had distributed turbulent blue flames with plaited-like edges, while the corresponding combusting non-oscillating plane jet had laminar blue-edged flames in the near field. At a high Reynolds number, the transversely-oscillating jet flames were significantly shorter and wider with shorter reaction-dominated zones than those of the non-oscillating plane jet flames. In addition, the transversely-oscillating combusting jets presented larger carbon dioxide and smaller unburned hydrocarbon concentrations, as well as portrayed characteristics of partially premixed flames. The non-oscillating combusting jets presented characteristics of diffusion flames, and the transversely-oscillating jet flame had a combustion performance superior to its non-oscillating plane jet flame counterpart. The high combustion performance of the transversely-oscillating jets was due to the enhanced entrainment, mixing, and lateral spreading of the jet flow, which were induced by the vortical flow structure generated by lateral periodic jet oscillations, as well as the high turbulence created by the breakup of the vortices.
Flame Motion In Gas Turbine Burner From Averages Of Single-Pulse Flame Fronts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tylli, N.; Hubschmid, W.; Inauen, A.; Bombach, R.; Schenker, S.; Guethe, F. [Alstom (Switzerland); Haffner, K. [Alstom (Switzerland)
2005-03-01
Thermo acoustic instabilities of a gas turbine burner were investigated by flame front localization from measured OH laser-induced fluorescence single pulse signals. The average position of the flame was obtained from the superposition of the single pulse flame fronts at constant phase of the dominant acoustic oscillation. One observes that the flame position varies periodically with the phase angle of the dominant acoustic oscillation. (author)
A model of modulated diffusion. I. Analytical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazzani, A.; Turcchetti, G.; Vaienti, S.
1994-01-01
We introduce an integrable isochronous system and perturb its frequency by an external-deterministic or purely random-noise. Under the perturbation the action variable evolves in time: the corresponding diffusion coefficient is exactly computed and its dependence on the magnitude of the perturbation is carefully investigated. Different behaviors are found and justified: the quasilinear approximation, the superlinear regime, and the ballistic motion
Pole solutions for flame front propagation
Kupervasser, Oleg
2015-01-01
This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takac, S.M.
1972-01-01
The method is based on perturbation of the reactor cell from a few up to few tens of percent. Measurements were performed for square lattice calls of zero power reactors Anna, NORA and RB, with metal uranium and uranium oxide fuel elements, water, heavy water and graphite moderators. Character and functional dependence of perturbations were obtained from the experimental results. Zero perturbation was determined by extrapolation thus obtaining the real physical neutron flux distribution in the reactor cell. Simple diffusion theory for partial plate cell perturbation was developed for verification of the perturbation method. The results of these calculation proved that introducing the perturbation sample in the fuel results in flattening the thermal neutron density dependent on the amplitude of the applied perturbation. Extrapolation applied for perturbed distributions was found to be justified
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Yong Mo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-11-15
A two-dimensional model with the detailed chemistry and variable transport properties has been applied to numerically investigate the combustion processes and flame dynamics in the bilayer porous burner. To account for the velocity transition and diffusion influenced by solid matrix, porosity terms are included in the governing equations. Heat transfer coefficient is calculated by Nusselt number to reflect the effect of gas velocity, pore diameter, and material properties. The detailed chemistry is based on GRI 2.11. Numerical results indicate that the present approach is capable of the essential features of the premixed combustion in the porous media in terms of the precise flame structure, pollutant formation, and stabilization characteristics. In this bilayer porous burner, the heat transferred from the downstream flame zone is conducted to the upstream flame region through the solid matrix. This heat transfer process through the solid matrix substantially influences the flame structure and stabilization characteristics in the porous media. The predicted results are compared with experimental data in terms of temperature for gaseous mixture and solid matrix, CO and NO emission level. Based on numerical results, a precise comparison has been made for the freely propagating premixed flames and the premixed flames with a porous media for various inlet velocities.
Non-Perturbative Renormalization
Mastropietro, Vieri
2008-01-01
The notion of renormalization is at the core of several spectacular achievements of contemporary physics, and in the last years powerful techniques have been developed allowing to put renormalization on a firm mathematical basis. This book provides a self-consistent and accessible introduction to the sophisticated tools used in the modern theory of non-perturbative renormalization, allowing an unified and rigorous treatment of Quantum Field Theory, Statistical Physics and Condensed Matter models. In particular the first part of this book is devoted to Constructive Quantum Field Theory, providi
Perturbative quantum chromodynamics
1989-01-01
This book will be of great interest to advanced students and researchers in the area of high energy theoretical physics. Being the most complete and updated review volume on Perturbative QCD, it serves as an extremely useful textbook or reference book. Some of the reviews in this volume are the best that have been written on the subject anywhere. Contents: Factorization of Hard Processes in QCD (J C Collins, D E Soper & G Sterman); Exclusive Processes in Quantum Chromodynamics (S J Brodsky & G P Lepage); Coherence and Physics of QCD Jets (Yu L Dokshitzer, V A Khoze & S I Troyan); Pomeron in Qu
Perturbative quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radyushkin, A.V.
1987-01-01
The latest achievements in perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) relating to the progress in factorization of small and large distances are presented. The following problems are concerned: Development of the theory of Sudakov effects on the basis of mean contour formalism. Development of nonlocal condensate formalism. Calculation of hadron wave functions and hadron distribution functions using QCD method of sum rules. Development of the theory of Regge behaviour in QCD, behaviour of structure functions at small x. Study of polarization effects in hadron processes with high momentum transfer
Experimental studies of flame stability limits of biogas flame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Wanneng; Qin Chaokui; Chen Zhiguang; Tong Chao; Liu Pengjun
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Premixed biogas flame stability for RTBs was studied on different conditions. ► An unusual “float off” phenomenon was observed. ► Decrease of port diameter or gas temperature or methane content motivates lifting. ► Increase of methane content or gas temperature or port diameter motivates yellow tipping. ► Lifting curves become straight lines when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. - Abstract: Flame stability of premixed biogas flame for Reference Test Burner (RTB) was investigated. In this study, six kinds of test gases were used to simulate biogas in which CO 2 volume fraction varied from 30% to 45%. A series of experiments were conducted on two RTBs with different port diameters and at different outlet unburned mixture temperatures. It was found that the lifting and yellow tipping limits show similar trends regardless of the biogas components, port diameters and mixture temperatures. A “float off” phenomenon could be observed at low gas flow rate and low primary air ratio. Low mixture temperature, small ports and high CO 2 concentration in biogas can lead to the unstable condition of “float off”. The lifting limits are enhanced with an increase of port diameter or mixture temperature and with a decrease of CO 2 concentration. The yellow tipping limits are extended with an increase of CO 2 concentration and with a decrease of mixture temperature or port diameter. In addition, the lifting limit curve becomes a straight line when semi-logarithmic graph paper is applied. The intercept increases with a decrease of the CO 2 concentration in biogas and with an increase of port diameter or gas temperature.
Perturbed effects at radiation physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi
2013-01-01
Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer–Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables. - Highlights: • Perturbation methodology is applied to Radiation Physics. • Layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC are proposed for contact materials. • Perturbed linear attenuation coefficient is proposed. • Perturbed mass attenuation coefficient (PMAC) is proposed. • Perturbed cross-section is proposed
GENP-2, Program System for Integral Reactor Perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boioli, A.; Cecchini, G.P.
1975-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: GENP-2 is a system of programs that use 'generalized perturbation theory' to calculate the perturbations of reactor integral characteristics which can be expressed by means of ratios between linear or bilinear functionals of the real and/or adjoint fluxes (e.g. reaction rate ratios), due to cross section perturbations. 2 - Method of solution: GENP-2 consists of the following codes: DDV, SORCI, CIAP-PMN and GLOBP-2D. DDV calculates the real or adjoint fluxes and power distribution using multigroup diffusion theory in 2-dimensions. SORCI uses the fluxes from DDV to calculate the real and/or adjoint general perturbation sources. CIAP-PMN reads the sources from SORCI and uses them in the real or adjoint generalised importance calculations (2 dimensions, multi- group diffusion). GLOBP-2D uses the importance calculated by CIAP-PMN, and the fluxes calculated by DDV, in generalised perturbation expressions to calculate the perturbation in the quantity of interest. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: DDV although variably dimensioned has the following restrictions: - max. number of mesh points 6400; - max. number of mesh points in 1-dimension 81; - max. number of regions 6400; - max. number of energy groups 100; - if power distribution calculated, product of number of groups and number of regions 2500. The other programs have the same restrictions if applicable
Flame dynamics of a meso-scale heat recirculating combustor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2010-12-15
The dynamics of premixed propane-air flame in a meso-scale ceramic combustor has been examined here. The flame characteristics in the combustor were examined by measuring the acoustic emissions and preheat temperatures together with high-speed cinematography. For the small-scale combustor, the volume to surface area ratio is small and hence the walls have significant effect on the global flame structure, flame location and flame dynamics. In addition to the flame-wall thermal coupling there is a coupling between flame and acoustics in the case of confined flames. Flame-wall thermal interactions lead to low frequency flame fluctuations ({proportional_to}100 Hz) depending upon the thermal response of the wall. However, the flame-acoustic interactions can result in a wide range of flame fluctuations ranging from few hundred Hz to few kHz. Wall temperature distribution is one of the factors that control the amount of reactant preheating which in turn effects the location of flame stabilization. Acoustic emission signals and high-speed flame imaging confirmed that for the present case flame-acoustic interactions have more significant effect on flame dynamics. Based on the acoustic emissions, five different flame regimes have been identified; whistling/harmonic mode, rich instability mode, lean instability mode, silent mode and pulsating flame mode. (author)
Abdelgadir, Ahmed
2015-03-30
A set of coflow diffusion flames are simulated to study the formation, growth, and oxidation of soot in flames of diluted hydrocarbon fuels, with focus on the effects of pressure. Firstly, we assess the ability of a high performance CFD solver, coupled with detailed transport and kinetic models, to reproduce experimental measurements of a series of ethylene-air coflow flames. Detailed finite rate chemistry describing the formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons is used. Soot is modeled with a moment method and the resulting moment transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian numerical scheme. Numerical and experimental results are compared for various pressures. Finally, a sensitivity study is performed assessing the effect of the boundary conditions and kinetic mechanisms on the flame structure and stabilization properties.
Köhler, M.; Boxx, I.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.
2011-05-01
We describe a newly developed combustion diagnostic for the simultaneous planar imaging of soot structure and velocity fields in a highly sooting, lifted turbulent jet flame at 3000 frames per second, or two orders of magnitude faster than "conventional" laser imaging systems. This diagnostic uses short pulse duration (8 ns), frequency-doubled, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers to excite laser-induced incandescence (LII) at 3 kHz, which is then imaged onto a high framerate CMOS camera. A second (dual-cavity) DPSS laser and CMOS camera form the basis of a particle image velocity (PIV) system used to acquire 2-component velocity field in the flame. The LII response curve (measured in a laminar propane diffusion flame) is presented and the combined diagnostics then applied in a heavily sooting lifted turbulent jet flame. The potential challenges and rewards of application of this combined imaging technique at high speeds are discussed.
Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume
2012-12-17
A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.
An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames
Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2016-11-01
Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.
Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames
Xiong, Yuan
2015-07-26
Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed particles in a fuel stream using continuous-wave (CW) Argon-ion laser. Velocity fields were also quantified with particle mage velocimetry (PIV) system having kHz repetition rate. The results showed that the dynamic motion of negative buoyance induced vortices near the nozzle exit was coupled strongly with a flame flickering instability. Typically during the flame flickering, the negative buoyant vortices oscillated at the flickering frequency. The vortices were distorted by the flickering motion and exhibited complicated transient vortical patterns, such as tilting and stretching. Numerical simulations were also implemented based on an open source C++ package, LaminarSMOKE, for further validations.
Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes
Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.
The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.
Improvement of flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables by applying fire protection measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemura, Yujiro; Segoshi, Yoshinori; Jinno, Susumu; Mii, Kazuki
2017-01-01
The new regulatory requirements, which were put in force after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, impose the use of flame retardant cables on the plant components having safety functions for the purpose of fire protection. However, some Japanese nuclear power plants built in the early days use non-flame retardant cables that do not pass the demonstration test to check for the flame resistance. To cope with the new regulatory requirements, a fire protection measure for non-flame retardant cables was introduced to assure flame resistance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables. To illustrate the fire protection measure, both non-flame retardant cables and its cable tray are covered with fire protection sheet fabricated from incombustible material to form an assembly. Considering the demonstration test results, it can be concluded that flame resistance performance of non-flame retardant cables equivalent to or higher than that of flame retardant cables can be assured by forming the assembly even if an external fire outside the assembly and internal cable fire inside the assembly are assumed. This paper introduces the design of the assembly consisting of a bundle of cables and a cable tray and summarizes the results of demonstration tests. (author)
Flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding premixed flames
Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K.
2014-04-01
In this paper we investigate the local flame surface statistics of constant-pressure turbulent expanding flames. First the statistics of local length ratio is experimentally determined from high-speed planar Mie scattering images of spherically expanding flames, with the length ratio on the measurement plane, at predefined equiangular sectors, defined as the ratio of the actual flame length to the length of a circular-arc of radius equal to the average radius of the flame. Assuming isotropic distribution of such flame segments we then convolute suitable forms of the length-ratio probability distribution functions (pdfs) to arrive at the corresponding area-ratio pdfs. It is found that both the length ratio and area ratio pdfs are near log-normally distributed and shows self-similar behavior with increasing radius. Near log-normality and rather intermittent behavior of the flame-length ratio suggests similarity with dissipation rate quantities which stimulates multifractal analysis.
Simulations of flame generated particles
Patterson, Robert
2016-01-05
The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.
Simulations of flame generated particles
Patterson, Robert
2016-01-01
The nonlinear structure of the equations describing the evolution of a population of coagulating particles in a flame make the use of stochastic particle methods attractive for numerical purposes. I will present an analysis of the stochastic fluctuations inherent in these numerical methods leading to an efficient sampling technique for steady-state problems. I will also give some examples where stochastic particle methods have been used to explore the effect of uncertain parameters in soot formation models. In conclusion I will try to indicate some of the issues in optimising these methods for the study of uncertain model parameters.
Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru
Chemical processes in the HNF flame
Ermolin, N.E.; Zarko, V.E.; Keizers, H.L.J.
2006-01-01
Results of modeling the HNF flame structure are presented. From an analysis of literature data on the thermal decomposition and combustion of HNF, it is concluded that the dissociative vaporization of HNF proceeds via the route HNFliq → (N2H4)g + (HC(NO 2)3)g. The flame structure is modeled using a
Laser Doppler thermometry in flat flames
Maaren, van A.; Goey, de L.P.H.
1994-01-01
Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are performed in flat flames, stabilized on a newly developed flat-flame burner. It is shown that the velocity component perpendicular to the main flow direction, induced by expansion in the reaction zone and buoyancy in the burnt gas, is significant. A method
Non-perturbative versus perturbative renormalization of lattice operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Technische Hochschule Aachen; Horsley, R.; Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Oelrich, H.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Schierholz, G.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Rakow, P.
1995-09-01
Our objective is to compute the moments of the deep-inelastic structure functions of the nucleon on the lattice. A major source of uncertainty is the renormalization of the lattice operators that enter the calculation. In this talk we compare the renormalization constants of the most relevant twist-two bilinear quark operators which we have computed non-perturbatively and perturbatively to one loop order. Furthermore, we discuss the use of tadpole improved perturbation theory. (orig.)
Higher order perturbation theory - An example for discussion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.; Parks, G.; Babb, A.L.
1986-01-01
Higher order perturbation theory is developed in the form of a Taylor series expansion to third order to calculate the thermal utilization of a nonuniform cell. The development takes advantage of the self-adjoint property of the diffusion operator to provide a simple development of this illustration of generalized perturbation theory employing scalar perturbation parameters. The results show how a designer might employ a second-order theory to quantify proposed design improvements, together with the limitations of second- and third-order theory. The chosen example has an exact optimization solution and thus provides a clear understanding of the role of perturbation theory at its various orders. Convergence and the computational advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed
Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames at Atmospheric Pressure
Xu, F.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.
1998-01-01
Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed mc1hane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt: the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames. for reasons that still must be explained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makino, A.; Law, C.K.
1995-01-01
The combustion behavior of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been the subject of many analytical and experimental investigations. Recently, a theory based on spray combustion was proposed for the SHS flame structure and propagation. In contrast to previous studies based on the homogeneous premixed flame, this theory accounts for the premixed-mode of propagation of the bulk flame and the non-premixed reaction of the dispersed nonmetal (or higher melting-point metal) particles which supports the bulk flame. Finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and the temperature-dependent, Arrhenius nature of mass diffusion are both incorporated. The heterogeneous nature of the theory has satisfactorily captured the effects of particle size on the flame propagation speed. The final solution of Makino and Law was obtained numerically and hence presented parametrically. The authors have since then derived an approximate analytical expression for the burning velocity, which explicitly displays the functional dependence of the burning velocity on the various system parameters. This result is presented herein. Applicability of this expression is examined by comparing it with the numerical results for Ti-C, Ti-B, Zr-B, Hf-B, and Co-Ti systems. A fair degree of agreement has been shown as far as the general trend and approximate magnitude are concerned
Aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases
Oppenheim, A. K.
1984-01-01
A variety of experimentally established flame phenomena in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to basic aerodynamic properties of the flow field. On this basis the essential mechanism of some well known characteristic features of flames stabilized in the wake of a bluff-body or propagating in ducts are revealed. Elementary components of the flame propagation process are shown to be: rotary motion, self-advancement, and expansion. Their consequences are analyzed under a most strict set of idealizations that permit the flow field to be treated as potential in character, while the flame is modelled as a Stefan-like interface capable of exerting a feed-back effect upon the flow field. The results provide an insight into the fundamental fluid-mechanical reasons for the experimentally observed distortions of the flame front, rationalizing in particular its ability to sustain relatively high flow velocities at amazingly low normal burning speeds.
Flame spread along thermally thick horizontal rods
Higuera, F. J.
2002-06-01
An analysis is carried out of the spread of a flame along a horizontal solid fuel rod, for which a weak aiding natural convection flow is established in the underside of the rod by the action of the axial gradient of the pressure variation that gravity generates in the warm gas surrounding the flame. The spread rate is determined in the limit of infinitely fast kinetics, taking into account the effect of radiative losses from the solid surface. The effect of a small inclination of the rod is discussed, pointing out a continuous transition between upward and downward flame spread. Flame spread along flat-bottomed solid cylinders, for which the gradient of the hydrostatically generated pressure drives the flow both along and across the direction of flame propagation, is also analysed.
Introduction to perturbation methods
Holmes, M
1995-01-01
This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.
Perturbation theory with instantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carruthers, P.; Pinsky, S.S.; Zachariasen, F.
1977-05-01
''Perturbation theory'' rules are developed for calculating the effect of instantons in a pure Yang-Mills theory with no fermions, in the ''dilute gas'' approximation in which the N-instanton solution is assumed to be the sum of N widely separated one-instanton solutions. These rules are then used to compute the gluon propagator and proper vertex function including all orders of the instanton interaction but only to lowest order in the gluon coupling. It is to be expected that such an approximation is valid only for momenta q larger than the physical mass μ. The result is that in this regime instantons cause variations in the propagator and vertex of the form (μ 2 /q 2 )/sup -8π 2 b/ where b is the coefficient in the expansion of the β function: β = bg 3 +...
Investigating Soot Morphology in Counterflow Flames at Elevated Pressures
Amin, Hafiz Muhammad Fahid
2018-01-01
Practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and diesel engines operate at high pressures to increase their efficiency. Pressure significantly increases the overall soot yield. Morphology of these ultra-fine particles determines their airborne lifetime and their interaction with the human respiratory system. Therefore, investigating soot morphology at high pressure is of practical relevance. In this work, a novel experimental setup has been designed and built to study the soot morphology at elevated pressures. The experimental setup consists of a pressure vessel, which can provide optical access from 10° to 165° for multi-angle light scattering, and a counterflow burner which produces laminar flames at elevated pressures. In the first part of the study, N2-diluted ethylene/air and ethane air counterflow flames are stabilized from 2 to 5 atm. Two-angle light scattering and extinction technique have been used to study the effects of pressure on soot parameters. Path averaged soot volume fraction is found to be very sensitive to pressure and increased significantly from 2 to 5 atm. Primary particle size and aggregate size also increased with pressure. Multi-angle light scattering is also performed and flames are investigated from 3 to 5 atm. Scattering to absorption ratio is calculated from multi-angle light scattering and extinction data. Scattering to absorption ratio increased with pressure whereas the number of primary particles in an aggregate decreased with increasing pressure. In the next part of the study, Thermophoretic Sampling of soot is performed, in counterflow flames from 3 to 10 atm, followed by transmission electron microscopy. Mean primary particle size increased with pressure and these trends are consistent withour light scattering measurements. Fractal properties of soot aggregates are found to be insensitive to pressure. 2D diffused light line of sight attenuation (LOSA) and Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) are used to measure local soot
Effect of Low Co-flow Air Velocity on Hydrogen-air Non-premixed Turbulent Flame Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Mohsin Jasim
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide information concerning the effect of low co-flow velocity on the turbulent diffusion flame for a simple type of combustor, a numerical simulated cases of turbulent diffusion hydrogen-air flame are performed. The combustion model used in this investigation is based on chemical equilibrium and kinetics to simplify the complexity of the chemical mechanism. Effects of increased co-flowing air velocity on temperature, velocity components (axial and radial, and reactants have been investigated numerically and examined. Numerical results for temperature are compared with the experimental data. The comparison offers a good agreement. All numerical simulations have been performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD commercial code FLUENT. A comparison among the various co-flow air velocities, and their effects on flame behavior and temperature fields are presented.
Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenlee, W.M.
1976-01-01
Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem
Thermal-diffusional Instability in White Dwarf Flames: Regimes of Flame Pulsation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xing, Guangzheng; Zhao, Yibo; Zhou, Cheng; Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K. [Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Modestov, Mikhail, E-mail: gaoyang-00@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-05-20
Thermal-diffusional pulsation behaviors in planar as well as outwardly and inwardly propagating white dwarf (WD) carbon flames are systematically studied. In the 1D numerical simulation, the asymptotic degenerate equation of state and simplified one-step reaction rates for nuclear reactions are used to study the flame propagation and pulsation in WDs. The numerical critical Zel’dovich numbers of planar flames at different densities ( ρ = 2, 3, and 4 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) and of spherical flames (with curvature c = −0.01, 0, 0.01, and 0.05) at a particular density ( ρ = 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3}) are presented. Flame front pulsation in different environmental densities and temperatures are obtained to form the regime diagram of pulsation, showing that carbon flames pulsate in the typical density of 2 × 10{sup 7} g cm{sup −3} and temperature of 0.6 × 10{sup 9} K. While being stable at higher temperatures, at relatively lower temperatures, the amplitude of the flame pulsation becomes larger. In outwardly propagating spherical flames the pulsation instability is enhanced and flames are also easier to quench due to pulsation at small radius, while the inwardly propagating flames are more stable.
Inadequacy representation of flamelet-based RANS model for turbulent non-premixed flame
Lee, Myoungkyu; Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert
2017-11-01
Stochastic representations for model inadequacy in RANS-based models of non-premixed jet flames are developed and explored. Flamelet-based RANS models are attractive for engineering applications relative to higher-fidelity methods because of their low computational costs. However, the various assumptions inherent in such models introduce errors that can significantly affect the accuracy of computed quantities of interest. In this work, we develop an approach to represent the model inadequacy of the flamelet-based RANS model. In particular, we pose a physics-based, stochastic PDE for the triple correlation of the mixture fraction. This additional uncertain state variable is then used to construct perturbations of the PDF for the instantaneous mixture fraction, which is used to obtain an uncertain perturbation of the flame temperature. A hydrogen-air non-premixed jet flame is used to demonstrate the representation of the inadequacy of the flamelet-based RANS model. This work was supported by DARPA-EQUiPS(Enabling Quantification of Uncertainty in Physical Systems) program.
Dai, Jian; Yu, NanJia; Cai, GuoBiao
2015-12-01
Single-element combustor experiments are conducted for three shear coaxial geometry configuration injectors by using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as propellants. During the combustion process, several spatially and timeresolved non-intrusive optical techniques, such as OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), high speed imaging, and infrared imaging, are simultaneously employed to observe the OH radical concentration distribution, flame fluctuations, and temperature fields. The results demonstrate that the turbulent flow phenomenon of non-premixed flame exhibits a remarkable periodicity, and the mixing ratio becomes a crucial factor to influence the combustion flame length. The high speed and infrared images have a consistent temperature field trend. As for the OH-PLIF images, an intuitionistic local flame structure is revealed by single-shot instantaneous images. Furthermore, the means and standard deviations of OH radical intensity are acquired to provide statistical information regarding the flame, which may be helpful for validation of numerical simulations in future. Parameters of structure configurations, such as impinging angle and oxygen post thickness, play an important role in the reaction zone distribution. Based on a successful flame contour extraction method assembled with non-linear anisotropic diffusive filtering and variational level-set, it is possible to implement a fractal analysis to describe the fractal characteristics of the non-premixed flame contour. As a result, the flame front cannot be regarded as a fractal object. However, this turbulent process presents a self-similarity characteristic.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harada, Masayasu
2009-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory has been used for great number of phenomenological analyses in low energy QCD as well as the lattice QCD analyses since the creation of the theory by Weinberg in 1979 followed by its consolidation by Gasser and Leutwyler in 1984 and 85. The theory is now the highly established one as the approach based on the effective field theory to search for Green function including quantum correlations in the frame of the systematic expansion technique using Lagrangian which includes all of the terms allowed by the symmetry. This review has been intended to describe how systematically physical quantities are calculated in the framework of the chiral symmetry. Consequently many of the various phenomenological analyses are not taken up here for which other reports are to be referred. Further views are foreseen to be developed based on the theory in addition to numbers of results reported up to the present. Finally π-π scattering is taken up to discuss to what energy scale the theory is available. (S. Funahashi)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.D.
1977-01-01
The electric quadrupolar interaction in some hafnium complexes, measured at the metal nucleus level is studied. For that purpose, the technique of γ-γ perturbed angular correlation is used: the frequencies of quadrupolar interaction are compared with some hafnium α-hydroxicarboxilates, namely glycolate, lactate, mandelate and benzylate; the influence of the temperature on the quadrupolar coupling on the hafnium tetramandelate is studied; finally, the effects associated with the capture of thermal neutrons by hafnium tetramandelate are examined locally at the nuclear level. The first group of results shows significant differences in a series of complexes derived from glycolic acid. On the other hand, the substitution of the protons in hafnium tetramandelate structure by some alkaline cations permits to verify a correlation between the variations in the quadrupolar coupling and the electronegativities of the substituent elements. Measurements at high temperatures show that this complex is thermally stable at 100 and 150 0 C. It is possible to see the appearance of two distinct sites for the probe nucleus, after heating the sample at 100 0 C for prolonged time. This fact is attributed to a probable interconversion among the postulated structural isomers for the octacoordinated compounds. Finally, measurements of angular correlation on the irradiated complex show that there is an effective destruction of the target molecule by neutron capture [pt
Perturbative quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1979-12-01
The application of QCD to hadron dynamics at short distances, where asymptotic freedom allows a systematic perturbative approach, is addressed. The main theme of the approach is to incorporate systematically the effects of the hadronic wave function in large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions. Although it is conventional to treat the hadron as a classical source of on-shell quarks, there are important dynamical effects due to hadronic constituent structure which lead to a broader testing ground for QCD. QCD predictions are discussed for exclusive processes and form factors at large momentum transfer in which the short-distance behavior and the finite compositeness of the hadronic wave functions play crucial roles. Many of the standard tests of QCD are reviewed including the predictions for R = sigma/sub e + e - →had//sigma/sub e + e - →μ + μ - /, the structure functions of hadrons and photons, jet phenomena, and the QCD corrections to deep inelastic processes. The exclusive-inclusive connection in QCD, the effects of power-law scale-breaking contributions, and the important role of the available energy in controlling logarithmic scale violations are also discussed. 150 references, 44 figures
Tabulated Combustion Model Development For Non-Premixed Flames
Kundu, Prithwish
D diffusion flame solver. The proposed model did not use progress variables like the traditional chemistry tabulation methods. The resulting model demonstrated an order of magnitude computational speed up over the RIF model. The results were validated across a wide range of operating conditions for diesel injections and the results were in close agreement to those of the experimental data. History of scalar dissipation rates plays a very important role in non premixed flames. However, tabulated methods have not been able to incorporate this physics in their models. A comparative approach is developed that can quantify these effects and find correlations with flow variables. A new model is proposed to include these effects in tabulated combustion models. The model is initially validated for 1D counterflow diffusion flame problems at engine conditions. The model is further implemented and validated in a 3D RANS code across a range of operating conditions for spray flames.
Lattice regularized chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, Bugra; Lewis, Randy; Ouimet, Pierre-Philippe A.
2004-01-01
Chiral perturbation theory can be defined and regularized on a spacetime lattice. A few motivations are discussed here, and an explicit lattice Lagrangian is reviewed. A particular aspect of the connection between lattice chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD is explored through a study of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Perturbative QCD is the general theoretical framework for describing hard scattering processes yielding multiparticle production at hadron colliders. In these lectures, we shall introduce fundamental features of perturbative QCD and describe its application to several high energy collider processes, including jet production in electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic scattering, Higgs boson and gauge boson production at the LHC.
Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....
On summation of perturbation expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horzela, A.
1985-04-01
The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)
Continual integral in perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slavnov, A.A.
1975-01-01
It is shown that all results obtained by means of continual integration within the framework of perturbation theory are completely equivalent to those obtained by the usual diagram technique and are therfore just as rigorous. A rigorous justification is given for the rules for operating with continual integrals in perturbation theory. (author)
Systems and methods for controlling flame instability
Cha, Min Suk
2016-07-21
A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.
Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)
1993-12-01
This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.
On dark energy isocurvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe
2011-01-01
Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, T. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie; Staus, S. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie; Schoenbucher, A. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie
1997-08-01
After presenting the most common semi-empirical simulation model, the authors describe the newly developed field model and its modules with their mathematical and physical fundamentals. First results are presented for the calculation of a diffusion flame. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird, nach einer Darstellung der gebraeuchlichen halbempirischen Simulationsmodelle, das entwickelte Feldmodell beschrieben und seine einzelnen Module mit ihren mathematischen und physikalischen Grundlagen vorgestellt. Im Anschluss werden erste Ergebnisse fuer die Berechnung einer Diffusionsflamme aufgezeigt. (orig./GL)
Perturbative approach to non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambetta, Jay; Wiseman, H.M.
2002-01-01
In this paper we present a perturbative procedure that allows one to numerically solve diffusive non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equations, for a wide range of memory functions. To illustrate this procedure numerical results are presented for a classically driven two-level atom immersed in an environment with a simple memory function. It is observed that as the order of the perturbation is increased the numerical results for the ensemble average state ρ red (t) approach the exact reduced state found via Imamog-barlu ' s enlarged system method [Phys. Rev. A 50, 3650 (1994)
A priori tests of combustion models based on a CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} Triple Flame
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dombard, J.; Naud, B.; Jimenez Sanchez, C.
2008-07-01
This document reproduces the final project of Jerome Dombard, presented on June 25, 2008, for the obtention of the Master degree MIMSE (Master Ingenierie Mathematique, Statistique et Economique) of Bordeaux University (Universite Bordeaux 1). We make an a priori study of FPI/FGM-type turbulent combustion models using a 2D DNS of a triple flame. A reduced chemical scheme of 16 species and 12 reactions is used (ARM1, proposed by J.-Y. Chen at Berkeley University). The fuel (CH4/H2 mixture) and oxidizer (air) correspond to the inlet composition of the Sydney bluff-body stabilised flame experiments (flames HM1-3). First, we compute 1D laminar premixed flames. The purpose of those calculations is twofold: 1. check the differences between different computer programs and different treatments of molecular diffusion, and 2. calibrate the 2D-DNS of the laminar triple flame (mainly decide on the grid resolution). Then, the solution of the 2D laminar triple flame is used to test a priori FPI/FGM tables. Finally, preliminary considerations on sub-grid scale modelling in the context of Large Eddy Simulation are made. (Author) 14 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, Michael P.; Chen, Zheng; Ju, Yiguang; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2009-04-15
The effect of nonspherical (i.e. cylindrical) bomb geometry on the evolution of outwardly propagating flames and the determination of laminar flame speeds using the conventional constant-pressure technique is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The cylindrical chamber boundary modifies the propagation rate through the interaction of the wall with the flow induced by thermal expansion across the flame (even with constant pressure), which leads to significant distortion of the flame surface for large flame radii. These departures from the unconfined case, especially the resulting nonzero burned gas velocities, can lead to significant errors in flame speeds calculated using the conventional assumptions, especially for large flame radii. For example, at a flame radius of 0.5 times the wall radius, the flame speed calculated neglecting confinement effects can be low by {proportional_to}15% (even with constant pressure). A methodology to estimate the effect of nonzero burned gas velocities on the measured flame speed in cylindrical chambers is presented. Modeling and experiments indicate that the effect of confinement can be neglected for flame radii less than 0.3 times the wall radius while still achieving acceptable accuracy (within 3%). The methodology is applied to correct the flame speed for nonzero burned gas speeds, in order to extend the range of flame radii useful for flame speed measurements. Under the proposed scaling, the burned gas speed can be well approximated as a function of only flame radius for a given chamber geometry - i.e. the correction function need only be determined once for an apparatus and then it can be used for any mixture. Results indicate that the flow correction can be used to extract flame speeds for flame radii up to 0.5 times the wall radius with somewhat larger, yet still acceptable uncertainties for the cases studied. Flow-corrected burning velocities are measured for hydrogen and syngas mixtures at atmospheric and
Teixeira, Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Otazaghine, Belkacem; Ferry, Laurent; Aubert, Mélanie; Tirri, Teija; Wilén, Carl-Eric; Rouif, Sophie
2018-04-01
Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.
Combustion Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Various Flame Configurations
Ismail, Mohamed Anwar
2016-02-01
interaction jet region, followed by a merged-jet region. The modified CWJ burner revealed appreciable mixing characteristics between the precursor and combustion gases within these regions, with a slight increase in the axial velocity due to the precursor injection. This led to more uniformity in particle size distribution of the synthesized nanoparticles with the poppet valve (first modification). The double-slit modification improved the uniformity of generated nanoparticles at a very wide range of stable experimental conditions. Images of OH fluorescence showed that flames are tightly attached to the burner tip and TTIP has no influence on these flames structures. The particle size was slightly affected by the operating conditions. The phase of TiO2 nanoparticles was mainly dependent on the equivalence ratio and fuel type, which impact flame height, heat release rate and high temperature residence time of the precursor vapor. For ethylene and methane flames, the anatase content is proportional to the equivalence ratio, whereas it is inversely proportional in the case of propane flames. The anatase content reduced by 8% as we changed Re between 8,000 and 19,000, implying that the Re has a slight effect on the anatase content. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited high crystallinity and the anatase phase was dominant at high equivalence ratios (φ >1.6) for C2H4, and at low equivalence ratios (φ <1.3) for the C3H8 flame. Concerning advanced nanoparticle synthesis, a multiple diffusion burner and flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were adopted in this study to investigate the effect of doping/coating on TiO2 nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by the previously mentioned techniques in addition to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for carbon content, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for surface chemistry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) for light absorbance, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for metal traces, and superconducting quantum
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Asinovskaya, G
1964-01-01
.... Since a gas flame implies the presence of considerable heat, the term brazing will be used in this translation save where low heats are specifically indicated, or where both high and low heats...
Systems and methods for controlling flame instability
Cha, Min; Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor
Nanocellular foam with solid flame retardant
Chen, Liang; Kelly-Rowley, Anne M.; Bunker, Shana P.; Costeux, Stephane
2017-11-21
Prepare nanofoam by (a) providing an aqueous solution of a flame retardant dissolved in an aqueous solvent, wherein the flame retardant is a solid at 23.degree. C. and 101 kiloPascals pressure when in neat form; (b) providing a fluid polymer composition selected from a solution of polymer dissolved in a water-miscible solvent or a latex of polymer particles in a continuous aqueous phase; (c) mixing the aqueous solution of flame retardant with the fluid polymer composition to form a mixture; (d) removing water and, if present, solvent from the mixture to produce a polymeric composition having less than 74 weight-percent flame retardant based on total polymeric composition weight; (e) compound the polymeric composition with a matrix polymer to form a matrix polymer composition; and (f) foam the matrix polymer composition into nanofoam having a porosity of at least 60 percent.
Distribution of electric potential in hydrocarbon flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fialkov, B.S.; Shcherbakov, N.D.; Plitsyn, V.T.
1978-01-01
A study was made of the distribution of electrical potential and temperatures in laminar methane and propane--butane flames when the excess air coefficient in the mixture is changed from 0 to 1.2. 7 references, 3 figures.
CloudFlame: Cyberinfrastructure for combustion research
Goteng, Gokop; Nettyam, Naveena; Sarathy, Mani
2013-01-01
Combustion experiments and chemical kinetics simulations generate huge data that is computationally and data intensive. A cloud-based cyber infrastructure known as Cloud Flame is implemented to improve the computational efficiency, scalability
Synthesis of Nano-Particles in Flames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Tue
flame burner and a premixed burner with a precursor jet. The experimental setups and results are shown and discussed in detail. Alumina powder with specific surface area between 45 m2/g and 190 m2/g was obtained.Temperature and flow fields of the flame processes are analysed by numerical simulations...... energy expression.Furthermore, the model is validated by comparison with experimental data of the flame synthesis of titania by combustion of TiCl4 previously presented by Pratsinis et al. (1996).The combination of particle dynamics and CFD simulations has proved to be an efficient method......The scope of this work is to investigate the synthesis of aluminum oxide particles in flames from the combustion of an aluminum alkoxide precursor.A general introduction to particles formation in the gas phase is presented with emphasis on the mechanisms that control the particle morphology after...
Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames
Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Sarathy, Mani
2015-01-01
that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect
Choi, Sangkyu
2013-09-01
The characteristics of laminar lifted flames of pre-vaporized n-heptane in coflow jets were investigated under both non-autoignited and autoignited conditions by varying the initial temperature. The fuel tested was n-heptane considering the importance as a primary reference fuel for gasoline and its low temperature ignition behavior at relatively low pressure. The results showed that the lifted flame edge in the non-autoignited regime had a tribrachial structure with lean and rich premixed flame wings together with a trailing diffusion flame. The liftoff heights correlated reasonably well with the fuel jet velocity scaled by the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity regardless of the initial temperature and the nitrogen dilution. The liftoff velocity multiplied by the buoyancy-induced velocity and the blowout velocity scaled by the mole fraction of the fuel correlated well with the stoichiometric laminar burning velocity. When the initial temperature was above 900. K, flames were autoignited without any external ignition source. Autoignited lifted flames with both tribrachial edges and mild combustion characteristics were observed. The correlation of the liftoff height with the calculated adiabatic ignition delay time was weak, unlike in cases with gaseous fuels of C1-C4 hydrocarbons in which the liftoff height of the autoignited flames correlated well with the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time. When the mole fraction of the fuel was small, mild combustion behaviors were exhibited with edge flames without distinct tribrachial structures. The liftoff height was correlated with the fuel jet velocity scaled by the initial fuel mass fraction, while the dependence on the ignition delay time was weak when compared with the gaseous fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Stabilization and structure of N-heptane flame on CWJ-spray burner with kHZ SPIV and OH-PLIF
Mansour, Morkous S.
2015-08-31
A curved wall-jet (CWJ) burner was employed to stabilize turbulent spray flames that utilized a Coanda effect by supplying air as annular-inward jet over a curved surface, surrounding an axisymmetric solid cone fuel spray. The stabilization characteristics and structure of n-heptane/air turbulent flames were investigated with varying fuel and air flow rates and the position of pressure atomizer (L). High-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of OH radicals delineated reaction zone contours and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the flow field features, involving turbulent mixing within spray, ambient air entrainment and flame-turbulence interaction. High turbulent rms velocities were generated within the recirculation zone, which improved the flame stabilization. OH fluorescence signals revealed a double flame structure near the stabilization edge of lifted flame that consisted of inner partially premixed flame and outer diffusion flame front. The inner reaction zone is highly wrinkled and folded due to significant turbulent mixing between the annular-air jet and the fuel vapor generated from droplets along the contact interface of this air jet with the fuel spray. Larger droplets, having higher momentum are able to penetrate the inner reaction zone and then vaporized in the low-speed hot region bounded by these reaction zones; this supports the outer diffusion flame. Frequent local extinctions in the inner reaction zone were observed at low air flow rate. As flow rate increases, the inner zone is more resistant to local extinction despite of its high wrinkling and corrugation degree. However, the outer reaction zone exhibits stable and mildly wrinkled features irrespective of air flow rate. The liftoff height increases with the air mass flow rate but decreases with L.
Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masato Minamitsuji
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (nonconservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame.
Disformal transformation of cosmological perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minamitsuji, Masato
2014-01-01
We investigate the gauge-invariant cosmological perturbations in the gravity and matter frames in the general scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the disformal transformation. The gravity and matter frames are the extensions of the Einstein and Jordan frames in the scalar–tensor theory where two frames are related by the conformal transformation, respectively. First, it is shown that the curvature perturbation in the comoving gauge to the scalar field is disformally invariant as well as conformally invariant, which gives the predictions from the cosmological model where the scalar field is responsible both for inflation and cosmological perturbations. Second, in case that the disformally coupled matter sector also contributes to curvature perturbations, we derive the evolution equations of the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge from the energy (non)conservation in the matter sector, which are independent of the choice of the gravity sector. While in the matter frame the curvature perturbation in the uniform matter energy density gauge is conserved on superhorizon scales for the vanishing nonadiabatic pressure, in the gravity frame it is not conserved even if the nonadiabatic pressure vanishes. The formula relating two frames gives the amplitude of the curvature perturbation in the matter frame, once it is evaluated in the gravity frame
Characterization of flame radiosity in shrubland fires
Miguel G. Cruz; Bret W. Butler; Domingos X. Viegas; Pedro Palheiro
2011-01-01
The present study is aimed at quantifying the flame radiosity vertical profile and gas temperature in moderate to high intensity spreading fires in shrubland fuels. We report on the results from 11 experimental fires conducted over a range of fire rate of spread and frontal fire intensity varying respectively between 0.04-0.35ms-1 and 468-14,973kWm-1. Flame radiosity,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardes, E.
2006-06-01
Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO 4 monocrystals and in Nd 0.66 Ca 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 polycrystals from Nd 0.66 Pb 0.17 Th 0.17 PO 4 thin films to investigate Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ and Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb 2+ + Th 4+ ↔ 2 Nd 3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol -1 and log(D 0 (m 2 s -1 )) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb 2+ ↔ Ca 2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)
NO concentration imaging in turbulent nonpremixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)
1993-12-01
The importance of NO as a pollutant species is well known. An understanding of the formation characteristics of NO in turbulent hydrocarbon flames is important to both the desired reduction of pollutant emissions and the validation of proposed models for turbulent reacting flows. Of particular interest is the relationship between NO formation and the local flame zone, in which the fuel is oxidized and primary heat release occurs. Planar imaging of NO provides the multipoint statistics needed to relate NO formation to the both the flame zone and the local turbulence characteristics. Planar imaging of NO has been demonstrated in turbulent flames where NO was seeded into the flow at high concentrations (2000 ppm) to determine the gas temperature distribution. The NO concentrations in these experiments were significantly higher than those expected in typical hydrocarbon-air flames, which require a much lower detectability limit for NO measurements. An imaging technique based on laser-induced fluorescence with sufficient sensitivity to study the NO formation mechanism in the stabilization region of turbulent lifted-jet methane flames.
Radiation energy devaluation in diffusion combusting flows of natural gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhanlall, Deodat; Munda, Josiah L.; Jiang, Peixue
2013-01-01
Abstract: CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) is used to evaluate the thermodynamic second-law effects of thermal radiation in turbulent diffusion natural gas flames. Radiative heat transfer processes in gas and at solid walls are identified as important causes of energy devaluation in the combusting flows. The thermodynamic role of thermal radiation cannot be neglected when compared to that of heat conduction and convection, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and viscous dissipation. An energy devaluation number is also defined, with which the optimum fuel–air equivalence for combusting flows can be determined. The optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio for a natural gas flame is determined to be 0.7. The CFD model is validated against experimental measurements. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic effects of thermal radiation in combusting flows analyzed. • General equation for second-law analyses of combusting flows extended. • Optimum fuel–air equivalence ratio determined for natural gas flame
Cosmological perturbations beyond linear order
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Cosmological perturbation theory is the standard tool to understand the formation of the large scale structure in the Universe. However, its degree of applicability is limited by the growth of the amplitude of the matter perturbations with time. This problem can be tackled with by using N-body simulations or analytical techniques that go beyond the linear calculation. In my talk, I'll summarise some recent efforts in the latter that ameliorate the bad convergence of the standard perturbative expansion. The new techniques allow better analytical control on observables (as the matter power spectrum) over scales very relevant to understand the expansion history and formation of structure in the Universe.
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Perturbation theory of effective Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandow, B.H.
1975-01-01
This paper constitutes a review of the many papers which have used perturbation theory to derive ''effective'' or ''model'' Hamiltonians. It begins with a brief review of nondegenerate and non-many-body perturbation theory, and then considers the degenerate but non-many-body problem in some detail. It turns out that the degenerate perturbation problem is not uniquely defined, but there are some practical criteria for choosing among the various possibilities. Finally, the literature dealing with the linked-cluster aspects of open-shell many-body systems is reviewed. (U.S.)
The theory of singular perturbations
De Jager, E M
1996-01-01
The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat
The power of perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serone, Marco [SISSA International School for Advanced Studies and INFN Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Spada, Gabriele [SISSA International School for Advanced Studies and INFN Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Villadoro, Giovanni [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy)
2017-05-10
We study quantum mechanical systems with a discrete spectrum. We show that the asymptotic series associated to certain paths of steepest-descent (Lefschetz thimbles) are Borel resummable to the full result. Using a geometrical approach based on the Picard-Lefschetz theory we characterize the conditions under which perturbative expansions lead to exact results. Even when such conditions are not met, we explain how to define a different perturbative expansion that reproduces the full answer without the need of transseries, i.e. non-perturbative effects, such as real (or complex) instantons. Applications to several quantum mechanical systems are presented.
Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.
2017-01-01
The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.
Conical quarl swirl stabilized non-premixed flames: flame and flow field interaction
Elbaz, Ayman M.
2017-09-19
The flame-flow field interaction is studied in non-premixed methane swirl flames stabilized in quartz quarl via simultaneous measurements of the flow field using a stereo PIV and OH-PLIF at 5 KHz repetition rate. Under the same swirl intensity, two flames with different fuel jet velocity were investigated. The time-averaged flow field shows a unique flow pattern at the quarl exit, where two recirculation vortices are formed; a strong recirculation zone formed far from the quarl exit and a larger recirculation zone extending inside the quarl. However, the instantaneous images show that, the flow pattern near the quarl exit plays a vital role in the spatial location and structure of the reaction zone. In the low fuel jet velocity flame, a pair of vortical structures, located precisely at the corners of the quarl exit, cause the flame to roll up into the central region of low speed flow, where the flame sheet then tracks the axial velocity fluctuations. The vorticity field reveals a vortical structure surrounding the reaction zones, which reside on a layer of low compressive strain adjacent to that vortical structure. In the high fuel jet velocity flame, initially a laminar flame sheet resides at the inner shear layer of the main jet, along the interface between incoming fresh gas and high temperature recirculating gas. Further downstream, vortex breakdown alters the flame sheet path toward the central flame region. The lower reaction zones show good correlation to the regions of maximum vorticity and track the regions of low compressive strain associated with the inner shear layer of the jet flow. In both flames the reactions zones conform the passage of the large structure while remaining inside the low speed regions or at the inner shear layer.
Dynamics of Practical Premixed Flames, Part I: Model Structure and Identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Huber
2009-06-01
Full Text Available For the analysis of thermoacoustic instabilities it is most important to determine the dynamic flame response to acoustic disturbances. Premixed flames are often modelled as single-input single-output system, where the “output” (the overall rate of heat release responds to a single “input” variable (often the velocity at the exit of the burner nozzle. However, for practical premixed flames, where perturbations of pressure or velocity at the fuel injector will modulate the fuel equivalence ratio, the heat release rate will respond to fluctuations of equivalence ratio as well as nozzle mass flow rate. In this case, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO model structure for the flame is appropriate. Such a model structure is developed in the present paper. Staged fuel injection as well as fuel line impedances can be taken into account, the integration with low-order or finite-element based models for stability analysis is straightforward. In order to determine unit impulse and frequency response functions for such a model structure, an identification scheme based on unsteady CFD calculation with broadband excitation followed by correlation analysis is proposed and validated successfully. Identification of MISO model coefficients is a challenging task, especially in the presence of noise. Therefore criteria are introduced which allow to ascertain a posteriori how well the identified model represents the true system dynamics. Using these criteria, it is investigated how excitation signal type, time series length and signal-to-noise ratio influence the results of the identification process. Consequences for passive design strategies based on multi-stage fuel injection and experimental work on practical premixed flame dynamics are discussed.
Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.
Blowoff dynamics of bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Kostka, Stanislav; Renfro, Michael W.; Cetegen, Baki M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, U-3139, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)
2010-04-15
This article concerns the flame dynamics of a bluff body stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches lean blowoff. Time resolved chemiluminescence imaging along with simultaneous particle image velocimetry and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were utilized in an axisymmetric bluff body stabilized, propane-air flame to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff and provide a quantitative analysis of the experimental results. It was found that as lean blowoff is approached by reduction of equivalence ratio, flame speed decreases and the flame shape progressively changes from a conical to a columnar shape. For a stably burning conical flame away from blowoff, the flame front envelopes the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, the columnar flame front and shear layer vortices overlap to induce high local stretch rates that exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously and in the mean, resulting in local flame extinction along the shear layers. Following shear layer extinction, fresh reactants can pass through the shear layers to react within the recirculation zone with all other parts of the flame extinguished. This flame kernel within the recirculation zone may survive for a few milliseconds and can reignite the shear layers such that the entire flame is reestablished for a short period. This extinction and reignition event can happen several times before final blowoff which occurs when the flame kernel fails to reignite the shear layers and ultimately leads to total flame extinguishment. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, R.K.; Chu, B.T.; Long, M.B.
1983-02-01
An account is given of recent progress in the development of nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques and the application of these techniques to turbulent combustion systems. The primary focus of the work over the past year has been in: (1) the use of a broadband rotational CARS technique for the measurement of temperature in flames, and (2) the use of spontaneous Raman scattering to simultaneously map out the fuel gas concentration in a turbulent diffusion flame at 2500 points in a plane intersecting the flow. A summary of new results in each of these areas is given
Modeling of free and confined turbulent natural gas flames using an extension of CFX-F3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roekaerts, D [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hsu, A
1998-12-31
A general form of the fast chemistry / assumed shape probability density function model for turbulent gaseous diffusion flames has been implemented in a new combination of computer programs consisting of the commercial code CFX-F3D (formerly CFDS-FLOW3D) and the program FLAME, developed at Delft University of Technology. Also a mixedness-reactedness model with two independent variables (mixture fraction and reaction progress variable) has been implemented. The main strength of the new program is that it combines the advantages of a general purpose commercial CFD code (applicable to arbitrarily shaped domains, wide range of solvers) with the advantages of special purpose combustion subroutines (more detail in modeling of chemistry and of turbulence-chemistry interaction, flexibility). The new combination of programs has been validated by the application to the prediction of the properties of a labscale turbulent natural gas diffusion flame for which detailed measurements are available. The mixedness-reactedness model has been applied to the case of a confined natural gas diffusion flame at globally rich conditions. In contrast with fast chemistry models, the mixedness-reactedness model can be used to predict the amount of methane at the end of the reactor vessel (`methane slip`) as a function of operating conditions. (author)
Modeling of free and confined turbulent natural gas flames using an extension of CFX-F3D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roekaerts, D. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hsu, A.
1997-12-31
A general form of the fast chemistry / assumed shape probability density function model for turbulent gaseous diffusion flames has been implemented in a new combination of computer programs consisting of the commercial code CFX-F3D (formerly CFDS-FLOW3D) and the program FLAME, developed at Delft University of Technology. Also a mixedness-reactedness model with two independent variables (mixture fraction and reaction progress variable) has been implemented. The main strength of the new program is that it combines the advantages of a general purpose commercial CFD code (applicable to arbitrarily shaped domains, wide range of solvers) with the advantages of special purpose combustion subroutines (more detail in modeling of chemistry and of turbulence-chemistry interaction, flexibility). The new combination of programs has been validated by the application to the prediction of the properties of a labscale turbulent natural gas diffusion flame for which detailed measurements are available. The mixedness-reactedness model has been applied to the case of a confined natural gas diffusion flame at globally rich conditions. In contrast with fast chemistry models, the mixedness-reactedness model can be used to predict the amount of methane at the end of the reactor vessel (`methane slip`) as a function of operating conditions. (author)
Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)
1984-10-21
The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.