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Sample records for diffusion absorption refrigeration

  1. Energy and exergy analyses of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Ersöz, Mustafa Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the thermodynamic analyses of a DAR (diffusion absorption refrigeration) cycle. The experimental apparatus is set up to an ammonia–water DAR cycle with helium as the auxiliary inert gas. A thermodynamic model including mass, energy and exergy balance equations are presented for each component of the DAR cycle and this model is then validated by comparison with experimental data. In the thermodynamic analyses, energy and exergy losses for each component of the system are quantified and illustrated. The systems' energy and exergy losses and efficiencies are investigated. The highest energy and exergy losses occur in the solution heat exchanger. The highest energy losses in the experimental and theoretical analyses are found 25.7090 W and 25.4788 W respectively, whereas those losses as to exergy are calculated 13.7933 W and 13.9976 W. Although the values of energy efficiencies obtained from both the model and experimental studies are calculated as 0.1858, those values, in terms of exergy efficiencies are found 0.0260 and 0.0356. - Highlights: • The diffusion absorption refrigerator system is designed manufactured and tested. • The energy and exergy analyses of the system are presented theoretically and experimentally. • The energy and exergy losses are investigated for each component of the system. • The highest energy and exergy losses occur in the solution heat exchanger. • The energy and the exergy performances are also calculated

  2. Detailed thermodynamic analysis of a diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taieb, Ahmed; Mejbri, Khalifa; Bellagi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced simulation model for a Diffusion-Absorption Refrigerator DAR using ammonia/water/hydrogen as working fluids, and developed to describe and predict the behavior of the device under different operating conditions. The system is supposed to be cooled with ambient air and actuated with solar hot water available at 200 °C. The DAR is first simulated for a set of basic data; a COP of 0.126 associated to a cooling capacity of 22.3 W are found. Basing on the obtained results an exergetic analysis of the system is performed which shows that the rectifier contribution to the exergy destruction is the most important with 34%. In a second step, the thermal capacities of all heat exchangers of the DAR are evaluated and the mathematical model so modified that the calculated capacities are now used as input data. A parametric study of the cycle is then carried out. The COP is found to exhibit a maximum when the heat supplied to the boiler or to the bubble pump is varied. Similar behavior is observed for variable submergence ratio. It is further noted that the COP is very sensitive to the ambient air temperature and to the absorber efficiency. - Highlights: • A detailed model of a Diffusion Absorption is developed and simulated. • Irreversibility of each component of the cycle is examined. • A modified model based on thermal capacity of components of the DAR is elaborated. • System performance is calculated over a series of practical operating conditions.

  3. Modeling of a Von Platen-Munters diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Bruno; Agostini, Francesco; Habert, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This article presents a thermodynamical model of a Von-Platen diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle for power electronics applications. It is first validated by comparison with data available in the literature for the classical water-ammonia-helium cycle for commercial absorption fridges. Then new operating conditions corresponding to specific ABB applications, namely high ambient temperature and new organic fluids combinations compatible with aluminium are simulated and discussed. The target application is to cool power electronics converters in harsh environments with high ambient temperature by providing refrigeration without compressor, for passive components losses of about 500 W, with a compact and low cost solution.

  4. Dynamic investigation of the diffusion absorption refrigeration system NH3-H2O-H2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge Adjibade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a numerical and experimental study of a diffusion absorption refrigerator. The performance of the system is examined by computer simulation using MATLAB software and Engineering Equations Solver. A dynamic model is developed for each component of the system and solved numerically in order to predict the transient state of the diffusion absorption refrigeration. The experiment set included 0.04 m3 commercial absorption diffusion refrigerator working with the ammonia-water-hydrogen (NH3-H2O-H2 solution. The transient numerical results were validated with the experimental data. The investigations are focused on the dynamic profile of the temperature of each component. The results obtained agree with the experiment; the relative error between numerical and experimental models doesn’t exceed 15% for all temperatures of each component. The increase of the average ambient temperature from 23.04 °C to 32.56 °C causes an increase of the condensation temperature from 29.46 °C to 37.51 °C, and the best evaporation temperature obtained was 3 °C, with an ambient temperature of 23.04 °C. The results show that a minimum starting temperature of 152 °C and 63.8 W electric power are required to initiate the decrease of evaporation temperature.

  5. Experimental analysis of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system used alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, A.; Oezbas, E.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous-cycle absorption refrigeration device is widely used in domestic refrigerators, and recreational vehicles. It is also used in year-around air conditioning of both homes and larger buildings. The unit consists of four main parts the boiler, condenser, evaporator and the absorber. When the unit operates on kerosene or gas, the heat is supplied by a burner. This element is fitted underneath the central tube. When operating on electricity, the heat is supplied by an element inserted in the pocket. No moving parts are employed. The operation of the refrigerating mechanism is based on Dalton's law. In this study, experimental analysis was performed of a diffusion absorption refrigeration system (DARS) used alternative energy sources such as solar, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sources. Two basic DAR cycles were set up and investigated: i) In the first cycle (DARS-1), the condensate is sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance by the coupled evaporator/gas heat exchanger similar with manufactured by Electrolux Sweden. ii) In the second cycle (DARS-2), the condensate is not sub-cooled prior to the evaporator entrance and gas heat exchanger is separated from the evaporator. (author)

  6. The influence of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle configuration on the performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohar, A.; Jelinek, M.; Levy, A.; Borde, I.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a full thermodynamic model for ammonia-water diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) cycle with hydrogen as the auxiliary inert gas, the performance of two fundamental configurations of a DAR cycle, with and without condensate sub-cooling prior to the evaporator entrance, were studied and compared. The performances of the two cycles were examined parametrically by computer simulations. Mass and energy conservation equations were developed for each component of the cycles and solved numerically. It was found that the DAR cycle without condensate sub-cooling shows higher COP of 14-20% in compare with the DAR cycle with the condensate sub-cooling, but it occurs at higher evaporator temperature of about 15 deg. C

  7. Experimental analysis of diffusion absorption refrigerator driven by electrical heater and engine exhaust gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Izzedine Serge ADJIBADE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental study of H20-NH3-H2 diffusion absorption refrigeration under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric and exhaust gas from internal combustion engine. Dynamic method is used to evaluate the behavior of the components of the system for both energy sources. Results obtained show that the performance of each component under different types of energy sources is almost coherent. For the generator, the electrical heater system requires more time to warm up, around three minutes, compared to the 40 s for system running with exhaust gas. For the evaporator, the decreasing rate is higher for the exhaust gas source and it took only about two hours to reach steady-state while for the electrical heat, the steady-state is reached after about seven hours of operation. For both energy sources, the evaporation temperature stabilizes to 3 °C and the minimum temperature to boil off ammonia is around 140 °C.

  8. Improvement in performance of a direct solar-thermally driven diffusion-absorption refrigerator; Leistungssteigerung einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Fabian; Bierling, Bernd; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2012-07-01

    The diffusion-absorption refrigeration process offers the possibility of a wear-free refrigeration system without electricity and noise. At the Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany), a decentralized solar refrigeration system is developed based on this process. The expeller and the thermosiphon pump of this process are integrated in the collector, and thus are heated directly. The diffusion-absorption refrigeration process also can be used for domestic water heating by means of a second cycle in the collector. A cooling capacity of 400 W is to be achieved for each solar collector (2.5 m{sup 2}). Several refrigeration systems can be modular interconnected for higher cooling capacities. As part of the DKV Conference 2011, the construction of the plant, the first measurement data and results were presented. Since then, both the cooling capacity and the coefficient of performance of the diffusion-absorption refrigeration system could be increased significantly. For this, solvent heat exchanger, evaporator, absorber and gas heat exchanger have been optimized in terms of system efficiency. In addition, a stable system operation could be achieved by means of a bypass line. About this line, an exaggerated refrigerant already is removed in the solvent heat exchanger. In addition, a condensate pre-cooler was integrated in order to increase the efficiency. For a detailed investigation of the auxiliary gas cycle facilities, the volume flow and the concentration of the auxiliary gas circuit were examined under utilization of an ultrasonic sensor. In order to evaluate the influence factors by means of a parametric study, the mass transfer in the auxiliary gas circuit was simulated using the two-fluid model. The results of these studies, the current system configuration and the current results are presented in the contribution under consideration.

  9. Effect of operating conditions on the performance of the bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhmidene Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model will be able to predict the operated condition (required tube diameters, heat input and submergence ratio….. That will result in a successful bubble pump design and hence a refrigeration unit. In the present work a one-dimensional two-fluid model of boiling mixing ammonia-water under constant heat flux is developed. The present model is used to predict the outlet liquid and vapor velocities and pumping ratio for different heat flux input to pump. The influence of operated conditions such as: ammonia fraction in inlet solution and tube diameter on the functioning of the bubble pump is presented and discussed. It was found that, the liquid velocity and pumping ratio increase with increasing heat flux, and then it decreases. Optimal heat flux depends namely on tube diameter variations. Vapour velocity increases linearly with increasing heat flux under designed conditions.

  10. Current fluctuations in quantum absorption refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2018-05-01

    Absorption refrigerators transfer thermal energy from a cold bath to a hot bath without input power by utilizing heat from an additional "work" reservoir. Particularly interesting is a three-level design for a quantum absorption refrigerator, which can be optimized to reach the maximal (Carnot) cooling efficiency. Previous studies of three-level chillers focused on the behavior of the averaged cooling current. Here, we go beyond that and study the full counting statistics of heat exchange in a three-level chiller model. We explain how to obtain the complete cumulant generating function of the refrigerator in a steady state, then derive a partial cumulant generating function, which yields closed-form expressions for both the averaged cooling current and its noise. Our analytical results and simulations are beneficial for the design of nanoscale engines and cooling systems far from equilibrium, with their performance optimized according to different criteria, efficiency, power, fluctuations, and dissipation.

  11. The Absorption Refrigerator as a Thermal Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential. (Contains 1 footnote and 6 figures.)

  12. The absorption refrigerator as a thermal transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, F

    2009-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, that is, a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on the correspondence between the extensive quantities, entropy and electric charge and the intensive variables, temperature and electric potential

  13. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  14. Energy analysis of a diffusion absorption cooling system using lithium nitrate, sodium thiocyanate and water as absorbent substances and ammonia as the refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuña, A.; Velázquez, N.; Cerezo, J.

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion absorption cooling system is analyzed to determine the appropriate fluid for the unit, based on the coefficient of performance (COP) and operating conditions, by comparing lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) and water (H 2 O) as absorbent substances and by using ammonia (NH 3 ) as the refrigerant. The presence of crystallization in the system is analyzed as a function of the generator and absorber temperatures. Additionally, the effects on the efficiency of the system from adding the inert gas helium (He) or hydrogen (H 2 ) are studied. A mathematical model is developed and compared to experimental studies reported in the literature. At an evaporator temperature of −15 °C, a generator temperature of 120 °C and absorber and condenser temperatures of 40 °C, the results show that the best performance is achieved by the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, with a COP of 0.48. This mixture performs 27–46% more efficient than the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. The NH 3 –H 2 O mixture is 52–69% less efficient than the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture. However, when the evaporator runs at 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture achieves a more efficient COP than does the NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixture, and the NH 3 –NaSCN–He and NH 3 –LiNO 3 –He mixtures achieve the same COP when the evaporator is at 10 °C. At temperatures below 7.5 °C, the NH 3 –NaSCN–He mixture achieves a higher COP than does the NH 3 –H 2 O–He mixture. The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture shows crystallization at higher temperatures in the generator than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. Moreover, at the same evaporator temperature, the NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture works at activation temperatures lower than does the NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. -- Highlights: ► We studied a diffusion absorption cooling system with different working mixtures. ► The NH 3 –LiNO 3 mixture showed more efficiency than NH 3 –H 2 O mixture and NH 3 –NaSCN mixture. ► The generator and absorber temperature

  15. Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.

  16. Artificial neural network analysis of triple effect absorption refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh Aghdam, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: a.hajizadeh@iaukashan.ac.ir; Nazmara, H.; Farzaneh, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: h.nazmara@nioec.org, email: b_farzaneh_ms@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are utilized to predict the performance of triple effect series and parallel flow absorption refrigeration systems, with lithium bromide/water as the working fluid. Important parameters such as high generator and evaporator temperatures were varied and their effects on the performance characteristics of the refrigeration unit were observed. Absorption refrigeration systems make energy savings possible because they can use heat energy to produce cooling, in place of the electricity used for conventional vapour compression chillers. In addition, non-conventional sources of energy (such as solar, waste heat, and geothermal) can be utilized as their primary energy input. Moreover, absorption units use environmentally friendly working fluid pairs instead of CFCs and HCFCs, which affect the ozone layer. Triple effect absorption cycles were analysed. Results apply for both series and parallel flow systems. A relative preference for parallel-flow over series-flow is also shown.

  17. Thermodynamic performance optimization of the absorption-generation process in an absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi; Han, Wei; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new thermal compressor model with boost pressure ratio. • The proposed model is an effective way to optimize the absorption-generation process. • Boost pressure ratio is a key parameter in the proposed thermal compressor model. • The optimum boost pressure ratios for two typical refrigeration systems are obtained. - Abstract: The absorption refrigeration cycle is a basic cycle that establishes the systems for utilizing mid-low temperature heat sources. A new thermal compressor model with a key parameter of boost pressure ratio is proposed to optimize the absorption-generation process. The ultimate generation pressure and boost pressure ratio are used to represent the potential and operating conditions of the thermal compressor, respectively. Using the proposed thermal compressor model, the operation mechanism and requirements of the absorption refrigeration system and absorption-compression refrigeration system are elucidated. Furthermore, the two typical heat conversion systems are optimized based on the thermal compressor model. The optimum boost pressure ratios of the absorption refrigeration system and the absorption-compression refrigeration system are 0.5 and 0.75, respectively. For the absorption refrigeration system, the optimum generation temperature is 125.31 °C at the cooling water temperature of 30 °C, which is obtained by simple thermodynamic calculation. The optimized thermodynamic performance of the absorption-compression refrigeration system is 16.7% higher than that of the conventional absorption refrigeration system when the generation temperature is 100 °C. The thermal compressor model proposed in this paper is an effective method for simplifying the optimization of the thermodynamic systems involving an absorption-generation process.

  18. Dynamic model of an autonomous solar absorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Fellah; Tahar Khir; Ammar Ben Brahim

    2009-01-01

    The performance analysis of a solar absorption refrigerator operating in an autonomous way is investigated. The water/LiBr machine satisfies the air-conditioning needs along the day. The refrigerator performances were simulated regarding a dynamic model. For the solar driven absorption machines, two applications could be distinguished. The sun provides the thermal part of the useful energy. In this case, it is necessary to use additional energy as the electric one to activate the pumps, the fans and the control system. On the other hand, the sun provides all the necessary energy. Here, both photovoltaic cells and thermal concentrators should be used. The simulation in dynamic regime of the cycle requires the knowledge of the geometric characteristics of every component as the exchange areas and the internal volumes. Real characteristics of a refrigerator available at the applied thermodynamic research unit (ATRU) at the engineers' national school of Gabes are notified. The development of the thermal and matter balances in every component of the cycle has permitted to simulate in dynamic regime the performances of a solar absorption refrigerator operating with the water/LiBr couple for air-conditioning needs. The developed model could be used to perform intermittent refrigeration cycle autonomously driven. (author)

  19. Experimental Investigation on an Absorption Refrigerator Driven by Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Jie Chien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is to study an absorption refrigerator driven by solar cells. Hand-held or carried in vehicle can be powered by solar energy in places without power. In the evenings or rainy days, it is powered by storage battery, and it can be directly powered by alternating current (AC power supply if available, and the storage battery can be charged full as a backup supply. The proposed system was tested by the alternation of solar irradiance 550 to 700 W/m2 as solar energy and 500ml ambient temperature water as cooling load. After 160 minutes, the proposal refrigerator can maintain the temperature at 5–8°C, and the coefficient of performance (COP of NH3-H2O absorption refrigeration system is about 0.25. Therefore, this system can be expected to be used in remote areas for refrigeration of food and beverages in outdoor activities in remote and desert areas or long-distance road transportation of food or low temperature refrigeration of vaccine to avoid the deterioration of the food or the vaccines.

  20. Computational Model of a Biomass Driven Absorption Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyeowaji Mbikan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of vapour compression refrigeration is the main push for scientists to find an alternative sustainable technology. Vapour absorption is an ideal technology which makes use of waste heat or renewable heat, such as biomass, to drive absorption chillers from medium to large applications. In this paper, the aim was to investigate the feasibility of a biomass driven aqua-ammonia absorption system. An estimation of the solid biomass fuel quantity required to provide heat for the operation of a vapour absorption refrigeration cycle (VARC is presented; the quantity of biomass required depends on the fuel density and the efficiency of the combustion and heat transfer systems. A single-stage aqua-ammonia refrigeration system analysis routine was developed to evaluate the system performance and ascertain the rate of energy transfer required to operate the system, and hence, the biomass quantity needed. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the results of the performance of a computational model of an aqua-ammonia system under a range of parameters. The model showed good agreement with published experimental data.

  1. Qualitative comparison of duplex Stirling and absorption refrigerators in domestic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H. [Global Cooling BV, Zutphen (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A qualitative comparison has been carried out between the duplex Stirling and the absorption refrigerator for domestic applications. The duplex Stirling has many advantages over the absorption refrigerator on efficiency, modulation, suitability, operating costs, pollution reduction. Based on the state of the art of free-piston gas-bearing and linear-motor Stirling engines and coolers, it appears technically and economically feasible to develop the duplex Stirling to compete with the absorption refrigerator for heat-driven domestic refrigeration. (orig.)

  2. Industrial trigeneration using ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems (AAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, Piero; Gabrielli, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    In many industrial processes there is a simultaneous need for electric power and refrigeration at low temperatures. Examples are in the food and chemical industries. Nowadays the increase in fuel prices and the ecological implications are giving an impulse to energy technologies that better exploit the primary energy source and integrated production of utilities should be considered when designing a new production plant. The number of so-called trigeneration systems installations (electric generator and absorption refrigeration plant) is increasing. If low temperature refrigeration is needed (from 0 to -40 deg. C), ammonia-water absorption refrigeration plants can be coupled to internal combustion engines or turbogenerators. A thermodynamic system study of trigeneration configurations using a commercial software integrated with specifically designed modules is presented. The study analyzes and compares heat recovery from the primary mover at different temperature levels. In the last section a simplified economic assessment that takes into account disparate prices in European countries compares conventional electric energy supply from the grid and optimized trigeneration plants in one test case (10 MW electric power, 7000 h/year)

  3. Thermodynamic simulation of ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyabhama A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is attracting increasing research interests, since the system can be powered by waste thermal energy, thus reducing demand on electricity supply. The development of this technology demands reliable and effective system simulations. In this work, a thermodynamic simulation of the cycle is carried out to investigate the effects of different operating variables on the performance of the cycle. A computer program in C language is written for the performance analysis of the cycle.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system with ionic-liquid/refrigerant mixture as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Jo; Kim, Sarah; Joshi, Yogendra K.; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kohl, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamics of an ionic-liquid (IL) based absorption refrigeration system has been numerically analyzed. It provides an alternative to the normally toxic working fluids, such as the ammonia in conventional absorption systems. The use of ILs also eliminates crystallization and metal-compatibility problems of the water/LiBr system. Mixtures of refrigerants and imidazolium-based ILs are theoretically explored as the working fluid pairs in a miniature absorption refrigeration system, so as to utilize waste-heat to power a refrigeration/heat pump system for electronics cooling. A non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was built and used to predict the solubility of the mixtures. Saturation temperatures at the evaporator and condenser were set at 25 °C and 50 °C, respectively, with the power dissipation of 100 W. Water in combination with [emim][BF 4 ] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gave the highest coefficient of performance (COP) around 0.9. The refrigerant/IL compatibility indicated by the circulation ratio, alkyl chain length of the IL, and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants, such as latent heat of evaporation were proven to be important factors in determining the performance of the absorption system. The negative effect of high viscosity was mitigated by dilution of the IL with the refrigerant and the use of slightly larger microfluidic channel heat exchangers. -- Highlights: ► Mixtures of refrigerant/ionic-liquid are studied for absorption system. ► We carry out comprehensive theoretical thermodynamic analysis. ► The essential factors of refrigerant/IL affecting the performance are identified. ► Water/[emim][BF 4 ] showed the best performance of COP. ► The effects of high viscosity ILs on the system performance are not significant.

  5. CONCEPT OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Titlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The general concept of the automatic control systems constructing for increasing the efficiency of the artificial cold production process in the absorption refrigerating units is substantiated. The described automatic control systems provides necessary degree of the ammonia vapor purification from the water in all absorption refrigerating units modes and minimizes heat loss from the dephlegmator surface.

  6. Development of a direct solar driven diffusion absorption chiller; Entwicklung einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Fabian; Bierling, Bernd; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2013-03-15

    At the ITW, a decentralized solar cooling system is developed based on the diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle. The generator and the bubble pump of the process are integrated in a solar collector, and therefore directly heated. The main research focus after reaching a stable operation of the system is a detailed investigation of the auxiliary gas circuit. (orig.)

  7. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rêgo, A.T.; Hanriot, S.M.; Oliveira, A.F.; Brito, P.; Rêgo, T.F.U.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  8. The renewed absorption refrigerating engineering; Le groupe frigorifique a absorption, technique d`avenir?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumajon, J. [BETM (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of a refrigerating unit based on absorption. The main advantages are: silence, no vibration, security (no pressure, no inflammable and toxic gas), and a broad range of energy sources can be used (solar, geothermal, natural gas). The main disadvantages compared to a current compression cooling machine are: low yield, important volume of equipment, high cost and great amount of heat released. An installation based on a lithium bromide-water mixture is described, the role played by the different parts of the installation is explained. (A.C.)

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of absorption refrigeration cycles using the second law of thermodynamics method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aphornratana, S; Eames, I W [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering

    1995-05-01

    The paper provides an easy to follow description of the second law (of thermodynamics) method as applied to a single-effect absorption refrigerator cycle. Results are presented in a novel graphical format, which aids insight and understanding of those factors that most affect the performance of absorption refrigerators, and which in turn provides strong indicators for the direction of future research. A novel method of calculating the entropy of lithium bromide solutions is offered. (author)

  10. improvement to the design of a solid absorption solar refrigerator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    on the coupling of auxiliary heating systems to the solar powered refrigerator. ... the efficiency, developing a field prototype and providing auxiliary heating to the ... of a selective surface for the collector plate, air leakages and low absorber ...

  11. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O; Feidt, M; Benelmir, R [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  12. Compression-absorption (resorption) refrigerating machinery. Modeling of reactors; Machine frigorifique a compression-absorption (resorption). Modelisation des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, O.; Feidt, M.; Benelmir, R. [LEMTA-UHP Nancy-1, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies presenting a comparative study of the thermal performances of different types of refrigerating machineries: di-thermal with vapor compression, tri-thermal with moto-compressor, with ejector, with free piston, adsorption-type, resorption-type, absorption-type, compression-absorption-type. A prototype of ammonia-water compression-absorption heat pump is presented and modeled. (J.S.)

  13. Parametric analysis for a new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Zhang Taiyong; Ma Shaolin

    2009-01-01

    A new combined power and ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle, and could produce both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously. This combined cycle, which originates from the cycle proposed by authors previously, introduces an ejector between the rectifier and the condenser, and provides a performance improvement without greatly increasing the complexity of the system. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of the key thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performance. It is shown that heat source temperature, condenser temperature, evaporator temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. It is evident that the ejector can improve the performance of the combined cycle proposed by authors previously.

  14. Experimental investigation of integrated refrigeration system (IRS) with gas engine, compression chiller and absorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.G.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated refrigeration system (IRS) with a gas engine, a vapor-compression chiller and an absorption chiller is set up and tested. The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is operated directly by the gas engine. The waste heat from the gas engine operates the absorption refrigeration cycle, which provides additional cooling. The performance of the IRS is described. The cooling capacity of the IRS is about 596 kW, and primary energy ratio (PER) reaches 1.84 at air-conditioning rated conditions. The refrigerating capacity of the prototype increased and PER of prototype decreased with the increase of the gas engine speed. The gas engine speed was preferably regulated at part load condition in order to operate the prototype at high-energy efficiency. The refrigerating capacity and PER of the prototype increased with the increase of the outlet temperature of chilled water or the decrease of the inlet temperature of cooling water. The integrated refrigeration chiller in this work saves running costs as compared to the conventional refrigeration system by using the waste heat

  15. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1993-01-01

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  16. Materials and systems developments on solid absorption refrigeration with CaCl2·xNH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloeji, O.C.

    1995-10-01

    The paper presents some developments on the stabilization of CaCl 2 for use as a solid absorption material in refrigerators, the development of a refrigerator using the stabilized salt, and computer modelling of the refrigerator system. (author). 8 refs, 19 figs

  17. Parametric analysis of an irreversible proton exchange membrane fuel cell/absorption refrigerator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Puqing; Zhang, Houcheng

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system mainly consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and an absorption refrigerator is proposed, where the PEMFC directly converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen into electrical and thermal energies, and the thermal energy is transferred to drive the bottoming absorption refrigerator for cooling purpose. By considering the existing irreversible losses in the hybrid system, the operating current density region of the PEMFC permits the absorption refrigerator to exert its function is determined and the analytical expressions for the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system under different operating conditions are specified. Numerical calculations show that the equivalent maximum power density and the corresponding efficiency of the hybrid system can be respectively increased by 5.3% and 6.8% compared to that of the stand-alone PEMFC. Comprehensive parametric analyses are conducted to reveal the effects of the internal irreversibility of the absorption refrigerator, operating current density, operating temperature and operating pressure of the PEMFC, and some integrated parameters related to the thermodynamic losses on the performance of the hybrid system. The model presented in the paper is more general than previous study, and the results for some special cases can be directly derived from this paper. - Highlights: • A CHP system composed of a PEMFC and an absorption refrigerator is proposed. • Current density region enables the absorption refrigerator to work is determined. • Multiple irreversible losses in the system are analytically characterized. • Maximum power density and corresponding efficiency can be increased by 5.3% and 6.8%. • Effects of some designing and operating parameters on the performance are discussed

  18. Thermo-economic optimization of an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption-refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xiaoyong; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    Based on an endoreversible four-heat-reservoir absorption-refrigeration-cycle model, the optimal thermo-economic performance of an absorption-refrigerator is analyzed and optimized assuming a linear (Newtonian) heat-transfer law applies. The optimal relation between the thermo-economic criterion and the coefficient of performance (COP), the maximum thermo-economic criterion, and the COP and specific cooling load for the maximum thermo-economic criterion of the cycle are derived using finite-time thermodynamics. Moreover, the effects of the cycle parameters on the thermo-economic performance of the cycle are studied by numerical examples

  19. Optimization of a solar driven absorption refrigerator in the transient regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Mouna; Fellah, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic behavior of a solar absorption refrigerator endoreversible model. ► Using the principles of classical thermodynamics, mass and heat transfers. ► Minimizing heat exchange time to reach maximum performances. ► Major influence of the collector temperature on the model’s characteristics. ► Analogous effects of both the thermal load and the thermal conductance. -- Abstract: This contribution deals with the theoretical study in dynamic mode of an absorption refrigerator endoreversible model. The system is a cold generating station driven by solar energy. The main elements of the cycle are a refrigerated space, an absorption refrigerator and a solar collector form. A mathematical model is developed. It combines the classical thermodynamics and mass and heat transfers principles. The numerical simulation is made for different operating and conceptual conditions. A global minimizing time optimization is performed in view to reach maximum performances. Appropriate dimensionless groups are defined. The results are presented in normalized charts for general applications. The collector temperature presents major influence on the conceptual and functional characteristics compared to the stagnation temperature influence. On the other hand the thermal load in the refrigerated space and the thermal conductance of the walls has analogous effects, therefore important to be considered in actual design. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, and optimization of solar collector based energy systems.

  20. Prediction of refrigerant absorption and onset of natural convection in lubricant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jader R.; Marcelino Neto, Moises A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Thoma, Stefan M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Refrigerant absorption and mixing in lubricant oil are important in the design of refrigeration compressors and refrigeration systems. Experimental work is reported on absorption of R-134a vapour through the top interface of an initially stagnant layer of pure lubricant oil. Since the liquid refrigerant is heavier than the oil, mixing is enhanced due to natural mass convection. In the present paper, the behaviour of the liquid temperature during absorption is described based on measurements carried out in a test rig consisting of a transparent 70 mm ID, 150 mm long, vertical glass tube through which absorption can be directly observed. Transient liquid temperatures were measured at three different heights in the test section (two in the vapour, one in the liquid). The experimental work is complemented by a theoretical analysis of the critical time for the onset of mass transfer induced Rayleigh instability. The model is based on a critical mass transfer Rayleigh number criterion widely reported in the literature and takes into account the variation of physical properties in the liquid layer. The critical time for the onset of natural mass convection increases with decreasing system pressure as a result of a lower equilibrium concentration at the vapour-liquid interface. (author)

  1. Absorption Refrigeration Cycles with Ammonia-Ionic Liquid Working Pairs Studied by Molecular Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tim M; Wang, Meng; Kabra, Abhishek; Jamali, Seyed Hossein; Ramdin, Mahinder; Dubbeldam, David; Infante Ferreira, Carlos A; Vlugt, Thijs J H

    2018-04-18

    For absorption refrigeration, it has been shown that ionic liquids have the potential to replace conventional working pairs. Due to the huge number of possibilities, conducting lab experiments to find the optimal ionic liquid is infeasible. Here, we provide a proof-of-principle study of an alternative computational approach. The required thermodynamic properties, i.e., solubility, heat capacity, and heat of absorption, are determined via molecular simulations. These properties are used in a model of the absorption refrigeration cycle to estimate the circulation ratio and the coefficient of performance. We selected two ionic liquids as absorbents: [emim][Tf 2 N], and [emim][SCN]. As refrigerant NH 3 was chosen due to its favorable operating range. The results are compared to the traditional approach in which parameters of a thermodynamic model are fitted to reproduce experimental data. The work shows that simulations can be used to predict the required thermodynamic properties to estimate the performance of absorption refrigeration cycles. However, high-quality force fields are required to accurately predict the cycle performance.

  2. Absorption Refrigeration Cycles with Ammonia–Ionic Liquid Working Pairs Studied by Molecular Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    For absorption refrigeration, it has been shown that ionic liquids have the potential to replace conventional working pairs. Due to the huge number of possibilities, conducting lab experiments to find the optimal ionic liquid is infeasible. Here, we provide a proof-of-principle study of an alternative computational approach. The required thermodynamic properties, i.e., solubility, heat capacity, and heat of absorption, are determined via molecular simulations. These properties are used in a model of the absorption refrigeration cycle to estimate the circulation ratio and the coefficient of performance. We selected two ionic liquids as absorbents: [emim][Tf2N], and [emim][SCN]. As refrigerant NH3 was chosen due to its favorable operating range. The results are compared to the traditional approach in which parameters of a thermodynamic model are fitted to reproduce experimental data. The work shows that simulations can be used to predict the required thermodynamic properties to estimate the performance of absorption refrigeration cycles. However, high-quality force fields are required to accurately predict the cycle performance. PMID:29749996

  3. Absorption Refrigeration Cycles with Ammonia-Ionic Liquid Working Pairs Studied by Molecular Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, T.M.; Wang, M.; Kabra, Abhishek; Jamali, S.H.; Ramdin, M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    For absorption refrigeration, it has been shown that ionic liquids have the potential to replace conventional working pairs. Due to the huge number of possibilities, conducting lab experiments to find the optimal ionic liquid is infeasible. Here, we provide a proof-of-principle study of an

  4. Geothermal absorption refrigeration for food processing industries. Final report, December 13, 1976--November 13, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.L.; Olson, G.K.; Mah, C.S.; Bujalski, J.H.

    1977-11-01

    The first step in the economic analysis of the integration of geothermally powered absorption refrigeration into a food processing plant was an evaluation of the potential geothermal sites in the Western United States. The evaluation covered availability of raw materials, transportation, adequate geothermal source, labor, and other requirements for food processing plants. Several attractive geothermal sites were identified--Raft River, Idaho; Sespe Hot Springs, California; Vale Hot Springs, Oregon; Weisler-Crane Creek, Idaho; Cosco Hot Springs, California; and the Imperial Valley, California. The most economically attractive food processing industry was then matched to the site based on its particular energy, raw material, and transportation requirements. The more promising food processors identified were for frozen potato or vegetable products, freeze-dried products, and meat processing. For the refrigeration temperature range of +32/sup 0/F to -40/sup 0/F and geothermal temperature range of 212/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F, an absorption refrigeration system had to be identified, designed, and evaluated. Both the conventional ammonia/water and an organic absorption refrigeration system using monochlorodifluoromethane (R-22) as the refrigerant and dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the absorbent were studied. In general, only a 60/sup 0/F to 100/sup 0/F temperature drop would be effectively used for refrigeration leaving the remainder of the allowable temperature drop available for other use. The economic evaluation of the geothermal system installed in a food processing plant required the comparison of several principal alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated for three different food processing plants located at their optimum geothermal site: a forzen potato product processing plant located at Raft River, Idaho; a freeze-dried product plant located at Sespe Hot Springs, California; a beef slaughter operation located in the Imperial Valley of California. (JGB)

  5. Industrial refrigeration by absorption/compression; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion/compresion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, Ramon; Heard, Christopher Lionel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The use of the absorption/compression refrigeration in the industrial area is analyzed. It is estimated than in Mexico 50% of the food is wasted for lack of refrigeration in the producing centers and by the inefficient distribution system, as well as for the hot climate. The functioning of the absorption refrigeration and the hybrid system absorption/compression which can operate with the two thermodynamic cycles in variable proportions, depending on the specific application, looking for operational advantages and energy efficiency is described. This type of technology could be applied in Mexico due to the lack of industrial refrigeration and to the need of substituting compressors in some companies which have up to 20 years of use [Espanol] Se analiza el uso de la refrigeracion por absorcion/compresion en el area industrial. En Mexico se estima que se desperdicia el 50% de los alimentos por falta de refrigeracion en los centros productores y por el deficiente sistema de distribucion, asi como por el clima calido. Se describe el funcionamiento de la refrigeracion por absorcion y la refrigeracion por absorcion/compresion o sistema hibrido, el cual puede funcionar con los dos tipos de ciclos termodinamicos, en proporciones variables, dependiendo de la aplicacion especifica, buscando ventajas de operacion y eficiencia energetica. Este tipo de tecnologia podria aplicarse en Mexico debido a la falta de refrigeracion industrial y a la necesidad de sustituir compresores en algunas empresas los cuales tienen hasta 20 anos de uso

  6. Industrial refrigeration by absorption/compression; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion/compresion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, Ramon; Heard, Christopher Lionel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The use of the absorption/compression refrigeration in the industrial area is analyzed. It is estimated than in Mexico 50% of the food is wasted for lack of refrigeration in the producing centers and by the inefficient distribution system, as well as for the hot climate. The functioning of the absorption refrigeration and the hybrid system absorption/compression which can operate with the two thermodynamic cycles in variable proportions, depending on the specific application, looking for operational advantages and energy efficiency is described. This type of technology could be applied in Mexico due to the lack of industrial refrigeration and to the need of substituting compressors in some companies which have up to 20 years of use [Espanol] Se analiza el uso de la refrigeracion por absorcion/compresion en el area industrial. En Mexico se estima que se desperdicia el 50% de los alimentos por falta de refrigeracion en los centros productores y por el deficiente sistema de distribucion, asi como por el clima calido. Se describe el funcionamiento de la refrigeracion por absorcion y la refrigeracion por absorcion/compresion o sistema hibrido, el cual puede funcionar con los dos tipos de ciclos termodinamicos, en proporciones variables, dependiendo de la aplicacion especifica, buscando ventajas de operacion y eficiencia energetica. Este tipo de tecnologia podria aplicarse en Mexico debido a la falta de refrigeracion industrial y a la necesidad de sustituir compresores en algunas empresas los cuales tienen hasta 20 anos de uso

  7. Using waste heat of ship as energy source for an absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, Waltteri; Vanttola, Juha; Elg, Mia; Kuosa, Maunu; Lahdelma, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A steady-state thermodynamic model is developed for absorption refrigeration in a ship. • Operation profile of B.Delta37 bulk carrier is used as an initial data. • Suitability of water-LiBr and ammonia-water working pairs were validated. • Coefficient of performance (COP) was studied in ISO and tropical conditions. • Estimated energy savings were 47 and 95 tons of fuel every year. - Abstract: This work presents a steady-state thermodynamic model for absorption refrigeration cycles with water-LiBr and ammonia-water working pairs for purpose of application on a ship. The coefficient of performance was studied with different generator and evaporator temperatures in ISO and tropical conditions. Absorption refrigeration systems were examined using exhaust gases, jacket water, and scavenge air as energy sources. Optimal generator temperatures for different refrigerant temperatures were found using different waste heat sources and for the absorption cycle itself. Critical temperature values (where the refrigeration power drops to zero) were defined. All of these values were used in order to evaluate the cooling power and energy production possibilities in a bulk carrier. The process data of exhaust gases and cooling water flows in two different climate conditions (ISO and tropical) and operation profiles of a B. Delta37 bulk carrier were used as initial data in the study. With the case ship data, a theoretical potential of saving of 70% of the electricity used in accommodation (AC use) compressor in ISO conditions and 61% in tropical conditions was recognized. Those estimates enable between 47 and 95 tons of annual fuel savings, respectively. Moreover, jacket water heat recovery with a water-LiBr system has the potential to provide 2.2–4.0 times more cooling power than required during sea-time operations in ISO conditions, depending on the main engine load.

  8. Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigeration for lesser developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1990-02-01

    The Intermittent Solar Ammonia Absorption Cycle (ISAAC) refrigerator is a solar thermal technology which provides low cost, efficient, reliable ice-making to areas without ready access to electricity. An ISAAC refrigeration system consists of a compound parabolic solar collector, two pressure vessels, a condenser, a cold box or refrigerated space, and simple connective piping -- no moving parts or electrical components. Most parts are simple construction or plumbing grade materials, locally available in many remote areas. This technology has numerous potential benefits in lesser developed countries both by providing a cheap, reliable source of ice, and, since manufacture requires only semi-skilled labor, a source of employment to the local economy. Applications include vaccine storage for health care clinics; fish, meat, and dairy product storage; and personal consumption. Importantly, this technology increases the quality of life for people in lesser developed countries without depleting fossil fuel resources or increasing the release of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and chlorofluorocarbons.

  9. Theoretical study on the effect of operating conditions on performance of absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering, TR-16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    In this study, a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the water/lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle is performed. The influences of operating temperature and effectiveness of heat exchanger on the thermal loads of components, coefficients of performance (COP{sub c}, COP) and efficiency ratio ({eta}) are investigated. It is concluded that the COP{sub c} and COP values increase with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures but decrease with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. The {eta} value varies with these temperatures. Also, the effects of solution and refrigerant heat exchangers on the performance, efficiency ratio of the system and fluid temperatures are compared. As a result, it is found that the solution heat exchanger (SHE) has more effect on the investigated parameters than the refrigerant heat exchanger (RHE). While the SHE increases the COP value up to a maximum 44%, the RHE has an effect of only 2.8%. (author)

  10. Second law comparison of single effect and double effect vapour absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a comparative study between single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems with identical cold output is carried out. Simulation results were used to study the influence of the various operating parameters on the performance coefficient, the thermal loads of the components, exergetic efficiency (rational efficiency) and the total change in exergy of the two systems. It is concluded that the COP of double effect system is approximately twice the COP of single effect system but the exergetic efficiency of double effect system increase slightly compared to the exergetic efficiency of single effect system. It is found that for each condenser and evaporator temperature, there is an optimum generator temperature where the total change in exergy of the single effect and double effect absorption refrigeration systems is minimum. At this point the COP and exergetic efficiency of the systems become maximum. In this study and when the evaporation temperature is varied from 4 deg. C to 10 deg. C, condenser and absorber temperatures are varied from 33 deg. C to 39 deg. C and generator (HPG) temperature is varied from 60 deg. C to 190 deg. C the maximum COP values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 0.73-0.79 and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 1.22-1.42. The maximum exergetic efficiency values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 12.5-23.2% and for double effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 14.3-25.1%.

  11. Bio-mass stimulated absorption refrigerator for food storage in Papua New Guinea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppal, A.H.; Komuna, K.K. (University of Technology, Papua (New Guinea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A medium capacity (140 litre) water-ammonia absorption refrigerator, thermally stimulated by a charcoal-stove is being developed to store food in remote locations and island communities of Papua New Guinea. The paper describes a prototype charcoal or biomass-stove thermal refrigerator in which the absorption cycle and thermo-syphonic cycle of a heating liquid has been coupled in a novel and straight forward approach. The system consisted of a heat-exchanger, in the form of a jacket surrounding the generator tube of a water-ammonia absorption cycle refrigerator, and was connected in a close-pipe work loop to a heat exchanger placed in a charcoal-stove. A heat-transfer oil flowed due to thermo-syphonic forces between the heat exchanger and the jacket. According to initial tests it took 4 hours for the system to warm up, and took another 7 hours for water in the freezer cabinet to approach 0{sup o}C from an initial 25{sup o}C. The cooling capacity of the evaporator was roughly 70% of the cooling capacity of the original system with electric heating. For a twelve hour test the stove consumed 2.5 kg of charcoal with an air port opening between 3 to 5 millimeters. Preliminary estimates indicate that the described prototype absorption unit stimulated by the wood/coconut husk stove (rather than electricity/kerosene), when manufactured commercially will cost less than US 1500 dollars at 1991 prices. (Author).

  12. Experimental investigation and exergy analysis of a triple fluid vapor absorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemaa, Radhouane Ben; Mansouri, Rami; Boukholda, Ismail; Bellagi, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study on a commercial triple fluid vapor absorption refrigerator performed. • An Aspen-hysys model developed and validated with experimental measurements. • Exergy analysis of the unit performed and discussed. • Absorber identified as largest source of irreversibility, followed by solution heat exchanger. - Abstract: This paper presents an energy and exergy analyses of a triple fluid vapor absorption refrigerator working with ammonia as refrigerant, water as absorbent and hydrogen as auxiliary gas. The experimental setup is constituted of a commercial unit equipped with the appropriate metrology. The temperature at the inlet and outlet of every component of the machine, as well as the cabinet and ambient temperature are continuously measured and monitored. A simulation model of the machine is developed using the process simulator Aspen-Hysys. The thermodynamic analysis includes energy and exergy efficiency calculations, destroyed exergy evaluation and degradation of the coefficient of performance (COP) in each component of the refrigerator. The results indicate that the absorber exhibits the largest source of irreversibility followed by the solution heat exchanger. These two components alone are at the origin of 63% of the total degradation of COP.

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of a double effect absorption refrigeration system based on different heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Saka, Kenan; Kaynakli, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis was performed on double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system. • The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam. • A comparative analysis was carried out on these heat sources in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. • The effect of heat sources on the exergy destruction of high pressure generator was investigated. - Abstract: Absorption refrigeration systems are environmental friendly since they can utilize industrial waste heat and/or solar energy. In terms of heat source of the systems, researchers prefer one type heat source usually such as hot water or steam. Some studies can be free from environment. In this study, energy and exergy analysis is performed on a double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system with water/lithium bromide as working fluid pair. The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam via High Pressure Generator (HPG) because of hot water/steam and hot air are the most common available heat source for absorption applications but the first law of thermodynamics may not be sufficient analyze the absorption refrigeration system and to show the difference of utilize for different type heat source. On the other hand operation temperatures of the overall system and its components have a major effect on their performance and functionality. In this regard, a parametric study conducted here to investigate this effect on heat capacity and exergy destruction of the HPG, coefficient of performance (COP) of the system, and mass flow rate of heat sources. Also, a comparative analysis is carried out on several heat sources (e.g. hot water, hot air and steam) in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. From the analyses it is observed that exergy destruction of the HPG increases at higher temperature of the heat sources, condenser and absorber, and lower

  14. Thermodynamic performance analysis of gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Chen, G.M.; Wang, Q.; Zhong, M.

    2007-01-01

    In China, the application of small size gas-fired air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems as an alternative for electric compression air conditioning systems has shown broad prospects due to occurrence of electricity peak demand in Chinese big cities and lack of water resources. However, for conventional air-cooled absorption refrigeration systems, it is difficult to enhance the heat and mass transfer process in the falling film absorber, and may cause problems, for example, remarkable increase of pressure, temperature and concentration in the generators, risk of crystallization, acceleration of corrosion, degradation of performance, and so on. This paper presents a gas-fired air-cooled adiabatic absorption refrigeration system using lithium bromide-water solutions as its working fluid, which is designed with a cooling capacity of 16 kW under standard conditions. The system has two new features of waste heat recovery of condensed water from generator and an adiabatic absorber with an air cooler. Performance simulation and characteristic analysis are crucial for the optimal control and reliability of operation in extremely hot climates. A methodology is presented to simulate thermodynamic performance of the system. The influences of outdoor air temperature on operation performances of the system are investigated

  15. Simulation and experimental validation of the performance of a absorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbricht, Michael; Luke, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The two biggest obstacles to a stronger market penetration of absorption refrigerators are their high cost and the size of the apparatus, which are due to the inaccurate methods for plant design. In order to contribute to an improved design a thermodynamic model is presented to describe the performance of a absorption refrigerator with the working fluid water/lithium. In this model, the processes are displayed in the single apparatus and coupled to each other in the systemic context. Thereby the interactions between the apparatus can specifically investigated and thus the process limiting component can be identified under the respective conditions. A validation of the simulation model and the boundary conditions used is done based on experimental data operating a self-developed absorption refrigerator. In the simulation, the heat transfer surfaces in accordance with the real system can be specified. The heat transport is taken into account based on typical values for the heat transfer in the individual apparatuses. Simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data. The physical relationships and influences externally defined operating parameters are correctly reproduced. Due to the chosen low heat transfer coefficient, the calculated cooling capacities by the model are below the experimentally measured. Finally, the possibilities and limitations are discussed by using the model and further improvement possibilities are suggested. [de

  16. Cooling performance and energy saving of a compression-absorption refrigeration system assisted by geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairouani, L.; Nehdi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to develop a novel combined refrigeration system, and to discuss the thermodynamic analysis of the cycle and the feasibility of its practical development. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using geothermal energy to supply vapour absorption system cascaded with conventional compression system. Three working fluids (R717, R22, and R134a) are selected for the conventional compression system and the ammonia-water pair for the absorption system. The geothermal temperature source in the range 343-349 K supplies a generator operating at 335 K. Results show that the COP of a combined system is significantly higher than that of a single stage refrigeration system. It is found that the COP can be improved by 37-54%, compared with the conventional cycle, under the same operating conditions, that is an evaporation temperature at 263 K and a condensation temperature of 308 K. For industrial refrigeration, the proposed system constitutes an alternative solution for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Exergoeconomic Assessment of Solar Absorption and Absorption–Compression Hybrid Refrigeration in Building Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper mainly deals with the match of solar refrigeration, i.e., solar/natural gas-driven absorption chiller (SNGDAC, solar vapor compression–absorption integrated refrigeration system with parallel configuration (SVCAIRSPC, and solar absorption-subcooled compression hybrid cooling system (SASCHCS, and building cooling based on the exergoeconomics. Three types of building cooling are considered: Type 1 is the single-story building, type 2 includes the two-story and three-story buildings, and type 3 is the multi-story buildings. Besides this, two Chinese cities, Guangzhou and Turpan, are taken into account as well. The product cost flow rate is employed as the primary decision variable. The result exhibits that SNGDAC is considered as a suitable solution for type 1 buildings in Turpan, owing to its negligible natural gas consumption and lowest product cost flow rate. SVCAIRSPC is more applicable for type 2 buildings in Turpan because of its higher actual cooling capacity of absorption subsystem and lower fuel and product cost flow rate. Additionally, SASCHCS shows the most extensive cost-effectiveness, namely, its exergy destruction and product cost flow rate are both the lowest when used in all types of buildings in Guangzhou or type 3 buildings in Turpan. This paper is helpful to promote the application of solar cooling.

  18. Comparative study of irreversibilities in an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataer, O E [Gazi Univ., Ankara (TR). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gogus, Y [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1991-03-01

    Irreversibilities in components of an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system (ARS) have been determined by second law analysis. The components of the ARS are as follows: condenser, evaporator, absorber, generator, pump, expansion valves, mixture heat exchanger and refrigerant heat exchanger. It is assumed that the ammonia concentration at the generator exit is, independent of the other parameters, equal to 0.999 and at the evaporator exit the gas is saturated vapour. Pressure losses between the generator and condenser, and the evaporator and absorber are taken into consideration. In the results the dimensionless exergy loss of each component, the exergetic coefficient of performance, the coefficient of performance and the circulation ratio are given graphically for each different generator, evaporator, condenser and absorber temperature. (author).

  19. Quantum and classical dynamics of a three-mode absorption refrigerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nimmrichter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the quantum and classical evolution of a system of three harmonic modes interacting via a trilinear Hamiltonian. With the modes prepared in thermal states of different temperatures, this model describes the working principle of an absorption refrigerator that transfers energy from a cold to a hot environment at the expense of free energy provided by a high-temperature work reservoir. Inspired by a recent experimental realization with trapped ions, we elucidate key features of the coupling Hamiltonian that are relevant for the refrigerator performance. The coherent system dynamics exhibits rapid effective equilibration of the mode energies and correlations, as well as a transient enhancement of the cooling performance at short times. We find that these features can be fully reproduced in a classical framework.

  20. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Kachhwaha, S.S.; Sachdeva, Gulshan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Study includes first and second law analysis with alternatives refrigerants. • Power consumption in cascaded system is 61% less than vapor compression system. • COP of compression system is improved by 155% with cascaded absorption system. • Condenser is more sensitive to external fluid temperature as compare to evaporator. - Abstract: In the present study, a thermodynamic model for cascaded vapor compression–absorption system (CVCAS) has been developed which consists of a vapor compression refrigeration system (VCRS) coupled with single effect vapor absorption refrigeration system (VARS). Based on first and second laws, a comparative performance analysis of CVCAS and an independent VCRS has been carried out for a design capacity of 66.67 kW. The results show that the electric power consumption in CVCAS is reduced by 61% and COP of compression section is improved by 155% with respect to the corresponding values pertaining to a conventional VCRS. However there is a trade-off between these parameters and the rational efficiency which is found to decrease to half of that for a VCRS. The effect of various operating parameters, i.e., superheating, subcooling, cooling capacity, inlet temperature and the product of effectiveness and heat capacitance of external fluids are extensively studied on the COP, total irreversibility and rational efficiency of the CVCAS. Besides, the performance of environment friendly refrigerants such as R410A, R407C and R134A is found to be almost at par with that of R22. Hence, all the alternative refrigerants selected herein can serve as potential substitutes for R22. Furthermore, it has been found that reducing the irreversibility rate of the condenser by one unit due to decrease in condenser temperature depicted approximately 3.8 times greater reduction in the total irreversibility rate of the CVCAS, whereas unit reduction in the evaporator’s irreversibility rate due to increase in evaporator temperature reduced

  1. NLP model based thermoeconomic optimization of vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan; Kachhwaha, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It addresses the size and cost estimation of cascaded refrigeration system. • Cascaded system is a promising decarburizing and energy efficient technology. • Second law analysis is carried out with modified Gouy-Stodola equation. • The total annual cost of plant operation is optimized in present work. - Abstract: This paper addresses the size and cost estimation of vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system (VCACRS) for water chilling application taking R410a and water–LiBr as refrigerants in compression and absorption section respectively which can help the design engineers in manufacturing and experimenting on such kind of systems. The main limitation in the practical implementation of VCACRS is its size and cost which are optimized in the present work by implementing Direct Search Method in non-linear programming (NLP) mathematical model of VCACRS. The main objective of optimization is to minimize the total annual cost of system which comprises of costs of exergy input and capital costs in monetary units. The appropriate set of decision variables (temperature of evaporator, condenser, generator, absorber, cascade condenser, degree of overlap and effectiveness of solution heat exchanger) minimizes the total annual cost of VCACRS by 11.9% with 22.4% reduction in investment cost at the base case whereas the same is reduced by 7.5% with 11.7% reduction in investment cost with reduced rate of interest and increased life span and period of operation. Optimization results show that the more investment cost in later case is well compensated through the performance and operational cost of the system. In the present analysis, optimum cascade condensing temperature is a strong function of period of operation and capital recovery factor. The cascading of compression and absorption systems becomes attractive for lower rate of interest and increase life span and operational period

  2. Simulator for design absorption refrigeration system; Simulador para projeto de ciclos de refrigeracao por absorcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon, C.F.M.; Brum, N. de C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: Camilo_freddy@hotmail.com; Nisio@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a development of a thermal fluid dynamics model and a solution of a steady state absorption refrigeration cycle, with ammonia water as the working fluid. Analytical thermodynamics models expressing the enthalpy in function of pressure, temperature and composition (h=f(P,T,x)), are used with the aim to design all of the cycle devices, moved by any type of energy such as solar, natural gas, steam or electrical energy (Morejon and Hackenberg, 1978). The development of the analysis is carried out by the application of thermal fluid dynamics concepts together with a detailed study of the heat and mass transfer in the different cycle stages. The thermodynamic cycle model, obtained from equation of state for ammonia - water mixtures (Ziegker and Trepp, 1984), is represented by the relation h - x (enthalpy-composition) for different pressures and temperatures. The obtained models are used to implement computational codes in MAPLE-V facilitating the design and simulation of refrigeration system. This study can be applied in the systems of air conditioning and refrigeration chambers design. (author)

  3. Application of vacuum membrane distillation to lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zanshe; Feng, Shiyu; Li, Yun [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Gu, Zhaolin [School of Human Settlement and Civil Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Conventional generator in lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system is too bulky and heavy to be fitted into small scale device, and the temperature of the driving heater in the generator seems much higher than low grade energy such as regenerative energy or waste heat energy. In this paper, desorption of aqueous lithium bromide solution by vacuum membrane distillation process was presented. Hollow fiber membrane module made by polyvinylidene fluoride was used as desorption device of aqueous lithium bromide solution. Influencing factors of feed flux, feed temperature in lumen side and vacuum pressure in shell side were tested and analyzed with orthogonal test. The results showed that permeation flux of water vapor increased with the feed temperature increasing and the feed flux increasing in lumen side, and the permeation flux also went up along with absolute pressure drop in shell side. Feasibility and potential application analysis shows that the temperature of the driving heat was low and the volume and weight of the desorption device was light. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation to the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system has proved to be an efficient and cheap desorption mode. (author)

  4. Mathematical Model of a Lithium-Bromide/Water Absorption Refrigeration System Equipped with an Adiabatic Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem M. Osta-Omar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system equipped with an adiabatic absorber using a lithium-bromide/water (LiBr/water pair as the working fluid. The working temperature of the generator, adiabatic absorber, condenser, evaporator, the cooling capacity of the system, and the ratio of the solution mass flow rate at the circulation pump to that at the solution pump are used as input data. The model evaluates the thermodynamic properties of all state points, the heat transfer in each component, the various mass flow rates, and the coefficient of performance (COP of the cycle. The results are used to investigate the effect of key parameters on the overall performance of the system. For instance, increasing the generator temperatures and decreasing the adiabatic absorber temperatures can increase the COP of the cycle. The results of this mathematical model can be used for designing and sizing new LiBr/water absorption refrigeration systems equipped with an adiabatic absorber or for optimizing existing aforementioned systems.

  5. Solution procedure and performance evaluation for a water–LiBr absorption refrigeration machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonchala, Jason; Hazledine, Maxwell; Goni Boulama, Kiari

    2014-01-01

    The water–lithium bromide absorption cooling machine was investigated theoretically in this paper. A detailed solution procedure was proposed and validated. A parametric study was conducted over the entire admissible ranges of the desorber, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. The performance of the machine was evaluated based on the circulation ratio which is a measure of the system size and cost, the first law coefficient of performance and the second law exergy efficiency. The circulation ratio and the coefficient of performance were seen to improve as the temperature of the heat source increased, while the second law performance deteriorated. The same qualitative responses were obtained when the temperature of the refrigerated environment was increased. On the other hand, simultaneously raising the condenser and absorber temperatures was seen to result in a severe deterioration of both the circulation ratio and first law coefficient of performance, while the second law performance indicator improved significantly. The influence of the difference between the condenser and absorber exit temperatures, as well as that of the internal recovery heat exchanger on the different performance indicators was also calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Analysis of a water–LiBr absorption machine, including detailed solution procedure. • Performance assessed using first and second law considerations, as well as flow ratio. • Effects of heat source and refrigerated environment temperatures on the performance. • Effects of the difference between condenser and absorber temperatures. • Effects of internal heat exchanger efficiency on overall cooling machine performance

  6. A novel absorption refrigeration cycle for heat sources with large temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaona; Chen, Guangming; Hong, Daliang; Lin, Shunrong; Tang, Liming

    2013-01-01

    To increase the use efficiency of available thermal energy in the waste gas/water, a novel high-efficient absorption refrigeration cycle regarded as an improved single-effect/double-lift configuration is proposed. The improved cycle using an evaporator/absorber (E/A) promotes the coefficient of performance and reduces the irreversible loss. Water–lithium bromide is used as the working pair and a simulation study under the steady working conditions is conducted. The results show that the temperature of waste gas discharged is about 20 °C lower than that of the conventional single-effect cycle and the novel cycle we proposed can achieve more cooling capacity per unit mass of waste gas/water at the simulated working conditions. -- Graphical abstract: Pressure – temperature diagram for water – lithium bromide. Highlights: ► A novel waste heat-driven absorption refrigeration cycle is presented. ► The novel cycle can reject heat at much lower temperature. ► The available temperature range of heat source of the proposed cycle is wider. ► Multiple heat sources with different temperatures can be used in the novel cycle

  7. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  8. The Research on Programmable Control System of Lithium-Bromide Absorption Refrigerating Air Conditioner Based on the Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lunan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article regard the solar lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system as the research object, and it was conducting adequate research of the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigerating machine, also it was analyzing the requirements of control system about solar energy air conditioning. Then the solar energy air conditioning control system was designed based on PLC, this system was given priority to field bus control system, and the remote monitoring is complementary, which was combining the network remote monitoring technology. So that it realized the automatic control and intelligent control of new lithium bromide absorption refrigerating air conditioning system with solar energy, also, it ensured the control system can automatically detect and adjust when the external conditions was random changing, to make air conditioning work effectively and steadily, ultimately ,it has great research significance to research the air conditioning control system with solar energy.

  9. Cooling performance and energy saving of a compression-absorption refrigeration system driven by a gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.G.; Guo, K.H. [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China). Engineering School

    2006-07-01

    The prototype of combined vapour compression-absorption refrigeration system was set up, where a gas engine drove directly an open screw compressor in a vapour compression refrigeration chiller and waste heat from the gas engine was used to operate absorption refrigeration cycle. The experimental procedure and results showed that the combined refrigeration system was feasible. The cooling capacity of the prototype reached about 589 kW at the Chinese rated conditions of air conditioning (the inlet and outlet temperatures of chilled water are 12 and 7{sup o}C, the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water are 30 and 35{sup o}C, respectively). Primary energy rate (PER) and comparative primary energy saving were used to evaluate energy utilization efficiency of the combined refrigeration system. The calculated results showed that the PER of the prototype was about 1.81 and the prototype saved more than 25% of primary energy compared to a conventional electrically driven vapour compression refrigeration unit. Error analysis showed that the total error of the combined cooling system measurement was about 4.2% in this work. (author)

  10. Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Guillén, S.U.; Cuevas, R.; Best, R.; Gómez, V.H.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption thermal cooling systems driven by renewable energy are a viable option in order to reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated emissions. This work shows the results of an air cooled absorption cooling prototype working with an ammonia–lithium nitrate mixture at high ambient temperatures. An absorption refrigeration system was designed and built. The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. The experimental system was instrumented to evaluate each component. This paper shows the operation conditions in the experimental unit as well as some of the heat loads encountered at different operating conditions. The system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures in the range of 25–35 °C. A series of test showed that even at ambient temperatures it can be operated at evaporator temperatures below 10 °C producing chilled water for air conditioning applications such as radiative cooling panels. The system proved to stabilize very quickly and no risk of crystallization was encountered so the first results are promising in order to continue with the development of a more advanced prototype. - Highlights: •Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate system. •The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. •The absorption system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures. •Cooling loads of 4.5 kW were reached in the chilled water side

  11. Synthesis of integrated absorption refrigeration systems involving economic and environmental objectives and quantifying social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira-Barragán, Luis Fernando; Ponce-Ortega, José María; Serna-González, Medardo; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for energy integration of systems that require absorption refrigeration. It allows heat exchange among process hot and cold streams and the integration of excess process heat as well as external utilities provided by solar energy, fossil fuels and biofuels. An optimization formulation is developed to address the multiple objectives of simultaneously minimizing the total annualized cost and the greenhouse gas emissions while the social impact is measured by the number of jobs generated by the project in the entire life cycle. The economic function accounts for the tax credit obtained by the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when cleaner technologies are used. The proposed model also considers the optimal selection of different types of solar collectors and the optimal time-based usage of solar energy, fossil fuel, and biofuel. Two example problems are presented to show the applicability of the proposed methodology. -- Highlights: ► An approach for the thermal integration of refrigeration processes is proposed. ► Different forms of sustainable energies are considered in the optimization process. ► Economic and environmental objectives are considered quantifying the number of jobs. ► The availability for the different forms of energy is taken into account. ► Results show significant advantages obtained with the proposed approach

  12. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Muhsin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)]. E-mail: mkilic@uludag.edu.tr; Kaynakli, Omer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Uludag University, TR 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP{sub c} ), exergetic efficiency ({xi}) and efficiency ratio ({tau})-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle.

  13. Second law-based thermodynamic analysis of water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Muhsin; Kaynakli, Omer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the first and the second law of thermodynamics are used to analyze the performance of a single-stage water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system (ARS) when some working parameters are varied. A mathematical model based on the exergy method is introduced to evaluate the system performance, exergy loss of each component and total exergy loss of all the system components. Parameters connected with performance of the cycle-circulation ratio (CR), coefficient of performance (COP), Carnot coefficient of performance (COP c ), exergetic efficiency (ξ) and efficiency ratio (τ)-are calculated from the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids at various operating conditions. Using the developed model, the effect of main system temperatures on the performance parameters of the system, irreversibilities in the thermal process and non-dimensional exergy loss of each component are analyzed in detail. The results show that the performance of the ARS increases with increasing generator and evaporator temperatures, but decreases with increasing condenser and absorber temperatures. Exergy losses in the expansion valves, pump and heat exchangers, especially refrigerant heat exchanger, are small compared to other components. The highest exergy loss occurs in the generator regardless of operating conditions, which therefore makes the generator the most important component of the cycle

  14. Analysis of ammonia/water and ammonia/salt mixture absorption cycles for refrigeration purposes in fishing ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Táboas, Francisco; Bourouis, Mahmoud; Vallès, Manel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the use of waste heat energy of jacket water in diesel engines of fishing ships was analysed for use as a heat source for absorption refrigeration systems. The thermodynamic simulation of an absorption refrigeration cycle with three different working fluid mixtures that use ammonia as a refrigerant was carried out. This analysis was assessed in terms of the cooling demand and cycle performance as a function of the evaporator, condenser and generator temperatures. Moreover, the need for rectifying the vapour stream leaving the generator was analysed together with the drag of the fraction of non-evaporated liquid to the absorber. The results show that the NH 3 /(LiNO 3  + H 2 O) and NH 3 /LiNO 3 fluid mixtures have higher values of COP as compared to NH 3 /H 2 O fluid mixture, the differences being more pronounced at low generation temperatures. If the activation temperature is set to 85 °C, the minimum evaporation temperatures that can be achieved are −18.8 °C for the cycle with NH 3 /LiNO 3 , −17.5 °C for the cycle with NH 3 /(LiNO 3  + H 2 O) cycle and −13.7 °C for the NH 3 /H 2 O cycle at a condensing temperature of 25 °C. Also, for the NH 3 /(LiNO 3  + H 2 O) fluid mixture, it has been demonstrated that the absorption refrigeration cycle can be operated without a distillation column and in this case the water content in the refrigerant stream entering the evaporator is less than 1.5% in weight at the operating conditions selected. - Highlights: •Ammonia absorption systems can provide refrigeration necessities for fishing ships. •Absorption refrigeration systems reduce the energy consumption of fishing ships. •The NH 3 /(LiNO 3  + H 2 O) mixture is recommended for absorption refrigeration cycles

  15. A solar absorption refrigeration system operating with the mixture ammonia-lithium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W.; Martinez, F.; Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mor (Mexico); Rivera, C.O. [Univ. Veracruzana, Campus Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An intermittent solar absorption refrigeration system for ice production operating with the ammonia-lithium nitrate mixture has been developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The system consists basically of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), a generator-absorber, a condenser, a condensate tank, an expansion valve and an evaporator. The system was evaluated in sunny days with insolations above 20 MJ/m{sup 2}-day at different condenser temperatures. The generator temperatures varied from 108 to 121 C and the evaporator temperatures inside the camera from -8 to 0 C. The coefficients of performance (COP) varied from 0.13 to 0.26 depending of the operating temperatures of the system and the solar irradiation. (orig.)

  16. Cogen-absorption plants for refrigeration purposes and turbine air inlet cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, Juergen [Colibri bv (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Most cogeneration systems produce power and heat but with absorption refrigeration plants (ARP) the products are power and 'cold'. An ARP driven by heat from a turbine exhaust can provide the cooling for the inlet air with very low consumption of electricity, consequently there is a significant increase in power output from the cogeneration unit. Two different ARP systems are currently available but the author describes only the ammonia-water system, which can achieve temperatures down to -60 degrees C. The article discusses the principle behind ARP, the capital cost and returns on investment, how the cogeneration plant is linked to the ARP, ARP for turbine inlet air cooling, and the potential applications of cogeneration-ARP.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of diesel engine coupled with ORC and absorption refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, Farhad; Moghaddam, Alireza Naghavi; Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling ORC and Ammonia absorption cycles with diesel engine to recover energy. • By using designed bottoming system, recovered diesel engine energy is about 10%. • By using designed bottoming system, engine efficiency will grow about 4.65%. - Abstract: In this paper, Rankine cycle and Ammonia absorption cycle are coupled with Diesel engine to recover the energy of exhaust gases. The novelty of this paper is the use of ammonia absorption refrigeration cycle bottoming Rankine cycle which coupled with diesel engine to produce more power. Bottoming system converts engine exhaust thermal energy to cooling and mechanical energy. Energy transfer process has been done by two shell and tube heat exchangers. Simulation processes have been done by programming mathematic models of cycles in EES Program. Based on results, recovered energy varies with diesel engine load. For the particular load case of current research, the use of two heat exchangers causes 0.5% decrement of engine mechanical power. However, the recovered energy is about 10% of engine mechanical power.

  18. Parametric study of an absorption refrigeration machine using advanced exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Sunyoung; Goni Boulama, Kiari

    2014-01-01

    An advanced exergy analysis of a water–lithium bromide absorption refrigeration machine was conducted. For each component of the machine, the proposed analysis quantified the irreversibility that can be avoided and the irreversibility that is unavoidable. It also identified the irreversibility originating from inefficiencies within the component and the irreversibility that does not originate from the operation of the considered component. It was observed that the desorber and absorber concentrated most of the exergy destruction. Furthermore, the exergy destruction at these components was found to be dominantly endogenous and unavoidable. A parametrical study has been presented discussing the sensitivity of the different performance indicators to the temperature at which the heat source is available, the temperature of the refrigerated environment, and the temperature of the cooling medium used at the condenser and absorber. It was observed that the endogenous avoidable exergy destruction at the desorber, i.e. the portion of the desorber irreversibility that could be avoided by improving the design and operation of the desorber, decreased when the heat source or the temperature at which the cooling effect was generated increased, and it decreased when the heat sink temperature increased. The endogenous avoidable exergy destruction at the absorber displayed the same variations, though it was observed to be less affected by the heat source temperature. Contrary to the aforementioned two components, the exergy destruction at the evaporator and condenser were dominantly endogenous and avoidable, with little sensitivity to the cycle operating parameters. - Highlights: • Endogenous, exogenous, avoidable and unavoidable irreversibilities were calculated for a water–LiBr absorption machine. • Overall, desorber and absorber concentrated most of the exergy destruction of the cycle. • The exergy destruction was mainly endogenous and unavoidable for the desorber and

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel exhaust heat-driven non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/oil mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Keqiao; Cai, Dehua; Liu, Yue; Jiang, Jingkai; Sun, Wei; He, Guogeng

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle using R290/refrigeration oil has been thermodynamically analyzed. Influences of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance and other system operation parameters have been investigated. The simulation results will be of great help to the miniaturization and practical application of the air-cooled absorption refrigeration system. - Highlights: • A novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed. • Influences of the ejector and the air-cooled non-adiabatic absorber applications on the system performance are investigated. • Variations of system performance and other system operation parameters are investigated. • R290/refrigeration oil mixture used as working pairs is analyzed. - Abstract: This paper thermodynamically analyzes a novel air-cooled non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle with R290/oil mixture driven by exhaust heat. An ejector located at the upstream of the non-adiabatic absorber is employed to improve the cycle performance. Variations of COP, circulation ratio and component heat load of the system as a function of generating temperature, pressure ratio, absorption temperature, condensing temperature and evaporating temperature have been investigated in this work. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional absorption refrigeration cycle, this non-adiabatic ejection-absorption refrigeration cycle has higher absorption efficiency, better performance, wider working condition range and lower total heat load and its COP can reach as high as 0.5297. The implementation of the ejector and the non-adiabatic absorber helps to realize the miniaturization and wider application of the absorption refrigeration system. In addition, R290/oil mixture is a kind of highly potential working pairs for absorption refrigeration.

  20. Industrial refrigeration with high efficiency absorption; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, R.; Heard, C. L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, (Mexico); Pardubicki, J. [LAJ International, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The absorption refrigeration ammonia-lithium nitrate offers great advantages compared with the mechanical compression refrigeration with ammonia as well as with the absorption ammonia-water refrigeration. With heat temperatures of 1000 to 1400 Celsius degrees, for instance low pressure steam the generation of cold at low temperatures (-100 to -200 Celsius degrees) is possible. The system has less components and is much less expensive than the ammonia-water equipment with a price very similar to the ammonia mechanical compression equipment. The equipment consists of five main heat exchangers and a solution pump, resulting in a high reliability of its operation, requiring a minimum maintenance. The operation cost depends directly of the cost of the energy source. In case of using residual heat the operation cost is only the maintenance cost. Nowadays the cost of the electric energy is below the production cost, which can be a short term situation. In time terms of the comparable useful life time of an absorption refrigeration system (in excess of 20 years), it is reasonable to think that the operation costs will be less than the operation costs of an equipment with mechanical compression. To this day it is available a demonstration unit to exhibit the system in industrial plants with different energy sources. [Espanol] La refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/nitrato de litio ofrece grandes ventajas comparada tanto con la refrigeracion por compresion mecanica con amoniaco como con la refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/agua. Este sistema es mas eficiente y sencillo que el sistema de amoniaco/agua. Con calor de temperatura (100 a 140 grados centigrados por ejemplo vapor de baja presion, se permite la generacion de frio a temperaturas bajas (-10 a -20 grados centigrados). El sistema tiene menos componentes y es mucho mas barato que equipo de amoniaco/agua con un precio muy similar a sistemas por compresion mecanica de amoniaco. El sistema consiste en cinco

  1. Industrial refrigeration with high efficiency absorption; Refrigeracion industrial por absorcion de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Delgado, R; Heard, C L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, (Mexico); Pardubicki, J [LAJ International, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The absorption refrigeration ammonia-lithium nitrate offers great advantages compared with the mechanical compression refrigeration with ammonia as well as with the absorption ammonia-water refrigeration. With heat temperatures of 1000 to 1400 Celsius degrees, for instance low pressure steam the generation of cold at low temperatures (-100 to -200 Celsius degrees) is possible. The system has less components and is much less expensive than the ammonia-water equipment with a price very similar to the ammonia mechanical compression equipment. The equipment consists of five main heat exchangers and a solution pump, resulting in a high reliability of its operation, requiring a minimum maintenance. The operation cost depends directly of the cost of the energy source. In case of using residual heat the operation cost is only the maintenance cost. Nowadays the cost of the electric energy is below the production cost, which can be a short term situation. In time terms of the comparable useful life time of an absorption refrigeration system (in excess of 20 years), it is reasonable to think that the operation costs will be less than the operation costs of an equipment with mechanical compression. To this day it is available a demonstration unit to exhibit the system in industrial plants with different energy sources. [Espanol] La refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/nitrato de litio ofrece grandes ventajas comparada tanto con la refrigeracion por compresion mecanica con amoniaco como con la refrigeracion por absorcion amoniaco/agua. Este sistema es mas eficiente y sencillo que el sistema de amoniaco/agua. Con calor de temperatura (100 a 140 grados centigrados por ejemplo vapor de baja presion, se permite la generacion de frio a temperaturas bajas (-10 a -20 grados centigrados). El sistema tiene menos componentes y es mucho mas barato que equipo de amoniaco/agua con un precio muy similar a sistemas por compresion mecanica de amoniaco. El sistema consiste en cinco

  2. A thermodynamic evaluation on high pressure condenser of double effect absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, İbrahim Halil; Saka, Kenan; Kaynakli, Omer

    2016-01-01

    One of the parameters affecting the COP of the absorption system can be considered as the thermal balance between the high pressure condenser (HPC) and the low pressure generator (LPG) since heat rejected from the HPC is utilized as an energy source by the LPG. Condensation of the water vapor in the HPC depends on the heat removal via the LPG. This circumstance is significant for making an appropriate design and a controllable system with high performance in practical applications. For this reason, a thermodynamic analysis for the HPC of a double effect series flow water/lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system was emphasized in this study. A simulation was developed to investigate the energy transfer between the HPC and LPG. The results show that the proper designation of the HPC temperature improves the COP and ECOP due its significant impact, and its value necessarily has to be higher than the outlet temperature of the LPG based on the operating scheme. Furthermore, the COP and ECOP of the absorption system can be raised in the range of 9.72–35.09% in case of 2 °C-temperature increment in the HPC under the described conditions to be applied. - Highlights: • Thermal balance in HPC/LPG unit of a double effect absorption system was studied. • A simulation program was developed and its outputs were validated. • A parametric study was conducted for a wide range of component temperatures. • Proper designation of the HPC temperature improves the COP and ECOP. • The system performance raised 9.72–35.09% by controlling the HPC temperature.

  3. Experimental investigation on an ammonia-water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system without solution pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tiehui; Wu Yuyuan; Yu Zhiqiang; Zhao Haichen; Wu Honglin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An absorption refrigeration system with ternary solution of NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr was set up. → Performance of the NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system without solution pump was firstly tested. → Generator pressure in NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system was lower than the one in NH 3 -H 2 O system. → The COP of the NH 3 -H 2 O-LiBr system was 51.89% larger than the NH 3 -H 2 O binary system. → The optimum mass fraction of LiBr of about 23% led to the largest COP of 0.401. -- Abstract: Experimental researches were carried out on a novel ammonia-water-lithium bromide ternary solution absorption refrigeration and air-conditioning system without solution pump and distillation equipments. The experiments were conducted by using three kinds of NH 3 -H 2 O binary solution and 17 kinds of ternary solution with difference in mass fraction of NH 3 and LiBr. The experimental results showed that the vapor pressure of the generator in the system would be lower than that of the generator in an ammonia-water absorption system. In above two situations the same ammonia mass fraction and the same solution temperature were kept. The amplitude of vapor pressure decrease of the system generator would be larger with the increase of the mass fraction of LiBr. The maximum amplitude of decrease would be of 50%. With the increase of the mass fraction of LiBr, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system would be increased initially, and then decreased later when the mass fraction of LiBr exceeded a certain value. This value was about 23% for the solution with ammonia mass fraction of 50% and 55%, and about 30% for the solution with ammonia mass fraction of 60%. Compared with the ammonia-water system, the COP of the ternary solution system with the same mass fraction of ammonia would increase up to 30%. With the ammonia mass fraction of 60% and LiBr mass fraction of 30% applied, the COP of the ternary solution system was increased up to 0.401. It was 51.89% higher than that when binary

  4. Experimental Study on Compression/Absorption High-Temperature Hybrid Heat Pump with Natural Refrigerant Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Chang, Ki Chang; Ra, Ho Sang; Kim, Min Sung [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This research concerns the development of a compression/absorption high-temperature hybrid heat pump that uses a natural refrigerant mixture. Heat pumps based on the compression/absorption cycle offer various advantages over conventional heat pumps based on the vapor compression cycle, such as large temperature glide, temperature lift, flexible operating range, and capacity control. In this study, a lab-scale prototype hybrid heat pump was constructed with a two-stage compressor, absorber, desorber, desuperheater, solution heat exchanger, solution pump, liquid/vapor separator, and rectifier as the main components. The hybrid heat pump system operated at 10-kW-class heating capacity producing hot water whose temperature was more than 90 .deg. C when the heat source and sink temperatures were 50 .deg. C. Experiments with various NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O mass fractions and compressor/pump circulation ratios were performed on the system. From the study, the system performance was optimized at a specific NH{sub 3} concentration.

  5. Standard GAX versus hybrid GAX absorption refrigeration cycle: From the view point of thermoeconomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehr, A.S.; Zare, V.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The SGAX cycle is found to be thermoeconomically efficient compared to HGAX cycle. • The HGAX cycle has higher COP and exergy efficiency compared to SGAX cycle. • Minimum product cost is found 180.5 $/GJ and 159.1 $/GJ for HGAX and SGAX, respectively. - Abstract: The main goal of this research is to compare thermoeconomic performance of a GAX absorption cycle and a hybrid GAX absorption cycle in which a compressor is employed to raise the absorber pressure. In order to do this, the ammonia–water standard GAX (SGAX) and hybrid GAX (HGAX) absorption refrigeration cycles are investigated and optimized from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. Parametric studies are carried out and with the help of genetic algorithm (GA), the cycles’ performance is optimized based on the COP and exergy efficiency as well as the cost of unit product. Results indicate that although, compared to the GAX cycle, the HGAX cycle demonstrates a better performance from the view points of both the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the unit product cost for the HGAX cycle is higher. At the optimum operating conditions, the cost of unit product for the HGAX cycle is calculated as 180.5 $/GJ while the corresponding value for the SGAX cycle is obtained as 159.1 $/GJ. Also, the exergoeconomic analyses unfold that the condenser has the lowest exergoeconomic factor, f, in both the systems. In addition, inspired from nature, a new graphical plot is proposed to illustrate the fuel cost, product cost, capital investment and operating and maintenance cost and cost rates associated with the exergy destruction and losses within the system’s components

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration system used to cool down the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novella, R.; Dolz, V.; Martín, J.; Royo-Pascual, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Enough power in the exhaust gases is available to operate the absorption cycle. • Three engine operating points are presented in the article. • Improvement potential up to 4% is possible in the engine indicated efficiency. • Engine indicated efficiency benefit was experimentally confirmed by direct testing. - Abstract: This paper deals with the thermodynamic analysis of an absorption refrigeration cycle used to cool down the temperature of the intake air in an Internal Combustion Engine using as a heat source the exhaust gas of the engine. The solution of ammonia-water has been selected due to the stability for a wide range of operating temperatures and pressures and the low freezing point. The effects of operating temperatures, pressures, concentrations of strong and weak solutions in the absorption refrigeration cycle were examined to achieve proper heat rejection to the ambient. Potential of increasing Internal Combustion Engine efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions was estimated by means of theoretical models and experimental tests. In order to provide boundary conditions for the absorption refrigeration cycle and to simulate its effect on engine performance, a 0D thermodynamic model was used to reproduce the engine performance when the intake air is cooled. Furthermore, a detailed experimental work was carried out to validate the results in real engine operation. Theoretical results show how the absorption refrigeration system decreases the intake air flow temperature down to a temperature around 5 °C and even lower by using the bottoming waste heat energy available in the exhaust gases in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In addition, the theoretical analysis estimates the potential of the strategy for increasing the engine indicated efficiency in levels up to 4% also at the operating conditions under evaluation. Finally, this predicted benefit in engine indicated efficiency has been experimentally confirmed by direct

  7. Evaluation of ionic liquids as absorbents for ammonia absorption refrigeration cycles using COSMO-based process simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E.; Ferro, V.R., E-mail: victor.ferro@uam.es; Riva, J. de; Moreno, D.; Palomar, J.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • NH{sub 3}–IL absorption cycles are modeled by COSMO-based Aspen simulations. • Proposed a priori computational approach is validated using experimental data. • Cycle performance was analyzed for conventional and task-specific ILs. • IL solvents with high NH{sub 3} absorption capacity improve the cycle performance. • Using IL mixtures is revealed as promising alternative in NH{sub 3} absorption applications. - Abstract: COSMO-based process simulations with Aspen Plus/Aspen HYSYS are used, for the first time, to a priori estimate the thermodynamic performance of ammonia absorption refrigeration cycles using ionic liquids as absorbents. This allows not only broadening the criteria set used to select/design ionic liquids with optimized properties to be used in that role, but also evaluating innovative strategies to improve the cycle’s performances. COSMO-RS method provides the information required for both creating the ionic liquid non-database components and specifying the COSMOSAC property model to perform Aspen Plus calculations. The computational procedure used here gives at the same time reasonable good property predictions of the vapor (refrigerant) and the condensed (ammonia + ionic liquid) phases as well as physically consistent estimations of the cycle’s performance under different conditions. Current results agree with those previously reported in the literature for several ionic liquid-based systems taken for comparison. In addition, task-specific ionic liquids, with improved properties for ammonia absorption, and also binary ionic liquid mixtures are considered in the analysis. It is obtained that ionic liquids showing higher ammonia absorption capacity among the considered absorbents simultaneously provide the best cycle’s performances. The cycle performances vary in relatively wide intervals depending on the ammonia concentration in the (refrigerant + absorbent) solutions. This behavior is strongly modulated by the ammonia

  8. Evaluation of ionic liquids as absorbents for ammonia absorption refrigeration cycles using COSMO-based process simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Ferro, V.R.; Riva, J. de; Moreno, D.; Palomar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NH 3 –IL absorption cycles are modeled by COSMO-based Aspen simulations. • Proposed a priori computational approach is validated using experimental data. • Cycle performance was analyzed for conventional and task-specific ILs. • IL solvents with high NH 3 absorption capacity improve the cycle performance. • Using IL mixtures is revealed as promising alternative in NH 3 absorption applications. - Abstract: COSMO-based process simulations with Aspen Plus/Aspen HYSYS are used, for the first time, to a priori estimate the thermodynamic performance of ammonia absorption refrigeration cycles using ionic liquids as absorbents. This allows not only broadening the criteria set used to select/design ionic liquids with optimized properties to be used in that role, but also evaluating innovative strategies to improve the cycle’s performances. COSMO-RS method provides the information required for both creating the ionic liquid non-database components and specifying the COSMOSAC property model to perform Aspen Plus calculations. The computational procedure used here gives at the same time reasonable good property predictions of the vapor (refrigerant) and the condensed (ammonia + ionic liquid) phases as well as physically consistent estimations of the cycle’s performance under different conditions. Current results agree with those previously reported in the literature for several ionic liquid-based systems taken for comparison. In addition, task-specific ionic liquids, with improved properties for ammonia absorption, and also binary ionic liquid mixtures are considered in the analysis. It is obtained that ionic liquids showing higher ammonia absorption capacity among the considered absorbents simultaneously provide the best cycle’s performances. The cycle performances vary in relatively wide intervals depending on the ammonia concentration in the (refrigerant + absorbent) solutions. This behavior is strongly modulated by the ammonia absorption

  9. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine, ORC cycle and absorption refrigeration for a CCHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Amin; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid CCHP system. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on the most important parameters of the system. • Pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most effective parameters. - Abstract: Hybrid power systems are gained more attention due to their better performance and higher efficiency. Widespread use of these systems improves environmental situation as they reduce the amount of fossil fuel consumption. In this paper a hybrid system composed of a gas turbine, an ORC cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed as a combined cooling, heating and power system for residential usage. Thermodynamic analysis is applied on the system. Also a parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters on the system performance and output cooling, heating and power. The results show that under design conditions, the proposed plant can produce 30 kW power, 8 kW cooling and almost 7.2 ton hot water with an efficiency of 67.6%. Moreover, parametric analysis shows that pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most important and influential parameters. After these two, ORC turbine inlet temperature is the most effective parameter as it can change both net output power and energy efficiency of the system.

  11. Energetic analysis of a commercial absorption refrigeration unit using an ammonia-water mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josegil Jorge de Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ROBUR® absorption refrigeration system (ARS, model ACF60, with a capacity of 17.5 kW, is tested, modeled and simulated in the steady state. To simulate the thermal load a heating system with secondary coolant was used, in which a programmable logic controller (PLC kept the inlet temperature EVA at around 285.15 K. The mathematical model used was based on balancing the mass, energy and ammonia concentrations and completed by closing equations such as, Newton's cooling equation. The mathematical model was implemented using the Engineering Equation Solver – EES®. The results obtained after modeling and a numerical permanent simulation are studied using the Duhring diagram. Potential points of internal heat recovery are visualized, and by using graphs of the binary mixture, it is possible to identify the thermodynamic states of all monitored points. The data obtained in the numerical simulation of the ARS was compared with data acquired in the actual tests of the ARS with the ROBUR® apparatus.

  12. Absorption cycle commercial refrigerator using wood burning cook stove; Geladeira de absorcao acionada por fogao a lenha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Martins, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1991-12-31

    The current utilization of wood burning cook stoves in Brazil and the socio-economical profile of their users were surveyed. A traditional heavy-mass wood-burning cook stove was studied as a thermal equipment. Simple changes in the geometry of the combustion chamber were suggested to improve the cooking efficiency. A closed two-phase thermosyphon using water as working fluid was designed, built and connected between the combustion chamber of the cook stove and a depressurized absorption refrigeration system to determine the heat flux and the temperature level. A commercial refrigerator unit, using the absorption cycle, was coupled with the wood stove through the thermosyphon. The overall results of the coupling point to successful country-side applications. (author) 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Exergy analysis of single effect absorption refrigeration systems: The heat exchange aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joybari, Mahmood Mastani; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of LiBr/H 2 O absorption systems with identical COP was carried out. • Exergy destruction rank: absorber followed by generator, condenser and evaporator. • Lower heat source and chilled water inlet temperature reduced exergy destruction. • Higher cooling water inlet temperature reduced exergy destruction. • Lower HTF mass flow rate increased exergy efficiency even for fixed system COP. - Abstract: The main limitation of conventional energy analysis for the thermal performance of energy systems is that this approach does not consider the quality of energy. On the other hand, exergy analysis not only provides information about the systems performance, but also it can specify the locations and magnitudes of losses. A number of studies investigated the effect of parameters such as the component temperature, and heat transfer fluid (HTF) temperature and mass flow rate on the exergetic performance of the same absorption refrigeration system; thus, reported different coefficient of performance (COP) values. However, in this study, the system COP was considered to remain constant during the investigation. This means comparing systems with different heat exchanger designs (based on HTF mass flow rate and temperature) having the same COP value. The effect of HTF mass flow rate and inlet temperature of the cooling water, chilled water and heat source on the outlet specific exergy and exergy destruction rate of each component was investigated. It was found that the lower HTF mass flow rate decreased exergy destruction of the corresponding component. Moreover, the lower temperature of heat source and chilled water inlet increased the system exergetic efficiency. That was also the case for the higher cooling water inlet temperature. Based on the analysis, since the absorber and condenser accounted for a large portion of the total exergy destruction, cooling tower modification with lower cooling water mass flow rate is recommended

  14. Some comments about the comparison between a conventional and a solar powered absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, O.D.; Garibotti, C.R.

    1983-08-01

    Two statements about the performance of solar refrigeration systems are discussed. First, concepts of efficiency and coefficient of performance are studied. Second, the influence of inflation and rise of fuel prices are considered, in relation to the comparison between solar and conventional refrigeration systems. (author)

  15. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to

  16. Solar hybrid cooling system for high-tech offices in subtropical climate - Radiant cooling by absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A solar hybrid cooling system is proposed for high-tech offices in subtropical climate. → An integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification. → Year-round cooling and energy performances were evaluated through dynamic simulation. → Its annual primary energy consumption was lower than conventional system up to 36.5%. → The passive chilled beams were more energy-efficient than the active chilled beams. - Abstract: A solar hybrid cooling design is proposed for high cooling load demand in hot and humid climate. For the typical building cooling load, the system can handle the zone cooling load (mainly sensible) by radiant cooling with the chilled water from absorption refrigeration, while the ventilation load (largely latent) by desiccant dehumidification. This hybrid system utilizes solar energy for driving the absorption chiller and regenerating the desiccant wheel. Since a high chilled water temperature generated from the absorption chiller is not effective to handle the required latent load, desiccant dehumidification is therefore involved. It is an integration of radiant cooling, absorption refrigeration and desiccant dehumidification, which are powered up by solar energy. In this study, the application potential of the solar hybrid cooling system was evaluated for the high-tech offices in the subtropical climate through dynamic simulation. The high-tech offices are featured with relatively high internal sensible heat gains due to the intensive office electric equipment. The key performance indicators included the solar fraction and the primary energy consumption. Comparative study was also carried out for the solar hybrid cooling system using two common types of chilled ceilings, the passive chilled beams and active chilled beams. It was found that the solar hybrid cooling system was technically feasible for the applications of relatively higher cooling load demand. The annual primary energy

  17. Study of an ejector-absorption refrigeration cycle with an adaptable ejector nozzle for different working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereda, C.; Ventas, R.; Lecuona, A.; Venegas, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An absorption refrigeration cycle with an ejector device at the absorber inlet is presented. ► This cycle is able to reduce up to 9 °C the temperature of onset of refrigerant generation without extra energy consumption. ► At very low driving temperatures it allows increasing the cooling capacity. ► The ejector device proposed has a partially variable geometry and we study its influence on the cycle performances. -- Abstract: This paper presents a numerical model of an ejector-absorption (single-effect) refrigeration cycle with ammonia–lithium nitrate solution as working fluid, operating under steady-state conditions. In this cycle, the ejector is located at the absorber inlet replacing the solution expansion valve. The liquid–gas ejector entrains refrigerant vapor from the evaporator; this way the absorber pressure becomes higher than the evaporator pressure without any additional energy consumption. The objective of this numerical model is to evaluate the influence of the ejector geometry on the cycle performances and to determine the range of the heat source temperature in which it is convenient to use a practical ejector in the absorption cycle. The simulation is based on UA-ΔT lm models for separate heat transfer regions in a novel implementation using plate-type heat exchangers and this way the results are offered as a function of the external temperatures. This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility of an ejector whose nozzle area is adjustable while the rest of the ejector dimensions are fixed, thus being more feasible than complete variable geometry ejectors. The cycle performance is reported for different mixing tube constant diameters. Results of the simulation show that the use of an ejector allows, among others, to decrease the activation temperature approximately 9 °C in respect to the conventional single-effect absorption cycle and increasing the COP for moderate temperatures. The variable ejector nozzle geometry is

  18. Refrigeration plants using carbon dioxide as refrigerant: measuring and modelling the solubility and diffusion of carbon dioxide in polymers used as sealing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Kristensen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Because of increased environmental pressure, there is currently a movement away from more traditional refrigerants such as HCFC's toward refrigerants with lower global warming potential such as carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the use of CO2 as a refrigerant requires a refrigeration cycle...

  19. Vacuum outgassing from diffuse-absorptive baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Basford, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of outgassing for Martin black and a variety of metallic, diffuse absorptive baffle materials under development for stray light management are reported in this paper. Outgassing measurements were made during pumpdown from atmosphere at room temperature. Mass scans indicate water was the major outgassing species for all materials tested. Calibrated measurements of water vapor outgassing as a function of time were also made for each baffle material. Most baffle materials exhibited total water vapor outgassed during pumpdown of between 1 x 10 -5 and 4 x 10 -5 moles/cm 2 . Plasma sprayed beryllium, currently under development exhibited approximately an order of magnitude lower total water vapor outgassed during pumpdown

  20. The market for absorption refrigeration in Spain; Der Markt fuer Absorptionskaeltetechnik in Spanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramo, M. [Enagas, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    Due to the Spanish climate (hot summers throughout large parts of the country) the household and small consumers sector in this country has a substantial requirement for cold production. Today most industrial and commercial buildings here such as office blocks, shopping centres, hospitals, hotel etc. are equipped with air conditioning plants. Usually these are based on compression refrigeration plants. Beyond this air conditioning plants are now also beginning to become popular in one-family houses and flats, especially in southern and western Spain and along the Mediterranean coast. In most cases these plants, too, work with compression refrigeration, though it is not uncommon to find steam-based refrigeration systems. Both these types of system are driven by electricity. In the industrial sector, too, the market for refrigeration shows a very wide spectrum across a large variety of branches. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] In Spaniens HuK-Sektor (Haushalte und Kleinverbraucher) besteht aufgrund der herrschenden klimatischen Bedingungen (sehr warme Sommer in weiten Teilen des Landes) ein erheblicher Bedarf an der Erzeugung von Kaelte. Die meisten Industrie- und gewerblichen Gebaeude, wie Buerokomplexe, Einkaufszentren, Krankenhaeuser, Hotels, usw. sind mittlerweile mit Klimaanlagen ausgeruestet. Im allgemeinen handelt es sich hierbei um Kompressionskaelteanlagen. Vornehmlich in Sued- und Zentralspanien sowie an der Mittelmeerkueste haben Klimaanlagen inzwischen aber auch verstaerkt in Einfamilienhaeusern und Wohnungen Einzug gehalten. Vorwiegend sind Kompressionskaelteanlagen im Einsatz; haeufig sind aber auch Systeme anzutreffen, die auf Wasserdampfbasis arbeiten. Energietraeger ist bei beiden Systemen Strom. Der Markt fuer Kaelteerzeugung ist auch im industriellen Bereich sehr breitgefaechert und umfasst eine Vielzahl von Branchen. Der Loewenanteil entfaellt jedoch auf die Nahrungsmittelindustrie. (orig./HW)

  1. Simulation and experimental validation of the performance of a absorption refrigerator; Simulation und experimentelle Validierung des Betriebsverhaltens einer Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbricht, Michael; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    2015-07-01

    The two biggest obstacles to a stronger market penetration of absorption refrigerators are their high cost and the size of the apparatus, which are due to the inaccurate methods for plant design. In order to contribute to an improved design a thermodynamic model is presented to describe the performance of a absorption refrigerator with the working fluid water/lithium. In this model, the processes are displayed in the single apparatus and coupled to each other in the systemic context. Thereby the interactions between the apparatus can specifically investigated and thus the process limiting component can be identified under the respective conditions. A validation of the simulation model and the boundary conditions used is done based on experimental data operating a self-developed absorption refrigerator. In the simulation, the heat transfer surfaces in accordance with the real system can be specified. The heat transport is taken into account based on typical values for the heat transfer in the individual apparatuses. Simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data. The physical relationships and influences externally defined operating parameters are correctly reproduced. Due to the chosen low heat transfer coefficient, the calculated cooling capacities by the model are below the experimentally measured. Finally, the possibilities and limitations are discussed by using the model and further improvement possibilities are suggested. [German] Die beiden groessten Hemmnisse fuer eine staerkere Marktdurchdringung von Absorptionskaeltemaschinen (AKM) sind deren hohe Anschaffungskosten sowie die Baugroesse der Apparate, die durch die ungenauen Methoden zur Anlagenauslegung begruendet sind. Als Beitrag fuer eine verbesserte Auslegung wird ein thermodynamisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Betriebsverhaltens einer AKM mit dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Wasser/Lithiumbromid vorgestellt. In diesem werden die Prozesse in den Einzelapparaten abgebildet und im systemischen

  2. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this end......) takes place entirely at the high-temperature zone, and the sizes and operating conditions of the other process units change accordingly in order to meet the problem specification with the minimal total annual cost. This new configuration was obtained for wide ranges of the cooling capacity (150–450 k.......9%, respectively. Most importantly, the obtained optimal solution eliminates the low-temperature solution heat exchanger from the conventional configuration, rendering a new process configuration. The energy integration between the weak and strong lithium bromide solutions (cold and hot streams, respectively...

  3. Two-phase flow modelling of a solar concentrator applied as ammonia vapor generator in an absorption refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, N. [Posgrado en Ingenieria (Energia), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Garcia-Valladares, O.; Best, R.; Gomez, V.H. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    A detailed one-dimensional numerical model describing the heat and fluid-dynamic behavior inside a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) used as an ammonia vapor generator has been developed. The governing equations (continuity, momentum, and energy) inside the CPC absorber tube, together with the energy equation in the tube wall and the thermal analysis in the solar concentrator were solved. The computational method developed is useful for the solar vapor generator design applied to absorption cooling systems. The effect on the outlet temperature and vapor quality of a range of CPC design parameters was analyzed. These parameters were the acceptance half-angle and CPC length, the diameter and coating of the absorber tube, and the manufacture materials of the cover, the reflector, and the absorber tube. It was found that the most important design parameters in order to obtain a higher ammonia-water vapor production are, in order of priority: the reflector material, the absorber tube diameter, the selective surface, and the acceptance half-angle. The direct ammonia-water vapor generation resulting from a 35 m long CPC was coupled to an absorption refrigeration system model in order to determine the solar fraction, cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and overall efficiency during a typical day of operation. The results show that approximately 3.8 kW of cooling at -10{sup o}C could be produced with solar and overall efficiencies up to 46.3% and 21.2%, respectively. (author)

  4. Use of process steam in vapor absorption refrigeration system for cooling and heating applications: An exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in cost of conventional fuels shifts the interest toward the use of alternative as well waste energy sources for the operation of refrigeration and air-conditioning units. The present study therefore analyzes the performance of a process steam-operated vapor absorption system for cooling and heating applications using ammonia and water as working fluids based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. A mathematical model has been developed based on exergy analysis to investigate the performance of the system. The different performance parameters such as coefficient of performance (COP and exergetic efficiency of absorption system for cooling and heating applications are also calculated under different operating conditions. The results obtained show that cooling and heating COP along with second law efficiency (exergy efficiency increases with the heat source temperature at constant evaporator, condenser, and absorber temperature. Also, COP as well as exergy efficiency increases with an increase in the evaporator temperature at constant generator, condenser, and absorber temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on the exergetic efficiency for cooling and heating applications is also studied. The results obtained from the simulation studies can be used to optimize different components of the system so that the performance can be improved significantly.

  5. Absorption refrigeration cycle applied to offshore platforms; Refrigeracao por absorcao aplicada a plataformas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maximino Joaquim Pina [KROMAV Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Luiz Antonio Vaz; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    To produce cold from the heat seems a task unlikely or even impossible. However, absorption systems produce cooling from heat sources and it exist since the century XIX. In industrial places is very important to improve the energy use, even more in places where the activities involve great costs and incomes. Traditionally the alternatives conflict in the aspects of initial and operational costs. This paper describes the absorption systems operation and its main advantages and disadvantages, when compared to the traditional systems with compressor. The known fact that a vapor compressor system presents larger efficiency is not enough to validate it for all of the applications. In this sense, the initial and operational analysis of the costs of the absorption systems becomes interesting. In spite of, double effect absorption systems are demonstrating the evolution of the absorption cycle in order to obtain better performance. Turbo-generators and Turbo-compressors of the offshore platforms are thermal machines that reject great amount of heat in the exhaust gases. This heat is used for heating of water used in the Process Plant. The processes of separation of the mixture water-oil-gas from the well, for instance, use that heat. Even after the passage of the water in the Plant of Process, the residual heat is still enough for the use in absorption systems. A simulation is done using real data of an offshore platform. Two possible alternatives are compared under technical and economical aspects. Sensibility analysis is also performed in order to verify possible impacts of variations of electric power cost. (author)

  6. Design and simulation of a heat transformer of a directly solar-driven diffusion absorption chiller; Auslegung und Simulation von Waermeuebertragern einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Josua; Schmid, Fabian; Spindler, Klaus [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik (ITW)

    2011-07-01

    The ITW is working on a directly solar-driven diffusion absorption chiller. Solar cooling offers vast potential for saving fossil resources, e.g. owing to the good temporal agreement between insolation and cold demand for cooling of office buildings and domestic buildings. So far, the focus has been on central systems with indirect solar thermal operation. Direct solar thermal plants can be decentral. A diffusion-absorption refrigeration system without mechanical components was constructed. Solvent circulation is achieved by the thermosyphon principle, which makes the plant noiseless, wear-free, and low-maintenance. In the course of a study, a mathematical model of the heat exchangers was established on the basis of the heat transfer equations, and optimisation suggestions for the heat exchanger were identified on this basis. The influence of the pressure gradient - which is decisive -, and the influence of geometry and materials were investigated. The simulations were validated by measurements. Concrete optimisation potentials were identified, and first suggestions were implemented. [German] Am ITW wird intensiv an einer direkt solarthermisch angetriebenen Diffusions-Absorptionskaeltemaschine (DAKM) geforscht. Die solare Kuehlung bietet grosse Potentiale zur Einsparung fossiler Energietraeger. Ein Grund dafuer ist die gute zeitliche Uebereinstimmung zwischen Solarstrahlung und dem Kaeltebedarf fuer die Kuehlung von Wohngebaeuden und Bueros. Bislang standen zentrale und indirekt solarthermisch angetriebene Systeme zur Kaelteerzeugung im Fokus. Die direkt solarthermisch angetriebene Anlage kann auf Grund ihres neuen Konzepts dezentral aufgebaut und betrieben werden. Auf Grundlage des Diffusions-Absorptionskaelteprozesses wurde eine Anlage gebaut, die ohne mechanische Bauteile funktioniert. Der Loesungsmittelumlauf erfolgt durch das Thermosiphonprinzip. Dadurch ist die Anlage im Betrieb geraeuschlos, verschleissfrei und wartungsarm. Im Rahmen einer Studienarbeit

  7. Feasibility and Basic Design of Solar Integrated Absorption Refrigeration for an Industry

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Saad

    2015-08-28

    This paper presents a review of existing solar cooling technologies and a feasibility study of a solar absorption cooling system for a packaging facility at Tetrapak Lahore, Pakistan. The review includes brief description of existing chiller technologies and solar collectors. The case study includes analysis of the solar potential and design of the cooling system at considered site. The design calculations upon which the feasibility analysis is carried out are solar collector area and type, cooling capacity, cooling area. A comparison is made between solar cooling potential of Pakistan and existing sites all across the globe. Finally an economic analysis is carried out to demonstrate the financial viability of the new cooling system.

  8. Simulation of an air conditioning absorption refrigeration system in a co-generation process combining a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I.; Gamboa, S.A.; Rivera, W. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Isaza, C.A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Instituto de Energia y Termodinamica; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J. [Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a computer simulation program was developed to determine the optimum operating conditions of an air conditioning system during the co-generation process. A 1 kW PEMFC was considered in this study with a chemical/electrical theoretical efficiency of 40% and a thermal efficiency of 30% applying an electrical load of 100%. A refrigeration-absorption cycle (RAC) operating with monomethylamine-water solutions (MMA-WS), with low vapor generation temperatures (up to 80 C) is proposed in this work. The computer simulation was based on the refrigeration production capacity at the maximum power capacity of the PEMFC. Heat losses between the fuel cell and the absorption air conditioning system at standard operating conditions were considered to be negligible. The results showed the feasibility of using PEMFC for cooling, increasing the total efficiency of the fuel cell system. (author)

  9. Application of a solar refrigeration system by absorption for the air conditioning of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machielsen, Cees H. M [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands); Hagendijk, Andre E [Consultancy and Research (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Sofri project, a cooperation between Ceeran Ltd and The Delft University of Technology. The main objective of this project is to develop the necessary knowledge and experience to commercialize solar-assisted air conditioning and dehumidification systems in the Dutch Caribbean. The project is motivated by the present needs of the Dutch Caribbean for renewable energy sources and the fact that the Caribbean has a high and uniform insolation throughout the year. Furthermore, hotels and offices in this area use more than 40% of their energy for air-conditioning purposes. Therefore solar-assisted air conditioning systems are a logic approach in reducing the energy demand and to lower the peak electricity reducing the energy demands for the local power station. Ceeran Ltd has the objective to reach full commercialization of the proposed technologies in the Dutch Caribbean. The research is concentrated on liquid absorption machines and solar collection systems such as flat plates with selective surfaces, heat pipe evacuated tubes flat plate collectors, and Compound Parabolic Concentrators. The first demonstration unit is planned to be installed in an office building in Curacao. The installation consists of a 35 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption machine driven by 100 m{sup 2} flat pate collectors with a gas backup system. The system will provide comfort air-conditioning for this these type of office buildings during daytime. [Spanish] Este documento describe el proyecto SOFRI, una cooperacion entre Ceeran, Ltd, y la Universidad Tecnologica del Delft. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el de desarrollar el conocimiento necesario y la experiencia para comercializar los sistemas de aire acondicionado y deshumidificacion ayudados por la energia solar en el Caribe Holandes. Este proyecto ha sido motivado por las actuales necesidades del Caribe Holandes de fuentes de energia renovable y por el hecho de que el Caribe tiene una alta y uniforme insolacion

  10. A solar absorption refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbanov, N.; Daykhanov, S.; Khandurdyev, A.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is described which is designed primarily for air conditioning. This device contains a transformer heated by solar energy, a heat exchanger generator with strong and weak solution lines connected to the irrigator and absorber vessel, respectively, and an evaporator. In order to reduce the metal consumption, the absorber and the evaporator are built in the form of a single indirectly air-cooled device with vertical dry and wet channels for primary and auxillary air respectively. The absorber irrigator is manufactured in a multisectional configuration with its sections located in the upper half of the front section of each dry channel, with the lower sections of these areas manufactured as a weak solution vessel separated from the remaining sections containing the dry channels by barriers.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1996-04-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

  12. Thermodynamic and economic studies of two new high efficient power-cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina and absorption refrigeration cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Ataei, Abtin; Yoo, Chang Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on absorption chillers and Kalina cycles. • Model-based comparison through thermodynamic and economic standpoints. • Investigating sensitivity of system performance and costs to the key parameters. • Reducing total annual costs of the base system up to 8% by cogeneration. • Increasing thermal efficiency up to 4.9% despite of cooling generation. - Abstract: Two new power and cooling cogeneration systems based on Kalina cycle (KC) and absorption refrigeration cycle (AC) are proposed and studied from thermodynamic and economic viewpoints. The first proposed system, Kalina power-cooling cycle (KPCC), combines the refrigerant loop of the water-ammonia absorption chiller, consisting of an evaporator and two throttling valves with the KC. A portion of the KC mass flow enters the evaporator to generate cooling after being condensed in the KPCC system. KPCC is a flexible system adapting power and cooling cogeneration to the demand. The second proposed system, Kalina lithium bromide absorption chiller cycle (KLACC), consists of the KC and a single effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller (AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r). The KC subsystem discharges heat to the AC_L_i_B_r_-_w_a_t_e_r desorber before condensing in the condenser. The performance and economic aspects of both proposed systems are analyzed and compared with the stand alone KC. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of efficiencies and the generated power and cooling quantities to the key operating variables. The results showed that, thermal efficiency and total annual costs decreased by 5.6% and 8% for KPCC system but increased 4.9% and 58% for KLACC system, respectively. Since the power-cooling efficiency of KLACC is 42% higher than KPCC it can be applied where the aim is cooling generation without considering economic aspects.

  13. Noninvasive photoacoustic measurement of absorption coefficient using internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Zhu, Li-li; Li, Zhi-fang; Li, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Absorption coefficient of biological tissue is an important parameter in biomedicine, but its determination remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a method using focusing photoacoustic imaging technique and internal light irradiation of cylindrical diffusing fiber (CDF) to quantify the target optical absorption coefficient. Absorption coefficients for ink absorbers are firstly determined through photoacoustic and spectrophotometric measurements at the same excitation, which demonstrates the feasibility of this method. Also, the optical absorption coefficients of ink absorbers with several concentrations are measured. Finally, the two-dimensional scanning photoacoustic image is obtained. Optical absorption coefficient measurement and simultaneous photoacoustic imaging of absorber non-invasively are the typical characteristics of the method. This method can play a significant role for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation, the absorption-based imaging and therapy.

  14. Free radicals in irradiated unstabilized polypropylene, as seen by diffuse reflection absorption-spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Rafalski, A.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometry to the study of radiation chemistry of polymers has opened the possibility to investigate even very opaque samples. The virgin powder polypropylene, as obtained from the industrial production line, shows after irradiation unstable products of radiolysis. Until now they were investigated mainly by EPR method. Optical absorption spectra (by diffuse reflection spectrophotometry) contribute to better identification and study of changes in time, temperature and diffusion of reactive gases. Studying the formation of stable compounds, which do not produce EPR signal, we are able to examine these species on the basis of their electronic spectra. The most important results concern the peroxides in irradiated polypropylene

  15. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannukainen, A; Hyvönen, N; Majander, H; Harhanen, L

    2016-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged object is composed of an approximately homogeneous background with clearly distinguishable embedded inhomogeneities. An algorithm for finding the maximum a posteriori estimate for the absorption and diffusion coefficients is introduced assuming an edge-preferring prior and an additive Gaussian measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments with simulated data. (paper)

  16. Refrigeration and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO 2 emissions. (UK)

  17. Excess Diffuse Light Absorption in Upper Mesophyll Limits CO2 Drawdown and Depresses Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, J Mason; Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Gilbert, Matthew E; McElrone, Andrew J; Brodersen, Craig R

    2017-06-01

    In agricultural and natural systems, diffuse light can enhance plant primary productivity due to deeper penetration into and greater irradiance of the entire canopy. However, for individual sun-grown leaves from three species, photosynthesis is actually less efficient under diffuse compared with direct light. Despite its potential impact on canopy-level productivity, the mechanism for this leaf-level diffuse light photosynthetic depression effect is unknown. Here, we investigate if the spatial distribution of light absorption relative to electron transport capacity in sun- and shade-grown sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) leaves underlies its previously observed diffuse light photosynthetic depression. Using a new one-dimensional porous medium finite element gas-exchange model parameterized with light absorption profiles, we found that weaker penetration of diffuse versus direct light into the mesophyll of sun-grown sunflower leaves led to a more heterogenous saturation of electron transport capacity and lowered its CO 2 concentration drawdown capacity in the intercellular airspace and chloroplast stroma. This decoupling of light availability from photosynthetic capacity under diffuse light is sufficient to generate an 11% decline in photosynthesis in sun-grown but not shade-grown leaves, primarily because thin shade-grown leaves similarly distribute diffuse and direct light throughout the mesophyll. Finally, we illustrate how diffuse light photosynthetic depression could overcome enhancement in canopies with low light extinction coefficients and/or leaf area, pointing toward a novel direction for future research. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Numerical Investigation of an Absorption-Diffusion Cooling Machine Using C3H8/C9H20 as Binary Working Fluid Étude numérique d’une machine frigorifique à absorption-diffusion utilisant le couple C3H8/C9H20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardour H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the analysis and the simulation of a heat-driven absorption-diffusion cooling machine which can operate with low-grade heat sources. The simplified configuration of the heat-powered absorption-diffusion refrigerating machine considered in this study is based on the Platen-Munters single pressure refrigerators principle [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator, US Patent 1, 685-764J. Three working fluids are used, nonane as an absorbent, propane as a refrigerant and hydrogen as the inert auxiliary gas. The designed cooling capacity of the machine is 1 kW which is suitable for a domestic use for refrigeration purposes. We restricted the maximum temperature of the driving heat supplied to the generator to 130 °C, a temperature achievable with evacuated-tube solar collectors. The simulations are carried out using a commercially available flow sheeting software with the PengRobinson equation of state as property prediction method. In this paper, we analyze the heat and mass transfer characteristics in all relevant machine components (absorber, condenser, generator and solution heat exchangers. The simulations results allow determining the values of different parameters of the systems such as the refrigerant and the solvent temperatures in various points of the machine, the liquid and the vapor flow rates and compositions. The system performances were parametrically analyzed using the flow sheeting software. Performance characteristics were determined for a wide range of operating conditions allowing investigating and evaluating the effect of various design parameters. Ce papier est consacré à l’étude et l’analyse d’une machine frigorifique à absorption-diffusion. La machine est actionnée grâce à une source de chaleur de température modérée. La configuration et le principe de fonctionnement de l’appareil obéissent au modèle de Platen Munters [Platen B.C.V. and Munters C.G. (1928 Refrigerator

  19. Lévy flight with absorption: A model for diffusing diffusivity with long tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-03-01

    We consider diffusion of a particle in rearranging environment, so that the diffusivity of the particle is a stochastic function of time. In our previous model of "diffusing diffusivity" [Jain and Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016), 10.1021/acs.jpcb.6b01527], it was shown that the mean square displacement of particle remains Fickian, i.e., ∝T at all times, but the probability distribution of particle displacement is not Gaussian at all times. It is exponential at short times and crosses over to become Gaussian only in a large time limit in the case where the distribution of D in that model has a steady state limit which is exponential, i.e., πe(D ) ˜e-D /D0 . In the present study, we model the diffusivity of a particle as a Lévy flight process so that D has a power-law tailed distribution, viz., πe(D ) ˜D-1 -α with 0 <α <1 . We find that in the short time limit, the width of displacement distribution is proportional to √{T }, implying that the diffusion is Fickian. But for long times, the width is proportional to T1 /2 α which is a characteristic of anomalous diffusion. The distribution function for the displacement of the particle is found to be a symmetric stable distribution with a stability index 2 α which preserves its shape at all times.

  20. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannukainen, A.; Harhanen, Lauri Oskari; Hyvönen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged...... measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments...

  1. Proposal and analysis of a high-efficiency combined desalination and refrigeration system based on the LiBr-H2O absorption cycle-Part 1: System configuration and mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous production of fresh water and refrigeration are often required, e.g. in warm-climate water-deficient regions, and this study is a proposal and analysis of an efficient way of producing both of them by consuming mainly low-grade heat. After introducing the configuration choice methodology, a combined refrigeration and water system, ARHP-MEE (absorption refrigeration heat pump and multi-effect evaporation desalter), which is the integration of a LiBr-H 2 O refrigeration unit, a LiBr-H 2 O heat pump, and a low-temperature multi-effect evaporation desalination unit, is proposed, and the mathematical model is presented and validated. The model serves for conducting a performance analysis of the combined system, reported in Part 2 of this two-part paper.

  2. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  3. Combined heat and power generation with exhaust-heated two-stage absorption refrigerator. Performance of a pilot installation with a refrigeration capacity of 350 kW; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung mit Abgas-Beheizter zweistufiger Absorptionskaeltemaschine. Betriebserfahrungen einer Pilotinstallation mit 350 kW Kaelteleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plura, S.; Baumeister, D.; Koeberle, T.; Radspieler, M.; Schweigler, C. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A new system concept for higher efficiency of cogeneration systems is developed in which a cogeneration unit is combined with a two-stage absorption refrigerator, and the waste heat of the cogeneration unit is directly passed on into the regenerator of the absorption refrigerator. The higher temperature level of the waste heat makes it possible to use a two-stage absorption cycle for higher energy efficiency. For simultaneous utilisation of low-temperature heat, the two-stage cycle is combined with a one-stage cycle for additional heat supply at a lower temperature level so that the exhaust of a typical cogeneration unit will be cooled to about 120 degC. At the same time, further waste heat of the cogeneration unit will be transferred to the heat pump via a hot water circuit. This concept with a combined single-stage and two-stage absorption circuit is referred to as a double-effect/single-effect circuit. The new system is used for energy supply in a spa, where the two-stage absorption refrigerator cools the water used for swimming pool cleaning with a refrigerating capacity of 350 kW and provides low-temperature heat for swimming pool heating with a capacity of 700 kW. (orig.)

  4. Exergy analysis of a combined vapor power cycle and boiler flue gas driven double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, K.; Gogoi, T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined vapor power and double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system is proposed. • The flue gas of the power cycle boiler is the heat source for the double effect refrigeration system. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed to evaluate performance of the combined system. • Effect of high pressure generator temperature on combined system performance is highlighted. • Comparison is provided with a single effect absorption system integrated combined system. - Abstract: A combined vapor power cycle (PC) and double effect water–LiBr absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is proposed in this study. The boiler leaving flue gas of the PC is the heat source for the high pressure generator (HPG) of the double effect ARS. Exergy analysis of the proposed system is performed to show the performance variation of both the topping PC and the bottoming ARS with changing HPG temperature from 120 °C to 150 °C. Further the performance of double effect ARS integrated combined power and cooling system is compared with a similar system integrated with a single effect ARS. HPG temperature of the double effect ARS and generator temperature of the single effect ARS are considered as 120 °C and 80 °C respectively. Results show that the power and efficiency of the topping PC decreases with HPG temperature due to reduction in steam generation rate in the boiler. COP and exergy efficiency of the double effect ARS also reduces with increasing HPG temperature. The irreversible losses in the PC components decrease while the total irreversibility of the combined power and cooling system increases with HPG temperature due to increase in exergy loss with the HPG leaving flue gas and irreversibility of the ARS components. PC performance does not vary much due to replacement of the double effect ARS with the single effect ARS, however higher COP and exergy efficiency of the double effect system are achieved with much lower irreversible losses in the

  5. Thermo-economic and environmental analyses based multi-objective optimization of vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system using NSGA-II technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaibhav; Sachdeva, Gulshan; Kachhwaha, Surendra Singh; Patel, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It addresses multi-objective optimization study on cascaded refrigeration system. • Cascaded system is a promising decarburizing and energy efficient technology. • NSGA-II technique is used for multi-objective optimization. • Total annual product cost and irreversibility rate are simultaneously optimized. - Abstract: Present work optimizes the performance of 170 kW vapor compression–absorption cascaded refrigeration system (VCACRS) based on combined thermodynamic, economic and environmental parameters using Non-dominated Sort Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) technique. Two objective functions including the total irreversibility rate (as a thermodynamic criterion) and the total product cost (as an economic criterion) of the system are considered simultaneously for multi-objective optimization of VCACRS. The capital and maintenance costs of the system components, the operational cost, and the penalty cost due to CO_2 emission are included in the total product cost of the system. Three optimized systems including a single-objective thermodynamic optimized, a single-objective economic optimized and a multi-objective optimized are analyzed and compared. The results showed that the multi-objective design considers the combined thermodynamic and total product cost criteria better than the two individual single-objective thermodynamic and total product cost optimized designs.

  6. Numerical simulation and experimental results of horizontal tube falling film generator working in a NH3-LiNO3 absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.V.; Garcia-Valladares, O.; Gomez, V.H.; Best, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the work made at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia in the development of an absorption refrigeration system for cooling and refrigeration applications with a capacity of 10 kW. The single effect unit utilizes ammonia-lithium nitrate as working pair and it is air cooled. The generator is a falling film type with horizontal tubes where the heating oil flows inside the tube bank and the ammonia-lithium nitrate solution flows as a falling film on the tube outside, where it is heated and ammonia vapor is generated. The generator consists of tree columns and four rows per column of horizontal tubes. The system was tested at controlled conditions with heating oil obtained from an electric resistance heating loop. A numerical model of the horizontal falling film generator was developed that divided the system into three different thermal elements: the flow inside the tube, the heat conduction in the tube wall and the falling film solution flow. The mathematical model was tested and validated with experimental data and a study of the influence of the heat transfer coefficient for ammonia-lithium nitrate solution in the numerical model was carried out. A comparison between experimental and numerical data for the heat flux in the system and the temperature profiles in the oil and solution flows shown a good degree of correlation.

  7. Performance analysis of absorption heat transformer cycles using ionic liquids based on imidazolium cation as absorbents with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol as refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayou, Dereje S.; Currás, Moisés R.; Salavera, Daniel; García, Josefa; Bruno, Joan C.; Coronas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) absorption heat transformer cycles are studied. • Influence of various operating conditions on cycle’s performance is investigated. • Performance comparisons with H 2 O + LiBr and TFE + TEGDME cycles are done. • Enthalpy data for TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) liquid mixtures are calculated. • TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] (or [bmim][BF 4 ]) cycles have higher gross temperature lift (GTL). - Abstract: A detailed thermodynamic performance analysis of a single-stage absorption heat transformer and double absorption heat transformer cycles using new working pairs composed of ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF 4 ]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF 4 ])) as absorbent and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) as refrigerant has been studied. Several performance indicators were used to evaluate and compare the performance of the cycles using the TFE + [emim][BF 4 ] and TFE + [bmim][BF 4 ] working pairs with the conventional H 2 O + LiBr and organic TFE + TEGDME working pairs. The obtained results show that the ionic liquid based working pairs are suitable candidates to replace the conventional H 2 O + LiBr working pairs in order to avoid the disadvantages associated with it mainly crystallization and corrosion and also they perform better (higher gross temperature lift) than TFE + TEGDME working pair at several operating conditions considered in this work

  8. The use of absorption refrigeration systems in combined cycle power plants; Empleo de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion en plantas de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Ambriz, J.J.; Vargas, M.; Godinez, M.; Gomez, F.; Valdez, L.; Pantoja, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    Day after day the electric power generation tends to be done in the most efficient way in order to diminish the generation costs and the rate of environmental pollution per KWh generated. This paper discusses the application of absorption refrigeration systems for the cooling of the air entering the compressor of a gas turbine in a combined cycle, in order to increase the mass air flow and with it the turbine output. The flows with remanent energy content that are not used in a combined cycle can be used for the operation of the absorption refrigeration system. This way, the required thermal energy for the cooling system is free. With this system it is possible to raise the gas turbine generation output from 5% to 25%. [Espanol] La generacion electrica dia con dia pretende realizarse de la manera mas eficiente posible con el objeto de disminuir los costos de generacion y la tasa de contaminacion ambiental por Kwh generado. En el presente trabajo se introduce la aplicacion de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion para el enfriamiento del aire de entrada al compresor de la turbina de gas de un ciclo combinado, con el objeto de aumentar el flujo masico del aire y con ello la potencia de salida de la turbina. Las corrientes con contenido remanente de energia termica que no se usan en una planta de ciclo combinado pueden servir para operar el sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De esta manera, la energia termica requerida para el sistema de enfriamiento es gratuita. Con este sistema es posible incrementar la potencia de generacion de la turbina de gas de 5 a 25%.

  9. The use of absorption refrigeration systems in combined cycle power plants; Empleo de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion en plantas de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H; Ambriz, J J; Vargas, M; Godinez, M; Gomez, F; Valdez, L; Pantoja, G [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Day after day the electric power generation tends to be done in the most efficient way in order to diminish the generation costs and the rate of environmental pollution per KWh generated. This paper discusses the application of absorption refrigeration systems for the cooling of the air entering the compressor of a gas turbine in a combined cycle, in order to increase the mass air flow and with it the turbine output. The flows with remanent energy content that are not used in a combined cycle can be used for the operation of the absorption refrigeration system. This way, the required thermal energy for the cooling system is free. With this system it is possible to raise the gas turbine generation output from 5% to 25%. [Espanol] La generacion electrica dia con dia pretende realizarse de la manera mas eficiente posible con el objeto de disminuir los costos de generacion y la tasa de contaminacion ambiental por Kwh generado. En el presente trabajo se introduce la aplicacion de sistemas de refrigeracion por absorcion para el enfriamiento del aire de entrada al compresor de la turbina de gas de un ciclo combinado, con el objeto de aumentar el flujo masico del aire y con ello la potencia de salida de la turbina. Las corrientes con contenido remanente de energia termica que no se usan en una planta de ciclo combinado pueden servir para operar el sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion. De esta manera, la energia termica requerida para el sistema de enfriamiento es gratuita. Con este sistema es posible incrementar la potencia de generacion de la turbina de gas de 5 a 25%.

  10. Simultaneous Absorptance and Thermal-Diffusivity Determination of Optical Components with Laser Calorimetry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Bincheng

    2012-11-01

    The laser calorimetry (LCA) technique is used to determine simultaneously the absorptances and thermal diffusivities of optical components. An accurate temperature model, in which both the finite thermal conductivity and the finite sample size are taken into account, is employed to fit the experimental temperature data measured with an LCA apparatus for a precise determination of the absorptance and thermal diffusivity via a multiparameter fitting procedure. The uniqueness issue of the multiparameter fitting is discussed in detail. Experimentally, highly reflective (HR) samples prepared with electron-beam evaporation on different substrates (BK7, fused silica, and Ge) are measured with LCA. For the HR-coated sample on a fused silica substrate, the absorptance is determined to be 15.4 ppm, which is close to the value of 17.6 ppm, determined with a simplified temperature model recommended in the international standard ISO11551. The thermal diffusivity is simultaneously determined via multiparameter fitting to be approximately 6.63 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 with a corresponding square variance of 4.8 × 10-4. The fitted thermal diffusivity is in reasonably good agreement with the literature value (7.5 × 10-7 m2 · s -1). Good agreement is also obtained for samples with BK7 and Ge substrates.

  11. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  12. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B

    2012-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ∼10 3 - 5×10 4 W cm -2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  13. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdev, S. V.; Glova, A. F.; Dubrovskii, V. Yu; Durmanov, S. T.; Krasyukov, A. G.; Lysikov, A. Yu; Smirnov, G. V.; Solomakhin, V. B.

    2012-04-01

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the ~103 — 5×104 W cm-2 range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene — ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  14. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  15. SIMS analysis of deuterium absorption and diffusion in austenitic Fe-Mn-C steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieudonne, T.; Chene, J.; Marchetti, L.; Jomard, F.; Wery, M.; Allely, C.; Cugy, P.; Scott, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    Austenitic Fe-Mn-C steels are Ultra High Strength Steels which may be used for the production of deep drawn automotive parts containing extremely high residual stress and strain levels. In consequence, hydrogen absorption occurring during the corrosion process in aqueous environments may enhance the sensitivity of these steels to different kinds of hydrogen-induced damage, in particular Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In order to predict and prevent SCC, it is important to study the behaviour of hydrogen in these austenitic steels exposed to aqueous environments and in particular the dependence on the alloy chemistry and microstructure. SIMS profiles of deuterium introduced by cathodic charging in selected specimens were used to characterize the diffusion of hydrogen in these steels. This allowed to be studied the role of chemical composition and microstructure on the kinetics of H absorption at room temperature. The competition between bulk matrix diffusion and short-circuit diffusion phenomena along grain boundaries was investigated. The results show a strong dependence of H diffusion and distribution on the alloy chemistry and grain size. (authors)

  16. Radial diffusion in the Uranian radiatian belts - Inferences from satellite absorption loss models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-energy charged particle (LECP) phase space density profiles available from the Voyager/1986 Uranus encounter are analyzed, using solutions of the time-averaged radial diffusion equation for charged particle transport in a dipolar planetary magnetic field. Profiles for lower-energy protons and electrons are first analyzed to infer radial diffusion rate as a function of L, assuming that satellite absorption is the dominant loss process and local sources for these particles are negligible. Satellite macrosignatures present in the experimentally derived profiles are approximately reproduced in several cases, lending credence to the loss model and indicating that magnetospheric distributed losses are not as rapid as satellite absorption near the minimum satellite L shells for the particles. Diffusion rates and L dependences are found to be similar to those previously inferred in the inner Jovian magnetosphere (Thomsen et al., 1977) and for the inner Saturnian magnetosphere (Hood, 1985). Profiles for higher energy electrons and protons are also analyzed using solutions that allow for the existence of significant particle sources as well as sinks. Possible implications for radial diffusion mechanisms in the Uranian radiation belts are discussed.

  17. Use of x-ray absorption imaging to evaluate the effects of heterogeneity on matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C.; McKenna, S.A.; Meigs, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of matrix diffusion is important in assessing potential nuclear waste repositories in geologic media, as it is a potentially significant process in retarding the transport of contaminant species. Recent work done in evaluating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has brought up two issues that complicate the incorporation of diffusion in Performance Assessment calculations. First, interpretations of single-well tracer test data suggest that the tracer was diffusing at multiple rates. Second, the estimated relevant rate(s) of diffusion are dependent on the time and length scales of the problem. To match the observed tracer test data, a model with a distribution of diffusion coefficients was required. This has led to the proposal of applying a model with multiple rates of diffusion, the multirate model, to Performance Assessment calculations for the WIPP. A series of laboratory- scale experiments have been designed for the purpose of evaluating heterogeneity and scaling properties of diffusion rates and to test the multirate model. X-ray absorption imaging was used to visualize and quantify the effects of matrix heterogeneity on the diffusion characteristics for four different centimeter-scale samples of dolomite. The samples were obtained from the Culebra dolomite at the WIPP site. Significant variations in diffusion rates were observed over relatively small length and time (months) scales for the preliminary laboratory experiments. A strong correlation between diffusion rate and porosity was also observed in each of the samples. Two sets of experiments are planned for 1998. The first set of experiments is similar to those described above. For these experiments, fourteen samples exhibiting a broader range of physical characteristics are being tested. The second set of experiments will visualize the combined effect of advection in a fracture and diffusion into adjacent matrix materials. Tracer solution will flow through

  18. Corrosion and passivation behavior of various stainless steels in libr solution used in absorption-type refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various structural materials have been suggested for the refrigeration units to combat high corrosiveness of the absorbent. The corrosion behavior of three grades of austenitic stainless steels, have been investigated in lithium bromide (LiBr) solutions, using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic E- log-i curves, potential-time scans and polarization resistance diagrams obtained by using three-electrode system connected to a computerized Gamry at the rate framework, have been used to analyze their corrosion and passivation behavior in various concentrations of LiBr i.e. commercial LiBr (850 g/J solution containing chromate inhibitor), 400 g/l LiBr and 700 g/J LiBr solutions, at room temperature. Relatively higher corrosion current was observed in SS304 exposed to inhibitor-free electrolyte compared to inhibited commercial solution. Inhibitor proved to be more efficient in case of AISI 304 as it showed significantly higher corrosion rate in un-inhibited solutions. (author)

  19. Exergy based parametric analysis of a combined reheat regenerative thermal power plant and water–LiBr vapor absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Talukdar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of a combined power–absorption cooling system is provided. • Exergetic efficiency of the power cycle and absorption cooling system are calculated. • Irreversibility in each component and total system irreversibility are calculated. • Effect of operating parameters on exergetic performance and irreversibility is analyzed. • Optimum operating parameters are identified based on energy and exergy based results. - Abstract: In this paper, exergy analysis of a combined reheat regenerative steam turbine (ST) based power cycle and water–LiBr vapor absorption refrigeration system (VARS) is presented. Exergetic efficiency of the power cycle and VARS, energy utilization factor (EUF) of the combined system (CS) and irreversibility in each system component are calculated. The effect of fuel flow rate, boiler pressure, cooling capacity and VARS components’ temperature on performance, component and total system irreversibility is analyzed. The second law based results indicate optimum performance at 150 bar boiler pressure and VARS generator, condenser, evaporator and absorber temperature of 80 °C, 37.5 °C, 15 °C and 35 °C respectively. The present exergy based results conform well to the first law based results obtained in a previous analysis done on the same combined system. Irreversibility distribution among various power cycle components shows the highest irreversibility in the cooling tower. Irreversibility of the exhaust flue gas leaving the boiler and the boiler are the next major contributors. Among the VARS components, exergy destruction in the generator is the highest followed by irreversibility contribution of the absorber, condenser and the evaporator

  20. Experimental validation of a model for diffusion-controlled absorption of organic compounds in the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerde, P. [National Inst. for Working Life, Solna (Sweden); Muggenburg, B.A.; Thornton-Manning, J.R. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Most chemically induced lung cancer originates in the epithelial cells in the airways. Common conceptions are that chemicals deposited on the airway surface are rapidly absorbed through mucous membranes, limited primarily by the rate of blood perfusion in the mucosa. It is also commonly thought that for chemicals to induce toxicity at the site of entry, they must be either rapidly reactive, readily metabolizable, or especially toxic to the tissues at the site of entry. For highly lipophilic toxicants, there is a third option. Our mathematical model predicts that as lipophilicity increases, chemicals partition more readily into the cellular lipid membranes and diffuse more slowly through the tissues. Therefore, absorption of very lipophilic compounds will be almost entirely limited by the rate of diffusion through the epithelium rather than by perfusion of the capillary bed in the subepithelium. We have reported on a preliminary model for absorption through mucous membranes of any substance with a lipid/aqueous partition coefficient larger than one. The purpose of this work was to experimentally validate the model in Beagle dogs. This validated model on toxicant absorption in the airway mucosa will improve risk assessment of inhaled

  1. Band shape of IR-absorption of complex molecules and restricted rotational diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.N.; Umidulaev, Sh.U.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the theory of band shape (and Breadth) IR-absorption of complex molecules (regarding the molecules inside motions) is considered. It is supposed that a molecule fragment being responsible for IR-absorption takes part in the restricted rotational diffusion (RRD) with respect to the frame, and the molecule itself in general makes rotational motion (RM). Both kinds of motions are discussed in accordance with the theory of group motions representations. On the basis of correlative functions calculations of dipole moment a simple expression for the IR-absorption band shape have been obtained, which in itself uses to be the super position of two Lorencians with the semibreadths 2D 1 and 2D 1 +ν 2 0 (ν 2 0 +1D R accordingly (here D 1 is the coefficient of RM, D 2 is the coefficient of RRD, ν 2 0 is the well known function of RRD-cone divergence angle) in case of symmetric rotary abrasive disc. Analysis of experimental band shape of IR-absorption on the basis of the expression obtained allows to get information of MR-molecule parameters in general and RRD. It is really possible to determine the RRD-cone divergency angle from experimental weights of Lorencians. In accordance with experimental semibreadths the coefficient of RM D 1 and the coefficient of RRD D 2 are obtained. In conclusion it is noted that D 1 →0 (in the expression for the band shape of IR-absorption obtained), one of the Lorencians turns to the δ-function and finally there is an expression which describes IR-absorption band shape of molecules in polymer-mats. (author)

  2. NLP model of a LiBr–H2O absorption refrigeration system for the minimization of the annual operating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Maya, Carlos; Pacheco-Ibarra, J. Jesús; Belman-Flores, Juan M.; Galván-González, Sergio R.; Mendoza-Covarrubias, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the optimization of a LiBr–H 2 O absorption refrigeration system with the annual operating cost as the objective function to be minimized is presented. The optimization problem is established as a Non-Linear Programming (NLP) model allowing a formulation of the problem in a simple and structured way, and reducing the typical complexity of the thermal systems. The model is composed of three main parts: the thermodynamic model based on the exergy concept including also the proper formulation for the thermodynamic properties of the LiBr–H 2 O mixture, the second is the economic model and the third part composed by inequality constraints. The solution of the model is obtained using the CONOPT solver suitable for NLP problems (code is available on request). The results show the values of the decision variables that minimize the annual cost under the set of assumptions considered in the model and agree well with those reported in other works using different optimization approaches. - Highlights: ► The optimization of an ARS is presented using the annual operating cost as the objective function. ► The problem is established as an NLP model allowing a formulation in a simple and structured way. ► Several formulations for the thermodynamic properties were tested to implement the simpler ones. ► The results obtained agree well with those reported in the work being in comparison.

  3. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Steven L.; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1991-12-01

    A new refrigerator which uses resonant high amplitude sound in inert gases to pump heat is described and demonstrated. The phasing of the thermoacoustic cycle is provided by thermal conduction. This 'natural' phasing allows the entire refrigerator to operate with only one moving part (the loudspeaker diaphragm). The thermoacoustic refrigerator has no sliding seals, requires no lubrication, uses only low-tolerance machine parts, and contains no expensive components. Because the compressor moving mass is typically small and the oscillation frequency is high, the small amount of vibration is very easily isolated. This low vibration and lack of sliding seals makes thermoacoustic refrigeration an excellent candidate for food refrigeration and commercial/residential air conditioning applications. The design, fabrication, and performance of the first practical, autonomous thermoacoustic refrigerator, which will be flown on the Space Shuttle (STS-42), are described, and designs for terrestrial applications are presented.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Lithium-Chloride Absorption Refrigeration and an Assessment of Its Suitability for Biomass Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Oberweis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer model that will evaluate the performance of a thermo-chemical accumulator. The model is based on operational data such as temperatures and flow rates. The ultimate goal for this model is to estimate the coefficient of performance (COP of this unit when run on hot water from biomass combustion as the heat source. The outputs of the model are verified by comparing the simulation of the actual machine with published experimental data. The computed results for cooling COP are within 10% of the measured data. The simulations are all run for heat load temperatures varying between 80 °C and 110 °C. As expected, simulation results showed an increase in COP with increased heat source temperatures. The results demonstrate that the potential of combined solar and biomass combustion as a heat source for absorption cooling/heating in climates with low solar radiation can be coupled with biomass waste.

  5. Absorption and scattering of laser radiation by the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdev, S V; Glova, A F; Dubrovskii, V Yu; Durmanov, S T; Krasyukov, A G; Lysikov, A Yu; Smirnov, G V; Solomakhin, V B

    2012-04-30

    The absorption coefficient of the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser with an average output power up to 6 W and of a cw ytterbium optical fibre laser with an output power up to 3 kW was measured in the diffusion flame of aviation kerosene burning on a free surface in the atmospheric air. The absorption coefficient as a function of flame length, radiation power, and radiation intensity, which was varied in the {approx}10{sup 3} - 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} W cm{sup -2} range, was obtained for two distances (1 and 2 cm) between the laser beam axis and the surface. The coefficient of radiation absorption by kerosene flame was compared with that in ethanol and kerosene - ethanol mixture flames. The radiation power scattered by a small segment of the kerosene flame irradiated by Nd : YAG laser radiation was measured as a function of longitudinal and azimuthal coordinates. An estimate was made of the total scattered radiation power.

  6. Flammable refrigerants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Verwoerd, M.; Oostendorp, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are promising alternatives for CFC, HCFC and HFC refrigerants. Due to their flammable nature, safety aspects have to be considered carefully. The world-wide situation concerning acceptability and practical application of flammable refrigerants is becoming more and more complex and

  7. Sistema de refrigeración solar por absorción para la comunidad de Kumay en Ecuador; Solar absorption refrigeration system for Kumay community in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Romero Paguay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el Ecuador existen muchas zonas aisladas, no electrificadas aún, especialmente en la provincia de Pastaza, en este artículo se presenta un sistema de refrigeración por absorción solar  como una alternativa para la climatización de un consultorio médico en la Comunidad de Kumay. Se realiza el cálculo de la estimación de carga térmica en el consultorio médico empleando el software Carrier E20, el cual arroja una necesidad de enfriamiento de 10 kW o 2,84 toneladas de refrigeración (TR. El sistema de refrigeración por absorción con energía solar propuesto está formado por una máquina de absorción, simple efecto de la marca ClimateWell 10, con 10 kW de potencia de enfriamiento que utiliza como absorbente el par cloruro de litio y agua, requiriéndose un área de captación de energía solar de 30 m2 que será entregada con diez colectores de tubos alvacío marca Thermomax, Modelo Solamax 30. In Ecuador there are many non-electrified remote areas, especially in the province of Pastaza, in this article a solar absorption cooling system is presented as an alternative for the air conditioning of a doctor's office (medical clinic in Community Kumay. The calculation of the estimated thermal load on the doctor's office is done using the software Carrier E20, which throws a necessity of cooling of 10 kW or 2,84 tons of refrigeration. The solar cooling system consist in an absorption machine of single effect, ClimateWell 10, with 10 kW of cooling power that uses as absorbent the lithium chloride and water pair, this system  required an area of reception of solar energy of 30 m2 that will be given with 10 vacuum tube collectors Thermomax, Model Solamax 30.

  8. Ex vivo and in vivo diffusion of ropivacaine through spinal meninges: influence of absorption enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhonneur, Nolwenn; Dollo, Gilles; Ratajczak-Enselme, Maja; Deniau, Anne Laure; Chevanne, François; Estèbe, Jean Pierre; Legrand, Alain; Le Corre, Pascal

    2011-02-14

    Following epidural administration, cerebrospinal fluid bioavailability of local anesthetics is low, one major limiting factor being diffusion across the arachnoid mater barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of absorption enhancers on the meningeal permeability of epidurally administered ropivacaine. Five enhancers known for their ability to increase drug permeability via transcellular and/or paracellular pathways, i.e. palmitoyl carnitine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium caprate, dodecylphosphocholine and pentylglycerol, were tested ex vivo on fresh specimen of meninges removed from cervical to lumbar level of rabbit spine following laminectomy and placed in diffusion chambers. Among them, sodium caprate lead to the best permeability improvement for both marker and drug (440% and 112% for mannitol and ropivacaine, respectively) and was therefore selected for in vivo study in a sheep model using microdialysis technique to evaluate epidural and intrathecal ropivacaine concentrations following epidural administration. Resulting dialysate and plasma concentrations were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Following sodium caprate pre-treatment, ropivacaine intrathecal maximal concentration (Cmax) was 1.6 times higher (78 ± 16 μg ml(-1) vs 129 ± 26 μg ml(-1), p<0.05) but the influence of the absorption enhancer was only effective the first 30 min following ropivacaine injection, as seen with the significantly increase of intrathecal AUC(0-30 min) (1629 ± 437 μg min ml(-1) vs 2477 ± 559 μg min ml(-1), p<0.05) resulting in a bioavailable fraction 130% higher 30 min after ropivavaine administration. Co-administration of local anesthetics with sodium caprate seems to allow a transient and reversible improvement of transmeningeal passage into intrathecal space. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  10. Effect of incident beam and diffuse radiation on par absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of sitka spruce - a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.P.; Jarvis, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model, Maestro, is used to study the influence of beam fraction in the incident radiation and the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation on PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration of a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) tree crown. It is concluded that inaccurate separation of beam and diffuse radiation leads to significant errors in estimating the amounts of PAR absorbed, photosynthesis and transpiration by a tree in the stand. Much more attention should be paid to adequate descriptions of the radiance distribution of the sky diffuse radiation under different sky conditions. A useful approach is proposed for simulating the incident global radiaiton in a physiological, process-based model

  11. Cogeneration with gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system: a computer program for exergy economics analysis; Cogeracao com turbina a gas associada ao sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: um programa computacional para analise exergoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio Santana [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Matematica] E-mail: santana@feg.unesp.br; Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer program for exergy and economic analysis of cogeneration systems applying gas turbine associated to the absorption refrigeration system. The computer program selects gas turbine systems viewing the operation under thermal parity through a data base composed by gas turbines commercially available in the market, under the ISO (International Standard Organization). The computer program corrects the system performance parameters selected for the installation local conditions. The exergy and economic analysis are made based on the lowest exergy manufacturing cost where the best system is considered. A case study of the computer program application is presented.

  12. Adaptation of closed cycle refrigeration system spectrum to radiation cryochemistry: γ-irradiation, ESR and optical absorption spectroscopy, ITL and RTL of frozen matrices at temperatures down to 14 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.; Plonka, A.; Ratajski, A.; Suwalski, J.P.; Wypych, M.

    1978-01-01

    The adaptation of the commercially available closed cycle refrigeration system Spectrim sup(TM) for radiation cryochemistry experiments with frozen matrices down to 14 K is described. The cold head of Spectrim sup(TM), equipped with vacuum shroud extensions and sample holders proper for the given type of experiments, was contained in lead shields, provided with special entrances for irradiation of samples with 60 Co γ-rays. The shroud extensions used for ESR and optical absorption measurements and the sample holders for isothermal luminescence and radiothermolumininescence measurements are described. (U.K.)

  13. Eternal solutions to a singular diffusion equation with critical gradient absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagar, Razvan Gabriel; Laurençot, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The existence of non-negative radially symmetric eternal solutions of exponential self-similar type u(t, x) = e −pβt/(2−p) f β (|x|e −βt ; β) is investigated for the singular diffusion equation with critical gradient absorption ∂ t u−Δ p u+|∇u| p/2 =0  in (0,∞)×R N , where 2N/(N + 1) < p < 2. Such solutions are shown to exist only if the parameter β ranges in a bounded interval (0, β * ], which is in sharp contrast to well-known singular diffusion equations, such as ∂ t φ − Δ p φ = 0 when p = 2N/(N + 1), N ⩾ 1, or the porous medium equation ∂ t φ − Δφ m  = 0 when m = (N − 2)/N, N ⩾ 3. Moreover, the profile f(r; β) decays to zero as r → ∞ in a faster way for β = β * than for β ∈ (0, β * ) but the algebraic leading order is the same in both cases. In fact, for large r, f(r; β * ) decays as r −p/(2−p) while f(r; β) behaves as (log r) 2/(2−p) r −p/(2−p) when β ∈ (0, β * ). (paper)

  14. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  15. Recent investigations on refrigerants for magnetic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1986-01-01

    In development of the magnetic refrigerator, an important problem is selection of magnetic materials as refrigerants. The main purpose of the present paper is to discuss the magnetic and thermal properties necessary for these refrigerants and to report recent investigations. Magnetic refrigerants can be expediently divided into two groups, one for the Carnottype magnetic refrigerator below 20 K and the other for the Ericsson-type refrigerator. The required physical properties of refrigerants in each type of the magnetic refrigerator are first discussed. And then, the results of recent investigations on the magnetic, thermal and magnetocaloric characters of several promising magnetic refrigerants are shown. Finally, a brief prospect of the magnetic refrigerants and refrigerators is given

  16. Visualization and quantification of heterogeneous diffusion rates in granodiorite samples by X-ray absorption imaging. Diffusion within gouge materials, altered rim and intact rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C.; Uchida, M.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the most important contaminant migration retardation processes in crystalline rocks. Performance assessment calculations in various countries assume that only the area of the fracture surface where advection is active provides access to the rock matrix. However, accessibility to the matrix could be significantly enhanced with diffusion into stagnant zones, fracture fillings, and through an alteration rim in the matrix. Laboratory visualization experiments were conducted on granodiorite samples to investigate and quantify diffusion rates within different zones of a Cretaceous granodiorite. Samples were collected from the Kamaishi experimental site in the northern part of the main island of Japan. Diffusion of iodine out of the sample is visualized and rates are measured using x-ray absorption imaging. X-ray images allow for measurements of relative iodine concentration and relative iodine mass as a function of time and two-dimensional space at a sub-millimeter spatial resolution. In addition, two-dimensional heterogeneous porosity fields (at the same resolution as the relative concentration fields) are measured. This imaging technique allows for a greater understanding of the spatial variability of diffusion rates than can be accomplished with standard bulk measurements. It was found that diffusion rates were fastest in partially gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion rates in the recrystallized calcite-based fracture-filling material were up to an order of magnitude lower than in gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion in altered matrix around the fractures was over an order of magnitude lower than that in the gouge-filled fractures. Healed fractures did not appear to have different diffusion rates than the unaltered matrix

  17. Visualization and quantification of heterogeneous diffusion rates in granodiorite samples by X-ray absorption imaging. Diffusion within gouge materials, altered rim and intact rock matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, S.J.; Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uchida, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    Matrix diffusion is one of the most important contaminant migration retardation processes in crystalline rocks. Performance assessment calculations in various countries assume that only the area of the fracture surface where advection is active provides access to the rock matrix. However, accessibility to the matrix could be significantly enhanced with diffusion into stagnant zones, fracture fillings, and through an alteration rim in the matrix. Laboratory visualization experiments were conducted on granodiorite samples to investigate and quantify diffusion rates within different zones of a Cretaceous granodiorite. Samples were collected from the Kamaishi experimental site in the northern part of the main island of Japan. Diffusion of iodine out of the sample is visualized and rates are measured using x-ray absorption imaging. X-ray images allow for measurements of relative iodine concentration and relative iodine mass as a function of time and two-dimensional space at a sub-millimeter spatial resolution. In addition, two-dimensional heterogeneous porosity fields (at the same resolution as the relative concentration fields) are measured. This imaging technique allows for a greater understanding of the spatial variability of diffusion rates than can be accomplished with standard bulk measurements. It was found that diffusion rates were fastest in partially gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion rates in the recrystallized calcite-based fracture-filling material were up to an order of magnitude lower than in gouge-filled fractures. Diffusion in altered matrix around the fractures was over an order of magnitude lower than that in the gouge-filled fractures. Healed fractures did not appear to have different diffusion rates than the unaltered matrix.

  18. NLP modeling for the optimization of LiBr-H_2O absorption refrigeration systems with exergy loss rate, heat transfer area, and cost as single objective functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Gernaey, Krist V.; Morosuk, Tatiana; Mussati, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A NLP model is used for simultaneous optimization of sizes and operating conditions. • Total exergy loss rate and transfer area are optimized as single objective functions. • Theoretical and practical bounds for cost optimization problems are computed. • A systematic solution strategy is proposed for total annual cost optimization. • Relevance of components is ranked by heat transfer area, exergy loss rate, and cost. - Abstract: Based on a nonlinear mathematical programming model, the sizes and operating conditions of the process units of single-effect absorption refrigeration systems operating with a LiBr–H_2O solution are optimized for a specified cooling capacity by minimizing three single objective functions: the total exergy loss rate, the total heat transfer area, and the total annual cost of the system. It was found that the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total exergy loss rate provides “theoretical” upper bounds not only for the total heat transfer area of the system but also for each process unit and all stream temperatures, while the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total heat transfer area provides the lower bounds for these model variables, to solve a cost optimization problem. The minimization of the total exergy loss rate by varying parametrically the available total heat transfer area between these bounds was also performed, allowing to see how the optimal distribution of the available total heat transfer area among the system components, as well as the operating conditions (stream temperature, pressure, composition, and mass flow rate) and heat loads, vary qualitatively and quantitatively with increasing available total heat transfer area. These optimization results allowed to find a “practical” value of the total heat transfer area, i.e. no benefits can be obtained by increasing the available total heat transfer area above this value since the minimal total exergy loss value cannot

  19. Modelling and simulation of an absorption cycle with a blow pump; Modellierung und Simulation eines Absorptionskreislaufes mit einer Blasenpumpe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecherl, Markus

    2011-07-01

    Diffusion-absorption refrigerators are commonly operated with ammonia and water. If a ionic liquid with negligible vapour pressure is substituted for water, the rectifier will be unnecessary. In the context of a diploma thesis, a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a blower pump and ammonia and a ionic liquid as working fluid was modelled and simulated. For this, three models were selected from the relevant literature and compared. Changes in COP as a result of varied operating parameters were investigated as well. It was shown that it is possible, in principle, to operate a diffusion-absorption refrigerator with a ionic liquid. [German] Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschinen werden in der Regel mit dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Wasser betrieben. Ersetzt man das Absorptionsmittel Wasser gegen eine ionische Fluessigkeit, die nur einen vernachlaessigbaren Dampfdruck besitzt, kann man den Rektifikator einsparen. Im Rahmen einer Diplomarbeit wurde eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit einer Blasenpumpe und dem Arbeitsstoffpaar Ammoniak-Ionische Fluessigkeit modelliert und simuliert. Hierfuer wurden drei Modelle aus der Literatur ausgewaehlt. Diese Modelle wurden untereinander verglichen. Ausserdem wurde die Veraenderung des COP bei der Variation der Betriebsparameter fuer diese Berechnungsmodelle untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass es prinzipiell moeglich ist, eine Diffusions-Absorptions-Kaeltemaschine mit ionischer Fluessigkeit zu betreiben.

  20. Excess diffuse light absorption in upper mesophyll limits CO2 drawdown and depresses photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-grown and shade-grown leaves of some species absorb direct and diffuse light differently. Sun-grown leaves can photosynthesize ~10-15% less under diffuse compared to direct irradiance, while shade-grown leaves do not exhibit this sensitivity. In this study, we investigate if the spatial differen...

  1. High-efficiency absorption-type heat pumps and refrigerators. From topology to the pilot plant; Hocheffiziente Absorptionsmaschinen zur Versorgung mit Kaelte und Waerme. Von der Topologie zur Pilotanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, F.; Demmel, S.; Lamp, P. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Kahn, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physik Dept. E19; Alefeld, G.

    1998-12-31

    Absorption-type heat pumps or refrigerators are systems operated with heat. They have been known for a long time and are frequently used especially in airconditioning in the USA and south-east Asia. However, the conventional technique used is subject to many physical limitations, restricting their broader use. The paper demonstrates ways of overcoming these restrictions, for instance by multi-stage design. The exploitation of topological principles much facilitates the synthesis of novel circuits. The technical relevance of such developments is demonstrated by means of selected examples of executed laboratory and pilot plants. Modern absorption technology saves resources and prevents environmental pollution by consuming less fossil energy compared with the conventional technique, for instance by harnessing the thermal potential of solar energy or utilizing waste heat and residual heat, and, not least, thanks to the use of natural refrigerants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Absorptionswaermepumpen oder -kaeltemaschinen sind durch Waerme angetriebene Anlagen, die seit langem bekannt sind und besonders in der Klimatechnik in den USA und im suedostasiatischen Raum haeufig eingesetzt werden. Die dabei verwendete konventionelle Technik unterliegt allerdings vielfaeltigen physikalischen Einschraenkungen, die ihre noch breitere Anwendung verhindern. Es wird gezeigt, wie diese Einschraenkungen beispielsweise durch Mehrstufigkeit ueberwunden werden koennen. Durch die Verwendung topologischer Grundsaetze wird die Synthese neuartiger Kreislaeufe stark vereinfacht. Die technische Bedeutung solcher Entwicklungen wird an ausgewaehlten Beispielen ausgefuehrter Labor- und Pilotanlagen gezeigt. Durch den im Vergleich zu konventioneller Technik geringeren Verbrauch an fossiler Energie, beispielsweise durch die thermische Nutzung von Sonnenenergie oder durch die Nutzung von Ab- oder Restwaerme und nicht zuletzt durch die Verwendung natuerlicher Kaeltemittel werden bei Einsatz moderner

  2. ITER TASK T26/28 (1995): Solubility, diffusion and absorption of hydrogen isotopes in potential fusion reactor ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.A.; Macauley-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    Ceramic insulators are integral parts of numerous components essential for the heating control and diagnostic measurement of fusion plasmas. For safe and reliable reactor operations it is necessary to be able to predict the resultant tritium inventories and permeation fluxes through these materials. Some materials being considered are Al 2 O 3 (both as single crystal sapphire and polycrystalline alumina) and BeO. This report contains results of ion-implantation, thermal absorption (diffusion loading) and ion-beam analysis experiments performed in 1994 and 1995 for ITER task T26/28. The combination of implantation and thermal absorption capabilities enable us to load samples with hydrogen isotopes under differing conditions. 13 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  3. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  4. Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    A Stirling cooler (refrigerator) was proposed in 1862 and the first Stirling cooler was put on market in 1955. Since then, many Stirling coolers have been developed and marketed as cryocoolers. Recently, Stirling cycle machines for heating and cooling at near-ambient temperatures between 173 and 400K, are recognized as promising candidates for alternative system which are more compatible with people and the Earth. The ideal cycles of Stirling cycle machine offer the highest thermal efficiencies and the working fluids do not cause serious environmental problems of ozone depletion and global warming. In this review, the basic thermodynamics of Stirling cycle are briefly described to quantify the attractive cycle performance. The fundamentals to realize actual Stirling coolers and heat pumps are introduced in detail. The current status of the Stirling cycle machine technologies is reviewed. Some machines have almost achieved the target performance. Also, duplex-Stirling-cycle and Vuilleumier-cycle machines and their performance are introduced.

  5. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-03-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to thermophysical properties, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with other materials.

  7. Enhanced Absorption and Diffusion Properties of Lithium on B,N,VC-decorated Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengting; Yu, L. C.; Shi, W. M.; Deng, J. G.; Zhang, Y. N.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic first-principles calculations were performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Li on different graphene layers with B/N-doping and/or C-vacancy, so as to understand why doping heteroatoms in graphene anode could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. We found that the formation of single or double carbon vacancies in graphene are critical for the adsorption of Li atoms. While the N-doping facilitates the formation of vacancies, it introduces over binding issue and hinders the Li diffusion. The presence of B takes the excessive electrons from Li and N and reduces the energy barrier of Li diffusion on substrates. We perceive that these clear insights are crucial for the further development of graphene based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:27897202

  8. Optimization study of a single-effect water–lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system powered by flat-plate collector in hot regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Mosa, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive analysis for optimizing solar absorption system in hot region. • The most important parameter to be controlled is hot source temperature. • Ensuring appropriate choice of parameters, COP of absorption unit exceeds 0.8. • Results show that solar cooling systems are promising in hot regions. • The research aims to play a vital role to promote the use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This investigation has been carried out to present a comprehensive analysis for optimizing the operation of solar absorption system in hot regions. To optimize performance of the system, the hot source temperature should be controlled in function of incident solar radiation, chilled and cooling water temperatures. With an appropriate control, these external conditions can be monitored to detect and implement the actual optimization conditions. Adopting typical values encountered in hot regions, the overall system performance takes its optimal value at temperatures between 75 and 80 °C. It was found that in designing or selecting solar collector, selective coating type is necessary to produce hot water with potential around 80–90 °C needed to optimize operation of absorption unit. By ensuring an appropriate choice of components temperatures, COP of absorption unit can exceed the value 0.8. Cooling water temperature above 40 °C reduces significantly the performance of the unit which requires, under conditions of extremely high external temperatures, dimensioning and selection of condensers and absorbers that guarantee values less than this limit

  9. Theoretical study of electronic absorption spectroscopy of propadienylidene molecule vis-â-vis the observed diffuse interstellar bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Samala Nagaprasad; Mahapatra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theoretical study of spectroscopy and dynamics of electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 . ► Construction of ab initio electronic potential energy and diabatic coupling surfaces. ► First principles study of nuclear dynamics on excited electronic states. ► Findings reveal l-C 3 H 2 is a potential molecular carrier of diffuse interstellar bands. ► Electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 decays by ultrafast nonradiative internal conversion. -- Abstract: Observation of broad and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 Å and 5440 Å assigned to the optical absorption spectrum of Y-shaped propadienylidene (H 2 C=C=C:) molecule is theoretically examined in this paper. This molecule apparently absorbs in the same wavelength region as the observed DIBs and was suggested to be a potential carrier of these DIBs. This assignment mostly relied on the experimental data from radioastronomy and laboratory measurements. Motivated by these available experimental data we attempt here a theoretical study and investigate the detailed electronic structure and nuclear dynamics underlying the electronic absorption bands of propadienylidene molecule. Our results show that this molecule indeed absorbs in the wavelength region of the recorded DIBs. Strong nonadiabatic coupling between its energetically low-lying electronic states plays major role, initiates ultrafast internal conversion and contributes to the spectral broadening. Theoretical findings are finally compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and discussed in connection with the recorded DIBs.

  10. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  12. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  13. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  14. Diffuse X-ray scattering and far infrared absorption of barium and lead β" aluminas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, W.; Kjær, Kristian; Pratt, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have carried out high-momentum-resolution studies in diffuse X-ray scattering of barium and lead B" aluminas in the temperature range 20-700 degrees C. They have also measured the vibrational spectra of these compounds between 2K and 300K in the energy range 10-100 cm-1. The results...

  15. Reaction probability derived from an interpolation formula for diffusion processes with an absorptive boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, T.; Itakura, H.

    1995-01-01

    The present article focuses on a dynamical simulation of molecular motion in liquids. In the simulation involving diffusion-controlled reaction with discrete time steps, lack of information regarding the trajectory within the time step may result in a failure to count the number of reactions of the particles within the step. In order to rectify this, an interpolated diffusion process is used. The process is derived from a stochastic interpolation formula recently developed by the first author [J. Math. Phys. 34, 775 (1993)]. In this method, the probability that reaction has occurred during the time step given the initial and final positions of the particles is calculated. Some numerical examples confirm that the theoretical result corresponds to an improvement over the Clifford-Green work [Mol. Phys. 57, 123 (1986)] on the same matter

  16. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant

  17. Ultimate refrigerating conditions, behavior turning and a thermodynamic analysis for absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been

  18. Transition to New Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview page provides information on the refrigerants that motor vehicle air conditioners have used over time, with information on environmental impacts, refrigerant fitting sizes, label colors, and alternatives to ozone-depleting substances.

  19. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  20. Closed Cycle Solar Refrigeration with the Calcium Chloride System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A closed cycle solid absorption intermittent refrigerator, using CaC12 absorbent and NH3 refrigerant, was constructed and tested to obtain the instantaneous and cumulative available overall COP. The combined collector/absorber/generator unit had double glazing of 1.14 m2 exposed areas. The system was fitted with a ...

  1. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  2. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and effective infrared absorption coefficient in IR semitransparent and semiconducting n-CdMgSe crystals using photothermal radiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, M., E-mail: mpawlak@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziądzka 5/7, Toruń (Poland); Maliński, M. [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, 2 Śniadeckich St., Koszalin 75-453 (Poland)

    2015-01-10

    Highlights: • The new method of determination of the effective infrared absorption coefficient is presented. • The method can be used for transparent samples for the excitation radiation. • The effect of aluminum foil on the PTR signal in a transmission configuration is discussed. - Abstract: In this paper we propose a new procedure of simultaneous estimation of the effective infrared optical absorption coefficient and the thermal diffusivity of solid state samples using the photothermal infrared radiometry method in the transmission configuration. The proposed procedure relies on the analysis of the frequency dependent signal obtained from the samples covered with thin aluminum foil. This method can be applied for both optically opaque and transparent samples. The proposed method is illustrated with the results of the thermal diffusivity and the effective IR absorption coefficient obtained for several Cd{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}Se crystals.

  4. The absoption refrigerator as a thermal transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    The absorption refrigerator can be considered a thermal transformer, i.e. a device that is analogous to the electric transformer. The analogy is based on a correspondence between the extensive quantities entropy and electric charge and that of the intensive variables temperature and electric potential.

  5. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory for three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid with the effect of heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research article focuses on three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic(second grade) nanofluid in the presence of Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory. Flow caused is due to stretching sheet. Characteristics of heat transfer are interpreted by considering the heat generation/absorption. Nanofluid theory comprises of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Cattaneo-Christov double-diffusion theory is introduced in the energy and concentration expressions. Such diffusions are developed as a part of formulating the thermal and solutal relaxation times framework. Suitable variables are implemented for the conversion of partial differential systems into a sets of ordinary differential equations. The transformed expressions have been explored through homotopic algorithm. Behavior of sundry variables on the velocities, temperature and concentration are scrutinized graphically. Numerical values of skin friction coefficients are also calculated and examined. Here thermal field enhances for heat generation parameter while reverse situation is noticed for heat absorption parameter.

  6. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  7. Experimental study of refrigeration performance based on linear Fresnel solar thermal photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinghui; Yuan, Hui; Xia, Yunfeng; Kan, Weimin; Deng, Xiaowen; Liu, Shi; Liang, Wanlong; Deng, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the working principle and system constitution of the linear Fresnel solar lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle, and elaborates several typical structures of absorption refrigeration cycle, including single-effect, two-stage cycle and double-effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle A 1.n effect absorption chiller system based on the best parameters was introduced and applied to a linear Fresnel solar absorption chiller system. Through the field refrigerator performance test, the results show: Based on this heat cycle design and processing 1.n lithium bromide absorption refrigeration power up to 35.2KW, It can meet the theoretical expectations and has good flexibility and reliability, provides guidance for the use of solar thermal energy.

  8. Analysis of Refrigeration Cycle Performance with an Ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A conventional refrigeration cycle uses expansion device between the condenser and the evaporator which has losses during the expansion process. A refrigeration cycle with ejector is a promising modification to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration cycle. The ejector is used to recover some of the available work so that the compressor suction pressure increases. To investigate the enhancement a model with R134a refrigerant was developed. To solve the set of equations and simulate the cycle performance a subroutine was written on engineering equation solver (EES environment. At specific conditions, the refrigerant properties are obtained from EES. At the design conditions the ejector refrigeration cycle achieved 5.141 COP compared to 4.609 COP of the conventional refrigeration cycle. This means that ejector refrigeration cycle offers better COP with 10.35% improvement compared to conventional refrigeration cycle. Parametric analysis of ejector refrigeration cycle indicated that COP was influenced significantly by evaporator and condenser temperatures, entrainment ratio and diffuser efficiency.

  9. Developments in magnetocaloric refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, Ekkes

    2005-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared with compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved; second, it may be built more compactly as the working material is a solid; and third, magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently a new class of magnetic refrigerant-materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: they exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase-transition of first order. This MCE is larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability. Because fundamental aspects of MCE are not so widely discussed, we also give some theoretical considerations. (topical review)

  10. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  12. Cryogenic mixed refrigerant processes

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatarathnam, Gadhiraju

    2010-01-01

    Teaches the need for refrigerant mixtures, the type of mixtures that can be used for different refrigeration and liquefaction applications, the different processes that can be used and the methods to be adopted for choosing the components of a mixture and their concentration for different applications.

  13. Refrigerants and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkov, O. B.; Laptev, Yu A.

    2017-11-01

    The refrigeration and air-conditioning industries are important sectors of the economy and represents about 15 % of global electricity consumptions. The chlorofluorocarbons also called CFCs are a class of refrigerants containing the halogens chlorine and/or fluorine on a carbon skeleton. Because of their environmental impact the Montreal Protocol was negotiated in 1987 to limit the production of certain CFCs and hydrochlirofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in developed and developing countries. The halogenated refrigerants are depleting the ozone layer also major contribution to the greenhouse effect. To be acceptable as a refrigerant a fluid must satisfy a variety of thermodynamic criteria and should be environment friendly with zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. The perspective of a future phase down of HFCs is considered in this report taking into account a strategy for the phase out of HCFCs and perspective of choosing of various refrigerant followed by safety issues.

  14. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  15. Public Refrigerated Warehouses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses (IARW) came into existence in 1891 when a number of conventional warehousemen took on the demands of storing...

  16. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  17. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  18. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  19. Refrigeration systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Refrigeration Systems and Applications, 2nd edition offers a comprehensive treatise that addresses real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and the practical applications of refrigeration technology. New and unique analysis techniques (including exergy as a potential tool), models, correlations, procedures and applications are covered, and recent developments in the field are included - many of which are taken from the author's own research activities in this area. The book also includes so

  20. Industrial applications of refrigeration. General considerations; Applications industrielles du froid. Generalites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvillet, Ch. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69 - Ecully (France); Groupement pour la Recherche sur les Echangeurs Thermiques, GRETh (France)

    2001-10-01

    The refrigeration process consists in the lowering of the temperature of a product or of a process below the ambient temperature. Thus, the refrigeration process implies a heat absorption process for the production of coldness. Two ways of coldness production are considered: the mechanical refrigeration using compression or absorption cycle machineries, and the cryogenic refrigeration which requires the use of industrial fluids like liquid nitrogen, helium or CO{sub 2}. This article presents the different functions of refrigeration in industrial processes and the effects of temperature on inert or living matter (influence of temperature on the physical properties, thermodynamic state, and physico-chemical transformations of solids, bodies and substances, influence of temperature on the transformation processes of food products, mechanical refrigeration and mastery of fermentation). (J.S.)

  1. Transient behaviour of an adsorption refrigerator. Experimental study of the alcohol/activated carbon system; Comportement transitoire d`une machine frigorifique a absorption. Etude experimentale du systeme alcool / charbon actif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des sciences du genie chimique; Feidt, M. [Nancy-1 Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present an experimental study of an adsorption refrigerator, accounting for the transient phenomena in each component of the machine, in particular in the adsorber. The couples adsorbate/adsorbent investigated (activated carbon/methanol or ethanol) have been chosen on the basis of an earlier comparative study. We have performed a full series of experiments to investigate the transient evolution of temperatures, pressures and the cycled mass, in a discontinuous cycle, and along the components of the refrigerating machine. The influence of various parameters is studies by varying one at a time: adsorbate/ adsorbent couple, alcohol load in adsorber, alcohol flowrate, heating power, initial desorption temperature. All these experimental observation are discussed and compared to transient models developed in a separate article. (authors) 12 refs.

  2. General review of solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Sebarchievici, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide review of development in solar sorption refrigeration technologies. • Theoretical basis and applications of absorption and adsorption cycles are discussed. • Thermodynamic properties of most common working pairs have been reviewed. • Development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems was explored. • A comparison between solar-powered absorption and adsorption systems was performed. - Abstract: The negative environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels have forced the energy research community seriously to consider renewable sources, such as naturally available solar energy. Thermally powered refrigeration technologies are classified into two categories: thermo-mechanical technology and sorption technology (open systems or closed systems). This paper provides a detailed review of the solar closed sorption (absorption and adsorption) refrigeration systems, which utilise working pairs (fluids). After an introduction of the basic principles of these systems, the history of development and recent advances in solar sorption refrigeration technologies are reported. The adsorption cooling typically has a lower heat source temperature requirement than the absorption cooling. Based on the coefficient of performance (COP), the absorption systems are preferred over the adsorption systems, and the higher temperature issues can be easily handled with solar adsorption systems. The thermodynamic properties of most common working fluids, as well as the use of ternary mixtures in solar-powered absorption systems, have been reviewed in this study. The paper also refers to new approaches to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the basic adsorption cycles, such as the development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems. This research shows that solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration technologies can be attractive alternatives not only to serve the needs for air-conditioning, refrigeration, ice making, thermal

  3. The fortran programme for the calculation of the absorption and double scattering corrections in cross-section measurements with fast neutrons using the monte Carlo method (1963); Programme fortran pour le calcul des corrections d'absorption et de double diffusion dans les mesures de sections efficaces pour les neutrons rapides par la methode de monte-carlo (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A calculation for double scattering and absorption corrections in fast neutron scattering experiments using Monte-Carlo method is given. Application to cylindrical target is presented in FORTRAN symbolic language. (author) [French] Un calcul des corrections de double diffusion et d'absorption dans les experiences de diffusion de neutrons rapides par la methode de Monte-Carlo est presente. L'application au cas d'une cible cylindrique est traitee en langage symbolique FORTRAN. (auteur)

  4. Prediction of thermophysical properties of mixed refrigerants using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, Arzu; Koese, Ismail Ilke; Selbas, Resat

    2011-01-01

    The determination of thermophysical properties of the refrigerants is very important for thermodynamic analysis of vapor compression refrigeration systems. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed to determine properties as heat conduction coefficient, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, thermal diffusivity, density, specific heat capacity of refrigerants. Five alternative refrigerants are considered: R413A, R417A, R422A, R422D and R423A. The training and validation were performed with good accuracy. The thermophysical properties of the refrigerants are formulated using artificial neural network (ANN) methodology. Liquid and vapor thermophysical properties of refrigerants with new formulation obtained from ANN can be easily estimated. The method proposed offers more flexibility and therefore thermodynamic analysis of vapor compression refrigeration systems is fairly simplified.

  5. Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants for Commercial Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Vishaldeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Environmental concerns are driving regulations for the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry towards lower GWP alternatives to HFC refrigerants. Existing lower GWP refrigerant alternatives include hydrocarbons, such as propane (R-290) and isobutane (R-600a), as well as carbon dioxide (R-744), ammonia (R-717), and R-32. In addition, new lower GWP refrigerant alternatives are currently being developed by refrigerant manufacturers, including hydrofluoro-olefin (HFO) and unsaturated hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFO) refrigerants. The selection of an appropriate refrigerant for a given refrigeration application should be based on several factors, including the GWP of the refrigerant, the energy consumption of the refrigeration system over its operating lifetime, and leakage of refrigerant over the system lifetime. For example, focusing on energy efficiency alone may overlook the significant environmental impact of refrigerant leakage; while focusing on GWP alone might result in lower efficiency systems that result in higher indirect impact over the equipment lifetime. Thus, the objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between

  6. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. Cryogenic forced convection refrigerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the method of refrigerating products by contact with a refrigerating gas which comprises introducing product into a refrigeration zone, contacting the product with the refrigerating gas for a sufficient time to refrigerate it to the appropriate extent and removing the refrigerated product. The improvement for producing the refrigeration gas from a liquid cryogen such that essentially all of the liquid cryogen is fully vaporized before contacting the product comprises: (a) introducing the liquid cryogen, selected from the group consisting of liquid air and liquid nitrogen, at elevated pressure into an ejector as the motive fluid to accelerate a portion of a warm refrigerating gas through the ejector while mixing the cryogen and gas to effect complete vaporization of the liquid cryogen and substantial cooling of the portion of the refrigerating gas resulting in a cold discharge gas which is above the liquefaction temperature of the cryogen; (b) introducing the cold discharge gas into a forced circulation pathway of refrigerating gas and producing a cold refrigerating gas which contacts and refrigerates product and is then at least partially recirculated; (c) sensing the temperature of the refrigerating gas in the forced circulation pathway and controlling the introduction of liquid cryogen with regard to the sensed temperature to maintain the temperature of the discharge gas above the liquefacton temperature of the cryogen utilized

  8. Indirect refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, Kim Gardø; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer for boiling and condensing carbon dioxide has been investigated.Heat transfer for carbon dioxide evaporating inside pipe has been measured and compared with Shah's correlation. The measured heat transfer coefficient is much higher than the value determined with the correlation.A shell......-and-tube heat exchanger with carbon dioxide on the shell side and flow ice inside the tubes has been used to investigate the heat transfer for condensing carbon dioxide.At leats is mentioned results obtained with a frozen food display case using carbone dioxide as refrigerant....

  9. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  10. Competition between convection and diffusion in a metal halide lamp, investigated by numerical simulations and imaging laser absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beks, M.L.; Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Stoffels, W.W.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the competition between convection and diffusion on the distribution of metal halide additives in a high pressure mercury lamp has been examined by placing COST reference lamps with mercury fillings of 5 and 10 mg in a centrifuge. By subjecting them to different accelerational

  11. Refrigeration a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Carroll

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, humans coped with heat by harvesting and storing natural ice and devising natural cooling systems that utilized ventilation and evaporation. By the mid 1800s, people began developing huge refrigeration machines to manufacture ice. By the early 1900s, engineers developed electric domestic refrigerators, which by 1927 were affordable convenient household appliances. By then, an increasingly sophisticated public demanded more modern-looking appliances than engineers could produce, and a new breed of designers entered the manufacturing world to provide them. During the Depr

  12. Refrigeration Playbook: Natural Refrigerants; Selecting and Designing Energy-Efficient Commercial Refrigeration Systems That Use Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Caleb [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Arthur, Rob [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Heath, Richard [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Rono, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides guidance for selecting and designing energy efficient commercial refrigeration systems using low global warming potential refrigerants. Refrigeration systems are generally the largest energy end use in a supermarket type building, often accounting for more than half of a building's energy consumption.

  13. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  14. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  15. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  16. Helium refrigerator for 'SULTAN'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpagaus, M.; Erlach, H.; Quack, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe the helium refrigerator designed for the SULTAN test facility. SULTAN (Supraleiter-Testanlage) is intended to serve for the developments and testing of high field superconducting magnets. These magnets are needed mainly for future applications in nuclear fusion. (Auth.)

  17. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  18. Installation of a small central thermoelectric using biomass and cogeneration with absorption refrigeration system: alternative for small rural isolated communities; Instalacao de uma pequena central termeletrica a biomassa e cogeracao com sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: alternativa para pequenas comunidades agricolas isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Reys, Marcos Alves dos [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP), TO (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of electrical energy in several localities of Brazil results in a slow perspective of in terms of economic growth and scientific and technological development. In order to minimize these problems it is proposed the use of co-generation systems with small thermoelectric plants burning rice rusk (an abundant biomass in certain regions of Brazil, as for example the Tocantins State) as a heat source and to utilize the discharged steam from the turbine to generate cold through an absorption refrigeration system. The work intends to show a possible solution to the problems originated from the absence of electric power in small and isolated rural villages, also problems of processing storage of agricultural residues and to generate cold for several applications. (author)

  19. 2016 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Large cryogenic facilities, relief valves, liquid helium, liquid-nitrogen and liquid hydrogen cooling, new concepts, foundations and materials of the heat-pump techniques, evaporation, phase-change materials, absorption, afterheat usage, ionic liquids, sorption, condensers, heat exchangers, back-cooling systems, refrigerants, caron dioxide, mobile applications, efficiency and optimization, air conditioning.

  20. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A. M.; Farges, F.; Carlot, G.

    2007-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, 35Cl present as an impurity in the nuclear fuel is activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of the nuclear fuel, 36Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute significantly to the 'instant release fraction'. In order to elucidate the diffusion mechanisms, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This paper deals with the thermal diffusion of chlorine in depleted UO2. For this purpose, sintered UO2 pellets were implanted with 37Cl at an ion fluence of 1013 cm-2 and successively annealed in the 1175-1475 K temperature range. The implanted chlorine is used to simulate the behaviour of the displaced one due to recoil and to interactions with the fission fragments during reactor operation. The behaviour of the pristine and the implanted chlorine was investigated during thermal annealing. SIMS and μ-XAS (at the Cl-K edge) analyses show that: the thermal migration of implanted chlorine becomes significant at 1275 K; this temperature and the calculated activation energy of 4.3 eV points out the great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO2 at relatively low temperatures, the behaviour of the implanted chlorine which aggregates into 'hot spots' during annealing before its effusion is clearly different from that of the pristine one which remains homogenously distributed after annealing, the 'hot spot' and the pristine chlorine seem to be in different structural environments. Both types of chlorine are assumed to have a valence state of -I, the comparison between an U2O2Cl5 reference compound and the pristine chlorine environment shows a contribution of the U2O2Cl5 to the pristine chlorine.

  1. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Raimbault, L.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Farges, F.; Carlot, G.

    2007-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, 35 Cl present as an impurity in the nuclear fuel is activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of the nuclear fuel, 36 Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute significantly to the 'instant release fraction'. In order to elucidate the diffusion mechanisms, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This paper deals with the thermal diffusion of chlorine in depleted UO 2 . For this purpose, sintered UO 2 pellets were implanted with 37 Cl at an ion fluence of 10 13 cm -2 and successively annealed in the 1175-1475K temperature range. The implanted chlorine is used to simulate the behaviour of the displaced one due to recoil and to interactions with the fission fragments during reactor operation. The behaviour of the pristine and the implanted chlorine was investigated during thermal annealing. SIMS and μ-XAS (at the Cl-K edge) analyses show that: (1) the thermal migration of implanted chlorine becomes significant at 1275K; this temperature and the calculated activation energy of 4.3eV points out the great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO 2 at relatively low temperatures; (2) the behaviour of the implanted chlorine which aggregates into 'hot spots' during annealing before its effusion is clearly different from that of the pristine one which remains homogenously distributed after annealing; (3) the 'hot spot' and the pristine chlorine seem to be in different structural environments. Both types of chlorine are assumed to have a valence state of -I; (4) the comparison between an U 2 O 2 Cl 5 reference compound and the pristine chlorine environment shows a contribution of the U 2 O 2 Cl 5 to the pristine chlorine

  2. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  3. Flammability Indices for Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Osami

    This paper introduces a new index to classify flammable refrigerants. A question on flammability indices that ASHRAE employs arose from combustion test results of R152a and ammonia. Conventional methods of not only ASHRAE but also ISO and Japanese High-pressure gas safety law to classify the flammability of refrigerants are evaluated to show why these methods conflict with the test results. The key finding of this paper is that the ratio of stoichiometric concentration to LFL concentration (R factor) represents the test results most precisely. In addition, it has excellent correlation with other flammability parameters such as flame speed and pressure rise coefficient. Classification according to this index gives reasonable flammability order of substances including ammonia, R152a and carbon monoxide. Theoretical background why this index gives good correlation is also discussed as well as the insufficient part of this method.

  4. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  5. Solar driven air conditioning and refrigeration systems corresponding to various heating source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Z.; Xu, Z.Y.; Pan, Q.W.; Du, S.; Xia, Z.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modular silica gel–water adsorption chiller was designed and tested. • Single/double effect LiBr–water absorption chiller was operated and tested. • 1.n effect LiBr–water absorption chiller was proposed, designed and tested. • CaCl_2/AC–ammonia adsorption refrigerator was introduced and tested. • NH_3–H_2O absorption ice maker with better internal heat recovery was introduced. - Abstract: Solar driven air conditioning systems can cope with solar collectors working in a wide range of temperatures. Sorption systems, including absorption and adsorption refrigeration systems, are among the best choices for solar cooling. Five systems including modular silica gel–water adsorption chiller, single/double effect LiBr–water absorption chiller, 1.n effect LiBr–water absorption chiller, CaCl_2/AC (activated carbon)–ammonia adsorption refrigerator, and the water–ammonia absorption ice maker with better internal heat recovery were presented. The above five sorption chillers/refrigerators work under various driven temperatures and fulfill different refrigeration demands. The thermodynamic design and system development of the systems were shown. All these systems have improvements in comparison with existing systems and may offer good options for high efficient solar cooling in the near future.

  6. Aspects on modeled and the design of a system of refrigeration by absorption attended with solar energy; Aspectos sobre el modelado y diseno de un sistema de refrigeracion por absorcion asistido con energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Cascales, J. R.; Vera Garcia, F.; Cano Izquierdo, J. M.; Delgado Marin, J. P.; Martinez Sanchez, R.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we study the global modelling of an absorption system working with Br Li-H{sub 2}O. It satisfies the air-conditioning necessities of a classroom in an educational centre in Puerto Lumbreras. Murcia. This system utilises a set of solar collector to satisfy the thermal necessities of the vapour generator in the absorption system. For the dynamical simulation of the system we have used the TRNSYS software. The air-conditioned place has been modelled by using a TRNSYS module called PREBID. In this work, special attention is paid to the absorption equipment model developed by using neural networks which has been implemented in TRNSYS. The paper is closed drawing some conclusions. (Author)

  7. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HFC REFRIGERANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants are possible alternatives to replace ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. The flammability of a proposed new refrigerant is a major consideration in assessing its utility for a particular applicat...

  8. Fermilab tevatron five refrigerator system tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, C.; Ferry, R.; Leiniger, M.; Makara, J.; Misek, J.; Mizicko, D.; Richied, D.; Theilacker, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron refrigeration system is described with the layout illustrated. The compressor control loops, the refrigerator control loops, and magnet control loops (two per refrigerator) are described and each illustrated. The mobile purifier is described. A five refrigerator test is presented, using two compressor buildings, satellite refrigerator concept test and the test current to the writing. The configuration of the five refrigerator test is diagramed

  9. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts and is desirable for longterm sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance

  10. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts is desirable for long-term sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance.

  11. Energy optimisation of domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the main results of a research project with the objective of reducing the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators by increasing the efficiency of the refrigeration system. The improvement of the system efficiency was to be obtained by:1) Introducing continuous operation ...

  12. Dynamics of gas bubble growth in oil-refrigerant mixtures under isothermal decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Joao Paulo; Barbosa Junior, Jader R.; Prata, Alvaro T. [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: jpdias@polo.ufsc.br, jrb@polo.ufsc.br, prata@polo.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper proposes a numerical model to predict the growth of gaseous refrigerant bubbles in oil-refrigerant mixtures with high contents of oil subjected to isothermal decompression. The model considers an Elementary Cell (EC) in which a spherical bubble is surrounded by a concentric and spherical liquid layer containing a limited amount of dissolved liquid refrigerant. The pressure reduction in the EC generates a concentration gradient at the bubble interface and the refrigerant is transported to the bubble by molecular diffusion. After a sufficiently long period of time, the concentration gradient in the liquid layer and the bubble internal pressure reach equilibrium and the bubble stops growing, having attained its stable radius. The equations of momentum and chemical species conservation for the liquid layer, and the mass balance at the bubble interface are solved via a coupled finite difference procedure to determine the bubble internal pressure, the refrigerant radial concentration distribution and the bubble growth rate. Numerical results obtained for a mixture of ISO VG10 ester oil and refrigerant HFC-134a showed that bubble growth dynamics depends on model parameters like the initial bubble radius, initial refrigerant concentration in the liquid layer, decompression rate and EC temperature. Despite its simplicity, the model showed to be a potential tool to predict bubble growth and foaming which may result from important phenomena occurring inside refrigeration compressors such as lubrication of sliding parts and refrigerant degassing from the oil stored in oil sump during compressor start-up. (author)

  13. Regulating Power from Supermarket Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    the Danfoss refrigeration test centre. The complexities of modelling demand response are demonstrated through simulation. Simulations are conducted by placing the identified model in a direct-control demand response architecture, with power reference tracking using model predictive control. The energylimited......This paper presents an analysis of the demand response capabilities of a supermarket refrigeration system, with a particular focus on the suitability for participation in the regulating power market. An ARMAX model of a supermarket refrigeration system is identified using experimental data from...... nature of demand response from refrigeration is identified as the key consideration when considering participation in the regulating power market. It is demonstrated that by restricting the operating regions of the supermarket refrigeration system, a simple relationship can be found between the available...

  14. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  15. Design of an ejector cycle refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazzini, G.; Milazzo, A.; Paganini, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A design procedure is presented for an ejection refrigeration system. ► Properties of applicable operating fluids are presented and R245fa is selected. ► Real gas properties are used. ► The diffuser is designed with a profile that controls momentum change. ► Fluid friction is accounted for along all main components. - Abstract: A design procedure, based on a one-dimensional simulation, is presented for an ejection refrigeration system. Heat exchangers are included in the calculation, accounting for temperature differences between the fluids and for pressure losses. The ideal gas assumption, which is quite common in the literature concerning ejector systems, is avoided. Furthermore, the supersonic diffuser is designed with a continuous profile, without cylindrical piece, controlling the variation of momentum along the flow path and accounting for friction. At design conditions, this should reduce the irreversibility due to the normal shock. A comparison between different operating fluids is presented and R245fa is selected. The results of the design procedure and the expected performance, in terms of first and second law efficiency, are presented.

  16. Quantum refrigerators and the third law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Amikam; Alicki, Robert; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-06-01

    The rate of temperature decrease of a cooled quantum bath is studied as its temperature is reduced to absolute zero. The third law of thermodynamics is then quantified dynamically by evaluating the characteristic exponent ζ of the cooling process dT(t)/dt∼-T^{ζ} when approaching absolute zero, T→0. A continuous model of a quantum refrigerator is employed consisting of a working medium composed either by two coupled harmonic oscillators or two coupled two-level systems. The refrigerator is a nonlinear device merging three currents from three heat baths: a cold bath to be cooled, a hot bath as an entropy sink, and a driving bath which is the source of cooling power. A heat-driven refrigerator (absorption refrigerator) is compared to a power-driven refrigerator. When optimized, both cases lead to the same exponent ζ, showing a lack of dependence on the form of the working medium and the characteristics of the drivers. The characteristic exponent is therefore determined by the properties of the cold reservoir and its interaction with the system. Two generic heat bath models are considered: a bath composed of harmonic oscillators and a bath composed of ideal Bose/Fermi gas. The restrictions on the interaction Hamiltonian imposed by the third law are discussed. In the Appendices, the theory of periodically driven open systems and its implication for thermodynamics are outlined.

  17. Parametric analysis and optimization for a combined power and refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangfeng; Dai Yiping; Gao Lin

    2008-01-01

    A combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine cycle and the absorption refrigeration cycle. This combined cycle uses a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid and produces both power output and refrigeration output simultaneously with only one heat source. A parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the performance of the combined cycle. It is shown that heat source temperature, environment temperature, refrigeration temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine inlet temperature, and basic solution ammonia concentration have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. A parameter optimization is achieved by means of genetic algorithm to reach the maximum exergy efficiency. The optimized exergy efficiency is 43.06% under the given condition

  18. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF A NEW COMBINED POWER AND REFRIGERATION CYCLE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezvantalab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new combined power and refrigeration cycle is proposed, which combines the Rankine and absorption refrigeration cycles. Using a binary ammonia-water mixture as the working fluid, this combined cycle produces both power and refrigeration output simultaneously by employing only one external heat source. In order to achieve the highest possible exergy efficiency, a secondary turbine is inserted to expand the hot weak solution leaving the boiler. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to simulate the thermodynamic properties and the relationship between the input thermodynamic variables on the cycle performance. It is shown that turbine inlet pressure, as well as heat source and refrigeration temperatures have significant effects on the net power output, refrigeration output and exergy efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the results of ANN are in excellent agreement with the mathematical simulation and cover a wider range for evaluation of cycle performance.

  19. Oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takanori; Imai, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    The time changes of the white line and pre-edge intensities of Co and Fe K-edge in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ (BSCF) were observed to estimate the oxide ion diffusion related to Co and Fe ions by using in - situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during oxidation. The 20 μm self-standing BSCF film was prepared for in - situ XAS measurements. The time changes of absorption were fitted to the exponential decay function with two terms. The longer relaxation time (τ), related to the oxide ion diffusion during the oxidation of BSCF, is dependent on temperature. The oxide ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from the τ s estimated by in - situ XAS. The values of the activation energy (Ea) for D related to Co K-edge white line, Co pre-edge, and Fe pre-edge were 1.8-2.0 eV. The value of Ea for D related to Fe K-edge white line, however, was higher than other absorption values at approximately 2.3 eV. We discussed the oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in BSCF using in - situ XAS.

  20. Performance of an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator operating in gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode with nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudath Nayak, H.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2009-07-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of auto refrigerant cascade (ARC) refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures. Both flammable and non-flammable refrigerant mixtures can be used in these systems. The performance of an ARC system with optimum nitrogen-hydrocarbon and argon-hydrocarbon mixtures between 90 and 160 K is presented in this paper.

  1. Architecture for Absorption Based Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed; Chugh, Devesh

    2018-04-24

    An absorption based heater is constructed on a fluid barrier heat exchanging plate such that it requires little space in a structure. The absorption based heater has a desorber, heat exchanger, and absorber sequentially placed on the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate. The vapor exchange faces of the desorber and the absorber are covered by a vapor permeable membrane that is permeable to a refrigerant vapor but impermeable to an absorbent. A process fluid flows on the side of the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate opposite the vapor exchange face through the absorber and subsequently through the heat exchanger. The absorption based heater can include a second plate with a condenser situated parallel to the fluid barrier heat exchanging plate and opposing the desorber for condensation of the refrigerant for additional heating of the process fluid.

  2. Evaluation of a system of refrigeration with absorption cycle using the direct burning of natural gas for tropical fruits storage; Avaliacao de um sistema de refrigeracao com ciclo de absorcao utilizando a queima direta de gas natural para armazenamento de frutas tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomeu, Lair S.; Torres, Ednildo A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia e Gas; Silva, Gabriel F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Martins, Ronaldo M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Materiais. CQDM; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia do Gas Natural. Rede GasEnergia

    2004-07-01

    This work has the purpose to analyze an alternative method in the conservation of tropical fruits in chamber cooled through the technology of use of the natural gas as energy source. The study it was carried through in chiller of absorption, Robur model, of 5TR, which meets in the campus of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS/LEG). The energy analysis had as objective to study the process involving the cycle and its components. Of the analysis of first law was gotten a power of refrigeration of 8,8 kW and a COP=0,32 and the analysis of second law {beta}=0,29. The exergetic analysis had for intention to evaluate the amount and the quality of the energy in the system. The heat generator was the component that presented the biggest irreversibility, whose relation with the total irreversibility was about 70%. In the absorber the lesser exergetic efficiency was verified. Project is supported by the GasEnergia/PETROBRAS. (author)

  3. Thermoacoustic refrigerator for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Steven L.; Adeff, Jay A.; Hofler, Thomas J.

    1993-10-01

    A new spacecraft cryocooler which uses resonant high-amplitude sound waves in inert gases to pump heat is described. The phasing of the thermoacoustic cycle is provided by thermal conduction. This 'natural' phasing allows the entire refrigerator to operate with only one moving part (the loudspeaker diaphragm). A space-qualified thermoacoustic refrigerator was flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-42) in January, 1992. It was entirely autonomous, had no sliding seals, required no lubrication, used mostly low-tolerance machined parts, and contained no expensive components. Thermoacoustics is shown to be a competitive candidate for food refrigerator/freezers and commercial/residential air conditioners. The design and performance of the Space Thermo/Acoustic Refrigerator (STAR) is described.

  4. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Overton, Jr., William C.; Stewart, Walter F.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  6. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A; Jurkowski, R [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  7. Performance of refrigerating machineries with new refrigerants; Performance des machines frigorifiques avec les nouveaux refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, A.; Jurkowski, R. [CIAT, 01 - Culoz (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a comparative study of the thermal performances of different refrigerants like R-22, R-134a, R-404A and R-407C when used as possible substitutes for the HCFC22 refrigerant in a given refrigerating machinery equipped with compact high performance plate exchangers. Thermal performances are compared in identical operating conditions. The behaviour of the two-phase exchange coefficient is analyzed with respect to the different parameters. The composition of the mixture after one year of operation has been analyzed too and the influence of oil on the performances is studied. (J.S.)

  8. Refrigeration plants for the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAshan, M.; Ganni, V.; Than, R.; Niehaus, T.

    1991-03-01

    The basic requirements and operating features of the collider cryogenic system have already been described in other publications. The general arrangement of the refrigeration plant and its subsystems is presented, and the issue of how to provide redundancy in the cryogenic system is addressed, and some of the basic features of the refrigeration plants are described. The collider cryogenic system design is not final yet, and this report only reflects the direction and current status of the cryogenic system design

  9. On the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward leveraged buyout transactions implementation during private equity investment in conditions of resonant absorption of discrete information in diffusion - type financial system with induced nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors perform an original research on the fundamentals of winning virtuous strategies creation toward the leveraged buyout transactions implementation during the private equity investment in the conditions of the resonant absorption of discrete information in the diffusion - type financial system with the induced nonlinearities at the influences by the Schumpeterian creative disruption processes in the free market economy. We propose that the money is a financial computing process, whic...

  10. Conception and simulation of an improved solar refrigeration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouachi, B.; Gabsi, S.

    2006-01-01

    If the solar energy possesses the advantage to be c lean , free and new able, this last is probably, considered like an adapted potential solution, that answers in even time at a economic preoccupation and ecological problems. Among the main done currently research is the use of free source to make operate system of refrigeration. following a bibliographic study on the absorption cycles, the utilized couples absorbents-refrigerating fluids and the capture of the solar energy, an unit refrigeration using an improved solar absorption cycle of ammonia has been conceived and studied. The simulation results in permanent regime concerned the determination of the variation of the performance criteria mainly according to the operatives kept for this study. The obtained results showed, that the improved mono pressure absorption cycle of ammonia is suitable well for the cold production by means of the solar energy and that with a simple plate collector we can reach a power, of the order of 900 watts sufficient for domestic use.(Author)

  11. Comparative analysis of performance and techno-economics for a H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2} absorption refrigerator driven by different energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Hieng, Tang Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering and Energy Sustainability, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    The objectives of the present work are of two-folds. First, it evaluates the transient temperature performance of the H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2} absorption cooling machine system's components under two types of energy sources, i.e. the conventional electric energy from grid (electric) and fuel energy from liquid petroleum gas (LPG). Results obtained have shown that performance of various components under different type of energy sources is almost coherent. For the evaporator, the system with electric supply has shorter starting time, around 6 min earlier than the system run with LPG. Meanwhile, the system powered by LPG produced a lower cooling temperature around -9 C, compared to the system run with electric which produced temperature at around -7 C. Economical study had been carried out subsequently, for three different energy sources, i.e. electric, LPG and solar energy (photovoltaic). From the techno-economical analyzes, it was found that the conventional electric from grid is still the best form of energy source for short-term application, as far as the present location and conditions are concerned. LPG is the next attractive energy source, especially at locations with constant LPG supply; the photovoltaic energy from solar is attractive for long term consideration since it has zero fuel cost and environmentally-friendly, but with the highest initial cost. (author)

  12. Refrigeration waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    UK Super A Stores was built in 1972 and is part of a small indoor shopping complex linked together by a heated mall. The store has a public floor area of approximately 1,232 m{sup 2} (13,261 ft.{sup 2}) and sells the usual variety of food produce including a large selection of frozen foods. There are five lengths of refrigerated display cabinets with a total area of approximately 78 m{sup 2}. There are also some frozen food storage rooms at the back of the store. This report provides a description of a waste heat recovery system within a medium sized food store. It details how the waste heat that is produced by the conventional frozen food display cabinets, can be reused by the store's space heating system. Recommended uses for this waste heat include: diverting to the loading bays which would make the reheat coil unnecessary, diverting to the front of the shop, and heating the adjacent shopping mall. The CREDA (Conservation and Renewable Energy Demonstration Assistance) program contributed $17,444 towards the total project cost of $30,444. The project was initiated by the store owner, who is now realizing a lower annual fuel consumption, with the resulting financial savings. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  14. Comparison and Analysis of Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers Using Plastic Heat Transfer Tubes and Traditional Lithium Bromide-water Absorption Chillers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue-dong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    There are extensive applications of lithium bromide-water absorption chillers in industry, but the heat exchangers corrosion and refrigerating capacity loss are very difficult to be solved. In this paper, an experiment was conducted by using plastic heat transfer tubes instead of copper tubes. As an example, for a lithium bromide-water absorption chiller of refrigerating capacity of 35kW, the correlative performance of the lithium bromide-water absorption chiller using pl...

  15. Novel refrigerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Cunningham, M.F.; Drury, O.B.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.E.; Fisher, P.A.; Gifford, P.

    2000-01-01

    In Section 1, we describe how the creation of quasiparticles by current flow through a normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junction degrades the cooling performance of the junction. Degradation occurs due to the absorption of recombination phonons in the normal electrode and due to a reduction in the cooling power. In Section 2, we describe how vibrations from a pulse tube mechanical cooler affect X-ray measurements performed with a superconducting tunnel junction

  16. Novel refrigerator development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, J.N.; Cunningham, M.F.; Drury, O.B.; Frank, M.; Friedrich, S.; Labov, S.E.; Fisher, P.A.; Gifford, P

    2000-04-07

    In Section 1, we describe how the creation of quasiparticles by current flow through a normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junction degrades the cooling performance of the junction. Degradation occurs due to the absorption of recombination phonons in the normal electrode and due to a reduction in the cooling power. In Section 2, we describe how vibrations from a pulse tube mechanical cooler affect X-ray measurements performed with a superconducting tunnel junction.

  17. Krypton based adsorption type cryogenic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Schember, Helene R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Krypton and a monolithic porous carbon such as Saran carbon are used respectively as the sorbate and sorbent of an adsorption type refrigerator to improve refrigeration efficiency and operational longevity.

  18. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  19. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized

  20. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  1. Refrigeration Cycle Design for Refrigerant Mixtures by Molecular Simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, W.R.; Francová, Magda; Kowalski, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2010), s. 383-391 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Grant - others:NSERC(CA) OGP1041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : refrigerants * molecular simulation s * vapor–liquid equilibrium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  2. 46 CFR 154.702 - Refrigerated carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.702 Refrigerated carriage. (a) Each refrigeration system must: (1) Have enough capacity to maintain the cargo vapor pressure in each cargo tank served by the system below... the purpose of this section, a “refrigeration unit” includes a compressor and its motors and controls...

  3. 49 CFR 173.174 - Refrigerating machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerating machines. 173.174 Section 173.174 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Refrigerating machines. A refrigerating machine assembled for shipment and containing 7 kg (15 pounds) or less...

  4. Solar Refrigerators Store Life-Saving Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Former Johnson Space Center engineer David Bergeron used his experience on the Advanced Refrigeration Technology Team to found SunDanzer Refrigeration Inc., a company specializing in solar-powered refrigerators. The company has created a battery-free unit that provides safe storage for vaccines in rural and remote areas around the world.

  5. Energy-optimised mini-refrigerators; Energieoptimierter Minikuehlschrank. Massnahmen zur Optimierung der Energieeffizienz von Minikuehlschraenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, A.

    2007-10-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at measures to be taken to optimise the energy-efficiency of small refrigerators. Such devices are typically to be found in hotel rooms and on boats as well as in caravans and motor homes. The majority of these mini-refrigerators use the absorption principle for cooling. Although less efficient than their compressor-driven counterparts, absorption refrigerators satisfy market requirements and customer wishes with regard to noiseless and maintenance-free operation. The report discusses how optimisation of the absorption principle could lead to energy savings in the long term. The operating principles and energy balances of such refrigerators are discussed and a market overview is presented. Energy consumption of the refrigerators, possible savings and energy costs are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various cooling systems are examined as are further possibilities for making savings such as the optimisation of sizing, installation methods, airflow factors and operating temperatures.

  6. Finite time thermodynamics of power and refrigeration cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Shubhash C; Kumar, Pramod

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the concept and applications of Finite Time Thermodynamics to various thermal energy conversion systems including heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. The book is the first of its kind, presenting detailed analytical formulations for the design and optimisation of various power producing and cooling cycles including but not limited to: • Vapour power cycles • Gas power cycles • Vapour compression cycles • Vapour absorption cycles • Rankine cycle coupled refrigeration systems Further, the book addresses the thermoeconomic analysis for the optimisation of thermal cycles, an important field of study in the present age and which is characterised by multi-objective optimization regarding energy, ecology, the environment and economics. Lastly, the book provides the readers with key techniques associated with Finite Time Thermodynamics, allowing them to understand the relevance of irreversibilitie s associated with real processes and the scientific r...

  7. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  8. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  9. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  10. Stability of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2009-01-01

    In many thermal systems spontaneous mechanical oscillations are generated under the influence of large temperature gradients. Well-known examples are Taconis oscillations in liquid-helium cryostats and oscillations in thermoacoustic systems. In split Stirling refrigerators the compressor and the

  11. Control of the Tevatron Satellite Refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilacker, J.; Chapman, L.; Gannon, J.; Hentges, M.; Martin, M.; Rode, C.H.; Zagel, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a computerized control system for 24 satellite refrigerators which cool a six kilometer ring of superconducting magnets. The control system consists of 31 independent microprocessors operating over 400 servo loops, and a central computer system which provides monitoring, alarms, logging and changing of parameters. Topics considered include pressure measurement, flow measurement, temperature measurement, gas analysis, control valves, expansion engine controllers, and control loops. Each refrigerator has 12 active microprocessor based control loops which tune the refrigerator to one of its four operating modes: satellite, liquefier, refrigerator, and stand-by. It is suggested that optimizing the refrigerator control loops and quench recovery scheme will minimize the accelerator down time

  12. Efficiency improvement of commercial refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Julius [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents a historical review of carbon dioxide refrigeration systems. Further a literature survey is carried out to get a status of existing refrigeration technology related to supermarkets. In the next step various energy saving options are stated. A heat recovery model, basing on a R744 booster refrigeration system is established and described. Simplified demand curves for refrigeration, air conditioning and heating will base this model to calculate different heat recovery layouts. Supermarket future trends will be considered and integrated in the calculation. Finally the calculated energy consumptions will be compared with real energy consumptions of selected supermarket refrigeration systems.

  13. Overall performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbay, L. Berrin; Ozturk, M. Mete; Doğan, Bahadır

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Overall performance coefficient of duplex Stirling refrigerator was investigated. • A definite region for the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator in duplex Stirling is identified. • A definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine in duplex Stirling is identified. • Benchmark values and design bounds of the duplex Stirling refrigerator were obtained. - Abstract: The duplex Stirling refrigerator is an integrated refrigerator consists of Stirling cycle engine and Stirling cycle refrigerator used for cooling. The equality of the work generation of the heat engine to the work consumption of the refrigerator is the primary constraint of the duplex Stirling. The duplex Stirling refrigerator is investigated thermodynamically by considering the effects of constructional and operational parameters which are namely the temperature ratios for heat engine and refrigerator, and the compression ratios for both sides. The primary concern is given to the parametric effects on the overall coefficient of performance of the duplex Stirling refrigerator. The given diagrams provide a design bounds and benchmark results that allows seeing the big picture about the cooling load and heat input relation. Moreover they ease to determine the corresponding work rate to the target cooling load. As regard to the obtained results, a definite region for coefficient of performance of the refrigerator and a definite region for the thermal efficiency of the heat engine of the duplex Stirling are identified.

  14. Environment-friendly refrigeration - Switzerland moves forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Silvan Schaller, president of the Swiss Refrigeration Society SVK and head of a leading Swiss industrial refrigeration company, on the subject of the implementation of new Swiss materials legislation that regulates the use of various refrigerants. In particular, the co-operation between the Society and the regulatory authorities is stressed. The reasons behind the regulations - the protection of the environment and, in particular, the ozone layer - are discussed as are the efforts required by industry to meet them. Future refrigeration technologies and the choice of refrigerants are examined. Measures that will have to be taken by the companies in the refrigeration sector, such as the additional training of personnel and the monitoring of the disposal of wastes, are examined. For the future, the goal of reducing the energy consumption of refrigeration installations is noted

  15. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan, E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-12-18

    Highlights: • A three-terminal quantum dot refrigerator is proposed. • The effects of magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization are considered. • The region that the system can work as a refrigerator is determined. • Two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared. - Abstract: A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  16. 2016 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte- und Klimatagung 2016. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Large cryogenic facilities, relief valves, liquid helium, liquid-nitrogen and liquid hydrogen cooling, new concepts, foundations and materials of the heat-pump techniques, evaporation, phase-change materials, absorption, afterheat usage, ionic liquids, sorption, condensers, heat exchangers, back-cooling systems, refrigerants, caron dioxide, mobile applications, efficiency and optimization, air conditioning.

  17. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-04-19

    Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as "electric refrigerators") at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar refrigerator prices. Copyright © 2017. Published

  18. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  19. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  20. When are solar refrigerators less costly than on-grid refrigerators: A simulation modeling study☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Wedlock, Patrick; Connor, Diana L.; Spiker, Marie; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Gavi recommends solar refrigerators for vaccine storage in areas with less than eight hours of electricity per day, and WHO guidelines are more conservative. The question remains: Can solar refrigerators provide value where electrical outages are less frequent? Methods Using a HERMES-generated computational model of the Mozambique routine immunization supply chain, we simulated the use of solar versus electric mains-powered refrigerators (hereafter referred to as “electric refrigerators”) at different locations in the supply chain under various circumstances. Results At their current price premium, the annual cost of each solar refrigerator is 132% more than each electric refrigerator at the district level and 241% more at health facilities. Solar refrigerators provided savings over electric refrigerators when one-day electrical outages occurred more than five times per year at either the district level or the health facilities, even when the electric refrigerator holdover time exceeded the duration of the outage. Two-day outages occurring more than three times per year at the district level or more than twice per year at the health facilities also caused solar refrigerators to be cost saving. Lowering the annual cost of a solar refrigerator to 75% more than an electric refrigerator allowed solar refrigerators to be cost saving at either level when one-day outages occurred more than once per year, or when two-day outages occurred more than once per year at the district level or even once per year at the health facilities. Conclusion Our study supports WHO and Gavi guidelines. In fact, solar refrigerators may provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electrical refrigerators when electrical outages are less frequent. Our study identified the frequency and duration at which electrical outages need to occur for solar refrigerators to provide savings in total cost per dose administered over electric refrigerators at different solar

  1. Thermal flow regulator of refrigerant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinskij, S.I.; Savchenko, A.G.; Suplin, V.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal flow regulator of refrigerant for helium flow-type temperature-controlled cryostats based on controlling the channel hydraulic resistance due to variation of the flow density and viscosity during liquid helium transformation into the gaseous state. Behind the regulator both two-phase flow and a heated gas can be produced. The regulator resolution is (7-15)x10 -4 l/mW of liquid helium

  2. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D.G. [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  3. Study of the influence of chemical binding on resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons; Etude de l'influence des liaisons chimiques sur l'absorption et la diffusion des neutrons aux energies de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naberejnev, D G [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-02-01

    At present time the problem of taking into account of the crystalline binding in the heavy nuclei resonance range is not correctly treated in nuclear data processing codes. The present work deals separately with resonant absorption and scattering of neutrons. The influence of crystalline binding is considered for both types of reactions in the harmonic crystal frame work. The harmonic crystal model is applied to the study of resonant absorption cross sections to show the inconsistency of the free gas model widely in use in reactor neutronics. The errors due to the use of the latter were found to be non negligible. These errors should be corrected by introducing a more elaborated harmonic crystal model in codes for resonances analysis and on the nuclear data processing stage. Currently the influence of crystalline binding on transfer cross section in the resonance domain is taken into account in a naive manner using the model of the free nucleus at rest in the laboratory system. In this work I present a formalism (Uncoupled Phonon Approximation) which permits to consider in more detail the crystalline structure of the nuclear fuel. This formalism shows new features in comparison with the static model. (author)

  4. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, K

    2012-01-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4 He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4 He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  5. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  6. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  7. Combined influence of radiation absorption and Hall current effects on MHD double-diffusive free convective flow past a stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sreedevi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the influence of radiation absorption, variable viscosity, Hall current of a magnetohydrodynamic free-convective flow and heat and mass transfer over a stretching sheet in the presence of heat generation/absorption. The fluid viscosity is assumed to vary as an inverse linear function of temperature. The boundary-layer equations governing the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer under consideration have been reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by employing a similarity transformation. Using the finite difference scheme, numerical solutions to the transform ordinary differential equations have been obtained and the results are presented graphically. The numerical results obtained are in good agreement with the existing scientific literature.

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  9. 2017 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This year's lecture programme includes 117 presentations in the five working departments of DKV and 10 lectures at the special event ''Energy-efficient air conditioning in data centres''. The main topics in the respective departments were: (1) Cryogenics: Space applications; Cryogenic plants; Cryomedicine and cryobiology; Components, developments; Processes and plants; Valves, design. (2) Basics: Evaporation, material values; evaporation, condensation; absorption; adsorption, latent storage; cycle simulation. (3) Components: CO 2 plant engineering and components; refrigerants; process control, adsorption, sublimation and storage technology; refrigerating machine oils, heat exchangers and corrosion; components 4.0, sensors and control technology; simulation of plant processes. (4) Cold application: Application; Application / Natural Refrigerants; Mobile Applications Car; Mobile Applications; Supermarket / Efficiency; Optimization / Efficiency. (5) Air conditioning and heat pump applications: load shifting, smart home, flexibility; heat sources and industrial heat pumps; modelling, simulations; energy concepts heat pumps and photovoltaics; monitoring, evaluation; technology trends / working materials. Six papers are separately analyzed for this database. [de

  10. Functional Dependence of Thermodynamic and Thermokinetic Parameters of Refrigerants Used in Mine Air Refrigerators. Part 1 - Refrigerant R407C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bernard; Życzkowski, Piotr; Łuczak, Rafał

    2017-03-01

    The authors of this article dealt with the issue of modeling the thermodynamic and thermokinetic properties (parameters) of refrigerants. The knowledge of these parameters is essential to design refrigeration equipment, to perform their energy efficiency analysis, or to compare the efficiency of air refrigerators using different refrigerants. One of the refrigerants used in mine air compression refrigerators is R407C. For this refrigerant, 23 dependencies were developed, determining its thermodynamic and thermokinetic parameters in the states of saturated liquid, dry saturated vapour, superheated vapor, subcooled liquid, and in the two-phase region. The created formulas have been presented in Tables 2, 5, 8, 10 and 12, respectively. It should be noted that the scope of application of these formulas is wider than the range of changes of that refrigerant during the normal operation of mine refrigeration equipment. The article ends with the statistical verification of the developed dependencies. For this purpose, for each model correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination were calculated, as well as absolute and relative deviations between the given values from the program REFPROP 7 (Lemmon et al., 2002) and the calculated ones. The results of these calculations have been contained in Tables 14 and 15.

  11. 10 CFR 431.62 - Definitions concerning commercial refrigerators, freezers and refrigerator-freezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... functional characteristics that affect energy consumption. Commercial refrigerator, freezer, and refrigerator... formed by the plane of the door, when the equipment is viewed in cross-section; and (2) For equipment...

  12. HeREF-2003: Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 Cost per participant: 500.- CHF Language: Bilingual English...

  13. HeREF-2003 : Helium Refrigeration Techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! Theory, Technology, Maintenance and Control of Helium Refrigerators HeREF-2003 is a course in the framework of the 2002 Technical Training Programme, that will provide a complete introduction to Helium refrigeration, with a practical approach to theory, technology, maintenance and control of Helium refrigeration installations. Theoretical aspects and equations will be limited to a minimum. HeREF-2003 targets an audience of technicians and operators of Helium refrigeration plants at CERN, as well as physicists and engineers needing an overview of current Helium refrigeration techniques. HeREF-2003 will address, among other, issues related to component technology, installation maintenance, process control and Helium purity. A commented visit to a couple of CERN Helium refrigeration or liquefaction plants will also take place. • Duration: 7 half days (4 mornings and 3 afternoons), 6-10 October, 2003 • Cost per participant: 500.- CHF ...

  14. Not all counterclockwise thermodynamic cycles are refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. H.; Mottmann, J.

    2016-06-01

    Clockwise cycles on PV diagrams always represent heat engines. It is therefore tempting to assume that counterclockwise cycles always represent refrigerators. This common assumption is incorrect: most counterclockwise cycles cannot be refrigerators. This surprising result is explored here for quasi-static ideal gas cycles, and the necessary conditions for refrigeration cycles are clarified. Three logically self-consistent criteria can be used to determine if a counterclockwise cycle is a refrigerator. The most fundamental test compares the counterclockwise cycle with a correctly determined corresponding Carnot cycle. Other criteria we employ include a widely accepted description of the functional behavior of refrigerators, and a corollary to the second law that limits a refrigerator's coefficient of performance.

  15. Magnetocaloric refrigeration near room temperature (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueck, E.; Tegus, O.; Thanh, D.T.C.; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Modern society relies on readily available refrigeration. The ideal cooling machine would be a compact, solid state, silent and energy-efficient heat pump that does not require maintenance. Magnetic refrigeration has three prominent advantages compared to compressor-based refrigeration. First, there are no harmful gases involved, second it may be built more compact as the working material is a solid and third magnetic refrigerators generate much less noise. Recently, a new class of magnetic refrigerant materials for room-temperature applications was discovered. These new materials have important advantages over existing magnetic coolants: They exhibit a large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in conjunction with a magnetic phase transition of first order. This MCE is, larger than that of Gd metal, which is used in the demonstration refrigerators built to explore the potential of this evolving technology. In the present review, we compare the different materials considering both scientific aspects and industrial applicability

  16. Optimum operating regimes of common paramagnetic refrigerants

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; Figueroa-Feliciano, E

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs) are commonly used in cryogenic laboratories to achieve subkelvin temperatures. ADRs are also the technology of choice for several space borne instruments which make use of cryogenic microcalorimeters or bolometers {[}1-4]. For these applications, refrigerants with high ratios of cooling capacity to volume, or cooling capacity to mass are usually required. In this manuscript, two charts for the simple selection of the most suitable of several common refrigerants (CAA, CMN, CPA, DGG, FAA, GGG, GLF and MAS) are presented. These graphs are valid for single stage cycles. The selection of the refrigerants is uniquely dependent on the starting conditions of the refrigeration cycle (temperature and magnetic field density) and the desired final temperature. Only thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants have been taken into account, and other important factors such as availability and manufacturability have not been considered. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserve...

  17. Ecological optimization for generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Zhu Xiaoqin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2005-01-01

    The optimal ecological performance of a Newton's law generalized irreversible Carnot refrigerator with the losses of heat resistance, heat leakage and internal irreversibility is derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the exergy output rate and exergy loss rate (entropy production rate) of the refrigerator. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of heat leakage and internal irreversibility on the optimal performance of generalized irreversible refrigerators

  18. Evaluation of Virtual Refrigerant Mass Flow Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Refrigerant mass flow rate is an important measurement for monitoring equipment performance and enabling fault detection and diagnostics. However, a traditional mass flow meter is expensive to purchase and install. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements and can potentially be implemented at low cost. This study evaluates three VRMFs for estimating refrigerant mass flow rate. The first model uses a compressor ma...

  19. Adsorption refrigeration technology theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi

    2014-01-01

    Gives readers a detailed understanding of adsorption refrigeration technology, with a focus on practical applications and environmental concerns Systematically covering the technology of adsorption refrigeration, this book provides readers with a technical understanding of the topic as well as detailed information on the state-of-the-art from leading researchers in the field. Introducing readers to background on the development of adsorption refrigeration, the authors also cover the development of adsorbents, various thermodynamic theories, the design of adsorption systems and adsorption refri

  20. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  1. United States: refrigeration industry blows hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the Kyoto convention on global warming, the american refrigeration industries have undertaken several organizations and contacts with governments and agencies in order to explain the real issues concerning the effects of refrigerant utilization in refrigerating machines on the greenhouse effect, taking into consideration the commercial impact that a ban on certain refrigerants could have on the industry's business. They argue that HFC utilization in this industry is fundamentally non-emissive and that important improvements have been realized concerning tightness and energy consumption

  2. Rotary magnetic refrigerator for superfluid helium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakuraku, Y.; Ogata, H.

    1986-01-01

    A new rotary-magnetic refrigerator designed to obtain superfluid helium temperatures by executing a magnetic Carnot cycle is developed. A rotor containing 12 magnetic refrigerants (gadolinium-gallium-garnet) is immersed in liquid helium at 4.2 K and rotated at constant speed in a steady magnetic field distribution. Performance tests demonstrate that the new rotary refrigerator is capable of obtaining a temperature of 1.48 K. The maximum useful cooling power obtained at 1.8 K is 1.81 W which corresponds to a refrigeration efficiency of 34%

  3. Optical refrigeration for ultra-efficient photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Assaf; Martin, Leopoldo L.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2015-03-01

    The Shockley-Queisser (SQ) efficiency limit for single-junction photovoltaic cell (PV) is to a great extent due to inherent heat dissipation accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermophotovoltaics1,2,3 (STPV) and thermo-photonics4 aim to harness this dissipated heat, claiming very high theoretical limit. In practice, none of these concepts have been experimentally proven to overcome the SQ limit, mainly due to the very high operating temperatures, which significantly challenge electro-optical devices. In contrast to the above concepts for harnessing thermal emission at thermal equilibrium, Photoluminescence (PL) is a fundamental light-matter interaction under non-thermal equilibrium, which conventionally involves the absorption of energetic photon, thermalization and the emission of a red-shifted photon. Conversely, in optical-refrigeration the absorption of low energy photon is followed by endothermic-PL of energetic photon5,6. Both aspects were mainly studied where thermal population is far weaker than photonic excitation, obscuring the generalization of PL and thermal emissions. Here we experimentally study endothermic-PL at high temperatures7. In accordance with theory, we show how PL photon rate is conserved with temperature increase, while each photon is blue shifted. Further rise in temperature leads to an abrupt transition to thermal emission where the photon rate increases sharply. We also show how endothermic-PL generates orders of magnitude more energetic photons than thermal emission at similar temperatures. Relying on these observations, we propose and study thermally enhanced PL (TEPL) for highly efficient solar-energy conversion. Here, solar radiation is absorbed by a low-bandgap PL material. The dissipated heat is emitted by endothermic PL, and harvested by a higher-bandgap photovoltaic cell. While such device operates at much lower temperatures than STPV, the theoretical efficiencies

  4. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  5. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,820 clean survey responses were obtained from four distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 2.9(–2.5,+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  6. Toward the optimization of electronic refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jug, B; Trontelj, Z

    2008-01-01

    Normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) junction can act as refrigerator of electron gas in a normal metal electrode under certain conditions. If majority of high energy electrons in a normal metal is moved with a bias voltage to energy levels above the superconductor's energy gap, their extraction from a normal metal is enabled by tunnelling. Their substitution with lower energy electrons results in lowering of the normal metal electron gas energy. Due to excess quasiparticle density in the superconductive electrode in vicinity of the junction, which is a result of tunnelling of quasiparticles from the normal metal and low capability of removal of these particles from the junction area the cooling capability of junctions deteriorates at lower environment temperatures. This is mainly the results of back tunnelling of excess quasiparticles to a normal metal and of dissipated energy, released by Coooper pair formation in proximity of the junction. Quantitative description of quasiparticle behavior in the superconductive electrode of the NIS junction is given. Energy dependent diffusion of quasiparticles in superconductor, their consumption due to Cooper pair creation and inflow of additional quasiparticles from a normal metal are considered. The model results in position dependence of quasiparticles' density in the junction proximity

  7. Solar-driven refrigeration technologies; Koeltechnologieen op zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cillis, S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Krieg, J. [Unilever Foods and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    A review is presented of solar driven refrigeration technologies. A subdivision is made between electric driven and thermal driven systems. Their potential and stage of development are discussed. The electric driven systems include Stirling, thermo-acoustic, thermoelectric, electrochemical and membrane assisted absorption systems. The thermal driven systems include absorption and adsorption systems. A model is used to compare the performance of the different solutions. [Dutch] Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van zon-aangedreven koeltechnologieen. Er wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen elektrisch en thermisch aangedreven systemen. Hun potentieel en niveau van ontwikkeling worden besproken. De elektrisch aangedreven systemen omvatten Stirling, thermo-akoestisch, thermo-elektrisch, elektrochemisch en membraanondersteund absorptiesystemen.De warmte-aangedreven systemen omvatten absorptie en adsorptie. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van een model om de prestaties van de verschillende alternatieven onderling te vergelijken.

  8. Second law analysis of double effect vapour absorption cooler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Hakimi, Riad

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, exergy analysis of double effect lithium bromide/water absorption refrigeration system is presented. The system consists of a second effect generator between the generator and condenser of the single effect absorption refrigeration system, including two solution heat exchangers between the absorber and the two generators. In order to simulate the refrigeration system by using a computer, a new set of computationally efficient formulations of thermodynamic properties of lithium bromide/water solution developed is used. The exergy analysis is carried out for each component of the system. All exergy losses that exist in double effect lithium bromide/water absorption system are calculated. In addition to the coefficient of performance and the exergetic efficiency of the system, the number of exergy of each component of the system is also estimated. This study suggests the component of the absorption refrigeration system that should be developed. The results show that the performance of the system increases with increasing low pressure generator (LPG) temperature, but decreases with increasing high pressure generator (HPG) temperature. The highest exergy loss occurs in the absorber and in the HPG, which therefore makes the absorber and HPG the most important components of the double effect refrigeration system

  9. Outlooks for the development of ozone-safe refrigerant production at the Minatom facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Orekhov, V.T.; Dedov, A.S.; Zakharov, V.Yu.; Golubev, A.N.; Tsarev, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results of activities undertaken at the All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology since 1988, which were aimed at search of new methods of synthesis of ozone-safe refrigerants, using depleted uranium hexafluoride waste formed at gas-diffusion plants as fluorinating agent, are considered. It is pointed out that major advantages of the flowsheets making use of UF 6 versus traditional method consist in the fact that the processes are conducted in gas phase under normal pressure and moderate temperatures with UF 6 transfer into a more environmentally friendly form. Outlooks for expansion of production of ozone-safe refrigerants by the method described are discussed [ru

  10. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  11. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  12. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  13. Refrigeration and air-conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    Hundy, G H; Welch, T C

    2008-01-01

    Now in its fourth edition, this respected text delivers a comprehensive introduction to the principles and practice of refrigeration. Clear and straightforward, it is designed for students (NVQ/vocational level) and professional HVAC engineers, including those on short or CPD courses. Inexperienced readers are provided with a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the technology. With its concise style yet broad sweep the book covers most of the applications professionals will encounter, enabling them to understand, specify, commission, use and maintain these systems. Many readers w

  14. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  15. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I; Klemsdal, E [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P; Hornut, J M [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1998-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  16. Evolution of absorption machines; Evolution des machines a absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soide, I.; Klemsdal, E. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Le Goff, P.; Hornut, J.M. [LSGC-ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1997-12-31

    Most of todays absorption air-conditioning machineries use the lithium bromide-water pair. The most performing can operate at a 150-160 deg. C, the temperature being limited by the corrosion resistance of metals with respect to LiBr solutions. Also, there is a revival of interest for water-ammonia systems. These systems require the use of a rectification column which reduces the coefficient of performance. Higher thermal performances are reached with hydrocarbon pairs and ternary mixtures (water-methanol-LiBr etc..). This paper presents different schemes of refrigerating heat pumps based on these different systems. (J.S.)

  17. 46 CFR 147.90 - Refrigerants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .../ASHRAE 34-78 may be carried as ships' stores. (b) Refrigerants contained in a vessel's operating system... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigerants. 147.90 Section 147.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES HAZARDOUS SHIPS' STORES Stowage and Other...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene...

  19. Refrigeration: Introducing energy saving opportunities for business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In some industries, most notably food and drink and chemicals, refrigeration accounts for a significant proportion of overall site energy costs. For instance, in the industrial handling of meat, poultry and fish, it often accounts for 50% of total energy costs. In ice-cream production the proportion is 70%. In a number of commercial sectors, refrigeration also represents a significant proportion of overall energy costs. For example: Cold storage 90%; Food supermarkets 50%; Small shops with refrigerated cabinets 70% or over; Pubs and clubs 30%. Against these high costs, even a small reduction in refrigeration energy use can offer significant cost savings, resulting in increased profits. Energy saving need not be expensive. Energy savings of up to 20% can be realised in many refrigeration plant through actions that require little or no investment. In addition, improving the efficiency and reducing the load on a refrigeration plant can improve reliability and reduce the likelihood of a breakdown. Most organisations can save energy and money on refrigeration by: More efficient equipment; Good maintenance; Housekeeping and control. This publication provides an understanding of the operation of refrigeration systems, identifies where savings can be realised and will enable readers to present an informed case on energy savings to key decision makers within their organisation. (GB)

  20. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  1. Environmentally benign working pairs for adsorption refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Qun; Tao Gang; Chen Haijun; Guo Xinyue; Yao Huqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins from adsorption working pairs: water and ethanol were selected as refrigerants; 13x molecular sieve, silica gel, activated carbon, adsorbent NA and NB, proposed by authors, were selected as adsorbents, and the performance of adsorption working pairs in adsorption refrigeration cycle was studied. The adsorption isotherms of adsorbents (NA and NB) were obtained by high-vacuum gravimetric method. Desorption properties of adsorbents were analyzed and compared by thermal analysis method. The performance of adsorption refrigeration was studied on simulation device of adsorption refrigeration cycle. After presentation of adsorption isotherms, the thermodynamic performance for their use in adsorption refrigeration system was calculated. The results show: (1) the maximum adsorption capacity of water on adsorbent NA reaches 0.7 kg/kg, and the maximum adsorption capacity of ethanol on adsorbent NB is 0.68 kg/kg, which is three times that of ethanol on activated carbon, (2) the refrigeration capacity of NA-water working pair is 922 kJ/kg, the refrigeration capacity of NB-ethanol is 2.4 times that of activated carbon-methanol, (3) as environmental friendly and no public hazard adsorption working pair, NA-H 2 O and NB-ethanol can substitute activated carbon-methanol in adsorption refrigeration system using low-grade heat source

  2. Evaluation of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Devices in Energy Cascade Systems under the Restriction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is necessary to introduce energy cascade systems into the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the refrigerating and air conditioning devices in cases of introducing both energy cascade systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. The authors have developed an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions results in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature one is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustor waste heat can reduce electric power for the turbo refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator.

  3. Sorption compressor/mechanical expander hybrid refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with Deep Space Network (DSN) ground-based cryogenic refrigerators has proved the reliability of the basic two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium refrigerator. A very long life cryogenic refrigeration system appears possible by combining this expansion system or a turbo expansion system with a hydride sorption compressor in place of the usual motor driven piston compressor. To test the feasibility of this system, a commercial Gifford-McMahon refrigerator was tested using hydrogen gas as the working fluid. Although no attempt was made to optimize the system for hydrogen operation, the refrigerator developed 1.3 W at 30 K and 6.6 W at 60 K. The results of the test and of theoretical performances of the hybrid compressor coupled to these expansion systems are presented.

  4. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

  5. Operating Manual of Helium Refrigerator (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K.M.; Son, S.H.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, M.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    A helium refrigerator was installed as a supplier of 20K cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system of WTRF pilot plant. The operating procedures of the helium refrigerator, helium compressor and auxiliary apparatus are described for the safety and efficient operation in this manual. The function of the helium refrigerator is to remove the impurities from the compressed helium of about 250psig, to cool down the helium from ambient temperature to 20K through the heat exchanger and expansion engine and to transfer the cold helium to the cryogenic distillation system. For the smoothly operation of helium refrigerator, the preparation, the start-up, the cool-down and the shut-down of the helium refrigerator are described in this operating manual. (author). 3 refs., 14 tabs.

  6. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  7. Review of investigations in eco-friendly thermoacoustic refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raut Ashish S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, internationally research and development is intended to improve the performance of conventional refrigeration system also growth of new-fangled refrigeration technology of potentially much lesser ecological impact. This paper gives brief review of research and development in thermoacoustic refrigeration also the existing situation of thermoacoustic refrigeration system. Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a novel sort of energy conversion equipment which converts acoustic power into heat energy by thermoacoustic effect. Thermoacoustic refrigeration is an emergent refrigeration technology in which there are no moving elements or any environmentally injurious refrigerants during its working. The concept of thermoacoustic refrigeration system is explained, the growth of thermoacoustic refrigeration, various investigations into thermoacoustic refrigeration system, various optimization techniques to improve coefficient of performance, different stacks and resonator tube designs to improve heat transfer rate, various gases, and other parameters like sound generation have been reviewed.

  8. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.A.M.; El-Shaarawi, M.A.I.; Siddiqui, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  9. The molecular chemistry of diffuse and translucent clouds in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2: Absorption by simple organic and inorganic molecules in the GBT PRIMOS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, J. F.; McGuire, B. A.; Herbst, E.; Remijan, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    The 1-50 GHz PRebiotic Interstellar MOlecular Survey (PRIMOS) contains 50 molecular absorption lines observed in clouds located in the line-of-sight to Sgr B2(N). The line-of-sight material is associated with diffuse and translucent clouds located in the Galactic center, bar, and spiral arms in the disk. We measured the column densities and estimate abundances, relative to H2, of 11 molecules and additional isotopologues observed in this material. We used absorption by optically thin transitions of c-C3H2 to estimate the molecular hydrogen columns, and argue that this method is preferable to more commonly used methods. We discuss the kinematic structure and abundance patterns of small molecules including the sulfur-bearing species CS, SO, CCS, H2CS, and HCS+; oxygen-bearing molecules OH, SiO, and H2CO; and simple hydrocarbon molecules c-C3H2, l-C3H, and l-C3H+. Finally, we discuss the implications of the observed chemistry for the structure of the gas and dust in the ISM. Highlighted results include the following. First, whereas gas in the disk has a molecular hydrogen fraction of 0.65, clouds on the outer edge of the Galactic bar and in or near the Galactic center have molecular fractions of 0.85 and >0.9, respectively. Second, we observe trends in isotope ratios with Galactocentric distance; while carbon and silicon show enhancement of the rare isotopes at low Galactocentric distances, sulfur exhibits no trend with Galactocentric distance. We also determine that the ratio of c-C3H2/c-H13CCCH provides a good estimate of the 12C/13C ratio, whereas H2CO/H213CO exhibits fractionation. Third, we report the presence of l-C3H+ in diffuse clouds for the first time. Finally, we suggest that CS has an enhanced abundance within higher density clumps of material in the disk, and therefore may be diagnostic of cloud conditions. If this holds, the diffuse clouds in the Galactic disk contain multiple embedded hyperdensities in a clumpy structure, and the density profile is not

  10. Manufacturing A Refrigerator with Heat Recovery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to exploite the rejected heating energy from condenser and benefit from it to reheat the foods and other materials. It can also be employed to improve the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator at the same time by using approximately the same consumption electrical energy used to operate the compressor and refrigerator in general. This idea has been implemented by manufacturing of a refrigerator with using additional part has the same metal and condenser pipe diameters but its surface area does not exceed 40% from total surface area of the condenser and its design as an insulated cabinet from all sides to prevent heat leakage through it and located between the compressor and the condenser. Small electrical fan has been added inside this cabinet to provide a suitable air circulation and a homogenous temperature distribution inside the cabinet space. It is expected that the super heating energy of refrigerant (R134a which comes out of the compressor would be removed  inside this cabinet and this insist to condensate the refrigerant (cooling fluid with a rate higher than that used in the normal refrigerator only. Three magnetic valves have been used in order to control the refrigerant flow in state of operation the refrigerator only or to gather with heating cabinet. To measure the temperatures at each process of the simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle, nine temperature sensors at input and output of each compressor, condenser and an evaporator in additional to input of cabinet and inside it and on evaporator surface have been provided. Five pressure gages have been used to measure the value of pressure and compare it for the two states of operation. The consumption of electrical energy  can be calculated by adding an ammeter and a voltmeter and compare between the consumption energy of both states. The obtained results show that there is an improvement in the coeffecient of performance in state of operation the

  11. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. ► Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  12. Refrigerating liquid prototype for LED's thermal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faranda, Roberto; Guzzetti, Stefania; Lazaroiu, George Cristian; Leva, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The heat management is the critical factor for high performance operation of LED. A new heat management application of refrigerating liquid integrated within a fabricated prototype is proposed and investigated. A series of experiments considering different heights of liquid level were performed to evaluate the heat dissipation performance and optical characteristics of the refrigerating liquid based prototype. The results reveal that the junction temperature decreases as the level of refrigerating liquid increases. The experimental results report that the refrigerating liquid reduces the junction temperature, and can positively influence the luminous radiation performances. An optimization investigation of the proposed solution was carried out to find an optimum thermal performance. The experiments indicated that refrigerating liquid cooling is a powerful way for heat dissipation of high power LEDs, and the fabrication of prototype was feasible and useful. - Highlights: ► New heat management application of refrigerating liquid on a fabricated LED prototype. ► Thermal models setup and comparison between the classical and the new solutions. ► The impact of refrigerating liquid level on LED thermal and luminous performances. ► The relationship between different levels of liquid with LED prototype performances.

  13. Data-Driven Control of Refrigeration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper

    Refrigeration is used in a wide range of applications, e.g., for storage of food at low temperatures to prolong shelf life and in air conditioning for occupancy comfort. The main focus of this thesis is control of supermarket refrigeration systems. This market is very competitive and it is import......Refrigeration is used in a wide range of applications, e.g., for storage of food at low temperatures to prolong shelf life and in air conditioning for occupancy comfort. The main focus of this thesis is control of supermarket refrigeration systems. This market is very competitive...... traditionally are a pressure and a temperature sensor. In this thesis, a novel maximum slope-seeking (MSS) control method is developed. This has resulted in a control implementation, which successfully has been able to control the evaporator superheat in four widely different refrigeration system test...... problems. The method utilizes the qualitative nonlinearity in the system and harmonic analysis of a perturbation signal to reach an unknown, but suitable, operating point. Another important control task in refrigeration systems is to maintain the temperature of the refrigerated space or foodstuff within...

  14. 46 CFR 111.79-15 - Receptacles for refrigerated containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receptacles for refrigerated containers. 111.79-15... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Receptacles § 111.79-15 Receptacles for refrigerated containers. Receptacles for refrigerated containers must meet one of the following: (a) Each receptacle for refrigerated...

  15. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...... for handling the non-linear relations and that after applying an auto-regressive noise model the one-step ahead residuals do not contain further significant information....... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  16. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  17. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  18. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  19. Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue

    2013-01-01

    Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b

  20. ESO2 Optimization of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Madsen, Henrik; Heerup, Christian

    Supermarket refrigeration systems consists of a number of display cases, cooling cabinets and cold rooms connected to a central compressor pack. This configuration saves energy compared to placing a compressor at each cooling site. The classical control setup of a supermarket refrigeration system...... in the supermarket. The first approach to solve this problem is to design an overall control system which coordinates the compressor capacity and the current refrigeration load. The drawback of this approach is the complexity of the single controller. The solution is investigated in the first part of the report...

  1. Behavior of FFC refrigerants in the presence of refrigerant oils. Oelverhalten chlorfreier Kaeltemittel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, M.; Kruse, H. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kaeltetechnik und Angewandte Waermetechnik)

    1990-01-01

    Looking for substitutes for the ozone-depleting refrigerants R12 and R22, investigations were made of the miscibility of FFC refrigerants (R23 - trifluoromethane CHF{sub 3}, R134a - tetrafluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}, and R152a - difluoroethane CH{sub 3}-CHF{sub 2}) with refrigerator oils. First experimental results reveal the refrigerants' behavior when mixed with mineral oils, alkylbenzene, PAG and ester-based oils. Mixtures of above refrigerants, especially R134a/R152a and R23/R152a as binary nonazeotropic mixtures, are considered conceivable substitutes. While addition of R23 reduces the mixture's flammability, addition of R152a improves the solubility of R134a in refrigerant oils. (orig./HW).

  2. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  3. New magnetic refrigeration materials for the liquefaction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Malik, S.K.; Zimm, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Five heavy lanthanide ferromagnetic intermetallic compounds were studied as potential magnetic refrigerants for the liquefaction of hydrogen gas. (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 and TbNi 2 appear to be better refrigerants than GdPd for a Joule-Brayton cycle refrigerator, while (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi seems to be a suitable refrigerant for an Ericsson cycle refrigerator

  4. 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The proceedings of the 2014 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting contain contributions on the following topics: cryotechnology, fundamentals and materials for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, devices and components for the refrigeration and heat pump technology, applications of refrigeration technologies, air conditioning technology and heat pump applications, cryotechnology in biology and medicine, heat transfer and ventilation, guidelines and legal topics, refrigerant fluid - oil mixtures, control and surveillance, simulation and control, ambient air.

  5. Application of Cascade Refrigeration System with Mixing Refrigerant in Cold Air Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Tong, M. W.; Yang, G.; Wang, X. P.

    In the mechanical cutting process, the replacement of traditional cutting solution with cold air can avoid the pollution of environment. In order to high efficient the refrigerating device and flexible adjust the temperature of cold air, it is necessary to use cascade refrigeration system to supply cool quantity for the compressed air. The introduction of a two-component non-azeotropic mixing refrigerant into the cryogenic part of the cascade system, can effectively solve the problems of the system working at too high pressure and the volume expanding of refrigerant in case of the cascade refrigeration sets closed down. However, the filling ratio of mixing refrigerants impact on the relationships among the closing down pressure, refrigerating output and refrigerating efficiency. On the basis of computing and experiment, the optimal mixing ratio of refrigerant R22/R13 and a low temperature of -60° were obtained in this study. A cold air injecting device possessing high efficiency in energy saving has also been designed and manufactured. The cold air, generated from this cascade system and employed in a cutting process, takes good comprehensive effects on machining and cutting.

  6. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  7. Testing and further development of a solar absorption cooling plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amannsberger, K.; Heckel, H.; Kreutmair, J.; Weber, K. H.

    1984-12-01

    Ammonia water absorption cooling units using the process heat of line-focusing solar collectors were developed and tested. Reduction of the evaporation temperature to minus 10 C; development of an air-cooled rectifying device for the refrigerant vapor; dry cooling of absorber and condenser by natural draft; refrigerating capacities of 14 to 10 kW which correspond to air temperatures of 25 to 40 C and 24 kW power consumption to heat the machine; auxiliary power requirement 450 W; full compatibility with changing heat input and air temperature, adaptation by automatic stabilization effects; and power optimization under changing boundary conditions by a simple regulating procedure independent of auxiliary power are achieved. The dynamic behavior of the directly linked collector-refrigeration machine system was determined. Operating conditions, market, and economic viability of solar cooling in third-world countries are described. Ice production procedures using absorption cooling units are demonstrated.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  9. ENERGY STAR Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Laboratory Grade Refrigerators and Freezers that...

  10. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  11. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  12. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  13. Auto-refrigerating cascade for superconducting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S.M.; Hall, P.H.; Missimer, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Extremely low temperatures, in the range of 230 to 90 K, are achieved in a single circuit compression refrigeration system operated by a conventional compressor. The system relies upon a series of intermediate cooling stages. The refrigerant is a mixture and the system employs fractional condensation, distillation, phase separation and intermediate heat transfer. Each stage includes the steps of withdrawing a portion of the liquid condensate from the compressed vapor-liquid refrigerant mixture which enters the stage. The withdrawn condensate is then throttled to a lower pressure and is mixed with the refrigerant being recycled to the compressor from the final evaporator. Evaporating the throttled condensate absorbs heat from and at least partially condenses the compressed uncondensed vapor in the compressed mixture

  14. ACTIVATED CARBON/REFRIGERANT COMBINATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    2001-03-01

    Mar 1, 2001 ... to solar adsorption refrigeration machines are estimated. ... heat, activated carbon/ammonia requires the use of advanced flat-plate collectors such as those with multiple ... the thermodynamic performance of zeolite-water.

  15. Freezing and refrigerated storage in fisheries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, W. A

    1994-01-01

    ...; the factors affecting cold storage conditions, etc. In addition, the publication describes the methods used to calculate cold storage refrigeration loads as well as the costs of freezing and cold storage...

  16. Simulation of the Energy Saver refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, H.R. Jr.; Nicholls, J.E.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1981-10-01

    The helium refrigeration for the Energy Saver is supplied by a Central Helium Liquefier and 24 Satellite Refrigerators installed over a 1-1/4 square mile area. An interactive, software simulator has been developed to calculate the refrigeration available from the cryogenic system over a wide range of operating conditions. The refrigeration system simulator incorporates models of the components which have been developed to quantitatively describe changes in system performance. The simulator output is presented in a real-time display which has been used to search for the optimal operating conditions of the Satellite-Central system, to examine the effect of an extended range of operating parameters and to identify equipment modifications which would improve the system performance

  17. Experimental installation of refrigeration solar-first results; Instalacion experimental de refrigeracion solar-primeros resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moone, C.; Guallar, J.; Alonso, S.; Palacin, F.

    2008-07-01

    In this article they are and the first results of an installation of solar refrigeration composed by a field of flat solar collector are analysed and absorption chillers of simple effect (BrLi-H{sub 2}O), used to give cold to a gymnasium of the university sport pavilion. The data correspond to the registered experimental values during the summer of 2007 (months of June, Julio and August). (Author)

  18. Calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlmark, B.; Reizenstein, P.; Dudley, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The methods most commonly used to measure the absorption and retention of orally administered calcium are reviewed. Nearly all make use of calcium radioisotopes. The magnitude of calcium absorption and retention depends upon the chemical form and amount of calcium administered, and the clinical and nutritional status of the subject; these influences are briefly surveyed. (author)

  19. Commercial refrigeration - An overview of current status

    OpenAIRE

    Mota Babiloni, Adrián; Navarro Esbri, Joaquin; BARRAGÁN CERVERA, ÁNGEL; Moles, Francisco; Peris, Bernardo; Verdú Martín, Gumersindo Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Commercial Refrigeration comprises food freezing and conservation in retail stores and supermarkets, so, it is one of the most relevant energy consumption sectors, and its relevance is increasing. This paper reviews the most recent developments in commercial refrigeration available in literature and presents a good amount of results provided these systems, covering some advantages and disadvantages in systems and working fluids. Latest researches are focused on energy savings to reduce CO2 in...

  20. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  1. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  2. A miniature adsorption3HE refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duband, L.; Ravex, A.; Lange, A.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained, recyclable laboratory 3 He refrigerator has been developed. The refrigerator is very compact, portable and is designed to be safe and reliable. The unit can easily be installed on the cold plate of a superfluid 4 He cryostat. Once bolted on the cold plate, operation of the refrigerator is controlled by a single heater. In this new design the refrigerator has a cylindrical geometry. The adsorption pump is placed above the condensation point to prevent convection during the condensation phase and to improve the pumping speed. The inhibition of convection reduces the load on the 4 He bath and increases the condensation efficiency. This refrigeration technique has great potential for space applications. The absence of moving parts makes the system reliable and vibration free. Its simplicity and the absence of external components facilitate its integration on a cryostat. In fact, a rocket-borne 3 He refrigerator has already been successfully flown and has demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  3. Optimizing the Thermoacoustic Pulse Tube Refrigerator Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Blagin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research and optimization of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator to reach a cryogenic temperature level. The refrigerator is considered as a thermoacoustic converter based on the modified Stirling cycle with helium working fluid. A sound pressure generator runs as a compressor. Plant model comprises an inner heat exchanger, a regenerative heat exchanger, a pulse tube, hot and cold heat exchangers at its ends, an inertial tube with the throttle, and a reservoir. A model to calculate the pulse tube thermoacoustic refrigerator using the DeltaEC software package has been developed to be a basis for calculation techniques of the pulse tube refrigerator. Momentum, continuity, and energy equations for helium refrigerant are solved according to calculation algorithm taking into account the porosity of regenerator and heat exchangers. Optimization of the main geometric parameters resulted in decreasing temperature of cold heat exchanger by 41,7 K. After optimization this value became equal to 115,01 K. The following parameters have been optimized: diameters of the feeding and pulse tube and heat exchangers, regenerator, lengths of the regenerator and pulse and inertial tubes, as well as initial pressure. Besides, global minimum of temperatures has been searched at a point of local minima corresponding to the optimal values of abovementioned parameters. A global-local minima difference is 0,1%. Optimized geometric and working parameters of the thermoacoustic pulse tube refrigerator are presented.

  4. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF A DOUBLE EFFECT LIBR-H20 ABSORPTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the effectiveness of the heat exchangers on the COP of the system are olso anolysed using the developed program. INTRODUCTION. One possible way of greatly increasing the COP of an absorption refrigeration system is incorporating a second-effect or second-stage generator. Due to its higher COP, the ...

  6. Improving the energy efficiency of industrial refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin-Sik; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    Various retrofit design options are available for improving the energy efficiency and economics of industrial refrigeration systems. This study considers a novel retrofit option using a mixed refrigerant (MR) in refrigeration cycles designed for use with a pure refrigerant (PR). In this way energy savings can be realized by switching refrigerants without requiring extensive and expensive reconfiguration of equipment. Hence, the aim here is to test the common thinking that equipment should always be extensively reconfigured when switching from pure to mixed refrigerants. To determine the most energy-efficient operating conditions for each refrigeration design an optimization framework is utilized linking a process simulator with an external optimization method. A case study is presented to demonstrate how the proposed process modeling and optimization framework can be applied and to illustrate the economic benefits of using the retrofit design options considered here. For the case considered in this paper, savings of shaft power required for the refrigeration cycle can be achieved from 16.3% to 27.2% when the pure refrigerant is replaced with mixed refrigerants and operating conditions are re-optimized. - Highlights: • Design methods for the design of refrigeration cycles in retrofit cases. • Consideration of mixed refrigerants to the existing multi-level pure-refrigerant cycles. • Optimization of refrigeration cycles with integrated use of a process simulator with an optimizer.

  7. Folate absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Folate is the generic term given to numerous compounds of pteroic acid with glutamic acid. Knowledge of absorption is limited because of the complexities introduced by the variety of compounds and because of the inadequacy of investigational methods. Two assay methods are in use, namely microbiological and radioactive. Techniques used to study absorption include measurement of urinary excretion, serum concentration, faecal excretion, intestinal perfusion, and haematological response. It is probably necessary to test absorption of both pteroylmonoglutamic acid and one or more polyglutamates, and such tests would be facilitated by availability of synthesized compounds labelled with radioactive tracers at specifically selected sites. (author)

  8. Relationship between composition of mixture charged and that in circulation in an auto refrigerant cascade and a J-T refrigerator operating in liquid refrigerant supply mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Bura; Nayak, H. Gurudath; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the refrigerant mixture in circulation during steady state operation of J-T and allied refrigerators is not the same as that charged due to liquid hold up in the heat exchangers and phase separators, as well as the differential solubility of different refrigerant components in the compressor lubricating oil. The performance of refrigerators/liquefiers operating on mixed refrigerant cycles is dependent on the mixture composition. It is therefore important to charge the right mixture that results in an optimum composition in circulation during steady state operation. The relationship between the charged and circulating composition has been experimentally studied in a J-T refrigerator operating in the liquid refrigerant supply (LRS) mode and an auto refrigerant cascade refrigerator (with a phase separator) operating in the gas refrigerant supply (GRS) mode. The results of the study are presented in this work. The results show that the method presented earlier for J-T refrigerators operating in GRS mode is also applicable in the case of refrigerators studied in this work.

  9. HFC perspectives in air-conditioning and refrigeration; Perspectives HFC en A/C et refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvarque, P [ELF Atochem, Centre d` Application de Lavallois, 92 (France)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the development of substitutes for the replacement of the R-22 refrigerant in air-conditioning systems (R-134a, R-407C, R-410A), and in industrial refrigeration systems of agriculture and food industry (R-134a and R-404A). (J.S.)

  10. HFC perspectives in air-conditioning and refrigeration; Perspectives HFC en A/C et refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvarque, P. [ELF Atochem, Centre d`Application de Lavallois, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies dealing with the development of substitutes for the replacement of the R-22 refrigerant in air-conditioning systems (R-134a, R-407C, R-410A), and in industrial refrigeration systems of agriculture and food industry (R-134a and R-404A). (J.S.)

  11. Suitability criterion for a refrigerant for use in solar operated sorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, S.A.; Mir, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a sorption refrigeration cycle has been discussed representing the cycle on a clapeyron digram. The minimum generation temperature required has been determined using the 'd-a' equation which represents the sorption equilibrium of the pair, and Gibbs free energy relation. The mathematical relation developed provides a totally new basis for determination of suitability of a particular refrigerant. (author)

  12. Suitability criterion for a refrigerant for use in solar operated sorption refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabassum, S A; Mir, M S [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The thermodynamics of a sorption refrigeration cycle has been discussed representing the cycle on a clapeyron digram. The minimum generation temperature required has been determined using the `d-a` equation which represents the sorption equilibrium of the pair, and Gibbs free energy relation. The mathematical relation developed provides a totally new basis for determination of suitability of a particular refrigerant. (author).

  13. Review of magnetic refrigeration system as alternative to conventional refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezaal, N. A.; Osintsev, K. V.; Zhirgalova, T. B.

    2017-10-01

    The refrigeration system is one of the most important systems in industry. Developers are constantly seeking for how to avoid the damage to the environment. Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). In the case of ferromagnetic materials, MCE warms as the magnetic moments of the atom are aligned by the application of a magnetic field. There are two types of magnetic phase changes that may occur at the Curie point: first order magnetic transition (FOMT) and second order magnetic transition (SOMT). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle), where the magnetic material matrix works both as a refrigerating medium and as a heat regenerating medium, while the fluid flowing in the porous matrix works as a heat transfer medium. Regeneration can be accomplished by blowing a heat transfer fluid in a reciprocating fashion through the regenerator made of magnetocaloric material that is alternately magnetized and demagnetized. Many magnetic refrigeration prototypes with different designs and software models have been built in different parts of the world. In this paper, the authors try to shed light on the magnetic refrigeration and show its effectiveness compared with conventional refrigeration methods.

  14. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Doug [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Castillo, Rafael [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Larson, Kyle [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Dobbs, Brian [VaCom Technologies, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Olsen, Daniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  15. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    OpenAIRE

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has bee...

  16. A new compressed air energy storage refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shenglong; Chen Guangming; Fang Ming; Wang Qin

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new compressed air energy storage (CAES) refrigeration system is proposed for electrical power load shifting application. It is a combination of a gas refrigeration cycle and a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted to investigate the performance of this system. Economic analysis is performed to study the operating cost of the system, and comparison is made with a vapor compression refrigeration system and an ice storage refrigeration system. The results indicate that the CAES refrigeration system has the advantages of simple structure, high efficiency and low operating cost

  17. ARTI refrigerant database. Quarterly report, March--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-05-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information an older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date.

  18. A study of alternative refrigerants for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreepaul, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The most frequently used refrigerants in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector in Mauritius are currently hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). However, because of their strong influence on global warming and the impact of HCFCs on the ozone layer, refrigerants such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrocarbons (HC), having minimal impact on the environment, are being considered. So far, HCs have only been safely used in domestic refrigeration. Ammonia has been used mainly for industrial refrigeration whereas CO2 is still under study. In this paper, a comparative study of the various feasible alternatives is presented in a survey that was undertaken with major stake holders in the field. The retrofitting possibility of existing equipment was assessed and safety issues associated with each refrigerant were analysed. The major setback of hydrocarbons as a widely accepted refrigerant is its flammability which was considered as a major safety hazard by the majority of respondents in the survey and the main advantages are the improved equipment coefficient of performance (COP) and better TEWI factor. This resulted in a 12 % drop in energy consumption. Despite the excellent thermodynamic properties of ammonia, its use has mainly been confined to industrial refrigeration due to its toxicity. In Mauritius, the performance of ammonia in air conditioning is being evaluated on a pilot basis. The major setback of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant is the high operating pressure which is considered a safety hazard. The high initial investment cost and the lack of qualified maintenance technician is also an issue. The use of CO2 is mainly being considered in the commercial refrigeration sector.

  19. Experimental results and thermodynamic analysis of a natural gas small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzo, Edson; Nacif de Carvalho, Alvaro; Matelli, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In this work, experimental results are reported for a small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration purposes. The plant includes a natural gas microturbine and an ammonia/water absorption chiller fired by steam. The system was tested under different turbine loads, steam pressures and chiller outlet temperatures. An evaluation based on the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics was also performed. For the ambient temperature around 24 °C and microturbine at full load, the plant is able to provide 19 kW of saturated steam at 5.3 bar (161 °C), corresponding to 9.2 kW of refrigeration at −5 °C (COP = 0.44). From a 2nd law point-of-view, it was found that there is an optimal chiller outlet temperature that maximizes the chiller exergetic efficiency. As expected, the microturbine presented the highest irreversibilities, followed by the absorption chiller and the HRSG. In order to reduce the plant exergy destruction, it is recommended a new design for the HRSG and a new insulation for the exhaust pipe. -- Highlights: • A small scale cogeneration plant for power and refrigeration is proposed and analyzed. • The plant is based on a microturbine and a modified absorption chiller. • The plant is analysed based on 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. • Experimental results are found for different power and refrigeration conditions. • The plant proved to be technically feasible

  20. Natural refrigerants. Future heat pumps for district heating; Naturliga koeldmedier. Framtida vaermepumpar foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvarsson, Paul; Steen Ronnermark, Ingela [Fortum Teknik och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science

    2004-01-01

    International work on refrigerants is aiming at phasing out HFC. The solution might be natural refrigerants. Within 15-20 years, when present heat pumps for district heating in Sweden are likely not in service any longer, it might still be good economy to install new heat pumps since only the machines need to be replaced. This report describes the possibilities to use natural refrigerants. A first screening resulted in further study on some hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Water was considered to require too large volumes. In present plants it is practically not possible to use any natural refrigerants, partly because the compressors are not adapted. In new plants the situation is different. Today it is technically possible to install new heat pumps in the studied size, 15 MW{sub th}, using ammonia or hydrocarbons as refrigerant. But likely it is very difficult to get permits from authorities since the refrigerants are toxic or highly flammable. There is substantial international research on using carbon dioxide, and this refrigerant is also used in some applications. Carbon dioxide is used at high pressure and in a trans-critical process. Surprisingly, it turned out that one compressor manufacturer considers it possible to supply a heat pump for district heating within 5 years. This development has taken place in Russia, mainly for domestic use. Thus, within 15 to 20 years there will probably exist a technique where carbon dioxide is used. However, more development is needed. Additionally, low district heating return temperatures are also needed to get an acceptable COP. The investment cost for a heat pump installation is considered to be approx. 30 % higher when using ammonia or propane compared to using R134a. When using carbon dioxide there is in the longer run potential to get lower cost than for R134a. The COPs are almost identical if the systems are properly designed. In the carbon dioxide case the COP is somewhat lower, but has a potential for

  1. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  2. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: continuous devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, Ronnie; Levy, Amikam

    2014-01-01

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to a single few-level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three (a hot, cold, and work reservoir), a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power, with the gain obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs, is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principles. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimization of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters in which the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analyzing refrigerators, one needs to devote special attention to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when Tc→0 are obtained by optimizing the cooling current. All refrigerators as Tc→0 show universal behavior. The dynamical version of the third law imposes restrictions on the scaling as Tc→0 of the relaxation rate γc and heat capacity cV of the cold bath.

  3. COP improvement of refrigerator/freezers, air-conditioners, and heat pumps using nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    With the February, 1992 announcement by President Bush to move the deadline for outlawing CFC (chloro-fluoro-carbon) refrigerants from the year 2000 to the year 1996, the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries have been accelerating their efforts to find alternative refrigerants. Many of the alternative refrigerants being evaluated require synthetic lubricants, are less efficient, and have toxicity problems. One option to developing new, alternative refrigerants is to combine existing non-CFC refrigerants to form a nonazeotropic mixture, with the concentration optimized for the given application so that system COP (Coefficient Of Performance) may be maintained or even improved. This paper will discuss the dilemma that industry is facing regarding CFC phase-out and the problems associated with CFC alternatives presently under development. A definition of nonazeotropic mixtures will be provided, and the characteristics and COP benefits of nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures will be explained using thermodynamic principles. Limitations and disadvantages of nonazeotropic mixtures will be discussed, and example systems using such mixtures will be reviewed.

  4. Modelling refrigerant distribution in microchannel evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the refrigerant distribution is carried out for two channels in parallel and for two different cases. In the first case maldistribution of the inlet quality into the channels is considered, and in the second case a non-uniform airflow on the secondary side is considered. In both cases the total mixed superheat...... out of the evaporator is kept constant. It is shown that the cooling capacity of the evaporator is reduced significantly, both in the case of unevenly distributed inlet quality and for the case of non-uniform airflow on the outside of the channels.......The effects of refrigerant maldistribution in parallel evaporator channels on the heat exchanger performance are investigated numerically. For this purpose a 1D steady state model of refrigerant R134a evaporating in a microchannel tube is built and validated against other evaporator models. A study...

  5. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    for automation of these procedures, that is to incorporate some "intelligence" in the control system, this project was started up. The main emphasis of this work has been on model based methods for system optimizing control in supermarket refrigeration systems. The idea of implementing a system optimizing...... control is to let an optimization procedure take over the task of operating the refrigeration system and thereby replace the role of the operator in the traditional control structure. In the context of refrigeration systems, the idea is to divide the optimizing control structure into two parts: A part...... optimizing the steady state operation "set-point optimizing control" and a part optimizing dynamic behaviour of the system "dynamical optimizing control". A novel approach for set-point optimization will be presented. The general idea is to use a prediction of the steady state, for computation of the cost...

  6. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal...... magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated...... as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other...

  7. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A.

    2014-07-17

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  8. Materials for Room Temperature Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered...... candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material...... to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 – 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant...

  9. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A [Linde AG, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  10. Load leveling on industrial refrigeration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Kraus, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model was constructed of a brewery with a 2000 horsepower compressor/refrigeration system. The various conservation and load management options were simulated using the validated model. The savings available for implementing the most promising options were verified by trials in the brewery. Result show that an optimized methodology for implementing load leveling and energy conservation consisted of: (1) adjusting (or tuning) refrigeration systems controller variables to minimize unnecessary compressor starts, (2) The primary refrigeration system operating parameters, compressor suction pressure, and discharge pressure are carefully controlled (modulated) to satisfy product quality constraints (as well as in-process material cooling rates and temperature levels) and energy evaluating the energy cost savings associated with reject heat recovery, and (4) a decision is made to implement the reject heat recovery system based on a cost/benefits analysis.

  11. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jizhou; Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2009-01-01

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed

  12. Refrigerator Optimal Scheduling to Minimise the Cost of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Roland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost optimal scheduling of a household refrigerator is presented in this work. The fundamental approach is the model predictive control methodology applied to the piecewise affine model of the refrigerator.

  13. Retail Food Refrigeration and the Phaseout of HCFC-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information on the HCFC phaseout that is relevant to food retailers, including alternatives to the use of HCFC-22 in retail food refrigeration, other refrigerant regulations, and resources for more information.

  14. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  15. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  16. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  17. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  18. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  19. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  20. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed.

  1. THE STIRLING GAS REFRIGERATING MACHINE MECHANICAL DESIGN IMPROVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Trandafilov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the mechanical design of the piston Stirling gas refrigeration machine the structural optimization of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine is carried out. This paper presents the results of theoretical research. Analysis and prospects of rotary vane Stirling gas refrigeration machine for domestic and industrial refrigeration purpose are represented. The results of a patent search by mechanisms of transformation of rotary vane machines are discussed

  2. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerk, R

    2010-03-15

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated as functions of the magnetic field. Following this the process utilized by a magnetic refrigerator to provide cooling is investigated using a publicly available one dimensional numerical model. This process is called active magnetic regeneration (AMR). The aim is to determine the performance of the AMR as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other published magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration devices are also evaluated, using a figure of merit based on the properties of the investigated magnetocaloric materials, to learn the properties of the best magnet designs to date. Following this investigation the Halbach cylinder, which is a hollow permanent magnet cylinder with a rotating remanent flux density, is investigated in detail as it forms the basis of many magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration. Here the optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder, as well as analytical calculations of the magnetic field for a Halbach cylinder of infinite length, are presented. Once it has been determined which properties are desirable for a magnet used in magnetic refrigeration the design of a new magnet is described. This is

  3. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  4. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  5. Dilution refrigeration with multiple mixing chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator is an instrument to reach temperatures in the mK region in a continuous way. The temperature range can be extended and the cooling power can be enlarged by adding an extra mixing chamber. In this way we obtain a double mixing chamber system. In this thesis the theory of the multiple mixing chamber is presented and tested on its validity by comparison with the measurements. Measurements on a dilution refrigerator with a circulation rate up to 2.5 mmol/s are also reported. (Auth.)

  6. Systematic modelling and simulation of refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Jakobsen, Arne

    1998-01-01

    The task of developing a simulation model of a refrigeration system can be very difficult and time consuming. In order for this process to be effective, a systematic method for developing the system model is required. This method should aim at guiding the developer to clarify the purpose...... of the simulation, to select appropriate component models and to set up the equations in a well-arranged way. In this paper the outline of such a method is proposed and examples showing the use of this method for simulation of refrigeration systems are given....

  7. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Kotake-Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  8. Absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field.

  9. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  10. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  11. Narrative absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...

  12. 2011 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte-Klima-Tagung 2011. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the DKV conference of the Deutscher Kaelte- und Klimatechnischer Verein e.V. (Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany) from 16th to 18th November, 2011, at the Eurogress Aachen (Federal Republic of Germany) 112 lectures were held according to the following themes: cryomedicine, cryobiology, cryocomponents, mobility, cryoapplications, miniature cooler, Fundamentals and materials in the cryotechnology and heat pump technology, heat transfer, absorption processes, materials characteristics and phase change materials, storage and phase change, plants and components of refrigerating and heat pump technology - compressors, control and systems, energy efficiency (and CO{sub 2}), standardization and standard, application of refrigeration, supermarket/coolant, enhancement of efficiency in the air conditioning of passenger cars, indoor air conditioning in automobiles, enhancement of efficiency in different vehicles, climate technology and application of heat pumps - field tests and optimization, test rigs and simulations, heat pumps, optimisation in new buildings and stock buildings, climate coolants and quality of air. Beside this conference twelve student meetings were presented.

  13. Fault diagnosis and refrigerant leak detection in vapour compression refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Grace, I.N. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-08-01

    The environmental impact of refrigeration systems can be reduced by operation at higher efficiency and reduction of refrigerant leakage. Refrigerant loss contributes both directly and indirectly to global warming through inefficient system operation, increased power consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and higher maintenance costs. Existing sensor-based leak detection methods are limited by the inability to detect gradual leakage and the need for careful sensor location. There is a requirement for a real-time performance monitoring approach to leak detection and fault diagnosis which overcomes these disadvantages. This paper reports on the development of a fault diagnosis and refrigerant leak detection system based on artificial intelligence and real-time performance monitoring. The system has been used successfully to distinguish between faulty and fault free operation, steady-state and transient operation, leakage and over charge conditions. Work currently underway is aimed at testing additional fault conditions and establishing further rules to distinguish between these patterns. (author)

  14. Thermal analysis of a compound parabolic concentrator for refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Naghelli; Best, Roberto [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The refrigeration system designed at the Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE), Mexico is able to produce, in optimal conditions, one hundred kilograms per day of ice by means of solar energy. A continuous absorption ammonia-water refrigeration cycle is employed. In its actual state, heat supply to the system is provided through a bank of evacuated tube solar collectors. Their principal difficulties encountered in this system are the indirect heat losses due to the coupling of the falling film generator to the solar heating subsystem that requires a heat transfer gradient and higher collector operating temperatures. Also the high initial cost of the evacuated tube collectors is a barrier for an economical feasible system. Currently, new types of solar collectors are being considered, more efficient and reliable, with a potentially lower cost. This type of collectors known as Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPC) succeed in working at the required temperatures for absorption refrigeration systems. Therefore, a new system is suggested and it is proposed to use a CPC array, where heat losses by the indirect heating system are avoided. In this work a simple method was developed in order to establish the energy balances in a CPC, with a steel tubular receiver without an evacuated glass shell. The receptor's model considers a bidimensional system in stationary state and it supposes a continuous medium. Four nonlinear, simultaneous equations were obtained to predict heat exchange among various components in the system. These equations were utilized in a computer program to analyze the collector performance under various operating conditions. Consequently, the prediction of temperature distribution with respect to position permits to calculate length and arrangement of the CPC for a determined refrigeration application. [Spanish] El sistema de refrigeracion en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) Mexico es capaz de producir en condiciones optimas 100

  15. Modeling of in-vehicle magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  16. Modeling of In-vehicle Magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ulrik Lund; Bahl, Christian; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance magnetic refrigeration device is considered as a potential technology for in-vehicle air conditioners in electric vehicles. The high power consumption of a conventional air conditioner in an electric vehicle has considerable impacts on cruising distance. For this purpose...

  17. A versatile magnetic refrigeration test device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    of the applied magnetic field. An advanced two-dimensional numerical model has previously been implemented in order to help in the optimization of the design of a refrigeration test device. Qualitative agreement between the results from model and the experimental results is demonstrated for each of the four...... different parameter variations mentioned above. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  18. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, de A.T.A.M.; Liang, W.

    2008-01-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temp. at the cold end is an input

  19. New possibilities for non-CFC refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorentzen, G.; Pettersen, J.

    1992-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the only viable refrigerants in most applications are new fluorocarbon chemicals. This trend will eventually result in emissions of several hundred thousand tons of new chemicals to the atmosphere each year, involving potential risk of unforeseen environmental effects. A number of other options exist, or may be developed. By using substances which already have a natural role in our ecosystems, some uncertainty related to the critical issue of our future environment can be avoided. By development and practical testing of a laboratory prototype it has been documented that carbon dioxide is a viable refrigerant in automobile air conditioners, completely solving all environmental problems associated with such systems. General use of CO 2 as a refrigerant may provide a number of advantages in the present situation, both from an environmental and practical point of view. It is our considered opinion that the old carbon dioxide offers a key to the complete solution of the environmental problems in many areas of refrigeration usage. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Nuclear heat sources for cryogenic refrigerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Schock, A.; King, W.G.; Kline, T.; Russo, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft cryogenic refrigerators require thermal inputs on the order of 1000 W. First, the characteristics of solar-electric and radioisotope heat source systems for supplying this thermal input are compared. Then the design of a 238 Pu heat source for this application is described, and equipment for shipping and handling the heat source is discussed. (LCL)

  1. Modular Modeling of a Refrigeration Container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Sørensen, Kresten; Juel Skovrup, Morten; M. Jessen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling of a refrigeration container for use as a reference for energy-optimizing controller design. The model is based on first principles in order to conserve mass and energy, but various assumptions are used to simplify the equations, resulting in a unified model for t...

  2. Materials for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl Hansen, B.

    2010-07-15

    Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling method, which holds the promise of being cleaner and more efficient than conventional vapor-compression cooling. Much research has been done during the last two decades on various magnetic materials for this purpose and today a number of materials are considered candidates as they fulfill many of the requirements for a magnetic refrigerant. However, no one material stands out and the field is still active with improving the known materials and in the search for a better one. Magnetic cooling is based on the magnetocaloric effect, which causes a magnetic material to change its temperature when a magnetic field is applied or removed. For room temperature cooling, one utilizes that the magnetocaloric effect peaks near magnetic phase transitions and so the materials of interest all have a critical temperature within the range of 250 - 310 K. A magnetic refrigerant should fulfill a number of criteria, among these a large magnetic entropy change, a large adiabatic temperature change, preferably little to no thermal or magnetic hysteresis and the material should have the stability required for long term use. As the temperature range required for room temperature cooling is some 40 - 50 K, the magnetic refrigerant should also be able to cover this temperature span either by exhibiting a very broad peak in magnetocaloric effect or by providing the opportunity for creating a materials series with varying transition temperatures. (Author)

  3. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  4. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems - Magnetic and ... Author Affiliations. S S Verma1. Deptartment of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, District Sangrur, Punjab 148 106, India.

  5. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly discar...

  6. High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian R. H.; Velazquez, David; Nielsen, Kaspar K.

    2012-01-01

    We have applied mixed valance manganite perovskites as magnetocaloric materials in a magnetic refrigeration device. Relying on exact control of the composition and a technique to process the materials into single adjoined pieces, we have observed temperature spans above 9 K with two materials...

  7. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  8. Online load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...

  9. Eco-Friendly Alternative Refrigeration Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    frigerants in mechanical refrigeration system has become a subject of great ..... In 1823, Seebeck discovered that a voltage drop appears across a junction (i.e., a .... delta function in the transport distribution centered about 2-3. KT from the ...

  10. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  11. Analysis of refrigerant mal-distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    to be two straight tubes. The refrigerant maldistribution is then induced to the evaporator by varying the vapor quality at the inlet to each tube and the air-flow across each tube. Finally it is shown that mal-distribution can be compensated by an intelligent distributor, that ensures equal superheat...

  12. Numerical simulation of pulse-tube refrigerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyulina, I.A.; Mattheij, R.M.M.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Waele, de A.T.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new numerical model has been introduced to study steady oscillatory heat and mass transfer in the tube section of a pulse-tube refrigerator. Conservation equations describing compressible gas flow in the tube are solved numerically, using high resolution schemes. The equation of conservation of

  13. Energy consumption of small refrigerators - Information leaflet; Merkblatt Kleinkuehlschrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In this leaflet published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the energy consumption of small refrigerators with a capacity of less than 100 litres is reported on. Such small refrigerators are often used in hotel rooms or in campers. It is noted that, in comparison, a typical, 150 litre class A++ domestic refrigerator uses only a fraction of the amount of energy used by such small refrigerators. The results of measurements made according to EN 153 and ISO 15502 norms are discussed. Recommendations are made on the purchase and operation of these small refrigerators.

  14. Influence of the nozzle angle on refrigeration performance of a gas wave refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Zhu, C.; Zou, J.; Wu, J.; Hu, D.

    2017-05-01

    A gas wave refrigerator (GWR) is a novel refrigerating device that refrigerates a medium by shock waves and expansion waves generated by gas pressure energy. In a typical GWR, the injection energy losses between the nozzle and the expansion tube are essential factors which influence the refrigeration efficiency. In this study, numerical simulations are used to analyze the underlying mechanism of the injection energy losses. The results of simulations show that the vortex loss, mixing energy loss, and oblique shock wave reflection loss are the main factors contributing to the injection energy losses in the expansion tube. Furthermore, the jet angle of the gas is found to dominate the injection energy losses. Therefore, the optimum jet angle is theoretically calculated based on the velocity triangle method. The value of the optimum jet angle is found to be 4^{circ }, 8^{circ }, and 12^{circ } when the refrigeration efficiency is the first-order, second-order, and third-order maximum value over all working ranges of jet frequency, respectively. Finally, a series of experiments are conducted with the jet angle ranging from -4^{circ } to 12^{circ } at a constant expansion ratio. The results indicate the optimal jet angle obtained by the experiments is in good agreement with the calculated value. The isentropic refrigeration efficiency increased by about 4 % after the jet angle was optimized.

  15. Applicability of ASST-A helium refrigeration system for JLab End Station Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, N.; Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.

    2017-12-01

    The MØLLER experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a high power (5 kW) liquid hydrogen target scheduled to be operational in the 12 GeV-era. At present, cryogenic loads and targets at three of JLab’s four experimental halls are supported by the End Station Refrigerator (ESR) - a CTI/Helix 1.5 kW 4.5 K refrigerator. It is not capable of supporting the high power target load and a capacity upgrade of the ESR cryogenic system is essential. The ASST-A helium refrigeration system is a 4 kW 4.5 K refrigerator. It was designed and used for the Superconducting Super Collider Lab (SSCL) magnet string test and later obtained by JLab after the cancellation of that project. The modified ASST-A refrigeration system, which will be called ESR-II along with a support flow from JLab’s Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) is considered as an option for the End Station Refrigerator capacity upgrade. The applicability of this system for ESR-II under varying load conditions is investigated. The present paper outlines the findings of this process study.

  16. Absorptive products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assarsson, P.G.; King, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Applications for hydrophile gels produced by the radiation induced cross-linking in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide and starch, as described in Norwegian patent 133501 (INIS RN 281494), such as sanitary napkins (diapers) and sanitary towels, are discussed. The process itself is also discussed and results, expressed as the percentage of insoluble gel and its absorptive capacity for saline solution as functions of the ratio of polyethylene oxide to starch and the radiation dose, are presented. (JIW)

  17. Heat and mass transfer prediction of binary refrigerant mixtures condensing in a horizontal microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shigeru; Yu, Jian; Ishibashi, Akira

    1999-07-01

    In the face of the phase-out of HCFC22 for its effect on globe environment, the alternative refrigerant has been paid attention in the refrigeration and heat pump industry. In the present stage, it is found that any pure refrigerant is not a good substitute of HCFC22 for the system in use. The authors have to use binary or ternary refrigerant mixtures as the substitute to meet industrial requirement. But until now, although the heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerant mixtures can be measured in experiments and predicted in some degree, the mass transfer characteristics in condensation process, which is a main part in most systems, can not be clarified by both experimental and theoretical methods. In the present study a non-equilibrium model for condensation of binary refrigerant mixtures inside a horizontal microfin tube is proposed. In this model it is assumed that the phase equilibrium is only established at the vapor-liquid interface, while the bulk vapor and the bulk liquid are in non-equilibrium in the same cross section. The mass transfer characteristic in vapor core is obtained from the analogy between mass and momentum transfer. In the liquid layer, the mass fraction distribution is neglected, but the mass transfer coefficient is treated as infinite that can keep a finite value for the mass transfer rate in liquid phase. From the calculation results compared with the experimental ones for the condensation of HFC134a/HCFC123 and HCFC22/CFC114 mixtures, it is found that the calculated heat flux distribution along the tube axis is in good agreement with that of experiment, and the calculated values of condensing length agree well with the experimental ones. Using the present model, the local mass faction distribution, the diffusion mass transfer rate and the mass transfer characteristics in both vapor and liquid phase are demonstrated. From these results, the effect of mass transfer resistance on condensation heat transfer characteristics for binary

  18. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  19. The greatest solar refrigeration plant of Switzerland. Holistic saving of CO{sub 2} at a private bank; Die groesste solare Kaelteanlage der Schweiz. Ganzheitliche CO{sub 2}-Einsparung bei einer Privatbank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Since June 2008, the Swiss private bank Pictet and Cie. (Geneva, Switzerland) operates the largest solar refrigerant plant of Switzerland. The solar generated heat is used all over the year for heating up of drinking water, seasonally for room air conditioning and in the summer for driving of three absorption refrigerators with a refrigerating capacity of totally 210 kW. This is sufficient in order to keep the office space of nearly 4,000 m{sup 2} at a moderate temperature by means of cooling ceilings.

  20. Comparison of diverse climatic sources for the simulation of facilities of solar refrigeration; Comparacion de diversas fuentes climaticas para la simulacion de instalaciones de refrigeracion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujedo, L. A.; Vicente, J.; Torre, C. de; Macia, A.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-07-01

    With the present work they are sought to analyze the results based on simulations hourly of an installation of solar refrigeration by absorption, subjected to different sources of weather data. For it, the authors have modelled one of the facilities of the Technology Centre CARTIF located in Boecillo (Valladolid), under the environment TRNSYS. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  2. Theoretical study on a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle for household refrigerator-freezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Mengliu; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is proposed. • The novel cycle is evaluated by using the developed mathematical model. • The results show the performances of the novel cycle could be significantly improved. • The novel cycle shows its promise in household refrigerator-freezers applications. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is presented for dual evaporator household refrigerator-freezers. The proposed ejector equipped with two nozzles can efficiently recover the expansion work from cycle throttling processes and enhance cycle performances. The performances of the novel cycle are evaluated by using the developed mathematical model, and then compared with that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle and basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The simulation results show that for the given operating conditions, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the novel cycle using refrigerant R134a is improved by 22.9–50.8% compared with that of the basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, and the COP improvement is 10.5–30.8% larger than that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle. The further simulation results of the novel cycle using refrigerant R600a indicate that the cycle COP and volumetric refrigeration capacity could be significantly improved

  3. Anomalous water absorption in porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lockington, D A

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of fluid by unsaturated, rigid porous materials may be characterized by the sorptivity. This is a simple parameter to determine and is increasingly being used as a measure of a material's resistance to exposure to fluids (especially moisture and reactive solutes) in aggressive environments. The complete isothermal absorption process is described by a nonlinear diffusion equation, with the hydraulic diffusivity being a strongly nonlinear function of the degree of saturation of the material. This diffusivity can be estimated from the sorptivity test. In a typical test the cumulative absorption is proportional to the square root of time. However, a number of researchers have observed deviation from this behaviour when the infiltrating fluid is water and there is some potential for chemo-mechanical interaction with the material. In that case the current interpretation of the test and estimation of the hydraulic diffusivity is no longer appropriate. Kuentz and Lavallee (2001) discuss the anomalous b...

  4. Performance Analysis of Multipurpose Refrigeration System (MRS on Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ust Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient refrigerator/freezers helps considerably to reduce the amount of the emitted greenhouse gas. A two-circuit refrigerator-freezer cycle (RF reveals a higher energy saving potential than a conventional cycle with a single loop of serial evaporators, owing to pressure drop in each evaporator during refrigeration operation and low compression ratio. Therefore, several industrial applications and fish storage systems have been utilized by using multipurpose refrigeration cycle. That is why a theoretical performance analysis based on the exergetic performance coefficient, coefficient of performance (COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio criteria, has been carried out for a multipurpose refrigeration system by using different refrigerants in serial and parallel operation conditions. The exergetic performance coefficient criterion is defined as the ratio of exergy output to the total exergy destruction rate (or loss rate of availability. According to the results of the study, the refrigerant R32 shows the best performance in terms of exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency, and exergy destruction ratio from among the other refrigerants (R1234yf, R1234ze, R404A, R407C, R410A, R143A and R502. The effects of the condenser, freezer-evaporator and refrigerator-evaporator temperatures on the exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratios have been fully analyzed for the refrigerant R32.

  5. Modeling and calculation of open carbon dioxide refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yufei; Zhu, Chunling; Jiang, Yanlong; Shi, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of open refrigeration system is developed. • The state of CO 2 has great effect on Refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer. • Refrigeration capacity loss by remaining CO 2 has little relation to the state of CO 2 . • Calculation results are in agreement with the test results. - Abstract: Based on the analysis of the properties of carbon dioxide, an open carbon dioxide refrigeration system is proposed, which is responsible for the situation without external electricity unit. A model of open refrigeration system is developed, and the relationship between the storage environment of carbon dioxide and refrigeration capacity is conducted. Meanwhile, a test platform is developed to simulation the performance of the open carbon dioxide refrigeration system. By comparing the theoretical calculations and the experimental results, several conclusions are obtained as follows: refrigeration capacity loss by heat transfer in supercritical state is much more than that in two-phase region and the refrigeration capacity loss by remaining carbon dioxide has little relation to the state of carbon dioxide. The results will be helpful to the use of open carbon dioxide refrigeration

  6. Improvement of a thermoelectric and vapour compression hybrid refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrain, D.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement in the performance of a domestic hybrid refrigerator that combines vapour compression technology for the cooler and freezer compartments, and thermoelectric technology for a new compartment. The heat emitted by the Peltier modules is discharged into the freezer compartment, forming a cascade refrigeration system. This configuration leads to a significant improvement in the coefficient of operation. Thus, the electric power consumption of the modules and the refrigerator decreases by 95% and 20% respectively, with respect to those attained with a cascade refrigeration system connected with the cooler compartment. The optimization process is based on a computational model that simulates the behaviour of the whole refrigerator. Two prototypes have been built and tested. Experimental results indicate that the temperature of the new compartment is easily set up at any value between 0 and −4 °C, the oscillation of this temperature is always lower than 0.4 °C, and the electric power consumption is low enough to include this hybrid refrigerator into energy efficiency class A, according European rules and regulations. - Highlights: ► Optimization of a vapour compression and thermoelectric hybrid refrigerator. ► Two prototypes built and tested. Computational model for the whole refrigerator. ► Electric power consumption of the modules and the refrigerator 95% and 20% lower. ► New compartment refrigerated with thermoelectric technology. ► Inner temperature adjustable from 0 to −4 °C. Oscillations lower than ±0.2 °C.

  7. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction...... of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close...... to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration....

  8. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  9. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Smith, A.; Christensen, D.V.; Pryds, N.

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  10. The lifetime cost of a magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2016-01-01

    The total cost of a 25 W average load magnetic refrigerator using commercial grade Gd is calculated using a numerical model. The price of magnetocaloric material, magnet material and cost of operation are considered, and all influence the total cost. The lowest combined total cost with a device...... lifetime of 15 years is found to be in the range $150-$400 depending on the price of the magnetocaloric and magnet material. The cost of the magnet is largest, followed closely by the cost of operation, while the cost of the magnetocaloric material is almost negligible. For the lowest cost device...... characteristics are based on the performance of a conventional A+++ refrigeration unit. In a rough life time cost comparison between the AMR device and such a unit we find similar costs, the AMR being slightly cheaper, assuming the cost of the magnet can be recuperated at end of life....

  11. Design of refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a for macro compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. F. H.; Razlan, Z. M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Yong, C. K.; Harun, A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Saad, M. A. M.; Zunaidi, I.; Wan, W. K.; Desa, H.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyse and design an optimum cooling system for macro compartment. Current product of the refrigerator is not specified for single function and not compact in size. Hence, a refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a is aimed to provide instant cooling in a macro compartment with sizing about 150 × 150 × 250 mm. The macro compartment is purposely designed to fit a bottle or drink can, which is then cooled to a desired drinking temperature of about 8°C within a period of 1 minute. The study is not only concerned with analysing of heat load of the macro compartment containing drink can, but also focused on determining suitable heat exchanger volume for both evaporator and condenser, calculating compressor displacement value and computing suitable resistance value of the expansion valve. Method of optimization is used to obtain the best solution of the problem. Mollier diagram is necessary in the process of developing the refrigeration system. Selection of blower is made properly to allow air circulation and to increase the flow rate for higher heat transfer rate. Property data are taken precisely from thermodynamic property tables. As the main four components, namely condenser, compressor, evaporator and expansion valve are fully developed, the refrigeration system is complete.

  12. Silicon spectrometer with a Peltier refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcarz, E.; Chwaszczewska, J.; Hahn, G.; Nowicki, W.; Sawicka, B.; Skoczek, K.; Slapa, M.; Szymczak, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector cooled by a Peltier refrigerator. The spectrometer is able to analyse samples of practically all most frequently encountered emitters of alpha, beta and low energy gamma radiation. The energy resolution were about 1.3-1.5 keV for 14 keV gamma radiation. The system can also operate in field conditions in the fluorescence analysis. (author)

  13. Cryo-refrigerators for CNS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, J.; Lesser, J.; Sebastianutto, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cryo-refrigeration plants for cold neutron sources belong to the field of auxiliary plants or utility facilities of the reactor. In general, they are classified as non-nuclear and serve to dissipate the heat generated in the liquid hydrogen or deuterium from moderating the neutrons of the cold neutron source. Cryo-refrigeration plants for the temperature range of 20 K supply either refrigeration at constant temperature by means of evaporating the cryogenic coolant (usually hydrogen) or, as usual with cold sources, in a specific temperature range by means of warming-up the cryogenic coolant (usually helium) in the moderator or heat exchanger (condensation or subcooling of the deuterium). The operator's requirements to a refrigeration plant are, first of all, that the plant adjusts itself - at low-maintenance or maintenance-free - to the various operation modes at best thermodynamic efficiencies and that it offers as much operating convenience and operating safety as possible. Additional requirements are short times for cool-down, capacity adjustment, stand-by operation in order to avoid poisoning of the cold source and further operational requirements. However, these requirements are limited by mechanics, thermodynamics and financial means. For this reason, for each application a technical solution must be found which is optimally adapted to the competing requirements and which is based on a standard product of the manufacturer, if possible. The operator's different requirements have to be taken in account with regard to the design of the plant and choice of the components; economic aspects in addition also have to be considered. Wherever possible, proven standard components should be used. (orig.)

  14. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  15. Steady state simulation of a double-effect steam absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.S.A.M.S.; Gilani, S.I.U.H. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Absorption cooling systems have become increasingly popular in recent years from the viewpoint of energy and environment. Despite a lower coefficient of performance (COP) as compared to the vapor compression, absorption refrigeration systems are attractive for using inexpensive waste heat, solar, geothermal or biomass energy sources for which the cost of supply is negligible in many cases. In addition absorption refrigeration uses natural substances which do not contribute towards ozone depletion and global warming. Owing to the serious environmental problems and the price of the traditional energy resources, the use of industrial waste heat or renewable energy as the driving force for vapor absorption cooling systems is continuously increasing. A steady-state model is developed to predict the performance of an absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-water as working pair. Each component of the cycle is modelled based on mass and energy balances. The design point parameters are determined. The refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and load factor are analyzed for different heat input. Simulation is carried out and the results are compared with actual data and showed good agreement.

  16. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  17. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of refrigerants using data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecueksille, Ecir Ugur; Selbas, Resat; Sencan, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of vapor compression refrigeration systems requires the availability of simple and efficient mathematical formulations for the determination of thermodynamic properties of refrigerants. The aim of this study is to determine thermodynamic properties as enthalpy, entropy and specific volume of alternative refrigerants using data mining method. Alternative refrigerants used in the study are R134a, R404a, R407c and R410a. The results obtained from data mining have been compared to actual data from the literature. The study shows that the data mining methodology is successfully applicable to determine enthalpy, entropy and specific volume values for any temperature and pressure of refrigerants. Therefore, computation time reduces and simulation of vapor compression refrigeration systems is fairly facilitated.

  18. Analysis of cooldown performance for Isabelle helium refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.C.; Brown, D.P.; Moore, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The cooldown performance for the ISABELLE Helium refrigerator is analyzed in terms of the relationship between refrigerator and its load. The flow diagram for ISABELLE with its redundant turbines and heat exchangers is given. Cycle description and procedure for cooldown is described with the relationship between a refrigerator and its load illustrated. Pressure vs. temperature for ISABELLE load and the efficiency for a turbine are illustrated. The procedure for modeling the refrigerator and the concepts of maximizing the cooldown capacity are described. The results and discussion are accompanied with T-S diagrams for initial stage of cooldown and refrigerator characteristic at various return temperatures. The ISABELLE refrigerator with its reduncant expanders properly used achieves cooldown capacity well beyond its steady-state capacity. The cooldown rate at this stage relies on the design safety margin, which for the ISABELLE is 50%

  19. Fault detection and diagnosis for refrigerator from compressor sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keres, Stephen L.; Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.

    2016-12-06

    A refrigerator, a sealed refrigerant system, and method are provided where the refrigerator includes at least a refrigerated compartment and a sealed refrigerant system including an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, a controller, an evaporator fan, and a condenser fan. The method includes monitoring a frequency of the compressor, and identifying a fault condition in the at least one component of the refrigerant sealed system in response to the compressor frequency. The method may further comprise calculating a compressor frequency rate based upon the rate of change of the compressor frequency, wherein a fault in the condenser fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is positive and exceeds a condenser fan fault threshold rate, and wherein a fault in the evaporator fan is identified if the compressor frequency rate is negative and exceeds an evaporator fan fault threshold rate.

  20. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.; Taikum, Orawan

    1994-01-01

    The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. In part I of the program the swell behavior in the test fluids has been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed fro the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants. Part II of the testing program includes the evaluation of tensile strength, hardness, weight, and dimensional changes after immersion aging in refrigerant/lubricant mixtures of selected elastomer formulations at elevated temperature and pressure.

  1. Exergy analysis of refrigerators for large scale cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehlein, K [Sulzer Cryogenics, Winterthur (Switzerland); Fukano, T [Nippon Sanso Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-01-01

    Facilities with superconducting magnets require cooling capacity at different temperature levels and of different types (refrigeration or liquefaction). The bigger the demand for refrigeration, the more investment for improved efficiency of the refrigeration plant is justified and desired. Refrigeration cycles are built with discrete components like expansion turbines, cold compressors, etc. Therefore the exergetic efficiency for producing refrigeration on a distinct temperature level is significantly dependent on the 'thermodynamic arrangement' of these components. Among a variety of possibilities, limited by the range of applicability of the components, one has to choose the best design for higher efficiency on every level. Some influences are being quantified and aspects are given for a optimal integration of the refrigerator into the whole cooling system. (orig.).

  2. Simulated performance of biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant for community scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: suman.mech09@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT, Agarpara, Kolkata – 700109, West Bengal (India); Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal performance analysis and sizing of a biomass gasification based combined power and refrigeration plant (CPR) is reported in this study. The plant is capable of producing 100 kWe of electrical output while simultaneously producing a refrigeration effect, varying from 28-68 ton of refrigeration (TR). The topping gas turbine cycle is an indirectly heated all-air cycle. A combustor heat exchanger duplex (CHX) unit burns producer gas and transfer heat to air. This arrangement avoids complex gas cleaning requirements for the biomass-derived producer gas. The exhaust air of the topping GT is utilized to run a bottoming ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) cycle via a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam produced in the HRSG supplying heat to the generator of the refrigeration cycle. Effects of major operating parameters like topping cycle pressure ratio (r{sub p}) and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) on the energetic performance of the plant are studied. Energetic performance of the plant is evaluated via energy efficiency, required biomass consumption and fuel energy savings ratio (FESR). The FESR calculation method is significant for indicating the savings in fuel of a combined power and process heat plant instead of separate plants for power and process heat. The study reveals that, topping cycle attains maximum power efficiency of 30%in pressure ratio range of 8-10. Up to a certain value of pressure ratio the required air flow rate through the GT unit decreases with increase in pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The capacity of refrigeration of the AAR unit initially decreases up to a certain value of topping GT cycle pressure ratio and then increases with further increase in pressure ratio. The FESR is found to be maximized at a pressure ratio of 9 (when TIT=1100°C), the maximum value being 53%. The FESR is higher for higher TIT. The heat exchanger sizing is also influenced by the topping cycle pressure ratio

  3. Thermoeconomic model of a commercial transcritical booster refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    For cooling applications in supermarkets, booster refrigeration systems operating in both transcritical and subcritical conditions are increasingly used. A thermodynamic model of a transcritical booster refrigeration plant is tailored to match the new generation of commercial refrigeration plants...... of exergy for cooling. Second law analysis is needed to illustrate the characteristics of the plant at different load rates, according to the alternating load profile and corresponding to outdoor conditions. With the detailed model, different uses of the analysis are possible, including thermoeconomic...

  4. Performance measurement of a mini thermoacoustic refrigerator and associated drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Petrina, Denys E.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A miniature Thermoacoustic refrigerator is being developed to cool integrated circuits - which must sometimes operate at high temperatures nearing the upper threshold of their tolerance - to temperature spans more within the circuits' tolerable limits, without the need of the chemicals of a traditional refrigerating system. The development of an electrically powered acoustic driver that powers the thermoacoustic refrigerator is describ...

  5. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  6. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  7. Model based control of refrigeration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth Larsen, L.F.

    2005-11-15

    The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers a variety of different types of controls, that incorporates mathematical models. In this thesis the main subject therefore has been restricted to deal with system optimizing control. The optimizing control is divided into two layers, where the system oriented top layers deals with set-point optimizing control and the lower layer deals with dynamical optimizing control in the subsystems. The thesis has two main contributions, i.e. a novel approach for set-point optimization and a novel approach for desynchronization based on dynamical optimization. The focus in the development of the proposed set-point optimizing control has been on deriving a simple and general method, that with ease can be applied on various compositions of the same class of systems, such as refrigeration systems. The method is based on a set of parameter depended static equations describing the considered process. By adapting the parameters to the given process, predict the steady state and computing a steady state gradient of the cost function, the process can be driven continuously towards zero gradient, i.e. the optimum (if the cost function is convex). The method furthermore deals with system constrains by introducing barrier functions, hereby the best possible performance taking the given constrains in to account can be obtained, e.g. under extreme operational conditions. The proposed method has been applied on a test refrigeration system, placed at Aalborg University, for minimization of the energy consumption. Here it was proved that by using general static parameter depended system equations it was possible drive the set-points close to the optimum and thus reduce the power consumption with up to 20%. In the dynamical optimizing layer the idea is to optimize the operation of the subsystem or the groupings of subsystems, that limits the obtainable system performance. In systems

  8. Refrigeration processes a practical handbook on the physical properties of refrigerants and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meacock, H M

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive applications-oriented treatment of the subject in two parts. The first part forms a useful introduction to basic principles dealing with the definitions of the physical properties and outlines the method of their calculation. The second part is devoted to calculated data on a range of refrigerants by means of extensive tables and diagrams. The treatment takes the form of a data sheet, one for each of about thirty refrigerants; this data sheet gives the essential information from which close approximations of pressure, temperature, volume and enthalpy can be made for any predict

  9. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  10. Turbulent effective absorptivity and refractivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of wave propagation in a turbulent magnetized plasma is investigated. Considering small scale, low frequency density fluctuations we solve the Maxwell equations and show that the eikonal approximation remains valid with an effective refractivity and an effective absorptivity taking into account the energy diffusion due to the turbulent motion. Then the result is applied to the problem of lower hybrid waves scattering by drift waves density fluctuations in tokamaks

  11. Reasearch and Evaluation of Electromagnetic Fields of Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranas Baltrėnas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of refrigerators causes the occurence of electromagnetic fields that are invisible and intangible, which therefore makes difficulties in protecting ourselves from them. A refrigerator is an irreplaceable item in domestic household and thus can be hardly ignored by a modern way of human life. In order to preserve the characteristics of products, the refrigerator must operate continuously (24 hrs a day, regardless of the time of the year. This results in a huge increase in electricity consumption, which leads to energy consumption related pollution of the environment emitting CO2 gas. On these grounds, it is necessary to assess electromagnetic fields created by the refrigerator. Studies on electromagnetic fields produced by refrigerators were conducted in domestic premises where people spent a significant part of the day. For comparison purposes, five different power refrigerators were chosen (1 – 0.20 kW; 2 – 0.25 kW; 3 – 0.30 kW; 4 – 0.35 kW; 5 – 0.40 kW. The obtained results, according to the parameters of their electromagnetic fields, were presented in graphs and charts and showed that the values of electric and magnetic intensity of refrigerators depended on the distance and the power of the refrigerator. The conducted research also disclosed that none of tested refrigerators exceeded the permissible limits of electromagnetic fields.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Control Methods for Energy Management of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    is decreased as the method does not need an explicit model of the system and, at the same time, the desired load following performance is attained. Recent research findings indicate that the refrigeration system commonly employed in food transportation can account for 40% of the total greenhouse gas emissions...... from the corresponding vehicle engines. Finally, the problem of optimization of a hybrid transport refrigeration system is addressed here. The hybrid refrigeration system is made by the integration of conventional refrigeration technology with thermal energy storage devices....

  13. Contribution to magnetic refrigeration study at liquid helium study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacaze, A.

    1985-10-01

    An experimental prototype of magnetic refrigerator operates, following a Carnot cycle, with gallium gadolinium garnet, from liquid helium at 4.2 0 K. Analysis of the cyle and heat exchanges allowed to improve performance up to get more than 50% of Carnot yield at 1.8 0 K and nearly 80% at 2.1 0 K. Operation conditions of a regenerator refrigerator between 4 and 20 0 K are studied. The association of a magnetic refrigerator and a gas refrigerator is analyzed. Among different ways to realize the magnetic stage, an active regenerator cycle is chosen. An experimental device is described [fr

  14. Analysis of a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphornratana, Satha; Sriveerakul, Thanarath

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a heat-powered refrigeration cycle, a combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycle. This refrigeration cycle combines an Organic Rankine Cycle and a vapour-compression cycle. The cycle can be powered by low grade thermal energy as low as 60 deg. C and can produce cooling temperature as low as -10 deg. C. In the analysis, two combined Rankine-vapour-compression refrigeration cycles were investigated: the system with R22 and the system with R134a. Calculated COP values between 0.1 and 0.6 of both the systems were found.

  15. REFRIGERANT/LUBRICANT MIXTURES: PROBLEMS OF APPLICATION AND PROPERTY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Semenyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and generalizations of thermophysical property research for the refrigerant/lubricant mixtures are summarized. The methodological aspects of the experimental studies of the thermal properties of real working media for vapor compression refrigeration machines and the general principles of the thermodynamic properties simulation for such solutions are analyzed. It is shown that the admixtures of compressor oil in the refrigerant make the efficiency parameters of compressor systems much lower. The question of a selective solubility of the multicomponent refrigerants in compressor oils is discussed.

  16. Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, M.

    1988-07-19

    A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

  17. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  18. The limitation and modification of flux-limited diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengan; Huang Wenkai

    1986-01-01

    The limitation of various typical flux-limited diffusion theory and advantages of asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant are analyzed and compared. The conclusions are as following: Though the flux-limited problem in neutron diffusion theory are theoretically solved by derived flux-limited diffusion equation, it's going too far to limit flux due to the inappropriate assumption in deriving flux-limited diffusion equation. The asymptotic diffusion theory with time absorption constant has eliminated the above-mentioned limitation, and it is more accurate than flux-limited diffusion theory in describing neutron transport problem

  19. Low temperature absorption chiller - Report from a project in the programs Climate 21 and 'More efficient refrigeration and heat pump systems. Final report; Laagtemperaturdriven absorptionskylmaskin - Rapport oever ett projekt inom programmen Klimat 21 och Effektivare Kyl- och Vaermepumpssystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrik Setterwall [Fredrik Setterwall Konsult AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael [AB Berglunds Rostfria, Boden (Sweden); Glebov, Dmitrey; Martin, Viktoria [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    2005-06-01

    An absorption chiller with a 1.15 MW cooling effect has been designed in a collaboration project comprising university, industry and end-user. This chiller is designed to run on district heating (70-90 deg C), and its layout and function differs from conventional absorption chillers as outlined below. The chiller's heat transfer surfaces may be installed horizontally or vertically, resulting in flexibility in system design. In a conventional absorption chiller, these surfaces are always horizontally aligned. The high-pressure and low-pressure parts of the chiller may be placed independently of each other. In a conventional chiller, the high-pressure part must always be placed on top of the low-pressure part. To enable the flexibility in design and system layout, this chiller is equipped with four internal pumps instead of only two in conventional design. The increased number of pumps leads to an increase of the installed electrical power for internal pumps. The electrical power for the internal pumps is however only a small fraction of the totally installed electrical power. The main part is utilized for pumping of cooling water and coolant. This low temperature driven, single-effect chiller has a high coefficient of performance (COP). The 'first generation machine' installed at Chalmers University of Technology has a COP equal to 0.75 at full load. Through the control strategy used, the chiller can maintain a high COP even at part load. Because of the high COP, the electricity consumption of the cooling water pump is kept low. To lower the size of the absorber and generator, the chiller is equipped with extra plate heat exchangers to cool the strong solution before the absorber, and preheat the weak solution before the generator. To increase the heat transfer rate, a new additive (2-methyl-penthanol) has been tested. As compared to the conventional heat transfer additive (2-ethyl-hexanol), the heat transfer enhancement was 20% higher with the new

  20. Transdermic absorption of Melagenina II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, I.; Martinez Lopez, B.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.

    1997-01-01

    The transdermic absorption of Melagenina II (MII) was evaluated. MII was a labelled with 125I by the yodogen method and purified by column chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 in ethanol: water (7:3). In vitro absorption of ( 125I ) - MII thought human skin was carried out in Keshary-Chien modified diffusion cells. Tape stripping method was applied after 24 hours to evaluate the accumulated activity in dermis and epidermis. In vivo assays were performed in Sprague Dawley rats to analyze absorption of MII until 24 hours after a single application and for five days a low penetrability of the drug while in vivo there were not found blood levels significantly greater than zero , nevertheless and important amount of radioactivity was found in feces and urine. The activity was concentrated mainly in the application site in both models

  1. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  2. Graphical expression of thermodynamic characteristics of absorption process in ammonia-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortelný Zdeněk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The adiabatic sorption is very interesting phenomenon that occurs when vapor of refrigerant is in contact with unsaturated liquid absorbent-refrigerant mixture and exchange of heat is forbid between the system and an environment. This contribution introduces new auxiliary lines that enable correct position determination of the adiabatic sorption process in the p-T-x diagram of ammoniawater system. The presented auxiliary lines were obtained from common functions for fast calculation of water-ammonia system properties. Absorption cycles designers often utilize p-t-x diagrams of working mixtures for first suggestion of new absorption cycles. The p-t-x diagrams enable fast correct determination of saturate states of liquid (and gaseous mixtures of refrigerants and absorbents. The working mixture isn’t only at saturated state during a real working cycle. If we know pressure and temperature of an unsaturated mixture, exact position determination is possible in the p-t-x diagrams too.

  3. Next Generation Refrigeration Lubricants for Low Global Warming Potential/Low Ozone Depleting Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessell, Edward

    2013-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop and test new synthetic lubricants that possess high compatibility with new low ozone depleting (LOD) and low global warming potential (LGWP) refrigerants and offer improved lubricity and wear protection over current lubricant technologies. The improved compatibility of the lubricants with the refrigerants, along with improved lubricating properties, will resulted in lower energy consumption and longer service life of the refrigeration systems used in residential, commercial and industrial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) and refrigeration equipment.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrocarbon refrigerants in a sub-cooling refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUKOLA O. BOLAJI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance simulation of some hydrocarbon refrigerants (R290, R600 and R600a as alternatives to R134a in refrigeration system with sub-cooling is conducted by thermodynamic calculation of performance parameters using the REFPROP software. The results obtained showed that the saturated vapour pressure and temperature characteristic profiles for R600 and R600a are very close to that of R134a. The three hydrocarbon refrigerants exhibited very high refrigerating effect and condenser duty than R134a. The best of these parameters was obtained using R600. The discharge temperatures obtained using R600 and R600a were low, while that of R290 was very much higher. The highest coefficient of performance (COP and relative capacity index were obtained using R600. Average COPs of R600 and R600a are 4.6 and 2.2% higher than that of R134a, respectively. The performances of R600 and R600a in system were better than those of R134a and R290. The best performance was obtained using R600 in the system.

  5. Theoretical research on the performance of the transcritical ejector refrigeration cycle with various refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Li, D.Y.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The transcritical ejector refrigeration cycle (TERC), which has shown an attractive alternative to the ejector refrigeration systems, can better match large variable-temperature heat sources and yields higher COP. In this paper, in order to find a proper working fluid for the TERC, the performance of the TERC with CO_2 and various working fluids with low critical temperatures including R1270, R32, R143a, R125 and R115 are studied and compared. A thermodynamic model for ejector is set up to simulate the ejector by introducing the real properties of refrigerants. The results indicate that R1270 has the highest COP at the same heat source condition and medium working pressures, and is one of environment-friendly working fluids, hence R1270 is the most proper one. The COP of the transcritical cycle is higher than that of the subcritical cycle, and The effective performance coefficient COP_m of the transcritical cycle is also better. When the heater outlet temperature is increased, its system COP_m improves, but its system COP almost does not change. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the ejector with real properties. • The performance of the TERC with various refrigerants is compared. • The environment-friendly working fluid of R1270 shows the most proper one. • The COP of the transcritical cycle is higher than that of the subcritical cycle.

  6. 2017 German refrigeration and air conditioning meeting. Proceedings; Deutsche Kaelte- und Klimatagung 2017. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This year's lecture programme includes 117 presentations in the five working departments of DKV and 10 lectures at the special event ''Energy-efficient air conditioning in data centres''. The main topics in the respective departments were: (1) Cryogenics: Space applications; Cryogenic plants; Cryomedicine and cryobiology; Components, developments; Processes and plants; Valves, design. (2) Basics: Evaporation, material values; evaporation, condensation; absorption; adsorption, latent storage; cycle simulation. (3) Components: CO{sub 2} plant engineering and components; refrigerants; process control, adsorption, sublimation and storage technology; refrigerating machine oils, heat exchangers and corrosion; components 4.0, sensors and control technology; simulation of plant processes. (4) Cold application: Application; Application / Natural Refrigerants; Mobile Applications Car; Mobile Applications; Supermarket / Efficiency; Optimization / Efficiency. (5) Air conditioning and heat pump applications: load shifting, smart home, flexibility; heat sources and industrial heat pumps; modelling, simulations; energy concepts heat pumps and photovoltaics; monitoring, evaluation; technology trends / working materials. Six papers are separately analyzed for this database. [German] Das Vortragsprogramm umfasst in diesem Jahr 117 Beitraege in den fuenf Arbeitsabteilungen des DKV und 10 Vortraege in der Sonderveranstaltung ''Energieeffiziente Klimatisierung in Rechenzentren''. Die Hauptthemen in den jeweiligen Arbeitsabteilungen waren: (1) Kryotechnik: Raumfahrtanwendungen; Kryo-Grossanlagen; Kryomedizin und Kryobiologie; Komponenten, Entwicklungen; Verfahren und Anlagen; Ventile, Auslegung. (2) Grundlagen: Verdampfung, Stoffwerte; Verdampfung, Kondensation; Absorption; Adsorption, Latentspeicher; Kreislaufsimulation. (3) Komponenten: CO{sub 2}-Anlagentechnik und Komponenten; Kaeltemittel; Prozessfuehrung, Adsorption, Sublimation und

  7. Simulation Model for Dynamic Operation of Double-Effect Absorption Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mojahid Sid Ahmed Mohammed Salih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development in the field of refrigeration and air conditioning systems driven by absorption cycles acquired a considerable importance recently. For commercial absorption chillers, an essential challenge for creating chiller model certainly is the shortage of components technical specifications. These kinds of specifications are usually proprietary for chillers producers. In this paper, a double-effect parallel-flow-type steam absorption chiller model based on thermodynamic and energy equations is presented. The chiller studied is Lithium bromide-water with capacity of 1250 RT (Refrigeration Tons. The governing equations of the dynamic operation of the chiller are developed. From available design information, the values of the overall heat transfer coefficients multiplied by the surface area are computed. The dynamic operation of the absorption chiller is simulated to study the performance of the system. The model is able to provide essential details of the temperature, concentration, and flow rate at each state point in the chiller.

  8. Dynamic Simulation of AN Helium Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschildre, C.; Barraud, A.; Bonnay, P.; Briend, P.; Girard, A.; Poncet, J. M.; Roussel, P.; Sequeira, S. E.

    2008-03-01

    A dynamic simulation of a large scale existing refrigerator has been performed using the software Aspen Hysys®. The model comprises the typical equipments of a cryogenic system: heat exchangers, expanders, helium phase separators and cold compressors. It represents the 400 W @ 1.8 K Test Facility located at CEA—Grenoble. This paper describes the model development and shows the possibilities and limitations of the dynamic module of Aspen Hysys®. Then, comparison between simulation results and experimental data are presented; the simulation of cooldown process was also performed.

  9. Flow-synchronous field motion refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Charles N.

    2017-08-22

    An improved method to manage the flow of heat in an active regenerator in a magnetocaloric or an electrocaloric heat-pump refrigeration system, in which heat exchange fluid moves synchronously with the motion of a magnetic or electric field. Only a portion of the length of the active regenerator bed is introduced to or removed from the field at one time, and the heat exchange fluid flows from the cold side toward the hot side while the magnetic or electric field moves along the active regenerator bed.

  10. Establishment of the Processes of Absorption and Diffusion of Systemic Insecticides in Populus Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; L'etablissement des processus d'absorption et diffusion des insecticides systemiques au Populus x Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robista; Opredelenie protsessov pogloshcheniya i diffuzii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u Populus x Euramerican a Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; Determinacion de los procesos de absorcion y difusion de los insecticidas sistemicos en el Populus x Euramericana Dope Guinier ''Robusta''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrina, I.; Popa, A.; Constantinesco, V.; Constantinesco, O.; Constantinesco, El.; Hulula, C. [Institut de Recherches Forestieres de Bucarest, Bucharest (Romania)

    1963-09-15

    The organophosphoric insecticides having systemic properties due to their ability to penetrate into the sap flow of plants act on insects which spend part of their lives either in the cambial region between wood and bark, or in the wood itself. Until the introduction of these new insecticides chemical control of xylophagous insects in tree-trunks was almost impossible. The mechanism of absorption, diffusion and concentration of systemic insecticides in species of poplar and willow, which are frequently attacked by xylophagous insects, was studied using labelled Dipterex on the poplai Robusta R20. The insecticide was labelled in the reactor, using powdered Dipterex (1.5 g) as target, at a flux {Phi}= 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s and at a temperature of 30-40{sup o}C. Irradiation was carried on until an absolute target activity of {approx_equal} 1 mc was obtained. The insecticide was administered, in the form of a solution, by pouring it on to the soil, except in one case in which the insecticide was sprayed on to the leaves. One series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory using seedlings grown in pots, and another series was performed in a nursery, using one- and two-year-old saplings. One to two months after administration of the labelled insecticide solutions the trees were subjected to radiometric analysis. In the laboratory experiments the insecticide accumulated in considerable quantities in the leaves, and in smaller amounts in the wood. Both in the laboratory and in the nursery a greater amount of insecticide accumulated in the leaves. In the nursery experiment, however, a considerable increase was observed in the accumulation in the branches and in the wood of the stem, especially at the extremities. The mean accumulation of insecticide amounted to 1.65 mg/g green matter in the'nursery as against 0.24 mg/g in pots. It was shown that under field conditions, in dry weather, two-year-old Robusta saplings take up Dipterex administered in an aqueous

  11. Artificial intelligent methods for thermodynamic evaluation of ammonia-water refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, Arzu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, Linear Regression and M5'Rules models within Data Mining Process and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for thermodynamic evaluation of ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems was carried out. A new formulation based on ANN model is presented for the analysis of ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems (AWRS) because the optimal result was obtained by using ANN Model. Thermodynamic analysis of the AWRS is very complex because of analytic functions used for calculating the properties of fluid couples and simulation programs. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to perform analysis of this system. COP and f are estimated depending on the temperatures of system component and concentration values. Using the weights obtained from the trained network a new formulation is presented for the calculation of the COP and f; the use of ANN is proliferating with high speed in simulation. The R 2 -values obtained when unknown data were used to the networks was 0.9996 and 0.9873 for the circulation ratio and COP respectively which is very satisfactory. The use of this new formulation, which can be employed with any programming language or spreadsheet program for the estimation of the circulation ratio and COP of AWRS, as described in this paper, may make the use of dedicated ANN software unnecessary

  12. Thermo- economical consideration of Regenerative organic Rankine cycle coupling with the absorption chiller systems incorporated in the trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Parvishi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new trigeneration cycle was studied from a new viewpoint of exergoeconomic and thermodynamic. • Organic Rankine and refrigeration cycles are used for recovery waste heat of cogeneration system. • Application of trigeneration cycles is advantageous in economical and thermodynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this paper, a combined cooling, heating and power cycle is proposed consisting of three sections of gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle, Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle. This trigeneration cycle is subjected to a thorough thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis. The principal goal followed in the investigation is to address the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic of a trigeneration cycle from a new prospective such that the economic and thermodynamic viability of incorporating Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle is being investigated. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the introduced method can be studied and further examined. The results indicate that adding Regenerative organic Rankine cycle to gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle leads to 2.5% increase and the addition of absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator/ Regenerative Organic Rankine cycle would cause 0.75% increase in the exergetic efficiency of the entire cycle. Furthermore, from total investment cost of the trigeneration cycle, only 5.5% and 0.45% results from Regenerative organic Rankine cycle and absorption refrigeration cycles, respectively.

  13. Use of glucose oxidase to improve refrigerated dough quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products including bread, rolls, pastries and pizza crust and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to e...

  14. Nonlinear Superheat Control of a Refrigeration Plant using Backstepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The main idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design...... of a nonlinear controller. The proposed method is validated by experimental results....

  15. A rotary permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator based on AMR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprea, C.; Cardillo, G.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is an emerging, environment-friendly technology based on a magnetic solid that acts as a refrigerant by magneto-caloric effect (MCE). The reference cycle for magnetic refrigeration is AMR (Active Magnetic Regenerative refrigeration). In order to demonstrate the potential of magnetic refrigeration to provide useful cooling in the near room temperature range, a novel Rotary Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator (RPMMR) is described in this paper. Gadolinium has been selected as magnetic refrigerant and demineralized water has been employed as regenerating fluid. The total mass of gadolinium (1.20 kg), shaped as packed bed spheres, is housed in 8 regenerators. A magnetic system, based on a double U configuration of permanent magnets, provides a magnetic flux density of 1.25 T with an air gap of 43 mm. A rotary vane pump forces the regenerating fluid through the regenerators. The operational principle of the magnetic refrigerator and initial experimental results are reported and analyzed.

  16. Domestic Refrigeration, Freezer, and Window Air Conditioner Service. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Mark

    This curriculum guide contains six units of instruction for a course in domestic refrigerator, freezer, and window air conditioner service. The units cover the following topics: (1) service fundamentals; (2) mechanical components and functions; (3) electrical components and control devices; (4) refrigerator and freezer service; (5) domestic ice…

  17. Modular Modelling and Simulation Approach - Applied to Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kresten Kjær; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modelling and simulation of the thermal dynamics of a refrigeration system, specifically a reefer container. A modular approach is used and the objective is to increase the speed and flexibility of the developed simulation environment. The refrigeration system...

  18. Computer model of the refrigeration system of an ice rink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssedou, G.; Zmeureanu, R. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Giguere, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a refrigeration system model of an existing ice rink using a component approach. The chillers, the ice-concrete slab and the controller were the 3 main components used in the simulations which were performed using both open and closed loop systems. The simulated ice rink refrigeration system was based on measurements taken in an existing indoor ice rink located in Montreal, Quebec. Measurements of the refrigeration system included electricity demand; heat flux on the ice sheet; exterior air temperature; ice temperature; return brine temperature; brine temperature at the pump; brine temperature at both evaporator exits; and refrigerant temperature and pressure at the expansion and condenser valve exits. Simulation results and measurements were found to be in good agreement. A computer model of the refrigeration system was developed using the TRNSYS 16 program. The refrigeration system was composed of 2 chillers using refrigerant R-22. The impact of heat recovery from the condensers on the energy demand for sanitary water heating was also estimated. The potential reduction of equivalent carbon dioxide emissions was calculated using the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) criterion in an effort to estimate the refrigeration impact on global warming. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. Numerical approach to solar ejector-compression refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A model was established for solar ejector-compression refrigeration system. The influence of generator temperature, middle-temperature, and evaporator temperature on the performance of the refrigerant system was analyzed. An optimal generator temperature is found for maximal energy efficiency ratio and minimal power consumption.

  20. Control and optimization of the refrigeration plant in a brewery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P.M; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    The design and operation of a refrigeration plant in a brewery has been studied. The plant has been evaluated by using mathematical models of the components to simulate responses to real-life load variations. The study shows that the efficiency and economy of the actual refrigeration plant could...