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Sample records for diffuse optical spectroscopy

  1. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Oxygenation level and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor estimated by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Volovetsky, A. B.; Shilyagina, N. Yu.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Using diffuse optical spectroscopy the level of oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration in experimental tumor in comparison with normal muscle tissue of mice have been studied. Subcutaneously growing SKBR-3 was used as a tumor model. Continuous wave fiber probe diffuse optical spectroscopy system was employed. Optical properties extraction approach was based on diffusion approximation. Decreased blood oxygen saturation level and increased total hemoglobin content were demonstrated in the neoplasm. The main reason of such differences between tumor and norm was significant elevation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration in SKBR-3. The method can be useful for diagnosis of tumors as well as for study of blood flow parameters of tumor models with different angiogenic properties.

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Human Skin Using a Commercial Fiber Optic Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, J. A. Delgado; Rodriguez, M. Cunill; Montiel, S. Vazquez y; Castro, Jorge; Rodriguez, A. Cornejo; Gutierrez, J. L.; Martinez, F.; Gutierrez, B.; Orozco, E.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a reliable and easy to implement technique in human tissue characterization. In this work we evaluate the performance of the commercial USB4000 miniature fiber optic spectrometer in the in-vivo measurement of the diffuse reflectance spectra of different healthy skin sites and lesions in a population of 54 volunteers. Results show, that this spectrometer reproduces well the typical signatures of skin spectra over the 400-1000 nm region. Remarkable spectral differences exist between lesions and normal surrounding skin. A diffusion-based model was used to simulate reflectance spectra collected by the optical probe of the system

  4. Portable, Fiber-Based, Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DRS) Systems for Estimating Tissue Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Chang, Kevin; Klein, Daniel; Deng, Yu Feng; Chang, Vivide; Phelps, Janelle E; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2011-02-01

    Steady-state diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a well-studied optical technique that can provide a noninvasive and quantitative method for characterizing the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. Here, we compare three fiber-based diffuse reflection spectroscopy systems that were assembled to create a light-weight, portable, and robust optical spectrometer that could be easily translated for repeated and reliable use in mobile settings. The three systems were built using a broadband light source and a compact, commercially available spectrograph. We tested two different light sources and two spectrographs (manufactured by two different vendors). The assembled systems were characterized by their signal-to-noise ratios, the source-intensity drifts, and detector linearity. We quantified the performance of these instruments in extracting optical properties from diffuse reflectance spectra in tissue-mimicking liquid phantoms with well-controlled optical absorption and scattering coefficients. We show that all assembled systems were able to extract the optical absorption and scattering properties with errors less than 10%, while providing greater than ten-fold decrease in footprint and cost (relative to a previously well-characterized and widely used commercial system). Finally, we demonstrate the use of these small systems to measure optical biomarkers in vivo in a small-animal model cancer therapy study. We show that optical measurements from the simple portable system provide estimates of tumor oxygen saturation similar to those detected using the commercial system in murine tumor models of head and neck cancer.

  5. Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy: In vivo quantification of collagen in breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Farina, Andrea; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-05-01

    Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy provides non-invasively the optical characterization of highly diffusive media, such as biological tissues. Light pulses are injected into the tissue and the effects of light propagation on re-emitted pulses are interpreted with the diffusion theory to assess simultaneously tissue absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. Performing spectral measurements, information on tissue composition and structure is derived applying the Beer law to the measured absorption and an empiric approximation to Mie theory to the reduced scattering. The absorption properties of collagen powder were preliminarily measured in the range of 600-1100 nm using a laboratory set-up for broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy. Optical projection images were subsequently acquired in compressed breast geometry on 218 subjects, either healthy or bearing breast lesions, using a portable instrument for optical mammography that operates at 7 wavelengths selected in the range 635-1060 nm. For all subjects, tissue composition was estimated in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, and collagen. Information on tissue microscopic structure was also derived. Good correlation was obtained between mammographic breast density (a strong risk factor for breast cancer) and an optical index based on collagen content and scattering power (that accounts mostly for tissue collagen). Logistic regression applied to all optically derived parameters showed that subjects at high risk for developing breast cancer for their high breast density can effectively be identified based on collagen content and scattering parameters. Tissue composition assessed in breast lesions with a perturbative approach indicated that collagen and hemoglobin content are significantly higher in malignant lesions than in benign ones.

  6. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: a comparison of classification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabe, R.; Evers, D.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Van der Voort, M.; Wesseling, J.; Rutgers, E. J.; Vrancken Peeters, M.J.; Hage, J.A.van der; Oldenbeng, H.S.; Ruers, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma and ductal

  7. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, Rami; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Lucassen, Gerald; van der Voort, Marjolein; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne; van der Hage, Jos A.; Oldenburg, Hester S.; Wesseling, Jelle; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal

  8. Multi-distance diffuse optical spectroscopy with a single optode via hypotrochoidal scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Matthew B; Roblyer, Darren

    2018-02-15

    Frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) is an established technique capable of determining optical properties and chromophore concentrations in biological tissue. Most FD-DOS systems use either manually positioned, handheld probes or complex arrays of source and detector fibers to acquire data from many tissue locations, allowing for the generation of 2D or 3D maps of tissue. Here, we present a new method to rapidly acquire a wide range of source-detector (SD) separations by mechanically scanning a single SD pair. The source and detector fibers are mounted on a scan head that traces a hypotrochoidal pattern over the sample that, when coupled with a high-speed FD-DOS system, enables the rapid collection of dozens of SD separations for depth-resolved imaging. We demonstrate that this system has an average error of 4±2.6% in absorption and 2±1.8% in scattering across all SD separations. Additionally, by linearly translating the device, the size and location of an absorbing inhomogeneity can be determined through the generation of B-scan images in a manner conceptually analogous to ultrasound imaging. This work demonstrates the potential of single optode diffuse optical scanning for depth resolved visualization of heterogeneous biological tissues at near real-time rates.

  9. Online quantitative monitoring of live cell engineered cartilage growth using diffuse fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads S; Albro, Michael B; Stevens, Molly M

    2017-09-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has the potential to improve the outcome for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). The successful clinical translation of this technique as part of a therapy requires the ability to measure extracellular matrix (ECM) production of engineered tissues in vitro, in order to ensure quality control and improve the likelihood of tissue survival upon implantation. Conventional techniques for assessing the ECM content of engineered cartilage, such as biochemical assays and histological staining are inherently destructive. Raman spectroscopy, on the other hand, represents a non-invasive technique for in situ biochemical characterization. Here, we outline current roadblocks in translational Raman spectroscopy in TE and introduce a comprehensive workflow designed to non-destructively monitor and quantify ECM biomolecules in large (>3 mm), live cell TE constructs online. Diffuse near-infrared fiber-optic Raman spectra were measured from live cell cartilaginous TE constructs over a 56-day culturing period. We developed a multivariate curve resolution model that enabled quantitative biochemical analysis of the TE constructs. Raman spectroscopy was able to non-invasively quantify the ECM components and showed an excellent correlation with biochemical assays for measurement of collagen (R 2  = 0.84) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (R 2  = 0.86). We further demonstrated the robustness of this technique for online prospective analysis of live cell TE constructs. The fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy strategy developed in this work offers the ability to non-destructively monitor construct growth online and can be adapted to a broad range of TE applications in regenerative medicine toward controlled clinical translation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... information about chemical equilibria, kinetics and molecular motion by monitoring changes in optical properties of the system. The five presented research projects are largely unrelated to each other both in aim and in what property is probed, however they are all connected in that they are fluorophore...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  11. Vaginal hemodynamic changes during sexual arousal in a rat model by diffuse optical spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeryun; Seong, Myeongsu; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Park, Kwangsung; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    Not only men suffer from sexual dysfunction, but the number of women who have sexual dysfunction rises. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an objective diagnostic technique to examine the sexual dysfunction of female patients, who are afflicted with the disorders. For this purpose, we developed a diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) probe to measure the change of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentration along with blood flow from vaginal wall of female rats. A cylindrical stainless steel DOS probe with a diameter of 3 mm was designed for the vaginal wall of rats which consisted of two lasers (785 and 850nm) and two spectrometers with a separation of 2 mm. A thermistor was placed on the top of the probe to measure the temperature change from vaginal wall during experiments. A modified Beer-Lambert's law is utilized to acquire the changes of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin, and blood flow information is obtained by diffuse speckle contrast analysis technique. For the experiments, Sprague Dawley ( 400 g) female rats were divided into two groups (control and vaginal dryness model). Vaginal oxygenation, blood flow and temperature were continuously monitored before and after sexual around induced by apomorphine. After the measurement, histologic examination was performed to support the results from DOS probe in the vaginal wall. The hemodynamic information acquired by the DOS probe can be utilized to establish an objective and accurate standard of the female sexual disorders.

  12. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  13. Ultrafast wavelength multiplexed broad bandwidth digital diffuse optical spectroscopy for in vivo extraction of tissue optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjesen, Alyssa; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-03-01

    Frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) utilizes intensity-modulated light to characterize optical scattering and absorption in thick tissue. Previous FD-DOS systems have been limited by large device footprints, complex electronics, high costs, and limited acquisition speeds, all of which complicate access to patients in the clinical setting. We have developed a new digital DOS (dDOS) system, which is relatively compact and inexpensive, allowing for simplified clinical use, while providing unprecedented measurement speeds. The dDOS system utilizes hardware-integrated custom board-level direct digital synthesizers and an analog-to-digital converter to generate frequency sweeps and directly measure signals utilizing undersampling at six wavelengths modulated at discrete frequencies from 50 to 400 MHz. Wavelength multiplexing is utilized to achieve broadband frequency sweep measurements acquired at over 97 Hz. When compared to a gold-standard DOS system, the accuracy of optical properties recovered with the dDOS system was within 5.3% and 5.5% for absorption and reduced scattering coefficient extractions, respectively. When tested in vivo, the dDOS system was able to detect physiological changes throughout the cardiac cycle. The new FD-dDOS system is fast, inexpensive, and compact without compromising measurement quality.

  14. Exploiting Optical Contrasts for Cervical Precancer Diagnosis via Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivide Tuan-Chyan

    collagen without altering the amount of collagen present. Further work would be required to elucidate the exact sources of scattering contrast observed. Common confounding variables that limit the accuracy and clinical acceptability of optical spectroscopic systems are calibration requirements and variable probe-tissue contact pressures. Our results suggest that using a real-time self-calibration channel, as opposed to conventional post-experiment diffuse reflectance standard calibration measurements, significantly improved data integrity for the extraction of scattering contrast. Extracted [total Hb] and scattering were also significantly associated with applied contact probe pressure in colposcopically normal sites. Hence, future contact probe spectroscopy or imaging systems should incorporate a self-calibration channel and ensure spectral acquisition at a consistent contact pressure to collect reliable data with enhanced absorption and scattering contrasts. Another method to enhance optical contrast is to selectively interrogate different depths in the dysplastic cervix. For instance, scattering has been shown to increase in the epithelium (increase in nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio) while decrease in the stroma (re-organization of the extra-cellular matrix and changes in of collagen fiber cross-links). A fiber-optic probe with 45° illumination and collection fibers with a separation distance of 330 μm was designed and constructed to selectively interrogate the cervical epithelium. Mean extraction errors from liquid phantoms with optical properties mimicking the cervical epithelium for μa and μs' were 11.3 % and 12.7 %, respectively. Diffuse reflectance spectra from 9 sites in four loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) patients were analyzed. Preliminary data demonstrate the utility of the oblique fiber geometry in extracting scattering contrast in the cervical epithelium. Further work is needed to study the systematic error in optical property extraction and

  15. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Ruth, J, E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 210 S. 33rd Street, Room 240, Skirkanich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 {+-} 0.91 {sup 0}C over a range of 28-48 {sup 0}C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  16. Prediction of post-operative necrosis after mastectomy: A pilot study utilizing optical diffusion imaging spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xian-Jin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Flap necrosis and epidermolysis occurs in 18-30% of all mastectomies. Complications may be prevented by intra-operative detection of ischemia. Currently, no technique enables quantitative valuation of mastectomy skin perfusion. Optical Diffusion Imaging Spectroscopy (ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter measures the ratio of oxyhemoglobin to deoxyhemoglobin over a 1 × 1 cm area to obtain a non-invasive measurement of perfusion (StO2. Methods This study evaluates the ability of ViOptix T.Ox Tissue Oximeter to predict mastectomy flap necrosis. StO2 measurements were taken at five points before and at completion of dissection in 10 patients. Data collected included: demographics, tumor size, flap length/thickness, co-morbidities, procedure length, and wound complications. Results One patient experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Five patients underwent immediate reconstruction, including the patient with necrosis. Statistically significant factors contributing to necrosis included reduction in medial flap StO2 (p = 0.0189, reduction in inferior flap StO2 (p = 0.003, and flap length (p = 0.009. Conclusion StO2 reductions may be utilized to identify impaired perfusion in mastectomy skin flaps.

  17. Automatic classification of fluorescence and optical diffusion spectroscopy data in neuro-oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelieva, T. A.; Loshchenov, V. B.; Goryajnov, S. A.; Potapov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of the biological tissue spectroscopic analysis due to the overlap of biological molecules' absorption spectra, multiple scattering effect, as well as measurement geometry in vivo has caused the relevance of this work. In the neurooncology the problem of tumor boundaries delineation is especially acute and requires the development of new methods of intraoperative diagnosis. Methods of optical spectroscopy allow detecting various diagnostically significant parameters non-invasively. 5-ALA induced protoporphyrin IX is frequently used as fluorescent tumor marker in neurooncology. At the same time analysis of the concentration and the oxygenation level of haemoglobin and significant changes of light scattering in tumor tissues have a high diagnostic value. This paper presents an original method for the simultaneous registration of backward diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra, which allows defining all the parameters listed above simultaneously. The clinical studies involving 47 patients with intracranial glial tumors of II-IV Grades were carried out in N.N. Burdenko National Medical Research Center of Neurosurgery. To register the spectral dependences the spectroscopic system LESA- 01-BIOSPEC was used with specially developed w-shaped diagnostic fiber optic probe. The original algorithm of combined spectroscopic signal processing was developed. We have created a software and hardware, which allowed (as compared with the methods currently used in neurosurgical practice) to increase the sensitivity of intraoperative demarcation of intracranial tumors from 78% to 96%, specificity of 60% to 82%. The result of analysis of different techniques of automatic classification shows that in our case the most appropriate is the k Nearest Neighbors algorithm with cubic metrics.

  18. Diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy by fiber optics for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-09-01

    A fiber optic setup for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range is experimented for detecting and quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. Absorption measurements provide spectral fingerprints of authentic and adulterated oils. A multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for discriminating the type of adulterant and for predicting its fraction.

  19. Toward noninvasive detection and monitoring of malaria with broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris; Tromberg, Bruce J.; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.

    2018-02-01

    Despite numerous advances, malaria continues to kill nearly half a million people globally every year. New analytical methods and diagnostics are critical to understanding how treatments under development affect the lifecycle of malaria parasites. A biomarker that has been gaining interest is the "malaria pigment" hemozoin. This byproduct of hemoglobin digestion by the parasite has a unique spectral signature but is difficult to differentiate from hemoglobin and other tissue chromophores. Hemozoin can be detected in blood samples, but only utilizing approaches that require specialized training and facilities. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) is a noninvasive sensing technique that is sensitive to near-infrared absorption and scattering and capable of probing centimeter-deep volumes of tissue in vivo. DOS is relatively low-cost, does not require specialized training and thus potentially suitable for use in low-resource settings. In this work, we assess the potential of DOS to detect and quantify the presence of hemozoin noninvasively and at physiologically relevant levels. We suspended synthetic hemozoin in Intralipid-based tissue-simulating phantoms in order to mimic malaria infection in multiply-scattering tissue. Using a fiber probe that combines frequency-domain and continuous-wave broadband DOS (650-1000 nm), we detected hemozoin concentrations below 250 ng/ml, which corresponds to parasitemia sensitivities comparable to modern rapid diagnostic tests. We used the experimental variability to simulate and estimate the sensitivity of DOS to hemozoin in tissue that includes hemoglobin, water, and lipid under various tissue oxygen saturation levels. The results indicate that with increased precision, it may be possible to detect Hz noninvasively with DOS.

  20. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications.

  1. Measurement of Retinalamin diffusion coefficient in human sclera by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Zubkova, Elena A.; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2008-12-01

    The use of cytomedines (such as Retinalamin) in clinical practice has shown high effectiveness of the medicaments in ophthalmology. The study of diffusion of Retinalamin in scleral tissue is important for estimation of a drug dose delivered into inner tissue of eye, time of drug action, etc. In vitro measurements of spectral reflectance of sclera interacting with aqueous solution of Retinalamin have been carried out. Ten human sclera samples were included in the study. The results of the experiments have shown that penetration of Retinalamin into scleral tissue leads to the decrease of scleral reflectance due to optical immersion. Estimation of diffusion coefficient of studied solution has been made on the basis of analysis of optical reflectance dynamics of the sclera samples. The diffusion coefficient of Retinalamin in human scleral tissue was evaluated as (1.82±0.14)×10 -6 cm 2/s. The results are important for treatment of partial optic atrophy observed at primary open-angle glaucoma and others eye diseases.

  2. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Durduran, Turgut; Binzoni, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion. (paper)

  3. Pulsatile and steady-state hemodynamics of the human patella bone by diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Zirak, Peyman; Binzoni, Tiziano; Durduran, Turgut

    2013-08-01

    The cardiac cycle related pulsatile behavior of the absorption and scattering coefficients of diffuse light and the corresponding alterations in hemoglobin concentrations in the human patella was studied. The pulsations in scattering is considerably smaller than absorption. The difference in amplitude of absorption coefficient pulsations for different wavelengths was translated to pulsations in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, which leads to strong pulsations in the total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. The physiological origin of the observed signals was confirmed by applying a thigh-cuff. Moreover, we have investigated the optical and physiological properties of the patella bone and their changes in response to arterial cuff occlusion.

  4. Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging Using Solid-State Detectors: Characteristics, Present Status, and Research Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayed, Mrwan; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-09-14

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated). For the TR-DOI prototypes, the physical concepts, main components, figures-of-merit of detectors, and evaluation parameters are described. The performance of TR-DOI prototypes is evaluated according to the parameters used in common protocols to test DOI systems particularly basic instrumental performance (BIP). In addition, the potential features of SPADs and SiPMs to improve TR-DOI systems and expand their applications in the foreseeable future are discussed. Lastly, research challenges and future developments for TR-DOI are discussed for each component in the prototype separately and also for the entire system.

  5. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  6. MRI-Guided Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy of Malignant and Benign Breast Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Ntziachristos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the clinical implementation of a novel hybrid system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and near-infrared (NIR optical measurements for the noninvasive study of breast cancer in vivo. Fourteen patients were studied with a MR-NIR prototype imager and spectrometer. A diffuse optical tomographic scheme employed the MR images as a priori information to implement an image-guided NIR localized spectroscopic scheme. All patients who entered the study also underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRI and biopsy so that the optical findings were crossvalidated with MR readings and histopathology. The technique quantified the oxy-and deoxyhemoglobin of five malignant and nine benign breast lesions in vivo. Breast cancers were found with decreased oxygen saturation and higher blood concentration than most benign lesions. The average hemoglobin concentration ([H] of cancers was 0.130±0.100 mM, and the average hemoglobin saturation (Y was 60±9% compared to [H]=0.018±0.005 mM and Y=69±6% of background tissue. Fibroadenomas exhibited high hemoglobin concentration [H]=0.060±0.010 mM and mild decrease in oxygen saturation Y=67±2%. Cysts and other normal lesions were easily differentiated based on intrinsic contrast information. This novel optical technology can be a significant add-on in MR examinations and can be used to characterize functional parameters of cancers with diagnostic and treatment prognosis potential. It is foreseen that the technique can play a major role in functional activation studies of brain and muscle as well.

  7. A technique for measuring oxygen saturation in biological tissues based on diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnin, Mikhail; Orlova, Anna; Kirillin, Mikhail; Golubiatnikov, German; Turchin, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    A new approach to optical measuring blood oxygen saturation was developed and implemented. This technique is based on an original three-stage algorithm for reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (hemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the probing radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed technique on a biological phantom have shown the high reconstruction accuracy and the possibility of correct calculation of hemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noise and calibration errors. The obtained results of animal studies have agreed with the previously published results of other research groups and demonstrated the possibility to apply the developed technique to monitor oxygen saturation in tumor tissue.

  8. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachabé, Rami; Evers, Daniel J.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; van der Voort, Marjolein; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Peeters, Marie-Jeanne Vrancken; van der Hage, Jos A.; Oldenburg, Hester S.; Wesseling, Jelle; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the use of diffuse optical spectroscopy analysis of breast spectra acquired in the wavelength range from 500 to 1600 nm with a fiber optic probe. A total of 102 ex vivo samples of five different breast tissue types, namely adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma in situ from 52 patients were measured. A model deriving from the diffusion theory was applied to the measured spectra in order to extract clinically relevant parameters such as blood, water, lipid, and collagen volume fractions, β-carotene concentration, average vessels radius, reduced scattering amplitude, Mie slope, and Mie-to-total scattering fraction. Based on a classification and regression tree algorithm applied to the derived parameters, a sensitivity-specificity of 98%-99%, 84%-95%, 81%-98%, 91%-95%, and 83%-99% were obtained for discrimination of adipose, glandular, fibroadenoma, invasive carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma in situ, respectively; and a multiple classes overall diagnostic performance of 94%. Sensitivity-specificity values obtained for discriminating malignant from nonmalignant tissue were compared to existing reported studies by applying the different classification methods that were used in each of these studies. Furthermore, in these reported studies, either lipid or β-carotene was considered as adipose tissue precursors. We estimate both chromophore concentrations and demonstrate that lipid is a better discriminator for adipose tissue than β-carotene.

  10. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt......Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at http://www.kemi.dtu.dk/~ajo/rolf/petroday2004.ppt...

  11. Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)–induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8±7.1 min compared to 75.4±25.1 and 76.4±42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (pcyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS. PMID:20210475

  12. Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.

  13. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J

    2009-01-01

    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  14. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  15. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  16. Using optical fibers with different modes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-03-01

    The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measurements. Experiments on liquid phantom solutions and in vivo muscle tissues show only slight improvements in flow measurements when using the few-mode fiber compared with using the single-mode fiber. However, light intensities detected by the few-mode and multimode fibers are increased, leading to significant SNR improvements in detections of phantom optical property and tissue blood oxygenation. The outcomes from this study provide useful guidance for the selection of optical fibers to improve DCS flow-oximeter measurements.

  17. Diffusion tensor optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2018-01-01

    In situ measurements of diffusive particle transport provide insight into tissue architecture, drug delivery, and cellular function. Analogous to diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI), where the anisotropic diffusion of water molecules is mapped on the millimeter scale to elucidate the fibrous structure of tissue, here we propose diffusion-tensor optical coherence tomography (DT-OCT) for measuring directional diffusivity and flow of optically scattering particles within tissue. Because DT-OCT is sensitive to the sub-resolution motion of Brownian particles as they are constrained by tissue macromolecules, it has the potential to quantify nanoporous anisotropic tissue structure at micrometer resolution as relevant to extracellular matrices, neurons, and capillaries. Here we derive the principles of DT-OCT, relating the detected optical signal from a minimum of six probe beams with the six unique diffusion tensor and three flow vector components. The optimal geometry of the probe beams is determined given a finite numerical aperture, and a high-speed hardware implementation is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess the ability of the proposed DT-OCT system to quantify anisotropic diffusion of nanoparticles in a collagen matrix, an extracellular constituent that is known to become highly aligned during tumor development.

  18. In vivo P-31 MR diffusion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, C.T.W.; Vanzijl, P.C.M.; LeBihan, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the Stejskal-Tanner diffusion spin-echo sequence modified for the in vivo diffusion spectroscopy. The apparent diffusion constant D α was measured as a function of the diffusion time. Contrary to the results in phantom samples, a strong dependency of the D α for phosphocreatine (PCr) in the rat muscle tissue on diffusion time was observed, clearly indicating restricted diffusion effects and allowing an approximation of the size of the restricted volume (8-13 μm). This size fits well with the known dimensions of a normal muscle cell

  19. Massively parallel diffuse optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd A.

    2017-09-05

    Diffuse optical tomography systems and methods are described herein. In a general embodiment, the diffuse optical tomography system comprises a plurality of sensor heads, the plurality of sensor heads comprising respective optical emitter systems and respective sensor systems. A sensor head in the plurality of sensors heads is caused to act as an illuminator, such that its optical emitter system transmits a transillumination beam towards a portion of a sample. Other sensor heads in the plurality of sensor heads act as observers, detecting portions of the transillumination beam that radiate from the sample in the fields of view of the respective sensory systems of the other sensor heads. Thus, sensor heads in the plurality of sensors heads generate sensor data in parallel.

  20. Using optical fibers with different modes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter measurements

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measure...

  1. Optical Fiber Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of work done on NASA Grant NAG-1-443. The work covers the period from July 1, 1992 to December 1, 1998. During this period several distinct but related research studies and work tasks were undertaken. These different subjects are enumerated below with a description of the work done on each of them. The focus of the research was the development of optical fibers for use as distributed temperature and stress sensors. The initial concept was to utilize the utilize the temperature and stress dependence of emission from rare earth and transition metal ions substitutionally doped into crystalline or glass fibers. During the course of investigating this it became clear that fiber Bragg gratings provided a alternative for making the desired measurements and there was a shift of research focus on to include the photo-refractive properties of germano-silicate glasses used for most gratings and to the possibility of developing fiber laser sources for an integrated optical sensor in the research effort. During the course of this work several students from Christopher Newport University and other universities participated in this effort. Their names are listed below. Their participation was an important part of their education.

  2. HOMES - Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HOMES (Holographic Optical Method for Exoplanet Spectroscopy) is a space telescope that employs a double dispersion architecture, using a holographic optical element...

  3. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Nachabe, R.; Klomp, H.M.; van Sandick, J.W.; Wouters, M.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Hendriks, B.H.; Wesseling, J.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A significant number of percutaneous intrathoracic biopsy procedures result in indeterminate cytologic or histologic diagnosis in clinical practice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical technique that can distinguish different tissue types on a microscopic level. DRS may

  4. Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance patterns in cervical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Nena Maribel

    Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are two new optical technologies, which have shown promise to aid in the real time, non-invasive identification of cancers and precancers. Spectral patterns carry a fingerprint of scattering, absorption and fluorescence properties in tissue. Scattering, absorption and fluorescence in tissue are directly affected by biological features that are diagnostically significant, such as nuclear size, micro-vessel density, volume fraction of collagen fibers, tissue oxygenation and cell metabolism. Thus, analysis of spectral patterns can unlock a wealth of information directly related with the onset and progression of disease. Data from a Phase II clinical trial to assess the technical efficacy of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy acquired from 850 women at three clinical locations with two research grade optical devices is calibrated and analyzed. Tools to process and standardize spectra so that data from multiple spectrometers can be combined and analyzed are presented. Methodologies for calibration and quality assurance of optical systems are established to simplify design issues and ensure validity of data for future clinical trials. Empirically based algorithms, using multivariate statistical approaches are applied to spectra and evaluated as a clinical diagnostic tool. Physically based algorithms, using mathematical models of light propagation in tissue are presented. The presented mathematical model combines a diffusion theory in P3 approximation reflectance model and a 2-layer fluorescence model using exponential attenuation and diffusion theory. The resulting adjoint fluorescence and reflectance model extracts twelve optical properties characterizing fluorescence efficiency of cervical epithelium and stroma fluorophores, stromal hemoglobin and collagen absorption, oxygen saturation, and stromal scattering strength and shape. Validations with Monte Carlo simulations show that adjoint model extracted

  5. Supraconductor magnet for optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, G.; Buhler, S.

    1985-01-01

    A superconductive magnet system for optic spectroscopy has been built. It includes an elaborate support structure, a LN2/LHe cryostat with its supplies and controls and a superconductive magnet of the split pole type equipped with a superconductive switch. A vertically introduced sample in the LHe bath, on request subcooled down to 2.2K is observed through two optical passages. Magnet characteristics are as follows : - clear bore 35mm - clear split 20mm - central field 6.33 Teslas - homogeneity over 10mm D.S.V.: 1% [fr

  6. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  7. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  8. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Jiang, Huabei

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive, nonionizing, and inexpensive imaging technique that uses near-infrared light to probe tissue optical properties. Regional variations in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations as well as blood flow and oxygen consumption can be imaged by monitoring spatiotemporal variations in the absorption spectra. For brain imaging, this provides DOT unique abilities to directly measure the hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuronal responses to cells (neurons), and tissue and organ activations with high temporal resolution and good tissue penetration. DOT can be used as a stand-alone modality or can be integrated with other imaging modalities such as fMRI/MRI, PET/CT, and EEG/MEG in studying neurophysiology and pathology. This book chapter serves as an introduction to the basic theory and principles of DOT for neuroimaging. It covers the major aspects of advances in neural optical imaging including mathematics, physics, chemistry, reconstruction algorithm, instrumentation, image-guided spectroscopy, neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling, and clinical applications.

  9. Noise and detection in ''optical'' modulation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelatici, V.

    1975-01-01

    The measuring techniques suitable for ''optical'' modulation spectroscopy are analyzed and source of noise identified. The choice of optical detector is for photoelectrical devices. It is shown that the shot noise of phototubes is the most important noise source

  10. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  11. Anomalous diffusion in a dynamical optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Cooper, Nigel R.

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by experimental progress in strongly coupled atom-photon systems in optical cavities, we study theoretically the quantum dynamics of atoms coupled to a one-dimensional dynamical optical lattice. The dynamical lattice is chosen to have a period that is incommensurate with that of an underlying static lattice, leading to a dynamical version of the Aubry-André model which can cause localization of single-particle wave functions. We show that atomic wave packets in this dynamical lattice generically spread via anomalous diffusion, which can be tuned between superdiffusive and subdiffusive regimes. This anomalous diffusion arises from an interplay between Anderson localization and quantum fluctuations of the cavity field.

  12. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  13. Optical spectroscopy for food and beverages control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna Grazia; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Mencaglia, Andrea Azelio

    2011-08-01

    A selection of spectroscopy-based, fiber optic and micro-optic devices is presented. They have been designed and tested for monitoring the quality and safety of typical foodstuffs. The VIS-NIR spectra, considered as product fingerprints, allowed to discriminating the geographic region of production and to detecting nutritional and nutraceutic indicators.

  14. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy : toward real-time quantification of steatosis in liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel J.; Westerkamp, Andrie C.; Spliethoff, Jarich W.; Pully, Vishnu V.; Hompes, Daphne; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Prevoo, Warner; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.; Porte, Robert J.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    Assessment of fatty liver grafts during orthotopic liver transplantation is a challenge due to the lack of real-time analysis options during surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) could be a new diagnostic tool to quickly assess steatosis. Eight hundred and seventy-eight optical

  15. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  16. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  17. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect

  18. Structural, optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity, dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    13

    different methods of preparation [36-41]. The electrical insulator materials with low refractive index and low absorption are needed for various optical devices, such as low loss waveguides, resonators, photonic crystals, distributed Bragg reflectors, light-emitting diodes, passive splitters, biosensors, attenuators and filters ...

  19. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly...

  20. Phase synchronization of oxygenation waves in the frontal areas of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder detected by optical diffusion spectroscopy correlates with medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Polzonetti, Chiara M.; Stehli, Annamarie; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effects of pharmacotherapy on children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented. We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methodology to determine reorganization of brain neurovascular properties following the medication treatment. Twenty-six children with ADHD (ages six through 12) participated in a modified laboratory school protocol to monitor treatment response with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX; Vyvanse, Shire US Inc.). All children refrained from taking medication for at least two weeks (washout period). To detect neurovascular reorganization, we measured changes in synchronization of oxy (HbO2) and deoxy (HHb) hemoglobin waves between the two frontal lobes. Participants without medication displayed average baseline HbO2 phase difference at about -7-deg. and HHb differences at about 240-deg.. This phase synchronization index changed after pharmacological intervention. Medication induced an average phase changes of HbO2 after first medication to 280-deg. and after medication optimization to 242-deg.. Instead first medication changed of the average HHb phase difference at 186-deg. and then after medication optimization to 120-deg. In agreement with findings of White et al., and Varela et al., we associated the phase synchronization differences of brain hemodynamics in children with ADHD with lobe specific hemodynamic reorganization of HbO2- and HHB oscillations following medication status.

  1. Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy for diffusion in crystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisermayr, M.; Rennhofer, M.; Vogl, G.; Pappas, C.; Longeville, S.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE) offers unprecedented opportunities in the investigation of diffusion in crystalline systems due to its outstanding energy resolution. NSE not only enables measurements at lower diffusivities than the established techniques of neutron spectroscopy, but it also gives a very immediate access to the different time scales involved in the diffusion process. This is demonstrated in detail on the example of the binary alloy NiGa where the Ni atoms hop between regular sites on the Ni sublattice and anti-sites on the Ga sublattice. Experiments on two different NSE instruments are compared to measurements using neutron backscattering spectroscopy. The potential of NSE for the investigation of jump diffusion and experimental requirements are discussed

  2. XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The XIX International Youth School on Coherent Optics and Optical Spectroscopy (COOS2015) was held in Kazan, Russia, from October 5 to October 7 at the Nikolai Lobachevsky Scientific Library of Kazan Federal University. The School follows the global tendency toward comprehensive studies of matter properties and its interaction with electromagnetic fields. Since 1997 more than 100 famous scientists from USA, Germany, Ukraine, Belarussia and Russia had plenary lecture presentations. This is the right place, where over 1000 young scientists had an opportunity to participate in hot discussions regarding the latest scientific news. Many young people have submitted interesting reports on photonics, quantum electronics, laser physics, quantum optics, traditional optical and laser spectroscopy, non-linear optics, material science and nanotechnology. Here we are publishing the full-size papers prepared from the most interesting lectures and reports selected by the Program Committee of the School. (paper)

  3. Raman Spectroscopy with simple optic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Cunya, Eduardo; Olivera, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is .a high resolution photonics technique that provides chemical and structural information of almost any material, organic or inorganic compound. In this report we describe the implementation of a system based on the principle of Raman scattering, developed to analyze solid samples. The spectrometer integrates an optical bench coupled to an optical fiber and a green laser source of 532 nm. The spectrometer was tested obtaining the Naphthalene and the Yellow 74 Pigment Raman patterns. (authors).

  4. Diffusion measurements in binary liquid mixtures by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that Raman spectroscopy allows determination of the molar fractions in mixtures subjected to molecular diffusion. Spectra of three binary systems, benzene/n-hexane, benzene/cyclohexane, and benzene/ acetone, were obtained during vertical (exchange) diffusion at several different heights...... in the literature were found, even in a thermostatically controlled diffusion cell, recording spectra through circulating water. For the system benzene/acetone, the determined diffusion coefficients were in good agreement with the literature data. The limitations of the Raman method are discussed...

  5. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs

  6. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  7. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Christopher James

    1997-01-01

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO 2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion

  8. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  9. Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (panimals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

  10. Comparison of nanoparticle diffusion using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and differential dynamic microscopy within concentrated polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Namita; Issa, Christopher; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2017-12-01

    We studied the diffusion of nanoparticles (NPs) within aqueous entangled solutions of polyethylene oxide (PEO) by using two different optical techniques. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, a method widely used to investigate nanoparticle dynamics in polymer solution, was used to measure the long-time diffusion coefficient (D) of 25 nm radius particles within high molecular weight, Mw = 600 kg/mol PEO in water solutions. Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) was used to determine the wave-vector dependent dynamics of NPs within the same polymer solutions. Our results showed good agreement between the two methods, including demonstration of normal diffusion and almost identical diffusion coefficients obtained by both techniques. The research extends the scope of DDM to study the dynamics and rheological properties of soft matter at a nanoscale. The measured diffusion coefficients followed a scaling theory, which can be explained by the coupling between polymer dynamics and NP motion.

  11. Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin Orbit Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Unlimited UU UU UU UU 14-06-2016 15-Mar-2013 14-Mar-2016 Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Correlated Spin-Orbit Phases The views...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ultrafast optical spectroscopy , nonlinear optical spectroscopy , iridates, cuprates REPORT...California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 -0001 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Spectroscopy and

  12. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, In Ho; Song, Chang June; Hwang, Hee Youn

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman experienced bilateral acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery. Routine MR imaging sequence, T2-weighted image, showed subtle high signal intensity on bilateral optic nerves. A contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image showed enhancement along the bilateral optic nerve sheath. Moreover, diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient map showed markedly restricted diffusion on bilateral optic nerves. Although MR findings of T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images may be nonspecific, the DWI finding of cytotoxic edema of bilateral optic nerves will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery.

  13. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Young; Lee, In Ho; Song, Chang June [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Youn [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    A 57-year-old woman experienced bilateral acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery. Routine MR imaging sequence, T2-weighted image, showed subtle high signal intensity on bilateral optic nerves. A contrast-enhanced T1 weighted image showed enhancement along the bilateral optic nerve sheath. Moreover, diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient map showed markedly restricted diffusion on bilateral optic nerves. Although MR findings of T2-weighted and contrast enhanced T1-weighted images may be nonspecific, the DWI finding of cytotoxic edema of bilateral optic nerves will be helpful for the diagnosis of acute ischemic optic neuropathy after spine surgery.

  14. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  15. Establishing the diffuse correlation spectroscopy signal relationship with blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, David A; Sakadžić, Sava; Selb, Juliette; Farzam, Parisa; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Carp, Stefan A

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow rely on the sensitivity of the temporal autocorrelation function of diffusively scattered light to red blood cell (RBC) mean square displacement (MSD). For RBCs flowing with convective velocity [Formula: see text], the autocorrelation is expected to decay exponentially with [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the delay time. RBCs also experience shear-induced diffusion with a diffusion coefficient [Formula: see text] and an MSD of [Formula: see text]. Surprisingly, experimental data primarily reflect diffusive behavior. To provide quantitative estimates of the relative contributions of convective and diffusive movements, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of light scattering through tissue of varying vessel densities. We assumed laminar vessel flow profiles and accounted for shear-induced diffusion effects. In agreement with experimental data, we found that diffusive motion dominates the correlation decay for typical DCS measurement parameters. Furthermore, our model offers a quantitative relationship between the RBC diffusion coefficient and absolute tissue blood flow. We thus offer, for the first time, theoretical support for the empirically accepted ability of the DCS blood flow index ([Formula: see text]) to quantify tissue perfusion. We find [Formula: see text] to be linearly proportional to blood flow, but with a proportionality modulated by the hemoglobin concentration and the average blood vessel diameter.

  16. A New Optical Design for Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. L.

    2002-05-01

    We present an optical design concept for imaging spectroscopy, with some advantages over current systems. The system projects monochromatic images onto the 2-D array detector(s). Faint object and crowded field spectroscopy can be reduced first using image processing techniques, then building the spectrum, unlike integral field units where one must first extract the spectra, build data cubes from these, then reconstruct the target's integrated spectral flux. Like integral field units, all photons are detected simultaneously, unlike tunable filters which must be scanned through the wavelength range of interest and therefore pay a sensitivity pentalty. Several sample designs are presented, including an instrument optimized for measuring intermediate redshift galaxy cluster velocity dispersions, one designed for near-infrared ground-based adaptive optics, and one intended for space-based rapid follow-up of transient point sources such as supernovae and gamma ray bursts.

  17. Distribution of diffusion times determined by fluorescence (lifetime) correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Jiří; Loukotová, Lenka; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2018), s. 2796-2804 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solution * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * diffusion time distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  18. Transcranial diffuse optical assessment of the microvascular reperfusion after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Gregori-Pla, Clara; Zirak, Peyman; Blanco, Igor; Dinia, Lavinia; Marín, Rebeca; Durduran, Turgut; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2018-03-01

    In this pilot study, we have evaluated bedside diffuse optical monitoring combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy to assess the effect of thrombolysis with an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on cerebral hemodynamics in an acute ischemic stroke. Frontal lobes of five patients with an acute middle cerebral artery occlusion were measured bilaterally during rtPA treatment. Both ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres showed significant increases in cerebral blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration and oxy-hemoglobin concentration during the first 2.5 hours after rtPA bolus. The increases were faster and higher in the ipsilesional hemisphere. The results show that bedside optical monitoring can detect the effect of reperfusion therapy for ischemic stroke in real-time.

  19. Quantification of hemoglobin and its derivatives in oral cancer diagnosis by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasarao; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most common threat to human beings and it increases at an alarming level around the globe. In recent years, due to the advancements in opto-electronic technology, various optical spectroscopy techniques have emerged to assess the photophysicochemical and morphological conditions of normal and malignant tissues in micro as well as in macroscopic scale. In this regard, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is considered to be the simplest, cost effective and rapid technique in diagnosis of cancerous tissues. In the present study, the hemoglobin concentration in normal and cancerous oral tissues was quantified and subsequent statistical analysis has been carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the technique.

  20. Assessment of sacrococcygeal pressure ulcers using diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, David; Lafontant, Alec; Neidrauer, Michael; Weingarten, Michael S.; DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Fried, Guy W.; Rece, Julianne; Lewin, Peter A.; Zubkov, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Microcirculation is essential for proper supply of oxygen and nutritive substances to the biological tissue and the removal of waste products of metabolism. The determination of microcirculatory blood flow (mBF) is therefore of substantial interest to clinicians for assessing tissue health; particularly in pressure ulceration and suspected deep tissue injury. The goal of this pilot clinical study was to assess deep-tissue pressure ulceration by non-invasively measuring mBF using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS). DCS provides information about the flow of red blood cells in the capillary network by measuring the temporal autocorrelation function of scattering light intensity. A novel optical probe was developed in order to obtain measurements under the load of the subject's body as pressure is applied (ischemia) and then released (reperfusion) on sacrococcygeal tissue in a hospital bed. Prior to loading measurements, baseline readings of the sacral region were obtained by measuring the subjects in a side-lying position. DCS measurements from the sacral region of twenty healthy volunteers have been compared to those of two patients who initially had similar non-blanchable redness. The temporal autocorrelation function of scattering light intensity of the patient whose redness later disappeared was similar to that of the average healthy subject. The second patient, whose redness developed into an advanced pressure ulcer two weeks later, had a substantial decrease in blood flow while under the loading position compared to healthy subjects. Preliminary results suggest the developed system may potentially predict whether non-blanchable redness will manifest itself as advanced ulceration or dissipate over time.

  1. Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Hielscher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT is emerging as a viable new biomedical imaging modality. Using near-infrared (NIR light, this technique probes absorption as well as scattering properties of biological tissues. First commercial instruments are now available that allow users to obtain cross-sectional and volumetric views of various body parts. Currently, the main applications are brain, breast, limb, joint, and fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging. Although the spatial resolution is limited when compared with other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or X-ray computerized tomography (CT, DOT provides access to a variety of physiological parameters that otherwise are not accessible, including sub-second imaging of hemodynamics and other fast-changing processes. Furthermore, DOT can be realized in compact, portable instrumentation that allows for bedside monitoring at relatively low cost. In this paper, we present an overview of current state-of-the -art technology, including hardware and image-reconstruction algorithms, and focus on applications in brain and joint imaging. In addition, we present recent results of work on optical tomographic imaging in small animals.

  2. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  3. New MR sequences (diffusion, perfusion, spectroscopy) in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Andrea; Gandolfo, Carlo; Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Garre, Maria Luisa; Cama, Armando

    2010-01-01

    While MRI has been instrumental in significantly improving care in children harbouring brain tumours, conventional sequences lack information regarding functional parameters including cellularity, haemodynamics and metabolism. Advanced MR imaging modalities, such as diffusion (including diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography), perfusion and spectroscopy have significantly improved our understanding of the physiopathology of brain tumours and have provided invaluable additional information for treatment planning and monitoring of treatment results. The contribution of these methods to the characterization of brain neoplasms in children is the focus of the present manuscript. (orig.)

  4. Optical spectroscopy of ten extragalactic radiosources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, S.; Riley, J.M.; Saunders, R.

    1989-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of ten objects associated with extra-galactic radiosources, using the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. Redshifts are measured for four radiogalaxies (B20217 + 36A + B, 3C73, 0648 + 19A, 0648 + 19B) and for a galaxy which is probably associated with a double radio-source with highly unusual properties (0951 + 37); existing redshifts are confirmed for two radiogalaxies (4C39.04, 4C40.08); and a tentative redshift of z=2.87 measured for the quasar 3C82. (author)

  5. Polarized light in optics and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kliger, David S

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive introduction to polarized light provides students and researchers with the background and the specialized knowledge needed to fully utilize polarized light. It provides a basic introduction to the interaction of light with matter for those unfamiliar with photochemistry and photophysics. An in-depth discussion of polarizing optics is also given. Different analytical techniques are introduced and compared and introductions to the use of polarized light in various forms of spectroscopy are provided.Key Features* Starts at a basic level and develops tools for resear

  6. Optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Alexandra C.; Westberg, Jonas; Wysocki, Gerard; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate optical frequency comb Faraday rotation spectroscopy (OFC-FRS) for broadband interference-free detection of paramagnetic species. The system is based on a femtosecond doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The sample is placed in a DC magnetic field parallel to the light propagation. Efficient background suppression is implemented via switching the direction of the field on consecutive FTS scans and subtracting the consecutive spectra, which enables long-term averaging. In this first demonstration, we measure the entire Q- and R-branches of the fundamental band of nitric oxide in the 5.2-5.4 µm range and achieve good agreement with a theoretical model.

  7. A pilot study on the use of optical spectroscopy to detection of liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabila, A; La Rosa, J. de; Stolik, S.; Escobedo, C.; Suarez Alvarez, K.; Lopez Navarrete, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary study to evaluate the use of optical spectroscopy as a tool to detect liver fibrosis. In vivo fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from male rats in which fibrosis were induced by means of carbon tetrachloride. Spectral measurements were obtained using a portable system with an excitation source of 365 nm and a fiber-optic probe. The livers from rats with fibrosis showed an increase in fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensity when compared to normal liver tissue. A support vector machine discrimination algorithm based on fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensities at 493 and 365 nm was developed. This algorithm yields a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 94%, respectively, in differentiating fibrotic liver from normal liver tissue. the results obtained in this study suggest that optical spectroscopy could be worthy of further exploration in patients. (Author)

  8. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  9. Resolving Fast, Confined Diffusion in Bacteria with Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David J; Tuson, Hannah H; Biteen, Julie S

    2016-05-24

    By following single fluorescent molecules in a microscope, single-particle tracking (SPT) can measure diffusion and binding on the nanometer and millisecond scales. Still, although SPT can at its limits characterize the fastest biomolecules as they interact with subcellular environments, this measurement may require advanced illumination techniques such as stroboscopic illumination. Here, we address the challenge of measuring fast subcellular motion by instead analyzing single-molecule data with spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) with a focus on measurements of confined motion. Our SPT and STICS analysis of simulations of the fast diffusion of confined molecules shows that image blur affects both STICS and SPT, and we find biased diffusion rate measurements for STICS analysis in the limits of fast diffusion and tight confinement due to fitting STICS correlation functions to a Gaussian approximation. However, we determine that with STICS, it is possible to correctly interpret the motion that blurs single-molecule images without advanced illumination techniques or fast cameras. In particular, we present a method to overcome the bias due to image blur by properly estimating the width of the correlation function by directly calculating the correlation function variance instead of using the typical Gaussian fitting procedure. Our simulation results are validated by applying the STICS method to experimental measurements of fast, confined motion: we measure the diffusion of cytosolic mMaple3 in living Escherichia coli cells at 25 frames/s under continuous illumination to illustrate the utility of STICS in an experimental parameter regime for which in-frame motion prevents SPT and tight confinement of fast diffusion precludes stroboscopic illumination. Overall, our application of STICS to freely diffusing cytosolic protein in small cells extends the utility of single-molecule experiments to the regime of fast confined diffusion without requiring advanced

  10. Diffusion properties of NAA in human corpus callosum as studied with diffusion tensor spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Jaymin; Hallock, Kevin; Erb, Kelley; Kim, Dae-Shik; Ronen, Itamar

    2007-11-01

    In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) the anisotropic movement of water is exploited to characterize microstructure. One confounding issue of DTI is the presence of intra- and extracellular components contributing to the measured diffusivity. This causes an ambiguity in determining the underlying cause of diffusion properties, particularly the fractional anisotropy (FA). In this study an intracellular constituent, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), was used to probe intracellular diffusion, while water molecules were used to probe the combined intra- and extracellular diffusion. NAA and water diffusion measurements were made in anterior and medial corpus callosum (CC) regions, which are referred to as R1 and R2, respectively. FA(NAA) was found to be greater than FA(Water) in both CC regions, thus indicating a higher degree of anisotropy within the intracellular space in comparison to the combined intra- and extracellular spaces. A decreasing trend in the FA of NAA and water was observed between R1 and R2, while the radial diffusivity (RD) for both molecules increased. The increase in RD(NAA) is particularly significant, thus explaining the more significant decrease in FA(NAA) between the two regions. It is suggested that diffusion tensor spectroscopy of NAA can potentially be used to further characterize microscopic anatomic organization in white matter. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Optical Biopsy Using Tissue Spectroscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman S Nishioka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Optical biopsy’ or ‘optical diagnostics’ is a technique whereby light energy is used to obtain information about the structure and function of tissues without disrupting them. In fluorescence spectroscopy, light energy (usually provided by a laser is used to excite tissues and the resulting fluorescence provides information about the target tissue. Its major gastrointestinal application has been in the evaluation of colonic polyps, in which it can reliably distinguish malignant from benign lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used in the investigation of Barrett’s epithelium (and dysplasia, although a variety of other applications are feasible. For example, OCT could assist in the identification and staging of mucosal and submucosal neoplasms, the grading of inflammation in the stomach and intestine, the diagnosis of biliary tumours and the assessment of villous architecture. OCT differs from endoscopic ultrasound, a complementary modality, in that it has a much higher resolution but lesser depth of penetration. The images correlate with the histopathological appearance of tissues, and the addition of Doppler methods may enable it to evaluate the vascularity of tumours and the amount of blood flow in varices. Refinements in these new optical techniques will likely make them valuable in clinical practice, although their specific roles have yet to be determined.

  12. Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.

    1963-01-01

    The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author) [fr

  13. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of GEO Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cardona, Tammaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Bedard, Donald

    2013-01-01

    We report on optical reflection spectroscopy of geosynchronous (GEO) objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. These observations were obtained using imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to determine the composition of these objects by comparing these spectral observations with ground-based laboratory measurements of spacecraft materials. The observations are all low resolution (1 nm after smoothing) obtained through a 5 arcsecond wide slit and using a grism as the dispersing element. The spectral range covered was from 450 nm to 800 nm. All spectra were flux calibrated using observations of standard stars with the exact same instrumental setup. An effort was made to obtain all observations within a limited range of topocentric phase angle, although the solar incident angle is unknown due to the lack of any knowledge of the attitude of the observed surface at the time of observation.

  14. Confined diffusion in tubular structures analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on a mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, Emilien; Lenne, Pierre-Francois; Sturgis, James N.; Rigneault, Herve

    2006-01-01

    In fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis it is generally assumed that molecular species diffuse freely in volumes much larger than the three-dimensional FCS observation volume. However, this standard assumption is not valid in many measurement conditions, particularly in tubular structures with diameters in the micrometer range, such as those found in living cells (organelles, dendrites) and microfluidic devices (capillaries,reaction chambers). As a result the measured autocorrelation functions (ACFs) deviate from those predicted for free diffusion, and this can shift the measured diffusion coefficient by as much as ∼50% when the tube diameter is comparable with the axial extension of the FCS observation volume. We show that the range of validity of the FCS measurements can be drastically improved if the tubular structures are located in the close vicinity of a mirror on which FCS is performed. In this case a new fluctuation time in the ACF, arising from the diffusion of fluorescent probes in optical fringes,permits measurement of the real diffusion coefficient within the tubular structure without assumptions about either the confined geometry orthe FCS observation volume geometry. We show that such a measurement can be done when the tubular structure contains at least one pair of dark and bright fringes resulting from interference between the incoming and the reflected excitation beams on the mirror surface. Measurement of the diffusion coefficient of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and IscS-EGFP in the cytoplasm of living Escherichiacoli illustrates the capabilities of the technique

  15. In vivo time-gated diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliazzi, M; Sekar, S Konugolu Venkata; Di Sieno, L; Colombo, L; Durduran, T; Contini, D; Torricelli, A; Pifferi, A; Mora, A Dalla

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate time domain diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation by using a fast time-gated single-photon avalanche diode without the need of time-tagging electronics. This approach allows for increased photon collection, simplified real-time instrumentation, and reduced probe dimensions. Depth discriminating, quasi-null distance measurement of blood flow in a human subject is presented. We envision the miniaturization and integration of matrices of optical sensors of increased spatial resolution and the enhancement of the contrast of local blood flow changes.

  16. Monitoring soft tissue coagulation by optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, A.; Lihacova, I.; Heinrichs, H.; Spigulis, J.; Trebst, T.; Wehner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Laser tissue welding (LTW) or laser tissue soldering (LTS) is investigated since many years for treatment of incisions, wound closure and anastomosis of vessels [1, 2]. Depending on the process, a certain temperature in the range between 65 °C to 85 °C must be reached and held for a few seconds. Care has to be taken not to overheat the tissue, otherwise necrosis or tissue carbonization may occur and will impair wound healing. Usually the temperature is monitored during the process to control the laser power [3]. This requires either bulky equipment or expensive and fragile infrared fibers to feed the temperature signal to an infrared detector. Alternatively, changes in tissue morphology can be directly observed by analysis of spectral reflectance. We investigate spectral changes in the range between 400 nm to 900 nm wavelength. Characteristic spectral changes occur when the temperature of tissue samples increase above 70 °C which is a typical setpoint value for temperature control of coagulation. We conclude that simple spectroscopy in the visible range can provide valuable information during LTS and LTW and probably replace the delicate measurement of temperature. A major advantage is that optical measurements can be performed using standard optical fibers and can be easily integrated into a surgical tool.

  17. Micro-optical instrumentation for process spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Richard A.; Flanders, Dale C.; Atia, Walid

    2004-12-01

    Traditional laboratory ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectroscopy instruments are tabletop-sized pieces of equipment that exhibit very high performance, but are generally too large and costly to be widely distributed for process control applications or used as spectroscopic sensors. Utilizing a unique, and proven, micro-optical technology platform origi-nally developed, qualified and deployed in the telecommunications industry, we have developed a new class of spectro-scopic micro-instrumentation that has laboratory quality resolution and spectral range, with superior speed and robust-ness. The fundamentally lower cost and small form factor of the technology will enable widespread use in process moni-toring and control. This disruption in the ground rules of spectroscopic analysis in these processes is enabled by the re-placement of large optics and detector arrays with a high-finesse, high-speed micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) tunable filter and a single detector, that enable the manufacture of a high performance and extremely rugged spectrome-ter in the footprint of a credit card. Specific process monitoring and control applications discussed in the paper include pharmaceutical, gas sensing and chemical processing applications.

  18. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  19. Size dependent diffusive parameters and tensorial diffusion equations in neutronic models for optically small nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premuda, F.

    1983-01-01

    Two lines in improved neutron diffusion theory extending the efficiency of finite-difference diffusion codes to the field of optically small systems, are here reviewed. The firs involves the nodal solution for tensorial diffusion equation in slab geometry and tensorial formulation in parallelepiped and cylindrical gemometry; the dependence of critical eigenvalue from small slab thicknesses is also analitically investigated and finally a regularized tensorial diffusion equation is derived for slab. The other line refer to diffusion models formally unchanged with respect to the classical one, but where new size-dependent RTGB definitions for diffusion parameters are adopted, requiring that they allow to reproduce, in diffusion approach, the terms of neutron transport global balance; the trascendental equation for the buckling, arising in slab, sphere and parallelepiped geometry from the above requirement, are reported and the sizedependence of the new diffusion coefficient and extrapolated end point is investigated

  20. Optical properties change in Te diffused As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} chalcogenide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Ramakanta; Behera, M.; Panda, R.; Mishra, N. C. [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, 751004, Odisha (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present report, we present the effect of Te diffusion into As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} thin film which changes the optical properties. The Te/As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} film was irradiated by a laser beam of 532 nm to study the diffusion mechanism due to photo induced effect. The As{sub 50}Se{sub 50}, Te/As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} films show a completely amorphous nature from X-ray diffraction study. A non direct transition was found for these films on the basis of optical transmission data carried out by Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy. The optical bandgap is found to be decreased with Te deposition and photo darkening phenomena is observed for the diffused film. The change in the optical constants are well supported by the corresponding change in different types of bonds which are being studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Boas, David A.; Chan, Suk-Tak; Evans, Karleyton C.; Buckley, Erin M.; Carp, Stefan A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are two diffuse optical technologies for brain imaging that are sensitive to changes in hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow, respectively. Measurements for both modalities are acquired on the scalp, and therefore hemodynamic processes in the extracerebral vasculature confound the interpretation of cortical hemodynamic signals. The sensitivity of NIRS to the brain versus the extracerebral tissue and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of NIRS to cerebral hemodynamic responses have been well characterized, but the same has not been evaluated for DCS. This is important to assess in order to understand their relative capabilities in measuring cerebral physiological changes. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a head model that demonstrate that the relative brain-to-scalp sensitivity is about three times higher for DCS (0.3 at 3 cm) than for NIRS (0.1 at 3 cm). However, because DCS has higher levels of noise due to photon-counting detection, the CNR is similar for both modalities in response to a physiologically realistic simulation of brain activation. Even so, we also observed higher CNR of the hemodynamic response during graded hypercapnia in adult subjects with DCS than with NIRS. PMID:25453036

  2. Sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy to brain hemodynamics: simulations and experimental findings during hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Boas, David A; Chan, Suk-Tak; Evans, Karleyton C; Buckley, Erin M; Carp, Stefan A

    2014-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are two diffuse optical technologies for brain imaging that are sensitive to changes in hemoglobin concentrations and blood flow, respectively. Measurements for both modalities are acquired on the scalp, and therefore hemodynamic processes in the extracerebral vasculature confound the interpretation of cortical hemodynamic signals. The sensitivity of NIRS to the brain versus the extracerebral tissue and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of NIRS to cerebral hemodynamic responses have been well characterized, but the same has not been evaluated for DCS. This is important to assess in order to understand their relative capabilities in measuring cerebral physiological changes. We present Monte Carlo simulations on a head model that demonstrate that the relative brain-to-scalp sensitivity is about three times higher for DCS (0.3 at 3 cm) than for NIRS (0.1 at 3 cm). However, because DCS has higher levels of noise due to photon-counting detection, the CNR is similar for both modalities in response to a physiologically realistic simulation of brain activation. Even so, we also observed higher CNR of the hemodynamic response during graded hypercapnia in adult subjects with DCS than with NIRS.

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute posterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Moorthy, Srikant; Sreekumar, KP; Kulkarni, Chinmay

    2012-01-01

    Blindness following surgery, especially cardiac surgery, has been reported sporadically, the most common cause being ischemic optic neuropathy. The role of MRI in the diagnosis of this condition is not well established. We present a case of postoperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy that was diagnosed on diffusion-weighted MRI

  4. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors: proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Sanal, Tuba H.; Tayfun, Cem [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Radiology, Military Medical Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-10-15

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT) and discuss their differential diagnosis. Proton MR spectroscopy (TE 30 and 136 ms), diffusion-weighted and perfusion images were retrospectively evaluated in 22 patients with pathologically proven DNT (17 male and 5 female, mean age 18.7 years) and 14 control subjects (10 male and 4 female, mean age 16.9 years). The results from the DNT patients and from the control subjects were compared using an independent sample t-test and the degree of correlation was tested by Pearson's correlation. All DNTs were solitary and in a supratentorial cortical or subcortical location (ten temporal, eight frontal and four parietal). They had low-signal on T1-weighted images and high-signal on T2-weighted images without a prominent mass effect. Additionally a cystic appearance (six patients, 27.3%), cortical dysplasia (six patients, 27.3%) and contrast enhancement (four patients, 18.2%) were also noted. No significant differences were detected in NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho+Cr or Cho/Cr ratios between DNT and normal brain. DNTs had a significantly higher mI/Cr ratio and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and lower cerebral blood values than normal parenchyma (P < 0.001). ADC had the highest correlation with the diagnosis of DNT (r = 0.996) followed by relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) (r = -0.883) and mI/Cr ratio (r = 0.663). Proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted and perfusion imaging characteristics of DNTs provide additional information to their MR imaging findings. The MR spectrum showing a slight increase in mI/Cr ratio, and higher ADC and lower rCBV values than normal parenchyma help to differentiate DNTs from other cortical tumors, which had higher rCBV and lower ADC values than DNTs. (orig.)

  5. Artificial neural networks based estimation of optical parameters by diffuse reflectance imaging under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozan Gökkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical parameters (properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms are determined through noninvasive optical imaging. Objective of this study is to decompose obtained diffuse reflectance into these optical properties such as absorption and scattering coefficients. To do so, transmission spectroscopy is firstly used to measure the coefficients via an experimental setup. Next, the optical properties of each characterized phantom are input for Monte Carlo (MC simulations to get diffuse reflectance. Also, a surface image for each single phantom with its known optical properties is obliquely captured due to reflectance-based geometrical setup using CMOS camera that is positioned at 5∘ angle to the phantoms. For the illumination of light, a laser light source at 633nm wavelength is preferred, because optical properties of different components in a biological tissue on that wavelength are nonoverlapped. During in vitro measurements, we prepared 30 different mixture samples adding clinoleic intravenous lipid emulsion (CILE and evans blue (EB dye into a distilled water. Finally, all obtained diffuse reflectance values are used to estimate the optical coefficients by artificial neural networks (ANNs in inverse modeling. For a biological tissue it is found that the simulated and measured values in our results are in good agreement.

  6. True resolution enhancement for optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Justin T.; Oleske, Jeffrey B.

    2018-02-01

    Resolving spectrally adjacent peaks is important for techniques, such as tracking small shifts in Raman or fluorescence spectra, quantifying pharmaceutical polymorph ratios, or molecular orientation studies. Thus, suitable spectral resolution is a vital consideration when designing most spectroscopic systems. Most parameters that influence spectral resolution are fixed for a given system (spectrometer length, grating groove density, excitation source, CCD pixel size, etc.). Inflexible systems are non-problematic if the spectrometer is dedicated for a single purpose; however, these specifications cannot be optimized for different applications with wider range resolution requirements. Data processing techniques, including peak fitting, partial least squares, or principal component analysis, are typically used to achieve sub-optical resolution information. These techniques can be plagued by spectral artifacts introduced by post-processing as well as the subjective implementation of statistical parameters. TruRes™, from Andor Technology, uses an innovative optical means to greatly improve and expand the range of spectral resolutions accessible on a single setup. True spectral resolution enhancement of >30% is achieved without mathematical spectral alteration, dataprocessing, or spectrometer component changes. Discreet characteristic spectral lines from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic calibration sources are now fully resolved from spectrally-adjacent peaks under otherwise identical configuration. TruRes™ has added advantage of increasing the spectral resolution without sacrificing bandpass. Using TruRes™ the Kymera 328i resolution can approach that of a 500 mm focal spectrometer. Furthermore, the bandpass of a 500 mm spectrograph with would be 50% narrower than the Kymera 328i with all other spectrometer components constant. However, the Kymera 328i with TruRes™ is able to preserve a 50% wider bandpass.

  7. Transcranial diffuse optical monitoring of microvascular cerebral hemodynamics after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Dinia, Lavinia; Carrera, David; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke is to reestablish the blood flow to the ischemic region of the brain. However, currently, the local cerebral hemodynamics (microvascular) is almost entirely inaccessible for stroke clinicians at the patient bed-side, and the recanalization of the major cerebral arteries (macrovascular) is the only available measure to evaluate the therapy, which does not always reflect the local conditions. Here we report the case of an ischemic stroke patient whose microvascular cerebral blood flow and oxygenation were monitored by a compact hybrid diffuse optical monitor during thrombolytic therapy. This monitor combined diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy. The reperfusion assessed by hybrid diffuse optics temporally correlated with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (assessed by transcranial-Doppler) and was in agreement with the patient outcome. This study suggests that upon further investigation, diffuse optics might have a potential for bed-side acute stroke monitoring and therapy guidance by providing hemodynamics information at the microvascular level.

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging of occult injury of optic radiation following optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafeng; Zhu, Lijun; Li, He; Lu, Ziwen; Chen, Xin; Fang, Shaokuan

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is easily detected by routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is not possible to detect early or occult lesions in MS by routine MRI, and this may explain the inconsistency between the severity of the lesions found by MRI and the degree of clinical disability of patients with MS. The present study included 10 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 10 healthy volunteers. Each patient underwent routine 3.0 T MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Optic nerve and optic radiation were analyzed by DTI and DTT. The fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), λ // , and λ ┴ values were measured. In the 10 patients with MS, 7 optic nerves were affected, and 13 optic nerves were not affected. Cranial MRI showed that optic nerve thickening and hyperintensity occurred in 2 patients with MS. In the directionally encoded color maps, a hypointensive green signal in the optic nerve was observed in 3 patients with MS. The FA values were significantly lower and the MD, λ // , and λ ┴ values were significantly higher in the affected and unaffected optic nerves and optic radiations in patients with MS in comparison with controls (P0.05). Diffusion tensor imaging is sensitive in the detection of occult injury of the optic nerve and optic radiation following optic neuritis. Diffusion tensor imaging may be a useful tool for the early diagnosis, treatment and management of MS.

  9. Towards the use of bioresorbable fibers in time-domain diffuse optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sieno, Laura; Boetti, Nadia G; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pugliese, Diego; Farina, Andrea; Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Ceci-Ginistrelli, Edoardo; Janner, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Milanese, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In the last years bioresorbable materials are gaining increasing interest for building implantable optical components for medical devices. In this work we show the fabrication of bioresorbable optical fibers designed for diffuse optics applications, featuring large core diameter (up to 200 μm) and numerical aperture (0.17) to maximize the collection efficiency of diffused light. We demonstrate the suitability of bioresorbable fibers for time-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy firstly checking the intrinsic performances of the setup by acquiring the instrument response function. We then validate on phantoms the use of bioresorbable fibers by applying the MEDPHOT protocol to assess the performance of the system in measuring optical properties (namely, absorption and scattering coefficients) of homogeneous media. Further, we show an ex-vivo validation on a chicken breast by measuring the absorption and scattering spectra in the 500-1100 nm range using interstitially inserted bioresorbable fibers. This work represents a step toward a new way to look inside the body using optical fibers that can be implanted in patients. These fibers could be useful either for diagnostic (e. g. for monitoring the evolution after surgical interventions) or treatment (e. g. photodynamic therapy) purposes. Picture: Microscopy image of the 100 μm core bioresorbable fiber. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Schwab, Mark J.; Pan, Yong-le

    2015-01-01

    The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field. PMID:26247952

  11. The relevance of light diffusion profiles for interstitial PDT using light-diffusing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringasci, Mirian D.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Moriyama, Lilian T.; Vollet Filho, José Dirceu; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique used for several tumor types treatment. Light penetration on biological tissue is one limiting factor for PDT applied to large tumors. An alternative is using interstitial PDT, in which optical fibers are inserted into tumors. Cylindrical diffusers have been used in interstitial PDT. Light emission of different diffusers depends on the manufacturing process, size and optical properties of fibers, which make difficult to establish an adequate light dosimetry, since usually light profile is not designed for direct tissue-fiber contact. This study discusses the relevance of light distribution by a cylindrical diffuser into a turbid lipid emulsion solution, and how parts of a single diffuser contribute to illumination. A 2 cm-long cylindrical diffuser optical fiber was connected to a diode laser (630 nm), and the light spatial distribution was measured by scanning the solution with a collection probe. From the light field profile generated by a 1 mm-long intermediary element of a 20 mm-long cylindrical diffuser, recovery of light distribution for the entire diffuser was obtained. PDT was performed in rat healthy liver for a real treatment outcome analysis. By using computational tools, a typical necrosis profile generated by the irradiation with such a diffuser fiber was reconstructed. The results showed that it was possible predicting theoretically the shape of a necrosis profile in a healthy, homogeneous tissue with reasonable accuracy. The ability to predict the necrosis profile obtained from an interstitial illumination by optical diffusers has the potential improve light dosimetry for interstitial PDT.

  12. In Vivo Diffuse Optical Tomography and Fluorescence Molecular Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingze Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT are two attractive imaging techniques for in vivo physiological and psychological research. They have distinct advantages such as non-invasiveness, non-ionizing radiation, high sensitivity and longitudinal monitoring. This paper reviews the key components of DOT and FMT. Light propagation model, mathematical reconstruction algorithm, imaging instrumentation and medical applications are included. Future challenges and perspective on optical tomography are discussed.

  13. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of tissue oxygen saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, A; Canpolat, M; Uyuklu, M

    2015-01-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) is a useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to detect pathologic tissues, due to a lack of normal blood circulation, by measuring StO 2 . In this study, human blood samples with different levels of oxygen saturation have been prepared and spectra were acquired using an optical fiber probe to investigate the correlation between the oxygen saturation levels and the spectra. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation and ratio of the intensities (760 nm to 790 nm) of the spectra acquired from blood samples has been found. In a validation study, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements with an error of 2.9%. It has also been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Spectra were acquired from the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers to estimate StO 2 prior to, at the beginning of, after 2 min, and at the release of total vascular occlusion. The average StO 2 of a forearm before and after the two minutes occlusion was significantly different. The results suggested that optical reflectance spectroscopy is a sensitive method to estimate the StO 2 levels of human tissue. The technique developed to measure StO 2 has potential to detect ischemia in real time. (paper)

  14. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer - A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Sujatha, N.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, Richa

    2014-02-01

    Foot ulceration due to diabetes mellitus is a major problem affecting 12-25% of diabetic subjects in their lifetime. An untreated ulcer further gets infected which causes necrosis leading to amputation of lower extremities. Early identification of risk factors and treatment for these chronic wounds would reduce health care costs and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. Recent clinical investigations have shown that a series of factors including reduced oxygen delivery and disturbed metabolism have been observed on patients with foot ulceration due to diabetes. Also, these factors can impair the wound healing process. Optical techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provide characteristic spectral finger prints shed light on tissue oxygenation levels and morphological composition of a tissue. This study deals with the application of diffuse reflectance intensity ratios based on oxyhemoglobin bands (R542/R580), ratios of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin bands (R580/R555), total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation between normal and diabetic foot ulcer sites. Preliminary results obtained are found to be promising indicating the application of reflectance spectroscopy in the assessment of foot ulcer healing.

  15. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  16. Brillouin micro-spectroscopy through aberrations via sensorless adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrei, Eitan; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2018-04-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is a powerful optical technique for non-contact viscoelastic characterizations which has recently found applications in three-dimensional mapping of biological samples. Brillouin spectroscopy performances are rapidly degraded by optical aberrations and have therefore been limited to homogenous transparent samples. In this work, we developed an adaptive optics (AO) configuration designed for Brillouin scattering spectroscopy to engineer the incident wavefront and correct for aberrations. Our configuration does not require direct wavefront sensing and the injection of a "guide-star"; hence, it can be implemented without the need for sample pre-treatment. We used our AO-Brillouin spectrometer in aberrated phantoms and biological samples and obtained improved precision and resolution of Brillouin spectral analysis; we demonstrated 2.5-fold enhancement in Brillouin signal strength and 1.4-fold improvement in axial resolution because of the correction of optical aberrations.

  17. Optical coherence techniques for plasma doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Michael, C.; Glass, F.; Cheetham, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new electro-optically Modulated Optical Solid-State (MOSS) interferometer has been constructed for measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media. The instrument, which is based on the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer, has high etendue and is rugged, compact and inexpensive. By employing electro-optical path-length modulation techniques, the spectral information is transferred to the temporal frequency domain and can be obtained using a single photodetector. Specifically, the zeroth moment (brightness) is given by the average signal level, the first moment (shift) by the modulation phase and the second moment (line width) by the modulation amplitude. (author)

  18. Serial Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Optic Radiations after Acute Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Kolbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported diffusion tensor imaging (DTI changes within the optic radiations of patients after optic neuritis (ON. We aimed to study optic radiation DTI changes over 12 months following acute ON and to study correlations between DTI parameters and damage to the optic nerve and primary visual cortex (V1. We measured DTI parameters [fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD, and mean diffusivity (MD] from the optic radiations of 38 acute ON patients at presentation and 6 and 12 months after acute ON. In addition, we measured retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, visual evoked potential amplitude, optic radiation lesion load, and V1 thickness. At baseline, FA was reduced and RD and MD were increased compared to control. Over 12 months, FA reduced in patients at an average rate of −2.6% per annum (control = −0.51%; p=0.006. Change in FA, RD, and MD correlated with V1 thinning over 12 months (FA: R=0.450, p=0.006; RD: R=-0.428, p=0.009; MD: R=-0.365, p=0.029. In patients with no optic radiation lesions, AD significantly correlated with RNFL thinning at 12 months (R=0.489, p=0.039. In conclusion, DTI can detect optic radiation changes over 12 months following acute ON that correlate with optic nerve and V1 damage.

  19. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonios, George [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Dimou, Aikaterini [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Galaris, Dimitrios [Laboratory of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-01-07

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  20. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H 2 O 2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo

  1. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  2. Diffusion MR Imaging of Postoperative Bilateral Acute Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Anusha; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-09-15

    We read with great interest, the case report on ischemic optic neuropathy (1). We would like to add a few points concerning the blood supply of the optic nerve and the correlation with the development of post-operative ischemic neuropathy. Actually, the perioperative or post-operative vision loss (postoperative ischemic neuropathy) is most likely due to ischemic optic neuropathy. Ischemic optic neuropathy (2) is classified as an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION). This classification is based on the fact that blood supply (2) to the anterior segment of the optic nerve (part of the optic nerve in the scleral canal and the optic disc) is supplied by short posterior ciliary vessels or anastamotic ring branches around the optic nerve. The posterior part of the optic canal is relatively less perfused, and is supplied by ophthalmic artery and central fibres are perfused by a central retinal artery. So, in the post-operative period, the posterior part of the optic nerve is more vulnerable for ischemia, especially, after major surgeries (3), one of the theories being hypotension or anaemia (2) and resultant decreased perfusion. The onset of PION is slower than the anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. AION on the other hand, is usually spontaneous (idiopathic) or due to arteritis, and is usually sudden in its onset. The reported case is most likely a case of PION. The role of imaging, especially the diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is very important because the ophthalmoscopic findings in early stages of PION is normal, and it may delay the diagnosis. On the other hand, edema of the disc is usually seen in the early stages of AION.

  3. 3-D anisotropic neutron diffusion in optically thick media with optically thin channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2011-01-01

    Standard neutron diffusion theory accurately approximates the neutron transport process for optically thick, scattering-dominated systems in which the angular neutron flux is a weak (nearly linear) function of angle. Therefore, standard diffusion theory is not directly applicable for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) cores, which contain numerous narrow, axially-oriented, nearly-voided coolant channels. However, we have derived a new, accurate diffusion equation for such problems, which contains nonstandard anisotropic diffusion coefficients near and within the channels, but which reduces to the standard diffusion approximation away from the channels. The new diffusion approximation significantly improves the accuracy of VHTR diffusion simulations, while having lower computational cost than higher-order transport methods. (author)

  4. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  5. Investigating Low-Cost Optical Spectroscopy for Sensing Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchandani, Smruti Suresh

    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy has been used widely to characterize tissue properties for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This thesis focuses on the use of spectroscopy for early pressure ulcer detection. The most common early diagnosis technique for pressure ulcers is a blanch test. A major issue with a blanch test is that it is purely visual and cannot be visibly observed on dark skinned individuals. Studies have already proven that spectroscopy can be used to detect blanch response in skin across light and dark skinned individuals. The portable reflectance spectroscopy setup showed that pressure changes to the skin can be detected spectroscopically. Some work on an iPhone based spectrometer was also done to have a low-cost spectroscopy alternative to the usual DRS equipment. This study failed to develop an iPhone based spectrometer but various factors that can be changed to better this research have been mentioned in this thesis.

  6. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  7. Optical Spectroscopy Of Charged Quantum Dot Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, M.; Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Doty, M. F.; Gammon, D.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Reinecke, T. L.; Korenev, V. L.

    2007-04-01

    Coupling between two closely spaced quantum dots is observed by means of photoluminescence spectroscopy. Hole coupling is realized by rational crystal growth and heterostructure design. We identify molecular resonances of different excitonic charge states, including the important case of a doubly charged quantum dot molecule.

  8. Two-dimensional spectroscopy at infrared and optical frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    This Perspective on multidimensional spectroscopy in the optical and infrared spectral regions focuses on the principles and the scientific and technical challenges facing these new fields. The methods hold great promise for advances in the visualization of time-dependent structural changes in complex systems ranging from liquids to biological assemblies, new materials, and fundamental physical processes. The papers in this special feature on multidimensional spectroscopy in chemistry, physic...

  9. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  10. Design of optoelectronic system for optical diffusion tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erakhtin Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues connected with the circuit design of a device for optical diffusion tomography, which we are currently designing. We plan to use the device in experimental studies for the development of a faster method of brain hematoma detection. We reviewed currently existing methods for emergency diagnosis of hematomas, primarily the Infrascanner model 2000, for which we identified weaknesses, and outlined suggestions for improvements. This article describes the method of scanning tissues based on a triangulated arrangement of sources and receivers of optical radiation, and it discusses the optoelectronic system that implements that principle.

  11. Imaging spectroscopy using embedded diffractive optical arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford

    2017-09-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera based on diffractive optic arrays. This approach to hyperspectral imaging has been demonstrated in all three infrared bands SWIR, MWIR and LWIR. The hyperspectral optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of this infrared hyperspectral sensor. This new and innovative approach to an infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics that are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a small satellite, mini-UAV, commercial quadcopter or man portable. Also, an application of how this spectral imaging technology can easily be used to quantify the mass and volume flow rates of hydrocarbon gases. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. The detector array is divided into sub-images covered by each lenslet. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the number of simultaneous different spectral images collected each frame of the camera. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image

  12. Inertial and interference effects in optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karstens, W; Smith, D Y

    2015-01-01

    Interference between free-space and material components of the displacement current plays a key role in determining optical properties. This is illustrated by an analogy between the Lorentz optical model and a-c circuits. Phase shifts in material-polarization currents, which are inertial, relative to the non-inertial vacuum-polarization current cause interference in the total displacement current and, hence, variation in E-M wave propagation. If the displacement-current is reversed, forward propagation is inhibited yielding the semimetallic reflectivity exhibited by intrinsic silicon. Complete cancellation involves material currents offsetting free-space currents to form current-loops that correspond to plasmons. (paper)

  13. Monitoring longitudinal changes in irradiated head and neck cancer xenografts using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Jiang, Shudong; Gunn, Jason R.; Marra, Kayla; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-02-01

    Radiation therapy is often used as the preferred clinical treatment for control of localized head and neck cancer. However, during the course of treatment (6-8 weeks), feedback about functional and/or physiological changes within impacted tissue are not obtained, given the onerous financial and/or logistical burdens of scheduling MRI, PET or CT scans. Diffuse optical sensing is well suited to address this problem since the instrumentation can be made low-cost and portable while still being able to non-invasively provide information about vascular oxygenation in vivo. Here we report results from studies that employed an optical fiber-based portable diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system to longitudinally monitor changes in tumor vasculature within two head and neck cancer cell lines (SCC-15 and FaDu) xenografted in the flanks of nude mice, in two separate experiments. Once the tumor volumes were 100mm3, 67% of animals received localized (electron beam) radiation therapy in five fractions (8Gy/day, for 5 days) while 33% of the animals served as controls. DRS measurements were obtained from each animal on each day of treatment and then for two weeks post-treatment. Reflectance spectra were parametrized to extract total hemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen-saturation and the resulting time-trends of optical parameters appear to be dissimilar for the two cell-lines. These findings are also compared to previous animal experiments (using the FaDu line) that were irradiated using a photon beam radiotherapy protocol. These results and implications for the use of fiber-based DRS measurements made at local (irradiated) tumor site as a basis for identifying early radiotherapy-response are presented and discussed.

  14. Signal filtering algorithm for depth-selective diffuse optical topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M; Nakayama, K

    2009-01-01

    A compact filtered backprojection algorithm that suppresses the undesirable effects of skin circulation for near-infrared diffuse optical topography is proposed. Our approach centers around a depth-selective filtering algorithm that uses an inverse problem technique and extracts target signals from observation data contaminated by noise from a shallow region. The filtering algorithm is reduced to a compact matrix and is therefore easily incorporated into a real-time system. To demonstrate the validity of this method, we developed a demonstration prototype for depth-selective diffuse optical topography and performed both computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the proposed method significantly suppresses the noise from the shallow region with a minimal degradation of the target signal.

  15. Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intes, Xavier; Maloux, Clemence; Guven, Murat; Yazici, Birzen; Chance, Britton

    2004-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is a typical inverse problem plagued by ill-condition. To overcome this drawback, regularization or constraining techniques are incorporated in the inverse formulation. In this work, we investigate the enhancement in recovering functional parameters by using physiological and spatial a priori constraints. More accurate recovery of the two main functional parameters that are the blood volume and the relative saturation is demonstrated through simulations by using our method compared to actual techniques. (note)

  16. Ultrafast chiroptical spectroscopy: Monitoring optical activity in quick time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanju Rhee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical activity spectroscopy provides rich structural information of biologically important molecules in condensed phases. However, a few intrinsic problems of conventional method based on electric field intensity measurement scheme prohibited its extension to time domain technique. We have recently developed new types of optical activity spectroscopic methods capable of measuring chiroptical signals with femtosecond pulses. It is believed that these novel approaches will be applied to a variety of ultrafast chiroptical studies.

  17. Transitions in Structure in Oil-in-Water Emulsions As Studied by Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.; Gruijthuijsen, van K.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    Transitions in structure of sodium caseinate stabilized emulsions were studied using conventional rheometry as well as diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS). Structural differences were induced by different amounts of stabilizer, and transitions in structure were induced by acidification. Special

  18. Stable dissipative optical vortex clusters by inhomogeneous effective diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huishan; Lai, Shiquan; Qui, Yunli; Zhu, Xing; Xie, Jianing; Mihalache, Dumitru; He, Yingji

    2017-10-30

    We numerically show the generation of robust vortex clusters embedded in a two-dimensional beam propagating in a dissipative medium described by the generic cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with an inhomogeneous effective diffusion term, which is asymmetrical in the two transverse directions and periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction. We show the generation of stable optical vortex clusters for different values of the winding number (topological charge) of the input optical beam. We have found that the number of individual vortex solitons that form the robust vortex cluster is equal to the winding number of the input beam. We have obtained the relationships between the amplitudes and oscillation periods of the inhomogeneous effective diffusion and the cubic gain and diffusion (viscosity) parameters, which depict the regions of existence and stability of vortex clusters. The obtained results offer a method to form robust vortex clusters embedded in two-dimensional optical beams, and we envisage potential applications in the area of structured light.

  19. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  20. Tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for automated oral and maxillofacial laser surgery: ex vivo pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Nkenke, Emeka; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre

    2010-02-01

    Remote laser surgery lacks of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Hence, there is a risk of iatrogenic damage or destruction of anatomical structures like nerves or salivary glands. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from seven various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the seven tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerves and salivary glands as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating tissues as guidance for oral and maxillofacial laser surgery by means of diffuse reflectance.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missori, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and nondestructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  2. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this

  3. Diffuse optical tomography using semiautomated coregistered ultrasound measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Vavadi, Hamed; Uddin, K. M. Shihab; Zhu, Quing

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has demonstrated huge potential in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring. DOT image reconstruction guided by ultrasound (US) improves the diffused light localization and lesion reconstruction accuracy. However, DOT reconstruction depends on tumor geometry provided by coregistered US. Experienced operators can manually measure these lesion parameters; however, training and measurement time are needed. The wide clinical use of this technique depends on its robustness and faster imaging reconstruction capability. This article introduces a semiautomated procedure that automatically extracts lesion information from US images and incorporates it into the optical reconstruction. An adaptive threshold-based image segmentation is used to obtain tumor boundaries. For some US images, posterior shadow can extend to the chest wall and make the detection of deeper lesion boundary difficult. This problem can be solved using a Hough transform. The proposed procedure was validated from data of 20 patients. Optical reconstruction results using the proposed procedure were compared with those reconstructed using extracted tumor information from an experienced user. Mean optical absorption obtained from manual measurement was 0.21±0.06 cm-1 for malignant and 0.12±0.06 cm-1 for benign cases, whereas for the proposed method it was 0.24±0.08 cm-1 and 0.12±0.05 cm-1, respectively.

  4. Optical characterization of semiconductors infrared, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    This is the first book to explain, illustrate, and compare the most widely used methods in optics: photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. Written with non-experts in mind, the book develops the background needed to understand the why and how of each technique, but does not require special knowledge of semiconductors or optics. Each method is illustrated with numerous case studies. Practical information drawn from the authors experience is given to help establish optical facilities, including commercial sources for equipment, and experimental details. For industrial sci

  5. Quantum optics, molecular spectroscopy and low-temperaturespectroscopy: general discussion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orrit, M.; Evans, G.; Cordes, T.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 184, Sep (2015), 275-303 ISSN 1359-6640 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020156 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum optics * molecular spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.544, year: 2015

  6. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  7. Magnetic resonance temporal diffusion tensor spectroscopy of disordered anisotropic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonathan Scharff; Dyrby, Tim B; Lundell, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Molecular diffusion measured with diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) offers a probe for tissue microstructure. However, inferring microstructural properties from conventional DWI data is a complex inverse problem and has to account for heterogeneity in sizes, shapes and orientations of the tissue...

  8. Magnetic resonance temporal diffusion tensor spectroscopy of disordered anisotropic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonathan Scharff; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Lundell, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    of the oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) experiment, giving a basic contrast mechanism closely linked to both the temporal diffusion spectrum and the compartment anisotropy. We demonstrate our new method on post mortem brain tissue and show that we retrieve the correct temporal diffusion tensor spectrum...

  9. Rotational spectroscopy with an optical centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Hepburn, John W; Milner, Valery

    2014-03-07

    We demonstrate a new spectroscopic method for studying electronic transitions in molecules with extremely broad range of angular momentum. We employ an optical centrifuge to create narrow rotational wave packets in the ground electronic state of (16)O2. Using the technique of resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization, we record the spectrum of multiple ro-vibrational transitions between X(3)Σg(-) and C(3)Πg electronic manifolds of oxygen. Direct control of rotational excitation, extending to rotational quantum numbers as high as N ≳ 120, enables us to interpret the complex structure of rotational spectra of C(3)Πg beyond thermally accessible levels.

  10. MR diffusion imaging and 1H spectroscopy in a child with medulloblastoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, M. [Max-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry, Muenchen (Germany). NMR Study Group; Eidenschink, A.; Mueller-Weihrich, S. [Technical Univ. of Muenchen, (Germany). Childrens' Hospital; Auer, D.P. [Max-Planck-Institute of Psychiatry, Muenchen (Germany). NMR Study Group

    2000-01-01

    We report on a child with a metastasising medulloblastoma which was assessed by MR diffusion imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). Reduced mean apparent diffusion coefficients and a high amount of taurine could be demonstrated. This is the first reported case of high taurine in medulloblastoma in vivo and confirms earlier in vitro findings. It is suggested that the changes on diffusion imaging, possibly reflecting the small-cell histology of the tumour and high taurine in MRS, are indicative of medulloblastoma.

  11. MR diffusion imaging and 1H spectroscopy in a child with medulloblastoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.; Eidenschink, A.; Mueller-Weihrich, S.; Auer, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    We report on a child with a metastasising medulloblastoma which was assessed by MR diffusion imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). Reduced mean apparent diffusion coefficients and a high amount of taurine could be demonstrated. This is the first reported case of high taurine in medulloblastoma in vivo and confirms earlier in vitro findings. It is suggested that the changes on diffusion imaging, possibly reflecting the small-cell histology of the tumour and high taurine in MRS, are indicative of medulloblastoma

  12. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Violante, C.; Missori, M.; Bechstedt, F.; Teodonio, L.; Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P.; Guidoni, L.; Pulci, O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth

  13. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.

  14. The Effect of a Fluorophore Photo-Physics on the Lipid Vesicle Diffusion Coefficient Studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dominik; Przybyło, Magda; Sikorski, Aleksander; Langner, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a technique, which allows determination of the diffusion coefficient and concentration of fluorescent objects suspended in the solution. The measured parameter is the fluctuation of the fluorescence signal emitted by diffusing molecules. When 100 nm DOPC vesicles labeled with various fluorescent dyes (Fluorescein-PE, NBD-PE, Atto488 DOPE or βBodipy FL) were measured, different values of diffusion coefficients have been obtained. These diffusion coefficients were different from the expected values measured using the dynamic light scattering method (DLS). The FCS was initially developed for solutions containing small fluorescent molecules therefore the observed inconsistency may result from the nature of vesicle suspension itself. The duration of the fluorescence signal may depend on the following factors: the exposure time of the labeled object to the excitation beam, the photo-physical properties (e.g., stability) of a fluorophore, the theoretical model used for the calculations of the diffusion coefficient and optical properties of the vesicle suspension. The diffusion coefficients determined for differently labeled liposomes show that its dependence on vesicle size and quantity of fluorescent probed used for labeling was significant demonstrating that the fluorescence properties of the fluorophore itself (bleaching and/or blinking) were critical factors for a correct outcome of FCS experiment. The new, based on combined FCS and DLS measurements, method for the determination of the focal volume prove itself to be useful for the evaluation of a fluorescence dye with respect to its applicability for FCS experiment.

  15. A High Grade Gliomatosis Cerebri Case Report; MR, Diffusion MR and MR Spectroscopy Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Beyazal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare primary diffuse cerebral malignity. It is characterized by diffuse proliferation of neoplastic glial cells that involve one or more cerebral lobes. For definitive diagnosis histopathological examination is required. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques are very useful in pretreatment diagnosis-staging and post-treatment follow-up. In this report a patient with gliomatozis cerebri was presented associated with the findings of magnetic resonance images, diffusion weighted images and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Also the importance and role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging gliomatosis cerebri, was discussed

  16. Optical spectroscopy of f-element compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnall, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    It is noted that the energies and intensities of transitions observed in the optical spectra of lanthanide (Ln) and actinide (An) compounds can typically be measured with a high degree of accuracy. The observed transitions can then be directly represented as upper state energy levels where the structure is induced by the environment. A discussion is presented of the systematic theoretical interpretation of these transitions both in terms of energy level structure and transition probability. Particularly for the trivalent lanthanides and actinides, the detail to which the interpretation can be carried is unique in the periodic table. The electronic structure of organometallic lanthanides and actinides is emphasized in the discussion. It is made clear that this type of ligand does not present any unique interpretive problems. The basic framework of the interpretation is not dependent upon the specific ionic environment. On the other hand, organometallic compounds represent a particularly interesting group in which to study excited state relaxation

  17. Neutron spectroscopy of fast hydrogen diffusion in BCC transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, D.; Lottner, V.

    1979-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering reveals microscopic details of both the time and space development of the H-diffusion process on an atomic scale. After outlining the method on the example of PdH/sub x/, new results on the jump geometry in bcc metals are surveyed. In particular, the anomalous diffusion behavior of H in Nb, Ta, and V at elevated temperature is emphasized, where correlated jump processes are important. The influence of impurities on the H-diffusion process is demonstrated by experiments performed on NbH/sub x/ doped with nitrogen impurities, which act as trapping centers for the diffusing hydrogen. The results are discussed in terms of a two-state random walk model which includes multiple trapping and detrapping processes. The concentration and temperature dependence of the capture and escape rates of traps are obtained

  18. Critical comparison of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry as dermatological diagnostic tools for acanthosis nigricans: a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devpura, Suneetha; Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Syed, Zain U; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna

    2011-06-01

    Quantification of skin changes due to acanthosis nigricans (AN), a disorder common among insulin-resistant diabetic and obese individuals, was investigated using two optical techniques: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and colorimetry. Measurements were obtained from AN lesions on the neck and two control sites of eight AN patients. A principal component/discriminant function analysis successfully differentiated between AN lesion and normal skin with 87.7% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity in DRS measurements and 97.2% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity in colorimetry measurements.

  19. Algebraic reconstruction techniques for spectral reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) necessitates solving the diffusion equation, which is nonlinear with respect to the parameters that have to be reconstructed. Currently applied solving methods are based on the linearization of the equation. For spectral three-dimensional reconstruction, the emerging equation system is too large for direct inversion, but the application of iterative methods is feasible. Computational effort and speed of convergence of these iterative methods are crucial since they determine the computation time of the reconstruction. In this paper, the iterative methods algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and conjugated gradients (CGs) as well as a new modified ART method are investigated for spectral DOT reconstruction. The aim of the modified ART scheme is to speed up the convergence by considering the specific conditions of spectral reconstruction. As a result, it converges much faster to favorable results than conventional ART and CG methods

  20. Real time assessment of RF cardiac tissue ablation with optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Sharareh, S

    2008-03-20

    An optical spectroscopy approach is demonstrated allowing for critical parameters during RF ablation of cardiac tissue to be evaluated in real time. The method is based on incorporating in a typical ablation catheter transmitting and receiving fibers that terminate at the tip of the catheter. By analyzing the spectral characteristics of the NIR diffusely reflected light, information is obtained on such parameters as, catheter-tissue proximity, lesion formation, depth of penetration of the lesion, formation of char during the ablation, formation of coagulum around the ablation site, differentiation of ablated from healthy tissue, and recognition of micro-bubble formation in the tissue.

  1. Condensed matter optical spectroscopy an illustrated introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Molecular Symmetry and the Symmetry GroupsSymmetry Elements and Symmetry OperationsPoint Groups and Molecular SymmetrySymmetry Classification of MoleculesMatrix Representation of Symmetry TransformationGroup RepresentationsProperties of Irreducible RepresentationsTables of CharactersSymmetry of Crystals and Space GroupsRotation Groups and OperatorsExamples of SymmetryStudy QuestionsReferencesCrystal Field TheoryStates and Energies of Free Atoms and IonsOptical Spectra of Ionic CrystalsImpurities in Crystal Lattice: Splitting of Levels and Terms in Lattice SymmetryWeak Crystalline Field of Octahedral SymmetryEffect of a Weak Crystalline Field of Lower SymmetriesSplitting of Multielectron dn Configurations in the Crystalline FieldJahn-Teller EffectConstruction of Energy-Level DiagramsTanabe-Sugano DiagramsExample of the Co IonLimitations of the Crystal Field TheoryStudy QuestionsReferencesSymmetry and Molecular Orbitals TheoryMolecular OrbitalsHybridization Scheme for σ OrbitalsHybridization Scheme for π Orbi...

  2. Diffuse optical imaging using spatially and temporally modulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Cuccia, David J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-07-01

    The authors describe the development of diffuse optical imaging (DOI) technologies, specifically the use of spatial and temporal modulation to control near infrared light propagation in thick tissues. We present theory and methods of DOI focusing on model-based techniques for quantitative, in vivo measurements of endogenous tissue absorption and scattering properties. We specifically emphasize the common conceptual framework of the scalar photon density wave for both temporal and spatial frequency-domain approaches. After presenting the history, theoretical foundation, and instrumentation related to these methods, we provide a brief review of clinical and preclinical applications from our research as well as our outlook on the future of DOI technology.

  3. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  4. Multiple projection optical diffusion tomography with plane wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, Vadim A; Schotland, John C

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new data collection scheme for optical diffusion tomography in which plane wave illumination is combined with multiple projections in the slab imaging geometry. Multiple projection measurements are performed by rotating the slab around the sample. The advantage of the proposed method is that the measured data are more compatible with the dynamic range of most commonly used detectors. At the same time, multiple projections improve image quality by mutually interchanging the depth and transverse directions, and the scanned (detection) and integrated (illumination) surfaces. Inversion methods are derived for image reconstructions with extremely large data sets. Numerical simulations are performed for fixed and rotated slabs

  5. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, S. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia); Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F. [Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, L.K. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya, Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya (Malaysia)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity.

  6. Glaucoma severity affects diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the optic nerve and optic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, S.; Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Ramli, N.M.; Abdulrahman, F.; Tan, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the optic nerve and optic radiation in glaucoma patients provides parameters to discriminate between mild and severe glaucoma and to determine whether DTI derived indices correlate with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods: 3-Tesla DTI was performed on 90 subjects (30 normal, 30 mild glaucoma and 30 severe glaucoma subjects) and the FA and MD of the optic nerve and optic radiation were measured. The categorisation into mild and severe glaucoma was done using the Hodapp–Parrish–Anderson (HPA) classification. RNFL thickness was also assessed on all subjects using OCT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Spearman's correlation coefficient was carried out. Results: FA and MD values in the optic nerve and optic radiation decreased and increased respectively as the disease progressed. FA at the optic nerve had the highest sensitivity (87%) and specificity (80%). FA values displayed the strongest correlation with RNFL thickness in the optic nerve (r = 0.684, p ≤ 0.001) while MD at the optic radiation showed the weakest correlation with RNFL thickness (r = −0.360, p ≤ 0.001). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and specificity of DTI-derived FA values in the optic nerve and the strong correlation between DTI-FA and RNFL thickness suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of disease severity

  7. Broadband diffuse optical characterization of elastin for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Beh, Joo Sin; Farina, Andrea; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Elastin is a key structural protein of dynamic connective tissues widely found in the extracellular matrix of skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. It is responsible for a range of diseases related to aging of biological tissues. The optical characterization of elastin can open new opportunities for its investigation in biomedical studies. In this work, we present the absorption spectra of elastin using a broadband (550-1350nm) diffuse optical spectrometer. Distortions caused by fluorescence and finite bandwidth of the laser source on estimated absorption were effectively accounted for in measurements and data analysis and compensated. A comprehensive summary and comparison between collagen and elastin is presented, highlighting distinct features for its accurate quantification in biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  9. Atomic and Molecular Data for Optical Stellar Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Heiter, U.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Bergemann, M.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Pickering, J. C.; Ruffoni, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    High-precision spectroscopy of large stellar samples plays a crucial role for several topical issues in astrophysics. Examples include studying the chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way galaxy, tracing the origin of chemical elements, and characterizing planetary host stars. Data are accumulating from instruments that obtain high-quality spectra of stars in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelength regions on a routine basis. These instruments are located at ground-based 2-...

  10. Broad bandwidth frequency domain instrument for quantitative tissue optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Tuan H.; Coquoz, Olivier; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Anderson, Eric; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optical properties of turbid media, e.g., tissue, can be accurately quantified noninvasively using methods based on diffuse reflectance or transmittance, such as frequency domain photon migration (FDPM). Factors which govern the accuracy and sensitivity of FDPM-measured optical properties include instrument performance, the light propagation model, and fitting algorithms used to calculate optical properties from measured data. In this article, we characterize instrument, model, and fitting uncertaintics of an FDPM system designed for clinical use and investigate how each of these factors affects the quantification of NIR absorption (μ a ) and reduced scattering (μ s ' ) parameters in tissue phantoms. The instrument is based on a 500 MHz, multiwavelength platform that sweeps through 201 discrete frequencies in as little as 675 ms. Phase and amplitude of intensity modulated light launched into tissue, i.e., diffuse photon density waves (PDW), are measured with an accuracy of ±0.30 degree sign and ±3.5%, while phase and amplitude precision are ±0.025 degree sign and ±0.20%, respectively. At this level of instrument uncertainty, simultaneous fitting of frequency-dependent phase and amplitude nonlinear model functions derived from a photon diffusion approximation provides an accurate and robust strategy for determining optical properties from FDPM data, especially for media with high absorption. In an optical property range that is characteristic of most human tissues in the NIR (5x10 -3 a -2 mm -1 , 0.5 s ' -1 ), we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the multifrequency, simultaneous-fit approach allows μ a and μ s ' to be quantified with an accuracy of ±5% and ±3%, respectively. Although exceptionally high levels of precision can be obtained using this approach ( a and μ s ' . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Boas, David A.; Cerussi, Albert E.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive optical technique that employs near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of thick tissues. Although NIR methods were first applied to breast transillumination (also called diaphanography) nearly 80 years ago, quantitative DOI methods employing time- or frequency-domain photon migration technologies have only recently been used for breast imaging (i.e., since the mid-1990s). In this review, the state of the art in DOI for breast cancer is outlined and a multi-institutional Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) is described, which has been formed by the National Cancer Institute to advance diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging (DOSI) for the purpose of improving breast cancer detection and clinical management. DOSI employs broadband technology both in near-infrared spectral and temporal signal domains in order to separate absorption from scattering and quantify uptake of multiple molecular probes based on absorption or fluorescence contrast. Additional dimensionality in the data is provided by integrating and co-registering the functional information of DOSI with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide structural information or vascular flow information, respectively. Factors affecting DOSI performance, such as intrinsic and extrinsic contrast mechanisms, quantitation of biochemical components, image formation/visualization, and multimodality co-registration are under investigation in the ongoing research NTROI sites. One of the goals is to develop standardized DOSI platforms that can be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with MRI, mammography, or ultrasound. This broad-based, multidisciplinary effort is expected to provide new insight regarding the origins of breast disease and practical approaches for addressing several key challenges in breast cancer, including: Detecting disease in mammographically dense tissue

  12. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Lindner

    Full Text Available The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22 and pathological (n = 2 human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs' at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC and oxygen saturation (StO2. DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI. Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s, while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%, yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening.

  13. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rkiouak, L; Tang, M J; Camp, J C J; McGregor, J; Watson, I M; Cox, R A; Kalberer, M; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

    2014-06-21

    The heterogeneous interactions of gas molecules on solid particles are crucial in many areas of science, engineering and technology. Such interactions play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and in heterogeneous catalysis, a key technology in the energy and chemical industries. Investigating heterogeneous interactions upon single levitated particles can provide significant insight into these important processes. Various methodologies exist for levitating micron sized particles including: optical, electrical and acoustic techniques. Prior to this study, the optical levitation of solid micron scale particles has proved difficult to achieve over timescales relevant to the above applications. In this work, a new vertically configured counter propagating dual beam optical trap was optimized to levitate a range of solid particles in air. Silica (SiO2), α-alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2) and polystyrene were stably trapped with a high trapping efficiency (Q = 0.42). The longest stable trapping experiment was conducted continuously for 24 hours, and there are no obvious constraints on trapping time beyond this period. Therefore, the methodology described in this paper should be of major benefit to various research communities. The strength of the new technique is demonstrated by the simultaneous levitation and spectroscopic interrogation of silica particles by Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the adsorption of water upon silica was investigated under controlled relative humidity environments. Furthermore, the collision and coagulation behaviour of silica particles with microdroplets of sulphuric acid was followed using both optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. A combined reconstruction-classification method for diffuse optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltunen, P [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 3310, FI-02015 TKK (Finland); Prince, S J D; Arridge, S [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street London, WC1E 6B (United Kingdom)], E-mail: petri.hiltunen@tkk.fi, E-mail: s.prince@cs.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: s.arridge@cs.ucl.ac.uk

    2009-11-07

    We present a combined classification and reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography (DOT). DOT is a nonlinear ill-posed inverse problem. Therefore, some regularization is needed. We present a mixture of Gaussians prior, which regularizes the DOT reconstruction step. During each iteration, the parameters of a mixture model are estimated. These associate each reconstructed pixel with one of several classes based on the current estimate of the optical parameters. This classification is exploited to form a new prior distribution to regularize the reconstruction step and update the optical parameters. The algorithm can be described as an iteration between an optimization scheme with zeroth-order variable mean and variance Tikhonov regularization and an expectation-maximization scheme for estimation of the model parameters. We describe the algorithm in a general Bayesian framework. Results from simulated test cases and phantom measurements show that the algorithm enhances the contrast of the reconstructed images with good spatial accuracy. The probabilistic classifications of each image contain only a few misclassified pixels.

  15. Non-invasive detection of periodontal disease using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Betsy, Joseph; Subhash, Narayanan; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Prasanthila, Janam

    2012-03-01

    In clinical diagnostic procedures, gingival inflammation is considered as the initial stage of periodontal breakdown. This is often detected clinically by bleeding on probing as it is an objective measure of inflammation. Since conventional diagnostic procedures have several inherent drawbacks, development of novel non-invasive diagnostic techniques assumes significance. This clinical study was carried out in 15 healthy volunteers and 25 patients to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy for quantification and discrimination of various stages of inflammatory conditions in periodontal disease. The DR spectra of diseased lesions recorded using a point monitoring system consisting of a tungsten halogen lamp and a fiber-optic spectrometer showed oxygenated hemoglobin absorption dips at 545 and 575 nm. Mean DR spectra on normalization shows marked differences between healthy and different stages of gingival inflammation. Among the various DR intensity ratios investigated, involving oxy Hb absorption peaks, the R620/R575 ratio was found to be a good parameter of gingival inflammation. In order to screen the entire diseased area and its surroundings instantaneously, DR images were recorded with an EMCCD camera at 620 and 575 nm. We have observed that using the DR image intensity ratio R620/R575 mild inflammatory tissues could be discriminated from healthy with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 93%, and from moderate with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 96%. The sensitivity and specificity obtained between moderate and severe inflammation are 82% and 76% respectively.

  16. Actinomycotic brain infection: registered diffusion, perfusion MR imaging and MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sumei; Wolf, Ronald L.; Woo, John H.; Melhem, Elias R.; Poptani, Harish; Wang, Jiongjiong; O'Rourke, Donald M.; Roy, Subhojit

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Actinomycotic brain infection is caused by an organism of the Actinomyces genus. We report here one such case. Methods: The methods used included coregistered diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Decreased apparent diffusion coefficient, markedly elevated fractional anisotropy (FA) and reduced cerebral blood flow were observed. MR spectroscopy demonstrated elevated amino acids, acetate and succinate. Elevated FA values may be due to the microstructure of this special brain infection. (orig.)

  17. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography—part 1: technical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Teresa; Arridge, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. In this two-part paper, we propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. The proposed method combines the nonlocal means (NLM), AD and wavelet shrinkage methods, which are image processing methods. Therefore, in this first paper, we used a denoising test problem to analyse the performance of the new method. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides better results than the AD or NLM methods alone. The efficacy of the method for fDOT image reconstruction problem is evaluated in part 2. (paper)

  18. Performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging instruments in a 2-year multicenter breast cancer trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leproux, Anaïs; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Hill, Brian; Hylton, Nola; Yodh, Arjun G.; Carp, Stefan A.; Boas, David; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian; Roblyer, Darren; Yang, Wei; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a framework for characterizing the performance of an experimental imaging technology, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), in a 2-year multicenter American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) breast cancer study (ACRIN-6691). DOSI instruments combine broadband frequency-domain photon migration with time-independent near-infrared (650 to 1000 nm) spectroscopy to measure tissue absorption and reduced scattering spectra and tissue hemoglobin, water, and lipid composition. The goal of ACRIN-6691 was to test the effectiveness of optically derived imaging endpoints in predicting the final pathologic response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Sixty patients were enrolled over a 2-year period at participating sites and received multiple DOSI scans prior to and during 3- to 6-month NAC. The impact of three sources of error on accuracy and precision, including different operators, instruments, and calibration standards, was evaluated using a broadband reflectance standard and two different solid tissue-simulating optical phantoms. Instruments showed <0.0010 mm-1 (10.3%) and 0.06 mm-1 (4.7%) deviation in broadband absorption and reduced scattering, respectively, over the 2-year duration of ACRIN-6691. These variations establish a useful performance criterion for assessing instrument stability. The proposed procedures and tests are not limited to DOSI; rather, they are intended to provide methods to characterize performance of any instrument used in translational optical imaging.

  19. Shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells measured with dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative measurements of intravascular microscopic dynamics, such as absolute blood flow velocity, shear stress and the diffusion coefficient of red blood cells (RBCs), are fundamental in understanding the blood flow behavior within the microcirculation, and for understanding why diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of blood flow are dominantly sensitive to the diffusive motion of RBCs. Dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained three-dimensional volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of ~0.1 to 0.5 × 10 -6  mm 2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Simultaneous characterization of rotational and translational diffusion of optically anisotropic particles by optical microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto; Haro-Pérez, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    We probe the roto-translational Brownian motion of optically anisotropic particles suspended in water with a simple and straightforward optical microscopy experiment that does not require positional or rotational particle tracking. We acquire a movie of the suspension placed between two polarizing elements and we extract the translational diffusion coefficient D T and the rotational diffusion coefficient D R from the analysis of the temporal correlation properties of the spatial Fourier modes of the intensity fluctuations in the movie. Our method is successfully tested with a dilute suspension of birefringent spherical colloidal particles obtained by polymerizing an emulsion of droplets of liquid crystal in a nematic phase, whose roto-translational dynamics is found to be well described by theory. The simplicity of our approach makes our method a viable alternative to particle tracking and depolarized dynamic light scattering. (paper)

  1. Characterizing Intraorbital Optic Nerve Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Thyroid Eye Disease Before Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa; Lee, Young Hen; Suh, Sang-Il; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Baek, Sehyun; Seo, Hyung Suk

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the optic nerve is affected by thyroid eye disease (TED) before the development of dysthyroid optic neuropathy with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty TED patients and 20 controls were included. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities and fractional anisotropy (FA) value were measured at the optic nerves in DTI. Extraocular muscle diameters were measured on computed tomography. The diffusivities and FA of the optic nerves were compared between TED and controls and between active and inactive stages of TED. The correlations between these DTI parameters and the clinical features were determined. The mean, axial, and radial diffusivities were lower in TED compared with the controls (P optic nerve before dysthyroid optic neuropathy in TED. The FA, in particular, reflected TED activity and severity.

  2. In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Jarich W.; de Boer, Lisanne L.; Meier, Mark A. J.; Prevoo, Warner; de Jong, Jeroen; Kuhlmann, Koert; Bydlon, Torre M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2016-09-01

    There is a strong need to develop clinical instruments that can perform rapid tissue assessment at the tip of smart clinical instruments for a variety of oncological applications. This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during 24 liver biopsy procedures using diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy at the tip of a core biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. DR measurements were performed along each needle path, followed by biopsy of the target lesion using the same needle. Interventional imaging was coregistered with the DR spectra. Pathology results were compared with the DR spectroscopy data at the final measurement position. Bile was the primary discriminator between normal liver tissue and tumor tissue. Relative differences in bile content matched with the tissue diagnosis based on histopathological analysis in all 24 clinical cases. Continuous DR measurements during needle insertion in three patients showed that the method can also be applied for biopsy guidance or tumor recognition during surgery. This study provides an important validation step for DR spectroscopy-based tissue characterization in the liver. Given the feasibility of the outlined approach, it is also conceivable to make integrated fiber-optic tools for other clinical procedures that rely on accurate instrument positioning.

  3. Optical spectroscopy using gas-phase femtosecond laser filamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond laser filamentation occurs as a dynamic balance between the self-focusing and plasma defocusing of a laser pulse to produce ultrashort radiation as brief as a few optical cycles. This unique source has many properties that make it attractive as a nonlinear optical tool for spectroscopy, such as propagation at high intensities over extended distances, self-shortening, white-light generation, and the formation of an underdense plasma. The plasma channel that constitutes a single filament and whose position in space can be controlled by its input parameters can span meters-long distances, whereas multifilamentation of a laser beam can be sustained up to hundreds of meters in the atmosphere. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding and use of laser filaments for spectroscopic investigations of molecules. A theoretical framework of filamentation is presented, along with recent experimental evidence supporting the established understanding of filamentation. Investigations carried out on vibrational and rotational spectroscopy, filament-induced breakdown, fluorescence spectroscopy, and backward lasing are discussed.

  4. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  5. Low-cost diffuse optical tomography for the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Taisuke; Zirak, Peyman; Weigel, Udo M.; Kristoffersen, Anna K.; Mateos, Nicolas; Valencia, Alejandra; Durduran, Turgut

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is an emerging imaging modality with potential applications in oncology, neurology, and other clinical areas. It allows the non-invasive probing of the tissue function using relatively inexpensive and safe instrumentation. An educational laboratory setup of a DOT system could be used to demonstrate how photons propagate through tissues, basics of medical tomography, and the concepts of multiple scattering and absorption. Here, we report a DOT setup that could be introduced to the advanced undergraduate or early graduate curriculum using inexpensive and readily available tools. The basis of the system is the LEGO Mindstorms NXT platform which controls the light sources, the detectors (photo-diodes), a mechanical 2D scanning platform, and the data acquisition. A basic tomographic reconstruction is implemented in standard numerical software, and 3D images are reconstructed. The concept was tested and developed in an educational environment that involved a high-school student and a group of post-doctoral fellows.

  6. Diffuse Optical Tomography for Brain Imaging: Continuous Wave Instrumentation and Linear Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a functional brain imaging technique that measures cerebral blood oxygenation and blood volume changes. This technique is particularly useful in human neuroimaging measurements because of the coupling between neural and hemodynamic activity in the brain. DOT is a multichannel imaging extension of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS uses laser sources and light detectors on the scalp to obtain noninvasive hemodynamic measurements from spectroscopic analysis of the remitted light. This review explains how NIRS data analysis is performed using a combination of the modified Beer-Lambert law (MBLL) and the diffusion approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE). Laser diodes, photodiode detectors, and optical terminals that contact the scalp are the main components in most NIRS systems. Placing multiple sources and detectors over the surface of the scalp allows for tomographic reconstructions that extend the individual measurements of NIRS into DOT. Mathematically arranging the DOT measurements into a linear system of equations that can be inverted provides a way to obtain tomographic reconstructions of hemodynamics in the brain.

  7. Use of diffusive optical fibers for plant lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozai, T.; Kitaya, Y.; Fujiwara, K. [Chiba Univ., Matsudo (Japan); Kino, S.; Kinowaki, M. [Topy Green Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Lighting is one of the most critical aspects in plant production and environmental research with plants. Much research has been repeated on the effect of light intensity, spectral distribution of light and lighting cycle, but comparatively little research done on the effect of lighting direction on the growth, development and morphology of plants. When plants are grown with lamps above, light is directed downward to the plants. Downward or overhead lighting is utilized in almost all cases. However, downward lighting does not always give the best result in terms of lighting efficiency, growth, development and morphology of plants. Kitaya et al. (1988) developed a lighting system in which two rooting beds were arranged; one above and the other under fluorescent lamps. Lettuce plants grew normally in the lower bed and suspended upside-down under the upper bed. The lettuce plants suspended upside-down were given the light in upward direction (upward lighting). No significant difference in growth, development and morphology was found between the lettuce plants grown by the downward and upward lighting. Combining upward and downward lighting, improved spacing efficiency and reduced electricity cost per plant compared with conventional, downward lighting. From the above example, when designing a lighting system for plants with lamps more lighting direction should be considered. In the present study, a sideward lighting system was developed using diffusive optical fiber belts. More higher quality tissue-cultured transplants could be produced in reduced space with sideward lighting system than with a downward lighting system. An application of the sideward lighting system using diffusive optical fiber belts is described and advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. Study of the diffusion of some emulsions in the human skin by pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahjomri, F; Benamar, N; Chatri, E; Leblanc, R M

    2003-01-01

    We previously used pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy (PPAS) to quantify sunscreen diffusion into human skin, and suggested a methodology to evaluate the time and the depth diffusion profile. These results were obtained by the analysis of the photoacoustic maximum response signal P max decrease, the time delay t max and the Fourier transform representation of the photoacoustic signal. In this study we present the results obtained for diffusion of four typical emulsions used in sunscreen compositions that show, for the first time, a particular behaviour for one of these emulsions due to a chemical reaction inside the skin during the diffusion process. This result provides a particularly interesting technique through the PPAS, to evaluate in situ the eventual chemical reactions that can occur during drug diffusion into human skin

  9. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabtchak S

    2015-02-01

    converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer–Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps.Keywords: gold nanocages, gold nanorods, turbid media, porcine muscles, diffuse radiance spectroscopy, Beer–Lambert law, perturbation

  10. Corrosion product characterisation by fibre optic raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Rochefort, P.A.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterise secondary-side deposits removed from CANDU steam generators. The deposits examined were in the form of powders, millimetre-sized flakes, and deposits on the surfaces of pulled steam generator tubes. The compositions of the deposits obtained using Raman spectroscopy are similar to the compositions obtained using other ex-situ analytical techniques. A semi-quantitative estimate of amounts of the major components can be obtained from the spectra. It was noted that the signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman spectra decreased as the amount of magnetite in the deposit increased, as a result of absorption of the laser light by the magnetite. The conversion of magnetite to hematite by the laser beam was observed when high laser powers were used. The Raman spectra of larger flake samples clearly illustrate the inhomogeneous nature of the deposits. (author)

  11. Extreme Spectroscopy: In situ nuclear materials behavior from optical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimbretiere, G.; Canizares, A.; Raimboux, N.; Omnee, R.; Duval, F.; Ammar, M.R.; Simon, P. [CNRS - UPR3079 CEMHTI, Universite d' Orleans, 45071Orleans cedex 2 (France); Desgranges, L.; Mohun, R. [CEA, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jegou, C.; Magnin, M. [CEA/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, Marcoule 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N. [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    In the nuclear industry, materials are regularly exposed to high temperature or/and irradiation and a better knowledge and understanding of their behavior under such extreme conditions is a key-point for improvements and further developments. Nowadays, Raman spectroscopy begins to be well known as a promising technique in the post mortem and remote characterization of nuclear materials exposed to extreme conditions. On this topic, at ANIMMA 2013 conference, we have presented some results about its implementation in the study of model or real nuclear fuel. However, the strength of Raman spectroscopy as in situ characterization tool is mainly its ability to be implemented remotely through optical fibers. Aware of this, implementation of other optical techniques can be considered in order to gain information not only on the structural dynamics of materials but also on the electronic charge carrier populations. In this paper, we propose to present our last advances in Raman characterization of nuclear materials and enlarge to the in situ use of complementary optical spectroscopies. Emphasis will be made on the information that can be gained to the behavior of the model fuel depleted UO{sub 2} under extreme conditions of high temperature and ionic irradiation: - In Situ Raman identification of the radiolysis alteration products of UO{sub 2} in contact with water under ionic irradiation. - In Situ Raman recording of the damaged dynamic of UO{sub 2} under inert atmosphere. - In Situ Raman and photo-luminescence study of virgin and damaged UO2 at high temperature. - In Situ study of electronic charge carriers' behavior in U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} solid solutions by mean of Iono- and Thermo- luminescence under and post- ionic irradiation. (authors)

  12. Hemodynamic measurements in rat brain and human muscle using diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Furuya, D.; Lech, G.; Zhou, Chao; Chance, Britten; Greenberg, J. H.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2003-07-01

    Measurement of concentration, oxygenation, and flow characteristics of blood cells can reveal information about tissue metabolism and functional heterogeneity. An improved multifunctional hybrid system has been built on the basis of our previous hybrid instrument that combines two near-infrared diffuse optical techniques to simultaneously monitor the changes of blood flow, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and blood oxygen saturation (StO2). Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) monitors blood flow (BF) by measuring the optical phase shifts caused by moving blood cells, while diffuse photon density wave spectroscopy (DPDW) measures tissue absorption and scattering. Higher spatial resolution, higher data acquisition rate and higher dynamic range of the improved system allow us to monitor rapid hemodynamic changes in rat brain and human muscles. We have designed two probes with different source-detector pairs and different separations for the two types of experiments. A unique non-contact probe mounted on the back of a camera, which allows continuous measurements without altering the blood flow, was employed to in vivo monitor the metabolic responses in rat brain during KCl induced cortical spreading depression (CSD). A contact probe was used to measure changes of blood flow and oxygenation in human muscle during and after cuff occlusion or exercise, where the non-contact probe is not appropriate for monitoring the moving target. The experimental results indicate that our multifunctional hybrid system is capable of in vivo and non-invasive monitoring of the hemodynamic changes in different tissues (smaller tissues in rat brain, larger tissues in human muscle) under different conditions (static versus moving). The time series images of flow during CSD obtained by our technique revealed spatial and temporal hemodynamic changes in rat brain. Two to three fold longer recovery times of flow and oxygenation after cuff occlusion or exercise from calf flexors in a

  13. Local optical spectroscopy of opaline photonic crystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhia, T.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.

    2017-09-01

    The homogeneity of opaline films obtained by vertical deposition of colloidal SiO2 microparticles has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local optical spectroscopy. It was found that the particle size distribution is narrowed during the deposition, the microstructure of the films improves, and the reflection peak in the first photonic stop band increases and narrows. These changes may be due to the fact that large microparticles, whose mass significantly exceeds the average mass, leave the solution in the course of time, falling on the bottom of the vessel under gravity. It is established that the microstructure of opaline films is improved with a decrease in thickness.

  14. Optical Second Harmonic Spectroscopy of Boron-Reconstructed Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D.; Downer, M. C.; Ekerdt, J. G.; Arzate, N.; Mendoza, Bernardo S.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Wu, R. Q.

    2000-01-01

    Optical second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy is used to probe Si(001) following thermal decomposition of diborane at the surface. Incorporation of boron (B) at second layer substitutional sites at H-free Si(001) intensifies and redshifts the E 1 SHG spectral peak, while subsequent H termination further intensifies and blueshifts E 1 , in sharp contrast to the effect of bulk B doping or nonsubstitutional B. Ab initio pseudopotential and semiempirical tight binding calculations independently reproduce these unique trends, and attribute them to the surface electric field associated with charge transfer to electrically active B acceptors, and rehybridization of atomic bonds. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Study of optical emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy is an excellent tool for quantitative multielement trace analysis. This paper describes the performance of a computer-controlled sequential measurement system. Chemical and ionization interferences are shown to be negligible due to the characteristics of the inductively coupled plasma, spectral interferences are eliminated by using a high-resolution monochromator and computer data handling. Good accuracy is achieved for most of the interesting elements, as is shown from both an interlaboratory test and from comparison of the results of water samples from the rivers Elbe and Weser with those achieved with neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis. (orig.) [de

  16. Patch-based anisotropic diffusion scheme for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography--part 2: image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Teresa; Koch, Maximilian; Ale, Angelique; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Arridge, Simon

    2016-02-21

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) provides 3D images of fluorescence distributions in biological tissue, which represent molecular and cellular processes. The image reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and requires regularisation techniques to stabilise and find meaningful solutions. Quadratic regularisation tends to either oversmooth or generate very noisy reconstructions, depending on the regularisation strength. Edge preserving methods, such as anisotropic diffusion regularisation (AD), can preserve important features in the fluorescence image and smooth out noise. However, AD has limited ability to distinguish an edge from noise. We propose a patch-based anisotropic diffusion regularisation (PAD), where regularisation strength is determined by a weighted average according to the similarity between patches around voxels within a search window, instead of a simple local neighbourhood strategy. However, this method has higher computational complexity and, hence, we wavelet compress the patches (PAD-WT) to speed it up, while simultaneously taking advantage of the denoising properties of wavelet thresholding. Furthermore, structural information can be incorporated into the image reconstruction with PAD-WT to improve image quality and resolution. In this case, the weights used to average voxels in the image are calculated using the structural image, instead of the fluorescence image. The regularisation strength depends on both structural and fluorescence images, which guarantees that the method can preserve fluorescence information even when it is not structurally visible in the anatomical images. In part 1, we tested the method using a denoising problem. Here, we use simulated and in vivo mouse fDOT data to assess the algorithm performance. Our results show that the proposed PAD-WT method provides high quality and noise free images, superior to those obtained using AD.

  17. Towards real-time diffuse optical tomography for imaging brain functions cooperated with Kalman estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyuan; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Dongyuan; Ding, Xuemei; Dan, Mai; Pan, Tiantian; Wang, Yihan; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive neuroimaging method to monitor the cerebral hemodynamic through the optical changes measured at the scalp surface. It has played a more and more important role in psychology and medical imaging communities. Real-time imaging of brain function using NIRS makes it possible to explore some sophisticated human brain functions unexplored before. Kalman estimator has been frequently used in combination with modified Beer-Lamber Law (MBLL) based optical topology (OT), for real-time brain function imaging. However, the spatial resolution of the OT is low, hampering the application of OT in exploring some complicated brain functions. In this paper, we develop a real-time imaging method combining diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and Kalman estimator, much improving the spatial resolution. Instead of only presenting one spatially distributed image indicating the changes of the absorption coefficients at each time point during the recording process, one real-time updated image using the Kalman estimator is provided. Its each voxel represents the amplitude of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) associated with this voxel. We evaluate this method using some simulation experiments, demonstrating that this method can obtain more reliable spatial resolution images. Furthermore, a statistical analysis is also conducted to help to decide whether a voxel in the field of view is activated or not.

  18. Development of graphene process control by industrial optical spectroscopy setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursenko, O.; Lukosius, M.; Lupina, G.; Bauer, J.; Villringer, C.; Mai, A.

    2017-06-01

    The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices depends strongly on the availability of fast and nondestructive characterization methods of graphene grown by CVD on large diameter production wafers [1-3] which are in the interest of the semiconductor industry. Here, a high-throughput optical metrology method for measuring the thickness and uniformity of large-area graphene sheets is demonstrated. The method is based on the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and normal incidence reflectometry in UV-Vis wavelength range (200-800 nm) with small light spots ( 30 μm2) realized in wafer optical metrology tool. In the first step graphene layers were transferred on a SiO2/Si substrate in order to determine the optical constants of graphene by the combination of multi-angle ellipsometry and reflectometry. Then these data were used for the development of a process control recipe of CVD graphene on 200 mm Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. The graphene layer quality was additionally monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy measurements were performed for micro topography evaluation. In consequence, a robust recipe for unambiguous thickness monitoring of all components of a multilayer film stack, including graphene, surface residuals or interface layer underneath graphene and surface roughness is developed. Optical monitoring of graphene thickness uniformity over a wafer has shown an excellent long term stability (s=0.004 nm) regardless of the growth of interfacial GeO2 and surface roughness. The sensitivity of the optical identification of graphene during microelectronic processing was evaluated. This optical metrology technique with combined data collection exhibit a fast and highly precise method allowing one an unambiguous detection of graphene after transferring as well as after the CVD deposition process on a Ge(100)/Si(100) wafer. This approach is well suited for industrial applications due to its repeatability and flexibility.

  19. Time evolution of negative binomial optical field in a diffusion channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tang-Kun; Wu Pan-Pan; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing; Fan Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    We find the time evolution law of a negative binomial optical field in a diffusion channel. We reveal that by adjusting the diffusion parameter, the photon number can be controlled. Therefore, the diffusion process can be considered a quantum controlling scheme through photon addition. (paper)

  20. System for diffusing light from an optical fiber or light guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan J [Pleasant Hill, CA; Wilson, Thomas S [San Leandro, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Small, IV, Ward [

    2008-06-10

    A system for diffusing light from an optical fiber wherein the optical fiber is coupled to a light source, comprising forming a polymer element adapted to be connected to the optical fiber and incorporating a scattering element with the polymer element wherein the scattering element diffuses the light from the polymer element. The apparatus of the present invention comprises a polymer element operatively connected to the optical fiber and a scattering element operatively connected with the shape polymer element that diffuses the light from the polymer element.

  1. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  2. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy diffusion laws in the presence of moving nanodomains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Bergstrand, Jan; Widengren, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown by means of simulations that spot variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (sv-FCS) can be used for the identification and, to some extent, also characterization of immobile lipid nanodomains in model as well as cellular plasma membranes. However, in these simulations, the nanodomains were assumed to be stationary, whereas they actually tend to move like the surrounding lipids. In the present study, we investigated how such domain movement influences the diffusion time/spot-size dependence observed in FCS experiments, usually referred to as ‘diffusion law’ analysis. We show that domain movement might mask the effects of the ‘anomalous’ diffusion characteristics of membrane lipids or proteins predicted for stationary domains, making it difficult to identify such moving nanodomains by sv-FCS. More specifically, our simulations indicate that (i) for domains moving up to a factor of 2.25 slower than the surrounding lipids, such impeded diffusion cannot be observed and the diffusion behaviour of the proteins or lipids is indistinguishable from that of freely diffusing molecules, i.e. nanodomains are not detected; (ii) impeded protein/lipid diffusion behaviour can be observed in experiments where the radii of the detection volume are similar in size to the domain radii, the domain diffusion is about 10 times slower than that of the lipids, and the probes show a high affinity to the domains; and (iii) presence of nanodomains can only be reliably detected by diffraction limited sv-FCS when the domains move very slowly (about 200 times slower than the lipid diffusion). As nanodomains are expected to be in the range of tens of nanometres and most probes show low affinities to such domains, sv-FCS is limited to stationary domains and/or STED-FCS. However, even for that latter technique, diffusing domains smaller than 50 nm in radius are hardly detectable by FCS diffusion time/spot-size dependencies. (paper)

  3. Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belau, Markus; Ninck, Markus; Hering, Gernot; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Torricelli, Alessandro; Gisler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  4. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leen, J. Brian, E-mail: b.leen@lgrinc.com; O’Keefe, Anthony [Los Gatos Research, 67 E. Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup −10} cm{sup −1}/√(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  5. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  6. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  7. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. PMID:23945738

  8. Flux density calibration in diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samir Kumar; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Vasu, Ram M

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the forward equation that models the transport of light through a highly scattering tissue material in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using the finite element method gives flux density (Φ) at the nodal points of the mesh. The experimentally measured flux (Umeasured) on the boundary over a finite surface area in a DOT system has to be corrected to account for the system transfer functions (R) of various building blocks of the measurement system. We present two methods to compensate for the perturbations caused by R and estimate true flux density (Φ) from Umeasuredcal. In the first approach, the measurement data with a homogeneous phantom (Umeasuredhomo) is used to calibrate the measurement system. The second scheme estimates the homogeneous phantom measurement using only the measurement from a heterogeneous phantom, thereby eliminating the necessity of a homogeneous phantom. This is done by statistically averaging the data (Umeasuredhetero) and redistributing it to the corresponding detector positions. The experiments carried out on tissue mimicking phantom with single and multiple inhomogeneities, human hand, and a pork tissue phantom demonstrate the robustness of the approach.

  9. An efficient method for model refinement in diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, A. R.; Khademi, M.

    2007-11-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-linear, ill-posed, boundary value and optimization problem which necessitates regularization. Also, Bayesian methods are suitable owing to measurements data are sparse and correlated. In such problems which are solved with iterative methods, for stabilization and better convergence, the solution space must be small. These constraints subject to extensive and overdetermined system of equations which model retrieving criteria specially total least squares (TLS) must to refine model error. Using TLS is limited to linear systems which is not achievable when applying traditional Bayesian methods. This paper presents an efficient method for model refinement using regularized total least squares (RTLS) for treating on linearized DOT problem, having maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator and Tikhonov regulator. This is done with combination Bayesian and regularization tools as preconditioner matrices, applying them to equations and then using RTLS to the resulting linear equations. The preconditioning matrixes are guided by patient specific information as well as a priori knowledge gained from the training set. Simulation results illustrate that proposed method improves the image reconstruction performance and localize the abnormally well.

  10. Photoacoustic spectroscopy, FTIR spectra and thermal diffusivity investigation of emeraldine pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phing, T.E.; Fanny, C.Y.J.; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus

    2001-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectra for both emeraldine base and emeraldine salt in bulk form were measured in the wavelength range of 350 nm to 700 nm. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have also been studied to determine the structure changes due to the protonation process. For the thermal diffusivity measurement, the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) technique has been used. It was found that the emeraldine salt exhibit higher thermal diffusivity compare to emeraldine base and this is similar to the higher conductivity characteristics of emeraldine salt. (Author)

  11. Resonant Optical Gradient Force Interaction for Nano-Imaging and-Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-19

    New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 053042 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/5/053042 PAPER Resonant optical gradient force interaction for nano-imaging and -spectroscopy...HonghuaUYang andMarkus BRaschke Department of Physics , Department of Chemistry, and JILA,University of Colorado, Boulder, CO80309,USA E-mail...honghua.yang@colorado.edu andmarkus.raschke@colorado.edu Keywords:nano spectroscopy, optical force, near-field optics Abstract The optical gradient force

  12. Noise-Immune Cavity-Enhanced Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Lucile; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    We present noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy (NICE-OFCS), a recently developed technique for sensitive, broadband, and high resolution spectroscopy. In NICE-OFCS an optical frequency comb (OFC) is locked to a high finesse cavity and phase-modulated at a frequency precisely equal to (a multiple of) the cavity free spectral range. Since each comb line and sideband is transmitted through a separate cavity mode in exactly the same way, any residual frequency noise on the OFC relative to the cavity affects each component in an identical manner. The transmitted intensity contains a beat signal at the modulation frequency that is immune to frequency-to-amplitude noise conversion by the cavity, in a way similar to continuous wave noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). The light transmitted through the cavity is detected with a fast-scanning Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) and the NICE-OFCS signal is obtained by fast Fourier transform of the synchronously demodulated interferogram. Our NICE-OFCS system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a cavity with a finesse of ˜9000 and a fast-scanning FTS equipped with a high-bandwidth commercial detector. We measured NICE-OFCS signals from the 3νb{1}+νb{3} overtone band of CO_2 around 1.57 μm and achieved absorption sensitivity 6.4×10-11cm-1 Hz-1/2 per spectral element, corresponding to a minimum detectable CO_2 concentration of 25 ppb after 330 s integration time. We will describe the principles of the technique and its technical implementation, and discuss the spectral lineshapes of the NICE-OFCS signals. A. Khodabakhsh, C. Abd Alrahman, and A. Foltynowicz, Opt. Lett. 39, 5034-5037 (2014). J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6-15 (1998). A. Khodabakhsh, A. C. Johansson, and A. Foltynowicz, Appl. Phys. B (2015) doi:10.1007/s00340-015-6010-7.

  13. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  14. Noninvasive diffuse optical monitoring of head and neck tumor blood flow and oxygenation during radiation delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lixin; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Cheng, Ran; Shang, Yu; Johnson, Ellis L.; Stevens, Scott D.; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study explored using a novel diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter to noninvasively monitor blood flow and oxygenation changes in head and neck tumors during radiation delivery. A fiber-optic probe connected to the DCS flow-oximeter was placed on the surface of the radiologically/clinically involved cervical lymph node. The DCS flow-oximeter in the treatment room was remotely operated by a computer in the control room. From the early measurements, abnormal signals were observed when the optical device was placed in close proximity to the radiation beams. Through phantom tests, the artifacts were shown to be caused by scattered x rays and consequentially avoided by moving the optical device away from the x-ray beams. Eleven patients with head and neck tumors were continually measured once a week over a treatment period of seven weeks, although there were some missing data due to the patient related events. Large inter-patient variations in tumor hemodynamic responses were observed during radiation delivery. A significant increase in tumor blood flow was observed at the first week of treatment, which may be a physiologic response to hypoxia created by radiation oxygen consumption. Only small and insignificant changes were found in tumor blood oxygenation, suggesting that oxygen utilizations in tumors during the short period of fractional radiation deliveries were either minimal or balanced by other effects such as blood flow regulation. Further investigations in a large patient population are needed to correlate the individual hemodynamic responses with the clinical outcomes for determining the prognostic value of optical measurements. PMID:22312579

  15. Recent Developments in Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy for Diffusion Measurements in Planar Lipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Hof, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2010), s. 427-457 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0114; GA AV ČR GEMEM/09/E006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lateral diffusion * fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.279, year: 2010

  16. The use of photon correlation spectroscopy method for determining diffusion coefficient in brine and herring flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumanova M.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The process fish salting has been studied by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy; the distribution of salt concentration in the solution and herring flesh with skin has been found, diffusion coefficients and salt concentrations used for creating a mathematical model of the salting technology have been worked out; the possibility of determination by this method the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of solutions and different media (minced meat etc. has been considered

  17. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter

    2015-09-01

    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  18. Application of optical emission spectroscopy to high current proton sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G; Mazzaglia, M; Nicolosi, D; Mascali, D; Reitano, R; Celona, L; Leonardi, O; Leone, F; Naselli, E; Neri, L; Torrisi, G; Gammino, S; Zaniol, B

    2017-01-01

    Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) represents a very reliable technique to carry out non-invasive measurements of plasma density and plasma temperature in the range of tens of eV. With respect to other diagnostics, it also can characterize the different populations of neutrals and ionized particles constituting the plasma. At INFN-LNS, OES techniques have been developed and applied to characterize the plasma generated by the Flexible Plasma Trap, an ion source used as 'testbench' of the proton source built for European Spallation Source. This work presents the characterization of the parameters of a hydrogen plasma in different conditions of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile, along with perspectives for further upgrades of the OES diagnostics system. (paper)

  19. The application of UV LEDs for differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.

    2018-04-01

    Modern UV LEDs represent a potentially very advantageous alternative to thermal light sources, in particular xenon arc lamps, which are the most common light sources in trace gas-analyzers. So, the light-emitting diodes are very attractive for use of as light sources for Long Path Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of trace gases in the open atmosphere. Recent developments in fibre-coupling telescope technology and the availability of ultraviolet light emitting diodes have now allowed us to construct a portable, long path DOAS instrument for use at remote locations and specifically for measuring degassing from active volcanic systems. First of all, we are talking about the measurement of sulphur dioxide, carbon disulphide and, oxides of chlorine and bromine. The parallel measurements of sulfur dioxide using a certified gas analyzer, were conducted and showed good correlation.

  20. Spectral staining of tumor tissue by fiber optic FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Reiner; Steiner, Gerald; Kano, Angelique; Richter, Tom; Bergmann, Ralf; Rodig, Heike; Johannsen, Bernd; Kobelke, Jens

    2003-07-01

    Infrared (IR) optical fiber have aroused great interest in recent years because of their potential in in-vivo spectroscopy. This potential includes the ability to be flexible, small and to guide IR light in a very large range of wavelengths. Two types - silver halide and chalcogenide - infrared transmitting fibers are investigated in the detection of a malignant tumor. As a test sample for all types of fibers we used a thin section of an entire rat brain with glioblastoma. The fibers were connected with a common infrared microscope. Maps across the whole tissue section with more than 200 spectra were recorded by moving the sample with an XY stage. Data evaluation was performed using fuzzy c-means cluster analysis (FCM). The silver halide fibers provided excellent results. The tumor was clearly discernible from healthy tissue. Chalcogenide fibers are not suitable to distinguish tumor from normal tissue because the fiber has a very low transmittance in the important fingerprint region.

  1. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  2. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannukainen, A.; Harhanen, Lauri Oskari; Hyvönen, N.

    2015-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged...... measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments...

  3. Mechanistic insights of Li+ diffusion within doped LiFePO4 from Muon Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian D; Ashton, Thomas E; Blagovidova, Ekaterina; Smales, Glen J; Lübke, Mechthild; Baker, Peter J; Corr, Serena A; Darr, Jawwad A

    2018-03-07

    The Li + ion diffusion characteristics of V- and Nb-doped LiFePO 4 were examined with respect to undoped LiFePO 4 using muon spectroscopy (µSR) as a local probe. As little difference in diffusion coefficient between the pure and doped samples was observed, offering D Li values in the range 1.8-2.3 × 10 -10  cm 2 s -1 , this implied the improvement in electrochemical performance observed within doped LiFePO 4 was not a result of increased local Li + diffusion. This unexpected observation was made possible with the µSR technique, which can measure Li + self-diffusion within LiFePO 4 , and therefore negated the effect of the LiFePO 4 two-phase delithiation mechanism, which has previously prevented accurate Li + diffusion comparison between the doped and undoped materials. Therefore, the authors suggest that µSR is an excellent technique for analysing materials on a local scale to elucidate the effects of dopants on solid-state diffusion behaviour.

  4. Proceedings of the Third Symposium Optical Spectroscopy SOS-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassler, D.; Feller, K.H.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1985-01-01

    The main topics of the symposium were: 1) new developments and applications of laser spectroscopy including time resolved UV/VIS spectroscopy, time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser Raman spectroscopy, 2) dynamics and photokinetics of molecular systems, and 3) spectroscopy and photoprocesses in organized biological systems

  5. Sodium Chloride Diffusion during Muscle Salting Evidenced by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueras, Rénata; Peyrin, Frédéric; Vénien, Annie; Hénot, Jean Marc; Astruc, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    To better understand the relationship between the muscle structure and NaCl transfers in meat, we used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze brined and dry-salted rat muscles. The muscles were freeze-dried to avoid the delocalization of soluble ions that happens in regular dehydration through a graded series of ethanol. Na and Cl maps were superimposed on SEM images to combine the muscle structure and NaCl diffusion. Brining causes rapid diffusion of NaCl through the tissue. Most brine diffuses in a linear front from the muscle surface, but a small proportion enters through the perimysium network. The muscle area penetrated by brine shows heterogeneous patterns of NaCl retention, with some connective tissue islets containing more NaCl than other parts of perimysium. NaCl penetration is considerably slower after dry salting than after brining.

  6. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  8. Atomic and molecular data for optical stellar spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiter, U; Lind, K; Barklem, P S; Asplund, M; Bergemann, M; Magrini, L; Masseron, T; Mikolaitis, Š; Pickering, J C; Ruffoni, M P

    2015-01-01

    High-precision spectroscopy of large stellar samples plays a crucial role for several topical issues in astrophysics. Examples include studying the chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the origin of chemical elements, and characterizing planetary host stars. Data are accumulating from instruments that obtain high-quality spectra of stars in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelength regions on a routine basis. These instruments are located at ground-based 2–10 m class telescopes around the world, in addition to the spectrographs with unique capabilities available at the Hubble Space Telescope. The interpretation of these spectra requires high-quality transition data for numerous species, in particular neutral and singly ionized atoms, and di- or triatomic molecules. We rely heavily on the continuous efforts of laboratory astrophysics groups that produce and improve the relevant experimental and theoretical atomic and molecular data. The compilation of the best available data is facilitated by databases and electronic infrastructures such as the NIST Atomic Spectra Database, the VALD database, or the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre. We illustrate the current status of atomic data for optical stellar spectra with the example of the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey. Data sources for 35 chemical elements were reviewed in an effort to construct a line list for a homogeneous abundance analysis of up to 10 5 stars. (paper)

  9. Atomic and molecular data for optical stellar spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiter, U.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P. S.; Bergemann, M.; Magrini, L.; Masseron, T.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Pickering, J. C.; Ruffoni, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    High-precision spectroscopy of large stellar samples plays a crucial role for several topical issues in astrophysics. Examples include studying the chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the origin of chemical elements, and characterizing planetary host stars. Data are accumulating from instruments that obtain high-quality spectra of stars in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelength regions on a routine basis. These instruments are located at ground-based 2-10 m class telescopes around the world, in addition to the spectrographs with unique capabilities available at the Hubble Space Telescope. The interpretation of these spectra requires high-quality transition data for numerous species, in particular neutral and singly ionized atoms, and di- or triatomic molecules. We rely heavily on the continuous efforts of laboratory astrophysics groups that produce and improve the relevant experimental and theoretical atomic and molecular data. The compilation of the best available data is facilitated by databases and electronic infrastructures such as the NIST Atomic Spectra Database, the VALD database, or the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre. We illustrate the current status of atomic data for optical stellar spectra with the example of the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey. Data sources for 35 chemical elements were reviewed in an effort to construct a line list for a homogeneous abundance analysis of up to 105 stars.

  10. Semiclassical Path Integral Calculation of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provazza, Justin; Segatta, Francesco; Garavelli, Marco; Coker, David F

    2018-02-13

    Computation of nonlinear optical response functions allows for an in-depth connection between theory and experiment. Experimentally recorded spectra provide a high density of information, but to objectively disentangle overlapping signals and to reach a detailed and reliable understanding of the system dynamics, measurements must be integrated with theoretical approaches. Here, we present a new, highly accurate and efficient trajectory-based semiclassical path integral method for computing higher order nonlinear optical response functions for non-Markovian open quantum systems. The approach is, in principle, applicable to general Hamiltonians and does not require any restrictions on the form of the intrasystem or system-bath couplings. This method is systematically improvable and is shown to be valid in parameter regimes where perturbation theory-based methods qualitatively breakdown. As a test of the methodology presented here, we study a system-bath model for a coupled dimer for which we compare against numerically exact results and standard approximate perturbation theory-based calculations. Additionally, we study a monomer with discrete vibronic states that serves as the starting point for future investigation of vibronic signatures in nonlinear electronic spectroscopy.

  11. IDENTIFICATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES VIA OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Suzanne C.; Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Heras, Juan A. Zurita; Rodriguez, Jerome; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Oezbey, Mehtap

    2009-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is discovering hundreds of new hard X-ray sources, many of which remain unidentified. We report on optical spectroscopy of five such sources for which X-ray observations at lower energies (∼0.5-10 keV) and higher angular resolutions than INTEGRAL have allowed for unique optical counterparts to be located. We find that INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray (IGR) J16426+6536 and IGR J22292+6647 are Type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (with IGR J16426+6536 further classified as a Seyfert 1.5) which have redshifts of z = 0.323 and z = 0.113, respectively. IGR J18308-1232 is identified as a cataclysmic variable (CV), and we confirm a previous identification of IGR J19267+1325 as a magnetic CV. IGR J18214-1318 is identified as an obscured high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), which are systems thought to have a compact object embedded in the stellar wind of a massive star. We combine Chandra fluxes with distances based on the optical observations to calculate X-ray luminosities of the HMXB and CVs, finding L 0.3-10keV = 5 x 10 36 erg s -1 for IGR J18214-1318, L 0.3-10keV = 1.3 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J18308-1232, and L 0.3-10keV = 6.7 x 10 32 erg s -1 for IGR J19267+1325.

  12. Coherent Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Optical Imaging on the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Vasily

    Optical properties of many materials and macroscopic systems are defined by ultrafast dynamics of electronic, vibrational, and spin excitations localized on the nanoscale. Harnessing these excitations for material engineering, optical computing, and control of chemical reactions has been a long-standing goal in science and technology. However, it is challenging due to the lack of spectroscopic techniques that can resolve processes simultaneously on the nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal scales. This thesis describes the fundamental principles, implementation, and experimental demonstration of a novel type of ultrafast microscopy based on the concept of adiabatic plasmonic nanofocusing. Simultaneous spatio-temporal resolution on a nanometer-femtosecond scale is achieved by using a near-field nonlinear optical response induced by ultrafast surface plasmon polaritons nanofocused on a metal tip. First, we study the surface plasmon response in metallic structures and evaluate its prospects and limitations for ultrafast near-field microscopy. Through plasmon emission-based spectroscopy, we investigate dephasing times and interplay between radiative and non-radiative decay rates of localized plasmons and their modification due to coupling. We identify a new regime of quantum plasmonic coupling, which limits the achievable spatial resolution to several angstroms but at the same time provides a potential channel for generating ultrafast electron currents at optical frequencies. Next, we study propagation of femtosecond wavepackets of surface plasmon polaritons on a metal tip. In time-domain interferometric measurements we detect group delays that correspond to slowing of the plasmon polaritons down to 20% of the speed of light at the tip apex. This provides direct experimental verification of the plasmonic nanofocusing mechanism and suggests enhanced nonlinear optical interactions at the tip apex. We then measure a plasmon-generated third-order nonlinear optical

  13. Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundiff, Steven T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This final report describes the activities undertaken under grant "Optical Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Disordered Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Quantum Dots". The goal of this program was to implement optical 2-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy and apply it to electronic excitations, including excitons, in semiconductors. Specifically of interest are quantum wells that exhibit disorder due to well width fluctuations and quantum dots. In both cases, 2-D spectroscopy will provide information regarding coupling among excitonic localization sites.

  14. Optical Spectroscopy and Multiphoton Imaging for the Diagnosis and Characterization of Hyperplasias in the Mouse Mammary Gland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skala, Melissa C

    2007-01-01

    .... Optical spectroscopy, in vivo and in vitro microscopy studies indicate that optical methods show great promise for the early diagnosis of cancer, and may potentially provide biologically relevant...

  15. Probing GFP-actin diffusion in living cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, Hanna; Heinrich, Doris; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells is continuously remodeled by polymerization and depolymerization of actin. Consequently, the relative content of polymerized filamentous actin (F-actin) and monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is subject to temporal and spatial fluctuations. Since fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled actin it seems likely that FCS allows us to determine the dynamics and hence indirectly the structural properties of the cytoskeleton components with high spatial resolution. To this end we investigate the FCS signal of GFP-actin in living Dictyostelium discoideum cells and explore the inherent spatial and temporal signatures of the actin cytoskeleton. Using the free green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reference, we find that actin diffusion inside cells is dominated by G-actin and slower than diffusion in diluted cell extract. The FCS signal in the dense cortical F-actin network near the cell membrane is probed using the cytoskeleton protein LIM and is found to be slower than cytosolic G-actin diffusion. Furthermore, we show that polymerization of the cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide leads to a substantial decrease of G-actin diffusion. Pronounced fluctuations in the distribution of the FCS correlation curves can be induced by latrunculin, which is known to induce actin waves. Our work suggests that the FCS signal of GFP-actin in combination with scanning or spatial correlation techniques yield valuable information about the local dynamics and concomitant cytoskeletal properties

  16. Validation of interventional fiber optic spectroscopy with MR Spectroscopy, MAS-NMR spectroscopy, high-performance thin-layer chromatography, and histopathology for accurate hepatic fat quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachabé, R.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Molengraaf, R. van de; Lamerichs, R.; Pikkemaat, J.; Sio, C.F.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Sterenborg, H.J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To validate near-infrared (NIR)-based optical spectroscopy measurements of hepatic fat content using a minimally invasive needle-like probe with integrated optical fibers, enabling real-time feedback during percutaneous interventions. The results were compared with magnetic resonance

  17. Theoretical study of electronic absorption spectroscopy of propadienylidene molecule vis-â-vis the observed diffuse interstellar bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Samala Nagaprasad; Mahapatra, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theoretical study of spectroscopy and dynamics of electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 . ► Construction of ab initio electronic potential energy and diabatic coupling surfaces. ► First principles study of nuclear dynamics on excited electronic states. ► Findings reveal l-C 3 H 2 is a potential molecular carrier of diffuse interstellar bands. ► Electronically excited l-C 3 H 2 decays by ultrafast nonradiative internal conversion. -- Abstract: Observation of broad and diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 4881 Å and 5440 Å assigned to the optical absorption spectrum of Y-shaped propadienylidene (H 2 C=C=C:) molecule is theoretically examined in this paper. This molecule apparently absorbs in the same wavelength region as the observed DIBs and was suggested to be a potential carrier of these DIBs. This assignment mostly relied on the experimental data from radioastronomy and laboratory measurements. Motivated by these available experimental data we attempt here a theoretical study and investigate the detailed electronic structure and nuclear dynamics underlying the electronic absorption bands of propadienylidene molecule. Our results show that this molecule indeed absorbs in the wavelength region of the recorded DIBs. Strong nonadiabatic coupling between its energetically low-lying electronic states plays major role, initiates ultrafast internal conversion and contributes to the spectral broadening. Theoretical findings are finally compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and discussed in connection with the recorded DIBs.

  18. Prediction of tablets disintegration times using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, Evone S

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this study are to user near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the disintegration time of a series of tablets compacted at different compressional forces, calibrate NIR data vs. laboratory equipment data, develop a model equation, validate the model, and test the model's predictive ability. Seven theophylline tablet formulations of the same composition but with different disintegration time values (0.224, 1.141, 2.797, 5.492, 9.397, 16.8, and 30.092 min) were prepared along with five placebo tablet formulations with different disintegration times. Laboratory disintegration time was compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data. Linear regression, quadratic, cubic, and partial least square techniques were used to determine the relationship between disintegration time and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in disintegration time produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations, which depended on the mathematical technique used for regression, were developed from the calibration of disintegration time using laboratory equipment vs. the near-infrared diffuse reflectance for each formulation. The results of NIR disintegration time were similar to laboratory tests. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is an alternative nondestructive method for measurement of disintegration time of tablets.

  19. Optical Spectroscopy to Guide Photodynamic Therapy of Head and Neck Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, Dominic J.; Karakullukcu, M. Baris; Kruijt, Bastiaan; Kanick, Stephen Chad; van Veen, Robert P. L.; Amelink, Arjen; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Witjes, Max J. H.; Tan, I. Bing

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to other interstitial applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT), optical guidance or monitoring in the head and neck is at a very early stage of development. The present paper reviews the use of optical approaches, in particular optical spectroscopy, that have been used or have the

  20. Optical fiber strain sensor using fiber resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Liang; Lu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A novel (to our best knowledge) optical fiber strain sensor using a fiber ring resonator based on frequency comb Vernier spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. A passively mode-locked optical fiber laser is employed to generate a phased-locked frequency comb. Strain applied to the optical fib...

  1. Resonant acoustic spectroscopy of soft tissues using embedded magnetomotive nanotransducers and optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for performing dynamic elastography of soft tissue samples. By sensing nanoscale displacements with optical coherence tomography, a chirped, modulated force is applied to acquire the mechanical spectrum of a tissue sample within a few seconds. This modulated force is applied via magnetic nanoparticles, named 'nanotransducers', which are diffused into the tissue, and which contribute negligible inertia to the soft tissue mechanical system. Using this novel system, we observed that excised tissues exhibit mechanical resonance modes which are well described by a linear damped harmonic oscillator. Results are validated by using cylindrical tissue phantoms of agarose in which resonant frequencies (30-400 Hz) are consistent with longitudinal modes and the sample boundary conditions. We furthermore show that the Young's modulus can be computed from their measured resonance frequencies, analogous to resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for stiff material analysis. Using this new technique, named magnetomotive resonant acoustic spectroscopy (MRAS), we monitored the relative stiffening of an excised rat liver during a chemical fixation process.

  2. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  3. Optical excitation spectroscopy of the Luna 24 sample 24125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, D.J.; Fielder, G.

    1980-01-01

    Luminescence optical excitation spectroscopy carried out at room temperature on sample L24125 with light made monochromatic from a 450 W xenon source has shown that Fe 3+ ions are present in the plagioclase component at concentrations such that the ligand field bands of this species are observed. The spectrum closely resembles that of Fe 3+ in plagioclase-rich Apollo samples and in terrestrial calcic plagioclases, including synthetic material activated with this ion. Although the amount of sample was small (5 mg) compared with those for which comparison spectra were obtained (30 mg) and the albedo was lower, resolution of spectral bands was achieved with the aid of a digital signal averager, giving an eight-fold enhancement of signal:noise ratio. It would be very instructive and of great value to compare these results with those obtained for samples from the same core but at several different depths and also with an 'interior' rock (as opposed to breccia) sample suite, for which the Fe 3+ luminescence centres would be relatively well shielded from environmental influences, particularly those implicated in the formation of Fe 0 (metal) and Fe 2+ in the lunar regolith. (author)

  4. Plasma control using neural network and optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byungwhan; Bae, Jung Ki; Hong, Wan-Shick

    2005-01-01

    Due to high sensitivity to process parameters, plasma processes should be tightly controlled. For plasma control, a predictive model was constructed using a neural network and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce OES dimensionality. This approach was applied to an oxide plasma etching conducted in a CHF 3 /CF 4 magnetically enhanced reactive ion plasma. The etch process was systematically characterized by means of a statistical experimental design. Three etch outputs (etch rate, profile angle, and etch rate nonuniformity) were modeled using three different approaches, including conventional, OES, and PCA-OES models. For all etch outputs, OES models demonstrated improved predictions over the conventional or PCA-OES models. Compared to conventional models, OES models yielded an improvement of more than 25% in modeling profile angle and etch rate nonuniformtiy. More than 40% improvement over PCA-OES model was achieved in modeling etch rate and profile angle. These results demonstrate that nonreduced in situ data are more beneficial than reduced one in constructing plasma control model

  5. Optical spectroscopy and high pressure on emeralds: synthetic and natural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alejo, M. A.; Hernández-Alcántara, J. M.; Flores Jiménez, C.; Calderón, T.; Murrieta S., H.; Camarillo García, E.

    2011-09-01

    Emerald, natural and synthetic, are the subject of study by means of optical spectroscopy techniques. Particularly, natural emeralds have been considered as a gemstone in jewelry not being so the synthetic ones. But, in general, the properties of these are very good for applications, for instance as a laser system, due to the impurities control. In this work a comparison between natural and synthetic emeralds is done. Chromium ions are the main responsible of the characteristic fascinating green color of these gemstones, entering in the crystals in octahedral sites. Absorption at room temperature show up two broad bands in the visible region and two narrow bands called the R-lines. That spectrum corresponds to trivalent chromium ions in an octahedral site, as it happens in ruby and alexandrite. On other hand, photoemission arises in the range 640-850 nm. at room temperature . It is shown that the luminescence spectra changes as the temperature is lowered. The effect on the main peak of luminescence when high pressure is applied on small samples of emerald shows as a linear function.

  6. Edge-promoting reconstruction of absorption and diffusivity in optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannukainen, A; Hyvönen, N; Majander, H; Harhanen, L

    2016-01-01

    In optical tomography a physical body is illuminated with near-infrared light and the resulting outward photon flux is measured at the object boundary. The goal is to reconstruct internal optical properties of the body, such as absorption and diffusivity. In this work, it is assumed that the imaged object is composed of an approximately homogeneous background with clearly distinguishable embedded inhomogeneities. An algorithm for finding the maximum a posteriori estimate for the absorption and diffusion coefficients is introduced assuming an edge-preferring prior and an additive Gaussian measurement noise model. The method is based on iteratively combining a lagged diffusivity step and a linearization of the measurement model of diffuse optical tomography with priorconditioned LSQR. The performance of the reconstruction technique is tested via three-dimensional numerical experiments with simulated data. (paper)

  7. Dynamics of normal and superfluid fogs using diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heetae; Lemieux, Pierre-Anthony; Durian, Douglas J.; Williams, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of normal and superfluid fogs are studied using the technique of diffusing-wave spectroscopy. For a water fog generated with a 1.75 MHz piezoelectric driver below the liquid surface, the 7 μm diameter droplets are found to have diffusive dynamics for correlation times long compared to the viscous time. For a fog of 10 μm diameter superfluid helium droplets in helium vapor at 1.5 K the motion appears to be ballistic for correlation times short compared to the viscous time. The velocity correlations between the helium droplets are found to depend on the initial velocity with which the droplets are injected from the helium surface into the fog

  8. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy to Study Diffusion of Polymer Chains within Layered Hydrogen-Bonded Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristinski, Denis; Kharlampieva, Evguenia; Sukhishvili, Svetlana

    2002-03-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) has been used to probe molecular motions within polymer multilayers formed by hydrogen-bonding sequential self-assembly. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules were end-labeled with the fluorescent tags, and self-assembled with polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) using layer-by-layer deposition. We have found that molecules included in the top adsorbed layer have significant mobility at the millisecond time scale, probably due to translational diffusion. However, their dynamics deviate from classical Brownian motion with a single diffusion time. Possible reasons for the deviation are discussed. We found that motions were significantly slowed with increasing depth within the PEG/PMAA multilayer. This phenomena occured in a narrow pH range around 4.0 in which intermolecular interactions were relatively weak.

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity assessed with two diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haijing; Khadka, Sabin; Tian, Fenghua; Lin, Zi-Jing; Lu, Chunming; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Hanli

    2011-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is recently utilized as a new approach to assess resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the human brain. For any new technique or new methodology, it is necessary to be able to replicate similar experiments using different instruments in order to establish its liability and reproducibility. We apply two different diffuse optical tomographic (DOT) systems (i.e., DYNOT and CW5), with various probe arrangements to evaluate RSFC in the sensorimotor cortex by utilizing a previously published experimental protocol and seed-based correlation analysis. Our results exhibit similar spatial patterns and strengths in RSFC between the bilateral motor cortexes. The consistent observations are obtained from both DYNOT and CW5 systems, and are also in good agreement with the previous fNIRS study. Overall, we demonstrate that the fNIRS-based RSFC is reproducible by various DOT imaging systems among different research groups, enhancing the confidence of neuroscience researchers and clinicians to utilize fNIRS for future applications.

  10. Ambulatory diffuse optical tomography and multimodality physiological monitoring system for muscle and exercise applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Zhang, Quan; Ivkovic, Vladimir; Strangman, Gary E.

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory diffuse optical tomography (aDOT) is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and enables three-dimensional imaging of regional hemodynamics and oxygen consumption during a person's normal activities. Although NIRS has been previously used for muscle assessment, it has been notably limited in terms of the number of channels measured, the extent to which subjects can be ambulatory, and/or the ability to simultaneously acquire synchronized auxiliary data such as electromyography (EMG) or electrocardiography (ECG). We describe the development of a prototype aDOT system, called NINscan-M, capable of ambulatory tomographic imaging as well as simultaneous auxiliary multimodal physiological monitoring. Powered by four AA size batteries and weighing 577 g, the NINscan-M prototype can synchronously record 64-channel NIRS imaging data, eight channels of EMG, ECG, or other analog signals, plus force, acceleration, rotation, and temperature for 24+ h at up to 250 Hz. We describe the system's design, characterization, and performance characteristics. We also describe examples of isometric, cycle ergometer, and free-running ambulatory exercise to demonstrate tomographic imaging at 25 Hz. NINscan-M represents a multiuse tool for muscle physiology studies as well as clinical muscle assessment.

  11. Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963); Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie optique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author) [French] Le deplacement isotopique dans les raies atomiques de certains elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) est utilise pour effectuer le dosage isotopique de ces elements. L'utilisation du spectrometre interferentiel Fabry-Perot photoelectrique se revele particulierement adapte a ce genre de probleme: dans chaque cas, nous donnons d'une part l'essentiel des resultats obtenus avec cet appareil, et d'autre part, les resultats obtenus anterieurement a l'aide de l'appareillage classique (reseau, plaque photographique). L'ensemble de ces informations donne une idee des possibilites offertes par la spectroscopie optique: dans le meilleur des cas, la precision que l'on peut esperer est de l'ordre de 1 a 2 pour cent pour des isotopes dont la concentration est de l'ordre de 1 pour cent. (auteur)

  12. An optimised instrument to measure thermal diffusivities of gases with opto-acoustic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldner, J.; Stephan, K. [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics and Thermal Process Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70550, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    The paper describes the theory and application of opto-acoustics to determine thermal diffusivities of gases. An experimental device, already described in previous papers of the authors [Internat. J. Thermophys. 19 (1998) 1099; Proc. 2. European Thermal Science and 14. UIT National Heat Transfer Conf., 1996, pp. 1071-1078] permitted the detection of thermal diffusivities of gases at moderate pressures with an experimental uncertainty of about {+-}1.25%.Based on the experience gained with this device, a comprehensive error analysis is presented in this paper. It shows how the experimental uncertainties can be considerably reduced to about -0.45 to +0.35%. The parameters for optical cell design are dealt with, as well as the appropriate characteristics, such as frequencies of the modulated laser beam, and the microphone used in the experiment. (authors)

  13. Portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy/diffuse reflectance hybrid spectrometer for analysis of inorganic pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Anglos, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    A novel, portable spectrometer, combining two analytical techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, was developed with the aim to provide an enhanced instrumental and methodological approach with regard to the analysis of pigments in objects of cultural heritage. Technical details about the hybrid spectrometer and its operation are presented and examples are given relevant to the analysis of paint materials. Both LIBS and diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and part of the near infrared, corresponding to several neat mineral pigment samples, were recorded and the complementary information was used to effectively distinguish different types of pigments even if they had similar colour or elemental composition. The spectrometer was also employed in the analysis of different paints on the surface of an ancient pottery sherd demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed hybrid diagnostic approach. Despite its instrumental simplicity and compact size, the spectrometer is capable of supporting analytical campaigns relevant to archaeological, historical or art historical investigations, particularly when quick data acquisition is required in the context of surveys of large numbers of objects and samples.

  14. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical impedancemetry for nutrition behavior characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchik, Alexey; Pavlov, Konstantin; Vilenskii, Maksim; Popov, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Unhealthy nutrition trends determination technique is described. Combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical impedancemetry will lead to development of a healthcare device that will predict unhealthy eating habits and decrease risk factors of diseases development.

  16. Spectroscopy and photophysics of self-organized zinc porphyrin nanolayers. 1. Optical spectroscopy of excitonic interactions involving the soret band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The photophysical properties of excited singlet states of zinc tetra-(p-octylphenyl)-porphyrin in 5-25-nm-thick films spin-coated onto quartz slides have been investigated by optical spectroscopy. Analysis of the polarized absorption spectra using a dipole-dipole exciton model with two mutually

  17. Diffusion and spectroscopy of water and lipids in fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Martí, J.; Calero, C.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic structure and dynamics of water and lipids in a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid lipid bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase have been analyzed with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations based on the recently parameterized CHARMM36 force field. The diffusive dynamics of the membrane lipids and of its hydration water, their reorientational motions as well as their corresponding spectral densities, related to the absorption of radiation, have been considered for the first time using the present force field. In addition, structural properties such as density and pressure profiles, a deuterium-order parameter, surface tension, and the extent of water penetration in the membrane have been analyzed. Molecular self-diffusion, reorientational motions, and spectral densities of atomic species reveal a variety of time scales playing a role in membrane dynamics. The mechanisms of lipid motion strongly depend on the time scale considered, from fast ballistic translation at the scale of picoseconds (effective diffusion coefficients of the order of 10 −5 cm 2 /s) to diffusive flow of a few lipids forming nanodomains at the scale of hundreds of nanoseconds (diffusion coefficients of the order of 10 −8 cm 2 /s). In the intermediate regime of sub-diffusion, collisions with nearest neighbors prevent the lipids to achieve full diffusion. Lipid reorientations along selected directions agree well with reported nuclear magnetic resonance data and indicate two different time scales, one about 1 ns and a second one in the range of 2–8 ns. We associated the two time scales of reorientational motions with angular distributions of selected vectors. Calculated spectral densities corresponding to lipid and water reveal an overall good qualitative agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. Our simulations indicate a blue-shift of the low frequency spectral bands of hydration water as a result of its interaction

  18. Diffusion and spectroscopy of water and lipids in fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Martí, J., E-mail: jordi.marti@upc.edu [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia-Barcelona Tech, B4-B5 Northern Campus, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Calero, C. [Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia-Barcelona Tech, B4-B5 Northern Campus, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Center for Polymer Studies, Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Microscopic structure and dynamics of water and lipids in a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid lipid bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase have been analyzed with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations based on the recently parameterized CHARMM36 force field. The diffusive dynamics of the membrane lipids and of its hydration water, their reorientational motions as well as their corresponding spectral densities, related to the absorption of radiation, have been considered for the first time using the present force field. In addition, structural properties such as density and pressure profiles, a deuterium-order parameter, surface tension, and the extent of water penetration in the membrane have been analyzed. Molecular self-diffusion, reorientational motions, and spectral densities of atomic species reveal a variety of time scales playing a role in membrane dynamics. The mechanisms of lipid motion strongly depend on the time scale considered, from fast ballistic translation at the scale of picoseconds (effective diffusion coefficients of the order of 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s) to diffusive flow of a few lipids forming nanodomains at the scale of hundreds of nanoseconds (diffusion coefficients of the order of 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s). In the intermediate regime of sub-diffusion, collisions with nearest neighbors prevent the lipids to achieve full diffusion. Lipid reorientations along selected directions agree well with reported nuclear magnetic resonance data and indicate two different time scales, one about 1 ns and a second one in the range of 2–8 ns. We associated the two time scales of reorientational motions with angular distributions of selected vectors. Calculated spectral densities corresponding to lipid and water reveal an overall good qualitative agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. Our simulations indicate a blue-shift of the low frequency spectral bands of hydration water as a result of

  19. Monitoring of caffeine consumption effect on skin blood properties by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanic, Matija; Marin, Ana; Stergar, Jost; Verdel, Nina; Majaron, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world. It affects many tissues and organs, in particular central nervous system, heart, and blood vessels. The effect of caffeine on vascular smooth muscle cells is an initial transient contraction followed by significant vasodilatation. In this study we investigate the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for monitoring of vascular changes in human skin induced by caffeine consumption. DRS spectra were recorded on volar sides of the forearms of ten healthy volunteers at time delays of 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after consumption of caffeine, while one subject served as a negative control. Analytical diffusion approximation solutions for diffuse reflectance from three-layer structures were used to assess skin composition (e.g., dermal blood volume fraction and oxygen saturation) by fitting to experimental data. The results demonstrate that cutaneous vasodynamics induced by caffeine consumption can be monitored by DRS, while changes in the control subject not consuming caffeine were insignificant.

  20. Automated sample preparation station for studying self-diffusion in porous solids with NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Niklas; DeMartin, Gregory J.; Reyes, Sebastián C.

    2006-03-01

    In studies of gas diffusion in porous solids with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy the sample preparation procedure becomes very important. An apparatus is presented here that pretreats the sample ex situ and accurately sets the desired pressure and temperature within the NMR tube prior to its introduction in the spectrometer. The gas manifold that supplies the NMR tube is also connected to a microbalance containing another portion of the same sample, which is kept at the same temperature as the sample in the NMR tube. This arrangement permits the simultaneous measurement of the adsorption loading on the sample, which is required for the interpretation of the NMR diffusion experiments. Furthermore, to ensure a good seal of the NMR tube, a hybrid valve design composed of titanium, a Teflon® seat, and Kalrez® O-rings is utilized. A computer controlled algorithm ensures the accuracy and reproducibility of all the procedures, enabling the NMR diffusion experiments to be performed at well controlled conditions of pressure, temperature, and amount of gas adsorbed on the porous sample.

  1. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  2. Functional imaging and assessment of the glucose diffusion rate in epithelial tissues in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, K V; Tuchin, V V

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging, monitoring and quantitative description of glucose diffusion in epithelial and underlying stromal tissues in vivo and controlling of the optical properties of tissues are extremely important for many biomedical applications including the development of noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensors as well as for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Recent progress in the development of a noninvasive molecular diffusion biosensor based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is described. The diffusion of glucose was studied in several epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Because OCT provides depth-resolved imaging of tissues with high in-depth resolution, the glucose diffusion is described not only as a function of time but also as a function of depth. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  3. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H.; Golovchak, R.; Zurawska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of γ-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge 23.5 Sb 11.8 S 64.7 glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. An instrument for small-animal imaging using time-resolved diffuse and fluorescence optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montcel, Bruno; Poulet, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We describe time-resolved optical methods that use diffuse near-infrared photons to image the optical properties of tissues and their inner fluorescent probe distribution. The assembled scanner uses picosecond laser diodes at 4 wavelengths, an 8-anode photo-multiplier tube and time-correlated single photon counting. Optical absorption and reduced scattering images as well as fluorescence emission images are computed from temporal profiles of diffuse photons. This method should improve the spatial resolution and the quantification of fluorescence signals. We used the diffusion approximation of the radiation transport equation and the finite element method to solve the forward problem. The inverse problem is solved with an optimization algorithm such as ART or conjugate gradient. The scanner and its performances are presented, together with absorption, scattering and fluorescent images obtained with it

  5. Quantitative assessment of diffuse optical tomography sensitivity to the cerebral cortex using a whole-head probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, Katherine L; Diamond, Solomon G; Fang Qianqian

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the variability in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) sensitivity over the cortical surface in eight young adult subjects. We use the 10/5 electroencephalography system as a basis for our whole-head optical high-density probe design. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is calculated along with the percentage of the cortex that is above a CNR = 0 dB threshold. We also quantify the effect of including vasculature on the forward model and list our assumptions that allow us to estimate light penetration depth in the head. We show that using the 10/5 system for the optical probe design allows for the measurement of 37% of the cortical surface on average, with a mean CNR in the visible region of 5.5 dB. Certain anatomical regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, had a very high percentage above the CNR threshold, while other regions such as the cingulate cortex were not measurable. Vasculature blocked optical sensitivity over 1% of the cortex. Cortical coverage was positively correlated with intracranial volume and relative cerebrospinal fluid volume, and negatively correlated with relative scalp volume and skull volume. These contributions allow experimenters to understand how anatomical variation in a subject population may impact DOT or functional near-infrared spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  6. Miniaturized pulsed laser source for time-domain diffuse optics routes to wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sieno, Laura; Nissinen, Jan; Hallman, Lauri; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Contini, Davide; Pifferi, Antonio; Kostamovaara, Juha; Mora, Alberto Dalla

    2017-08-01

    We validate a miniaturized pulsed laser source for use in time-domain (TD) diffuse optics, following rigorous and shared protocols for performance assessment of this class of devices. This compact source (12×6  mm2) has been previously developed for range finding applications and is able to provide short, high energy (∼100  ps, ∼0.5  nJ) optical pulses at up to 1 MHz repetition rate. Here, we start with a basic level laser characterization with an analysis of suitability of this laser for the diffuse optics application. Then, we present a TD optical system using this source and its performances in both recovering optical properties of tissue-mimicking homogeneous phantoms and in detecting localized absorption perturbations. Finally, as a proof of concept of in vivo application, we demonstrate that the system is able to detect hemodynamic changes occurring in the arm of healthy volunteers during a venous occlusion. Squeezing the laser source in a small footprint removes a key technological bottleneck that has hampered so far the realization of a miniaturized TD diffuse optics system, able to compete with already assessed continuous-wave devices in terms of size and cost, but with wider performance potentialities, as demonstrated by research over the last two decades. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. Effects of acetazolamide on the micro- and macro-vascular cerebral hemodynamics: a diffuse optical and transcranial doppler ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2010-11-19

    Acetazolamide (ACZ) was used to stimulate the cerebral vasculature on ten healthy volunteers to assess the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR). We have combined near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) technologies to non-invasively assess CVR in real-time by measuring oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, using NIRS, local cerebral blood flow (CBF), using DCS, and blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the middle cerebral artery, using TCD. Robust and persistent increases in oxy-hemoglobin concentration, CBF and CBFV were observed. A significant agreement was found between macro-vascular (TCD) and micro-vascular (DCS) hemodynamics, between the NIRS and TCD data, and also within NIRS and DCS results. The relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, rCMRO(2), was also determined, and no significant change was observed. Our results showed that the combined diffuse optics-ultrasound technique is viable to follow (CVR) and rCMRO(2) changes in adults, continuously, at the bed-side and in real time.

  8. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  9. Pseudodynamic systems approach based on a quadratic approximation of update equations for diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samir Kumar; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Roy, Debasish

    2011-08-01

    We explore a pseudodynamic form of the quadratic parameter update equation for diffuse optical tomographic reconstruction from noisy data. A few explicit and implicit strategies for obtaining the parameter updates via a semianalytical integration of the pseudodynamic equations are proposed. Despite the ill-posedness of the inverse problem associated with diffuse optical tomography, adoption of the quadratic update scheme combined with the pseudotime integration appears not only to yield higher convergence, but also a muted sensitivity to the regularization parameters, which include the pseudotime step size for integration. These observations are validated through reconstructions with both numerically generated and experimentally acquired data.

  10. Design of differential optical absorption spectroscopy long-path telescopes based on fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, André; Tschritter, Jens; Platt, Ulrich

    2011-02-10

    We present a new design principle of telescopes for use in the spectral investigation of the atmosphere and the detection of atmospheric trace gases with the long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A combination of emitting and receiving fibers in a single bundle replaces the commonly used coaxial-Newton-type combination of receiving and transmitting telescope. This very simplified setup offers a higher light throughput and simpler adjustment and allows smaller instruments, which are easier to handle and more portable. The higher transmittance was verified by ray-tracing calculations, which result in a theoretical factor threefold improvement in signal intensity compared with the old setup. In practice, due to the easier alignment and higher stability, up to factor of 10 higher signal intensities were found. In addition, the use of a fiber optic light source provides a better spectral characterization of the light source, which results in a lower detection limit for trace gases studied with this instrument. This new design will greatly enhance the usability and the range of applications of active DOAS instruments.

  11. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn diffusion-doped CdS thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksu, S. [SoloPower, Inc., 5981 Optical Ct., San Jose, CA 95138 (United States); Bacaksiz, E., E-mail: eminb@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Parlak, M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, S.; Polat, I.; Altunbas, M. [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuerksoy, M.; Topkaya, R. [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, K. [Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Cadmium sulphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation. {yields} Elemental Mn was deposited onto CdS thin films by using electron beam evaporation and annealed under vacuum at different temperatures. {yields} Structural, optical and magnetic studies of Mn-doped CdS have been investigated. {yields} X-ray diffraction results showed that the undoped CdS film had a zinc-blende structure with a strong preferred orientation along the (1 1 1) direction. {yields} Magnetic measurements show that Mn-doped CdS thin films exhibit a ferromagnetism behavior at room temperature. - Abstract: The effect of Mn-doping on the vacuum deposited CdS thin films has been investigated by studying the changes in the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the films. A thin Mn layer evaporated on the CdS film surface served as the source layer for the diffusion doping. Doping was accomplished by annealing the CdS/Mn stack layers at the temperature range from 300 deg. C to 400 deg. C in step of 50 deg. C for 30 min under vacuum. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the undoped CdS film had a zinc-blende structure with a strong preferred orientation along the (1 1 1) direction. The incorporation of Mn did not cause any change in the texture but reduced the peak intensity and lead to a smaller crystallite size. Investigation of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy confirmed the decrease in the grain size with the Mn diffusion. In addition, a more uniform grain size distribution was observed in the doped films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that Mn atoms on the surface of the films were bounded to either sulphur or oxygen atoms. Auger electron spectroscopy of the diffusion-doped CdS sample at 350 deg. C indicated that the atomic Mn concentration was higher close to the surface region and Mn was distributed with a steadily decreasing profile through the bulk of the film with an average atomic concentration value around few

  12. Fast optical in situ spectroscopy in III-V MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspari, C.

    2007-09-29

    This work describes the application of optical in situ measurement techniques (reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy, RAS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, SE) to processes that are important for the growth of III-V semiconductors like GaAs, InP, InAs and GaP in metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Special emphasis is placed on the determination of the free carrier concentration (doping level) and the study of the thermal desorption properties of III-V oxides. A large part of this work is concerned with the development and the construction of a multichannel RAS setup that allows the recording of RAS spectra within fractions of a second. On the basis of benchmark measurements it was shown that the spectral resolution is sufficiently accurate for application in epitaxy. To demonstrate the recording of spectra with high temporal resolution, RAS monolayer oscillations during growth of GaAs were studied and it was shown that the surface changes periodically between a relatively smooth morphology with adsorbed methyl groups (type III) and a stepped, gallium-rich surface (type II). Furthermore the non-reversible process of growing InAs quantum dots on GaAs was studied. It was shown that the multichannel RAS is capable of detecting the 2D-3D transition as well as the following morphological change of the surface at high temporal resolution. For the measurement of the doping level, the relationship between the doping-induced internal electric field and the anisotropy of the sample was studied. To understand the effect of the so-called doping oscillations, a theoretical model was developed. For the investigation of the thermal desorption of the III-V oxides in MOVPE, a number of test series were realised. It was also found that the formation of the reconstructed surface is finished a considerable time after the SE transient indicates stable conditions (no further reduction of the oxide layer). The activation energy for oxide desorption from InAs, GaAs and InP was

  13. Correlation of optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame

    OpenAIRE

    松山, 新吾; Matsuyama, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the correlation between optical emission and turbulent length scale in a coaxial jet diffusion flame. To simulate the H2O emission from an H2/O2 diffusion flame, radiative transfer is calculated on flame data obtained by numerical simulation. H2O emission characteristics are examined for a one-dimensional opposed-flow diffusion flame. The results indicate that H2O emission intensity is linearly dependent on flame thickness. The simulation of H2O emission is then exte...

  14. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) study of blood flow changes during low level laser therapy (LLLT): a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sagar; Wang, Xinlong; Liu, Hanli; Tian, Fenghua

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation with low-power, high-fluence light in the near-infrared range (600-1100nm), also known as low level laser therapy (LLLT), has been used for promoting healing of wounds, reducing pain, and so on. Understanding its physiological effect is essential for treatment optimization and evaluation. In this study, we used diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to investigate the changes of regional blood flow in skeletal muscle induced by a single session of LLLT. DCS is an emerging optical modality to probe microvascular blood flow in human tissues in vivo. We have developed a software-based autocorrelator system with the benefits such as flexibility in raw photon count data processing, portability and low cost. LLLT was administered at the human forearm with a 1064-nm, continuous-wave laser. The emitting power was 3.4 W in an area of 13.6 cm2, corresponding to 0.25W/cm2 irradiance. The emitting duration was 10 minutes. Eight healthy adults of any ethnic background, in an age range of 18-40 years old were included. The results indicate that LLLT causes reliable changes in regional blood flow. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are physiological or attributed to the heating effect of the stimulation laser.

  15. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) of radiation-induced re-oxygenation in sensitive and resistant head and neck tumor xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Sina; Rodríguez Troncoso, Joel; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Currently, anatomical assessment of tumor volume performed several weeks after completion of treatment is the clinical standard to determine whether a cancer patient has responded to a treatment. However, functional changes within the tumor could potentially provide information regarding treatment resistance or response much earlier than anatomical changes. We have used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to assess the short and long-term re-oxygenation kinetics of a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in response to radiation therapy. First, we injected UM-SCC-22B cell line into the flank of 50 mice to grow xenografts. Once the tumor volume reached 200 mm3 (designated as Day 1), the mice were distributed into radiation and control groups. Members of radiation group underwent a clinical dose of radiation of 2 Gy/day on Days 1, 4, 7, and 10 for a cumulative dose of 8 Gy. DRS spectra of these tumors were collected for 14 days during and after therapy, and the collected spectra of each tumor were converted to its optical properties using a lookup table-base inverse model. We found statistically significant differences in tumor growth rate between two groups which is in indication of the sensitivity of this cell line to radiation. We further acquired significantly different contents of hemoglobin and scattering magnitude and size in two groups. The scattering has previously been associated with necrosis. We furthermore found significantly different time-dependent changes in vascular oxygenation and tumor hemoglobin concentration in post-radiation days.

  16. Intracranial metastatic mucinous adrenocarcinoma with characteristic features on diffusion-weighted imaging and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruprasad, Ashwathnarayan S.; Chandrashekar, Hoskote S.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Srikanth, Subbamma G.; Shankar, Susarla K.

    2004-01-01

    Intracranial abscesses and metastases are common lesions that might not be differentiated on routine MR I alone. In vivo proton spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging have been used as complementary investigations for improved tissue characterization. In the present report we illustrate the role of mucin and its contribution to signal characteristics on diffusion-weighted imaging in a metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  17. Electrical and optical spectroscopy for quantitative screening of hepatic steatosis in donor livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B L; Wilkinson, T D; Robertson, P A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 OFA (United Kingdom); Wells, A C; Watson, C J E [University Department of Surgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Box 202, Level 9, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 OCQ (United Kingdom); Virtue, S; Vidal-Puig, A, E-mail: mclaugb@gmail.co [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QR (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-21

    Macro-steatosis in deceased donor livers is increasingly prevalent and is associated with poor or non-function of the liver upon reperfusion. Current assessment of the extent of steatosis depends upon the macroscopic assessment of the liver by the surgeon and histological examination, if available. In this paper we demonstrate electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques which quantitatively characterize fatty infiltration in liver tissue. Optical spectroscopy showed a correlation coefficient of 0.85 in humans when referenced to clinical hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) sections in 20 human samples. With further development, an optical probe may provide a comprehensive measure of steatosis across the liver at the time of procurement.

  18. Evaluation of apparent viscosity of Para rubber latex by diffuse reflection near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisomboon, Panmanas; Chowbankrang, Rawiphan; Williams, Phil

    2012-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflection mode was used to evaluate the apparent viscosity of Para rubber field latex and concentrated latex over the wavelength range of 1100 to 2500 nm, using partial least square regression (PLSR). The model with ten principal components (PCs) developed using the raw spectra accurately predicted the apparent viscosity with correlation coefficient (r), standard error of prediction (SEP), and bias of 0.974, 8.6 cP, and -0.4 cP, respectively. The ratio of the SEP to the standard deviation (RPD) and the ratio of the SEP to the range (RER) for the prediction were 4.4 and 16.7, respectively. Therefore, the model can be used for measurement of the apparent viscosity of field latex and concentrated latex in quality assurance and process control in the factory.

  19. Experimental analysis of bruises in human volunteers using radiometric depth profiling and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2015-07-01

    We combine pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) depth profiling with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements for a comprehensive analysis of bruise evolution in vivo. While PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin), DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths and thus offers an additional insight into dynamics of the hemoglobin degradation products. Combining the two approaches enables us to quantitatively characterize bruise evolution dynamics. Our results indicate temporal variations of the bruise evolution parameters in the course of bruise self-healing process. The obtained parameter values and trends represent a basis for a future development of an objective technique for bruise age determination.

  20. Analysis of hemodynamics in human skin using photothermal radiometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nina; Marin, Ana; Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris

    2017-07-01

    We present a novel methodology for quantitative analysis of hemodynamics in human skin in vivo. Our approach combines pulsed photothermal radiometry (i.e., time-resolved measurements of midinfrared emission from sample surface after exposure to a short light pulse) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible part of the spectrum. Experimental data are fitted with predictions of a numerical model of light transport in a four-layer skin model (i.e., inverse Monte Carlo), which allows assessment of the layer thicknesses, chromophore contents (e.g., melanin, oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin), as well as scattering properties. The performance is tested in comparison analysis of healthy skin before and during application of a blood pressure cuff (at 200 mm Hg) for 5 minutes.

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanya, K.S.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Jayakumar, P.N.; Ravishankar, S.; Kamble, R.B.; Panicker, J.; Nagaraja, D.

    2007-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic illness characterized by multiple lesions involving gray and white matter. Quantitative MR techniques were used to characterize and stage these lesions. Eight patients (seven males and one female; mean age 19 years, range 5 to 36 years) were studied using conventional MRI (T2- and T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRS ratios were calculated for the lesion and for normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Three patients were imaged in the acute stage (within 7 days of the onset of neurological symptoms) and five in the subacute stage (after 7 days from the onset of symptoms). ADC values in NAWM were in the range 0.7-1.24 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 0.937 ± 0.17 mm/s 2 ). ADC values of ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.37-0.68 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 0.56 ± 0.16 mm/s 2 ) and 1.01-1.31 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 (mean 1.24 ± 0.13 mm/s 2 ) in the subacute stage. MRS ratios were obtained for all patients. NAA/Cho ratios were in the range 1.1-3.5 (mean 1.93 ± 0.86) in the NAWM. NAA/Cho ratios within ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.63-1.48 (mean 1.18 ± 0.48) and 0.29-0.84 (mean 0.49 ± 0.22) in the subacute stage. The ADC values, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the acute and subacute stages (P < 0.001, P < 0.027, P < 0.047, respectively). ADC values were significantly different between lesions in the acute (P < 0.009) and subacute stages (P < 0.005) with NAWM. In addition, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the subacute stage and NAWM (P < 0.006, P < 0.007, respectively). ADEM lesions were characterized in the acute stage by restricted diffusion and in the subacute stage by free diffusion and a decrease in NAA/Cho ratios. Restricted diffusion and progressive decrease in NAA

  2. Diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the characterization of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, K.S.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Jayakumar, P.N.; Ravishankar, S.; Kamble, R.B. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panicker, J.; Nagaraja, D. [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore (India)

    2007-02-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is usually a monophasic illness characterized by multiple lesions involving gray and white matter. Quantitative MR techniques were used to characterize and stage these lesions. Eight patients (seven males and one female; mean age 19 years, range 5 to 36 years) were studied using conventional MRI (T2- and T1-weighted and FLAIR sequences), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRS ratios were calculated for the lesion and for normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Three patients were imaged in the acute stage (within 7 days of the onset of neurological symptoms) and five in the subacute stage (after 7 days from the onset of symptoms). ADC values in NAWM were in the range 0.7-1.24 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.937 {+-} 0.17 mm/s{sup 2}). ADC values of ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.37-0.68 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 0.56 {+-} 0.16 mm/s{sup 2}) and 1.01-1.31 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2} (mean 1.24 {+-} 0.13 mm/s{sup 2}) in the subacute stage. MRS ratios were obtained for all patients. NAA/Cho ratios were in the range 1.1-3.5 (mean 1.93 {+-} 0.86) in the NAWM. NAA/Cho ratios within ADEM lesions in the acute stage were in the range 0.63-1.48 (mean 1.18 {+-} 0.48) and 0.29-0.84 (mean 0.49 {+-} 0.22) in the subacute stage. The ADC values, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the acute and subacute stages (P < 0.001, P < 0.027, P < 0.047, respectively). ADC values were significantly different between lesions in the acute (P < 0.009) and subacute stages (P < 0.005) with NAWM. In addition, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios were significantly different between lesions in the subacute stage and NAWM (P < 0.006, P < 0.007, respectively). ADEM lesions were characterized in the acute stage by restricted diffusion and in the subacute stage by free diffusion and a decrease in NAA/Cho ratios

  3. Application of diffusion ordered-1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify sucrose in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ruge; Nonaka, Airi; Komura, Fusae; Matsui, Toshiro

    2015-03-15

    This work focuses on a quantitative analysis of sucrose using diffusion ordered-quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY-qNMR), where an analyte can be isolated from interference based on its characteristic diffusion coefficient (D) in gradient magnetic fields. The D value of sucrose in deuterium oxide at 30°C was 4.9 × 10(-10)m(2)/s at field gradient pulse from 5.0 × 10(-2) to 3.0 × 10(-1)T/m, separated from other carbohydrates (glucose and fructose). Good linearity (r(2)=0.9999) was obtained between sucrose (0.5-20.0 g/L) and the resonance area of target glucopyranosyl-α-C1 proton normalised to that of cellobiose C1 proton (100.0 g/L, as an internal standard) in 1D sliced DOSY spectrum. The DOSY-qNMR method was successfully applied to quantify sucrose in orange juice (36.1 ± 0.5 g/L), pineapple juice (53.5 ± 1.1g/L) and a sports drink (24.7 ± 0.6g/L), in good agreement with the results obtained by an F-kit method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffusive, Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Defects in Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Wagner, F E

    2002-01-01

    Electronic properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to defects and impurities that have localized electronic states with energy levels in the band gap of the semiconductor. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), or Hall effect, that are able to detect and characterize band gap states do not reveal direct information about their microscopic origin. To overcome this chemical "blindness", the present approach is to use radioactive isotopes as a tracer. Moreover, the recoil energies involved in $\\beta$ and $\\gamma$-decays can be used to create intrinsic isolated point defects (interstitials, vacancies) in a controlled way. A microscopic insight into the structure and the thermodynamic properties of complexes formed by interacting defects can be gained by detecting the hyperfine interaction between the nuclear moments of radioactive dopants and the electromagnetic fields present at the site of the radioactive nucleus. The understanding and the co...

  5. Detection of Photoacoustic Transients Originating from Microstructures in Optically Diffuse Media such as Biological Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoelen, C.G.A.; Dekker, Andre; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and detection of broadband photoacoustic (PA) transients may be used for on-axis monitoring or for imaging of optically different structures in the interior of diffuse bodies such as biological tissue. Various piezoelectric sensors are characterized and compared in terms of

  6. Spectroscopie du Furanne et du Thiophene Par Diffusion Inelastique D'electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Said

    Nous avons etudie les molecules de furanne ( rm C_4H_4O) et de thiophene (rm C_4H_4O) au moyen de la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons. Pour (rm C_4H_4O), les spectres realises dans differentes conditions d'energie d'impact et d'angle de diffusion contiennent des singularites ou des families de pics correspondant a: (1) des vibrations de l'etat fondamental dans le domaine 0-0.5 eV, (2) des etats triplets ^3 B_1 et ^3 A_1 qui dominent la region 3-5.5 eV, (3) des etats de valences, entre 5 et 10 eV, dont certains son accompagnes de progressions vibrationnelles, soit ~ A _1B_2, ~ B ^1A_1 et ~ C ^1A_1, (4) toujours entre 5 et 10 eV, deux series de Ryhdberg (rm 1a_2to nda_2 et rm 1a_2to npb_2) qui convergent vers la premiere limite d'ionisation de la molecule, avec une progression vibrationnelle associee au mdoe nu_4 pour la seconde, et une troisieme serie (rm 2b_1to nsa_1 ) convergent vers la seconde limite d'ionisation accompagnee de la progression de mode nu _1. Pour rm C_4H_4S, nos spectres presentent les memes etats de vibration et les memes etats triplets que pour rm C_4H _4O. Nous avons releve egalement, dans la region de 5 a 10 eV, des etats de valence ~ A ^1A_1 (ou ~ A ^1B_2), ~ B ^1A_1 (ou ~ B ^1B _2) et ~ C ^1A_1 (ou ~ C ^1B_2). Pour la premiere fois, par la spectroscopie de diffusion inelastique d'electrons, de nombreux pics ont ete identifies et attribues, dans le cadre de ce travail. Il s'agit, notamment, des etats de vibration de l'etat electronique fondamental de ces molecules et egalement de certains etats de Rydberg dans le cas du furanne.

  7. Sensing vascularization of ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) skin grafts in nude mice using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Gurjar, Rajan; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fasi, Anthony; Kim, Roderick; Riccardi, Suzannah; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Wolf, David E.

    2014-03-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects of the lips as seen in complex maxillofacial injuries, requires pre-vascularized multi-tissue composite grafts. Protocols for fabrication of human ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOME) composed of epithelial cells and a dermal equivalent are available to create prelaminated flaps for grafting in patients. However, invivo assessment of neovascularization of the buried prelaminated flaps remains clinically challenging. Here, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to non-invasively quantify longitudinal changes in the vessel density and blood-flow within EVPOME grafts implanted in the backs of SCID mice and subsequently to determine the utility of these optical techniques for assessing vascularization of implanted grafts. 20 animals were implanted with EVPOME grafts (1x1x0.05 cm3) in their backs. DRS and DCS measurements were obtained from each animal both atop the graft site and far away from the graft site, at one week post-implantation, each week, for four consecutive weeks. DRS spectra were analyzed using an inverse Monte Carlo model to extract tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, which were then used to extract blood flow information by fitting the experimental DCS traces. There were clear differences in the mean optical parameters (averaged across all mice) at the graft site vs. the off-site measurements. Both the total hemoglobin concentration (from DRS) and the relative blood flow (from DCS) peaked at week 3 at the graft site and declined to the off-site values by week 4. The optical parameters remained relatively constant throughout 4 weeks for the off-site measurements.

  8. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  9. Interference-free optical detection for Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David G (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor); Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) that utilizes a frame-transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor operating in a subframe burst gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics is disclosed. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 .mu.s), without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally-polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures time-resolved vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

  10. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  11. Improvement of direct determination of trace nickel in environmental samples by diffuse reflection spectroscopy using chromaticity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, N I; Ivanov, V M

    2000-05-01

    Cellulose and chromaton-N-super as solid supports for direct determination of the immobilized nickel complexes with dimethylglyoxime and benzyldioxime by diffuse reflection spectroscopy were compared. The advantage of chromaton-N-super with use of benzyldioxime is shown. Detection limit is 0.02 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of soil.

  12. Spectroscopy and Biosensing with Optically Resonant Dielectric Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnok, Alex; Caldarola, Martin; Bonod, Nicolas; Alú, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Resonant dielectric nanoparticles (RDNs) made of materials with large positive dielectric permittivity, such as Si, GaP, GaAs, have become a powerful platform for modern light science, enabling various fascinating applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. In addition to light localization at the nanoscale, dielectric nanostructures provide electric and magnetic resonant responses throughout the visible and infrared spectrum, low dissipative losses and optical heating, low doping effec...

  13. Thermal transport of carbon nanotubes and graphene under optical and electrical heating measured by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, I.-Kai

    This thesis presents systematic studies of thermal transport in individual single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene by optical and electrical approaches using Raman spectroscopy. In the work presented from Chapter 2 to Chapter 6, individual suspended CNTs are preferentially measured in order to explore their intrinsic thermal properties. Moreover, the Raman thermometry is developed to detect the temperature of the carbon nanotube (CNT). A parabolic temperature profile is observed in the suspended region of the CNT while a heating laser scans across it, providing a direct evidence of diffusive thermal transport in an individual suspended CNT. Based on the curvature of the temperature profile, we can solve for the ratio of thermal contact resistance to the thermal resistance of the CNT, which spans the range from 0.02 to 17. The influence of thermal contact resistance on the thermal transport in an individual suspended CNT is also studied. The Raman thermometry is carried out in the center of a CNT, while its contact length is successively shortened by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip cutting technique. By investigating the dependence of the CNT temperature on its thermal contact length, the temperature of a CNT is found to increase dramatically as the contact length is made shorter. This work reveals the importance of manipulating the CNT thermal contact length when adopting CNT as a thermal management material. In using a focused laser to induce heating in a suspended CNT, one open question that remains unanswered is how many of the incident photons are absorbed by the CNT of interest. To address this question, micro-fabricated platinum thermometers, together with micro-Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the optical absorption of an individual CNT. The absorbed power in the CNT is equal to the power detected by two thermometers at the end of the CNT. Our result shows that the optical absorption lies in the range between 0.03 to 0.44%. In

  14. Optical spectroscopy techniques can accurately distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couapel, Jean-Philippe; Senhadji, Lotfi; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verhoest, Grégory; Lavastre, Olivier; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Bensalah, Karim

    2013-05-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: There is little known about optical spectroscopy techniques ability to evaluate renal tumours. This study shows for the first time the ability of Raman and optical reflectance spectroscopy to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours in an ex vivo environment. We plan to develop this optical assistance in the operating room in the near future. To evaluate the ability of Raman spectroscopy (RS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) to distinguish benign and malignant renal tumours at surgery. Between March and October 2011, RS and ORS spectra were prospectively acquired on surgical renal specimens removed for suspicion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Optical measurements were done immediately after surgery. Optical signals were normalised to ensure comparison between spectra. Initial and final portions of each spectrum were removed to avoid artefacts. A support vector machine (SVM) was built and tested using a leave-one-out cross-validation. Classification scores, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were calculated on the entire population and in patients with tumours of 700 optical spectra were obtained and submitted to SVM classification. The SVM could recognise benign and malignant renal tumours with an accuracy of 96% (RS) and 88% (ORS) in the whole population and with an accuracy of 93% (RS) and 95% (ORS) in the present subset of small renal tumours (Benign and malignant renal tumours can be accurately discriminated by a combination of RS and ORS. In vivo experiments are needed to further assess the value of optical spectroscopy techniques. © 2012 BJU International.

  15. Microcirculation assessment using an individualized model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and conventional laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Tomas; Karlsson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Larsson, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Microvascular assessment would benefit from co-registration of blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation dynamics during stimulus response tests. We used a fiber-optic probe for simultaneous recording of white light diffuse reflectance (DRS; 475-850 nm) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF; 780 nm) spectra at two source-detector distances (0.4 and 1.2 mm). An inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, based on a multiparameter three-layer adaptive skin model, was used for analyzing DRS data. LDF spectra were conventionally processed for perfusion. The system was evaluated on volar forearm recordings of 33 healthy subjects during a 5-min systolic occlusion protocol. The calibration scheme and the optimal adaptive skin model fitted DRS spectra at both distances within 10%. During occlusion, perfusion decreased within 5 s while oxygenation decreased slowly (mean time constant 61 s dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin). After occlusion release, perfusion and oxygenation increased within 3 s (inflow of oxygenized blood). The increased perfusion was due to increased blood tissue fraction and speed. The supranormal hemoglobin oxygenation indicates a blood flow in excess of metabolic demands. In conclusion, by integrating DRS and LDF in a fiber-optic probe, a powerful tool for assessment of blood flow and oxygenation in the same microvascular bed has been presented.

  16. Force-detected nanoscale absorption spectroscopy in water at room temperature using an optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, Alexander; Black, Jacob W.; Kamenetska, Maria; Ganim, Ziad

    2018-04-01

    Measuring absorption spectra of single molecules presents a fundamental challenge for standard transmission-based instruments because of the inherently low signal relative to the large background of the excitation source. Here we demonstrate a new approach for performing absorption spectroscopy in solution using a force measurement to read out optical excitation at the nanoscale. The photoinduced force between model chromophores and an optically trapped gold nanoshell has been measured in water at room temperature. This photoinduced force is characterized as a function of wavelength to yield the force spectrum, which is shown to be correlated to the absorption spectrum for four model systems. The instrument constructed for these measurements combines an optical tweezer with frequency domain absorption spectroscopy over the 400-800 nm range. These measurements provide proof-of-principle experiments for force-detected nanoscale spectroscopies that operate under ambient chemical conditions.

  17. Dynamic terahertz spectroscopy of gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosol under atmospheric pressure using fibre-based asynchronous-optical-sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Nakamura, Shota; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a promising method for analysing polar gas molecules mixed with unwanted aerosols due to its ability to obtain spectral fingerprints of rotational transition and immunity to aerosol scattering. In this article, dynamic THz spectroscopy of acetonitrile (CH3CN) gas was performed in the presence of smoke under the atmospheric pressure using a fibre-based, asynchronous-optical-sampling THz time-domain spectrometer. To match THz spectral signatures of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure, the spectral resolution was optimized to 1 GHz with a measurement rate of 1 Hz. The spectral overlapping of closely packed absorption lines significantly boosted the detection limit to 200 ppm when considering all the spectral contributions of the numerous absorption lines from 0.2 THz to 1 THz. Temporal changes of the CH3CN gas concentration were monitored under the smoky condition at the atmospheric pressure during volatilization of CH3CN droplets and the following diffusion of the volatilized CH3CN gas without the influence of scattering or absorption by the smoke. This system will be a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of target gases in practical applications of gas analysis in the atmospheric pressure, such as combustion processes or fire accident.

  18. Evaluating contextual processing in diffusion MRI: application to optic radiation reconstruction for epilepsy surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal M W Tax

    Full Text Available Diffusion MRI and tractography allow for investigation of the architectural configuration of white matter in vivo, offering new avenues for applications like presurgical planning. Despite the promising outlook, there are many pitfalls that complicate its use for (clinical application. Amongst these are inaccuracies in the geometry of the diffusion profiles on which tractography is based, and poor alignment with neighboring profiles. Recently developed contextual processing techniques, including enhancement and well-posed geometric sharpening, have shown to result in sharper and better aligned diffusion profiles. However, the research that has been conducted up to now is mainly of theoretical nature, and so far these techniques have only been evaluated by visual inspection of the diffusion profiles. In this work, the method is evaluated in a clinically relevant application: the reconstruction of the optic radiation for epilepsy surgery. For this evaluation we have developed a framework in which we incorporate a novel scoring procedure for individual pathways. We demonstrate that, using enhancement and sharpening, the extraction of an anatomically plausible reconstruction of the optic radiation from a large amount of probabilistic pathways is greatly improved in three healthy controls, where currently used methods fail to do so. Furthermore, challenging reconstructions of the optic radiation in three epilepsy surgery candidates with extensive brain lesions demonstrate that it is beneficial to integrate these methods in surgical planning.

  19. Asymptotic solutions of numerical transport problems in optically thick, diffusive regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.W.; Morel, J.E.; Miller, W.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    We present an asymptotic analysis of spatial differencing schemes for the discrete-ordinates equations, for diffusive media with spatial cells that are not optically thin. Our theoretical tool is an asymptotic expansion that has previously been used to describe the transform from analytic transport to analytic diffusion theory for such media. To introduce this expansion and its physical rationale, we first describe it for the analytic discrete-ordinates equations. Then, we apply the expansion to the spatially discretized discrete-ordinates equations, with the spatial mesh scaled in either of two physically relevant ways such that the optical thickness of the spatial cells is not small. If the result of either expansion is a legitimate diffusion description for either the cell-averaged or cell-edge fluxes, then we say that the approximate flux has the appropriate diffusion limit; otherwise, we say it does not. We consider several transport differencing schemes that are applicable in neutron transport and thermal radiation applications. We also include numerical results which demonstrate the validity of our theory and show that differencing schemes that do have a particular diffusion limit are substantially more accurate, in the regime described by the limit, than those that do not. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  20. Measurements of the Fe3+ diffusion coefficient in Fricke Xylenol gel using optical density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonato de Oliveira, Lucas; Sampaio, Francisco Glaildo Almeida; Moreira, Marcos Vasques; Almeida, Adelaide de

    2014-01-01

    In Fricke dosimetry, optical density measurements are performed some time after dosimeter irradiation. Values of the diffusion coefficient of Fe 3+ in Fricke Xylenol gel (FXG) are necessary for determining the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose from measurements of the optical density. Five sets of FXG dosimeters, kept at different constant temperatures, were exposed to collimated 6 MV photons. The optical density profile, proportional to the Fe 3+ concentration, at the boundary between irradiated and non-irradiated parts of each dosimeter was measured periodically over a period of 60 h. By comparing the experimental data with a function that accounts for the unobserved initial concentration profile of Fe 3+ in the FXG, we obtained diffusion coefficients 0.30±0.05, 0.40±0.05, 0.50±0.05, 0.60±0.05 and 0.80±0.05 mm 2 /h for the temperatures 283.0±0.5, 286.0±0.5, 289.0±0.5, 292.0±0.5, and 296.0±0.5 K, respectively. The activation energy of Fe 3+ diffusion in the gel, 0.54±0.06 eV, was determined from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficients. - Highlights: • A new analytical method to determine diffusion coefficients of ions in gels is proposed. • The method is applied for measurements of the diffusion coefficients of Fe 3+ ions in a Fricke gel dosimeter. • Activation energy of the Fe 3+ ions in the gel was found to be 0.54 ±0.06 eV

  1. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2017-10-01

    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification.

  2. Differentiation of intracranial tuberculomas and high grade gliomas using proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Juan, E-mail: pengjuan1209@126.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ouyang, Yu, E-mail: 1957ouyangyu@sina.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Fang, Wei-Dong, E-mail: fwd9707@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Luo, Tian-You, E-mail: ltychy@sina.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Yong-Mei, E-mail: lymzhang70@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lv, Fa-Jin, E-mail: fajinlv@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Wei, E-mail: jintianzzw@163.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Xin-You, E-mail: lixinyou666@163.com [Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether proton MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging can be used to differentiate intracranial tuberculomas from high grade gliomas (HGGs). Materials and methods: A total of 41 patients (19 with intracranial tuberculomas and 22 with HGGs) were examined in our study. {sup 1}H MRS and DW imaging were performed at a 1.5T MR scanner before operation or treatment. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and lipid and lactate (LL) in the contrast-enhancing rim of each lesion were expressed as metabolite ratios and were normalized to the contralateral hemisphere. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was also calculated. The metabolite ratios and ADC values in the enhancing rim of intracranial tuberculomas and HGGs were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Significant differences were found in the maximum Cho/Cr (P = 0.015), Cho/NAA (P = 0.001) and Cho/Cho-n ratios (P = 0.002), and minimum ADC value (P < 0.001) between the intracranial tuberculomas and HGGs. Diagnostic accuracy was higher by minimum ADC value than maximum Cho/Cr, Cho/NAA and Cho/Cho-n ratios (93.8% versus 75.7%, 80.8% and 78.1%). Conclusion: These results suggest a promising role for {sup 1}H MRS and DW imaging in the differentiation between the intracranial tuberculomas and HGGs.

  3. a Study of the Concentration Dependence of Macromolecular Diffusion Using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Robert Lloyd

    The dynamic light scattering technique of photon correlation spectroscopy has been used to investigate the dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficient of a macromolecular system upon concentration. The first part of the research was devoted to the design and construction of a single-clipping autocorrelator based on newly-developed integrated circuits. The resulting 128 channel instrument can perform real time autocorrelation for sample time intervals >(, )10 (mu)s, and batch processed autocorrelation for intervals down to 3 (mu)s. An improved design for a newer, all-digital autocorrelator is given. Homodyne light scattering experiments were then undertaken on monodisperse solutions of polystyrene spheres. The single-mode TEM(,oo) beam of an argon-ion laser ((lamda) = 5145 (ANGSTROM)) was used as the light source; all solutions were studied at room temperature. The scattering angle was varied from 30(DEGREES) to 110(DEGREES). Excellent agreement with the manufacturer's specification for the particle size was obtained from the photon correlation studies. Finally, aqueous solutions of the globular protein ovalbumin, ranging in concentration from 18.9 to 244.3 mg/ml, were illuminated under the same conditions of temperature and wavelength as before; the homodyne scattered light was detected at a fixed scattering angle of 30(DEGREES). The single-clipped photocount autocorrelation function was analyzed using the homodyne exponential integral method of Meneely et al. The resulting diffusion coefficients showed a general linear dependence upon concentration, as predicted by the generalized Stokes-Einstein equation. However, a clear peak in the data was evident at c (TURNEQ) 100 mg/ml, which could not be explained on the basis of a non -interacting particle theory. A semi-quantitative approach based on the Debye-Huckel theory of electrostatic interactions is suggested as the probable cause for the peak's rise, and an excluded volume effect for its decline.

  4. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  5. Simultaneous estimation of transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishidate, Izumi; Abdul, Wares MD.; Ohtsu, Mizuki; Nakano, Kazuya; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    We propose a method to estimate transcutaneous bilirubin, hemoglobin, and melanin based on the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. In the proposed method, the Monte Carlo simulation-based multiple regression analysis for an absorbance spectrum in the visible wavelength region (460-590 nm) is used to specify the concentrations of bilirubin (Cbil), oxygenated hemoglobin (Coh), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Cdh), and melanin (Cm). Using the absorbance spectrum calculated from the measured diffuse reflectance spectrum as a response variable and the extinction coefficients of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, as predictor variables, multiple regression analysis provides regression coefficients. Concentrations of bilirubin, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and melanin, are then determined from the regression coefficients using conversion vectors that are numerically deduced in advance by the Monte Carlo simulations for light transport in skin. Total hemoglobin concentration (Cth) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) are simply calculated from the oxygenated hemoglobin and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In vivo animal experiments with bile duct ligation in rats demonstrated that the estimated Cbil is increased after ligation of bile duct and reaches to around 20 mg/dl at 72 h after the onset of the ligation, which corresponds to the reference value of Cbil measured by a commercially available transcutaneous bilirubin meter. We also performed in vivo experiments with rats while varying the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Coh and Cdh decreased and increased, respectively, as FiO2 decreased. Consequently, StO2 was dramatically decreased. The results in this study indicate potential of the method for simultaneous evaluation of multiple chromophores in skin tissue.

  6. Single- and Multivoxel Proton Spectroscopy in Pediatric Patients With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen-Smith, Emilie A. [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Venzon, David J. [Biostatistics and Data Management Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bent, Robyn S. [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Hipp, Sean J. [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Warren, Katherine E., E-mail: warrenk@mail.nih.gov [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of two magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques for treating pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and to evaluate the relationship of metabolic profiles determined by each technique. Utility of each technique for improving patient management is also discussed. Methods and Materials: Children with DIPG (n = 36) were evaluated using single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) during the same imaging session. Patients were followed longitudinally (n = 150 total studies). Technical feasibility was defined by sufficient water and lipid suppression for detection of metabolites. Correlation of metabolic data obtained by SVS and MRSI was determined using the Spearman rank method. Metabolite ratios, including choline:N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho:NAA) and Cho:creatine (Cho:Cr), were obtained from SVS and MRSI. Results: SVS and MRSI acquisitions were feasible in >90% of studies. Maximum Cho:NAA and Cho:Cr from MRSI analysis were strongly associated with Cho:NAA and Cho:Cr obtained by SVS (r = 0.67 and 0.76, respectively). MRSI Cho:NAA values were more heterogeneous than Cho:Cr values within the same lesion, and a strong linear relationship between the range and maximum Cho:NAA values was observed. Conclusions: SVS and MRSI acquisitions were feasible, with a strong correlation in metabolic data. Both techniques may improve diagnostic evaluation and management of DIPG. SVS is recommended for global assessment of tumor metabolism before and after therapy. MRSI showed heterogeneous patterns of metabolic activity within these tumors and is recommended for planning and monitoring targeted therapies and evaluating nearby tissue for tumor invasion.

  7. Spectroscopy of Molecules in Extreme Rotational States Using AN Optical Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Amy S.; Toro, Carlos; Echibiri, Geraldine; Liu, Qingnan

    2012-06-01

    Our lab has developed a high-power optical centrifuge that is capable of trapping and spinning large number densities of molecules into extreme rotational states. By coupling this device with high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy, we measure the time-resolved behavior and energy profiles of individual ro-vibrational states of molecules in very high rotational states. Recent results will be discussed on the spectroscopy of new rotational states, collisional dynamics in the optical centrifuge, spatially-dependent energy profiles and possibilities for new chemistry induced by centrifugal forces.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of optical properties in CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajić J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of CdS thin films were investigated applying atomic force microscopy (AFM and Raman spectroscopy. CdS thin films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique under base pressure 2 x 10-5 torr. The quality of these films was investigated by AFM spectroscopy. We apply Raman scattering to investigate optical properties of CdS thin films, and reveal existence of surface optical phonon (SOP mode at 297 cm-1. Effective permittivity of mixture were modeled by Maxwell - Garnet approximation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45003

  9. Optical spectroscopy for the detection of ischemic tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Fitzgerald, Jason [Sacramento, CA; Troppmann, Christoph [Sacramento, CA; Michalopoulou, Andromachi [Athens, GR

    2009-09-08

    An optical method and apparatus is utilized to quantify ischemic tissue and/or organ injury. Such a method and apparatus is non-invasive, non-traumatic, portable, and can make measurements in a matter of seconds. Moreover, such a method and apparatus can be realized through optical fiber probes, making it possible to take measurements of target organs deep within a patient's body. Such a technology provides a means of detecting and quantifying tissue injury in its early stages, before it is clinically apparent and before irreversible damage has occurred.

  10. Local Optical Spectroscopies for Subnanometer Spatial Resolution Chemical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    The evanescently coupled photon scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) have special requirements in terms of stability and optical access. We have made substantial improvements to the stability, resolution, and noise floor of our custom-built visible-photon STM, and will translate these advances to our infrared instrument. Double vibration isolation of the STM base with a damping system achieved increased rigidity, giving high tunneling junction stability for long-duration and high-power illumination. Light frequency modulation with an optical chopper and phase-sensitive detection now enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the tunneling junction during irradiation.

  11. Analysis and optimization of a diffuse photon optical tomography of turbid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everitt, David L.; Wei, Sung-po; Zhu, X. D.

    2000-01-01

    In a numerical study, we investigate a diffuse-photon computed tomography of a turbid medium. Using a perturbation approach, we relate through a matrix K a bulk heterogeneous distribution of the optical absorption coefficient μ a that characterizes the heterogeneity in an otherwise homogeneous turbid medium to the diffuse photon flux that emerges from its surface. By studying the condition number (N C ) of the matrix K as a function of illumination-detection schemes and choices of reconstruction grids, we explore strategies that optimize the fidelity and spatial resolution of the computed tomography. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, A R; Narayanan, S; Sprung, M; Su, J-D; Evans-Lutterodt, K; Isakovic, A F; Stein, A

    2010-05-01

    Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

  13. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Golovchak, R. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Zurawska, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of {gamma}-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge{sub 23.5}Sb{sub 11.8}S{sub 64.7} glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic tracts in multiple sclerosis: association with retinal thinning and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Hormuzdiyar H; Smith, Seth A; Ozturk, Arzu; Farrell, Sheena K; Calabresi, Peter A; Reich, Daniel S

    2011-04-01

    Visual disability is common in multiple sclerosis, but its relationship to abnormalities of the optic tracts remains unknown. Because they are only rarely affected by lesions, the optic tracts may represent a good model for assessing the imaging properties of normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging was performed on 34 individuals with multiple sclerosis and 26 healthy volunteers. The optic tracts were reconstructed by tractography, and tract-specific diffusion indices were quantified. In the multiple-sclerosis group, peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer thickness and total macular volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity at 100%, 2.5%, and 1.25% contrast was examined. After adjusting for age and sex, optic-tract mean and perpendicular diffusivity were higher (P=.002) in multiple sclerosis. Lower optic-tract fractional anisotropy was correlated with retinal nerve-fiber-layer thinning (r=.51, P=.003) and total-macular-volume reduction (r=.59, P=.002). However, optic-tract diffusion indices were not specifically correlated with visual acuity or with their counterparts in the optic radiation. Optic-tract diffusion abnormalities are associated with retinal damage, suggesting that both may be related to optic-nerve injury, but do not appear to contribute strongly to visual disability in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. Determination of diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water between 268 and 473 K in a high-pressure capillary optical cell with in situ Raman spectroscopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wanjun; Guo, Huirong; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Li, Lanlan

    2013-01-01

    Accurate values of diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide in water and brine at reservoir conditions are essential to our understanding of transport behavior of carbon dioxide in subsurface pore space. However, the experimental data are limited to conditions at low temperatures and pressures. In this study, diffusive transfer of carbon dioxide in water at pressures up to 45 MPa and temperatures from 268 to 473 K was observed within an optical capillary cell via time-dependent Raman spectroscopy. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least-squares method for the measured variations in carbon dioxide concentration in the cell at various sample positions and time. At the constant pressure of 20 MPa, the measured diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water increase with increasing temperature from 268 to 473 K. The relationship between diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide in water [D(CO2) in m2/s] and temperature (T in K) was derived with Speedy–Angell power-law approach as: D(CO2)=D0[T/Ts-1]m where D0 = 13.942 × 10−9 m2/s, Ts = 227.0 K, and m = 1.7094. At constant temperature, diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in water decrease with pressure increase. However, this pressure effect is rather small (within a few percent).

  16. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...

  17. Raman Spectroscopy with simple optic components; Espectrometria Raman con componentes opticos simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Mario; Cunya, Eduardo; Olivera, Paula [Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2014-07-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is .a high resolution photonics technique that provides chemical and structural information of almost any material, organic or inorganic compound. In this report we describe the implementation of a system based on the principle of Raman scattering, developed to analyze solid samples. The spectrometer integrates an optical bench coupled to an optical fiber and a green laser source of 532 nm. The spectrometer was tested obtaining the Naphthalene and the Yellow 74 Pigment Raman patterns. (authors).

  18. Differential Optical-absorption Spectroscopy (doas) System For Urban Atmospheric-pollution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Edner, H; Ragnarson, P; Spannare, S; Svanberg, Sune

    1993-01-01

    We describe a fully computer-controlled differential optical absorption spectroscopy system for atmospheric air pollution monitoring. A receiving optical telescope can sequentially tune in to light beams from a number of distant high-pressure Xe lamp light sources to cover the area of a medium-sized city. A beam-finding servosystem and automatic gain control permit unattended long-time monitoring. Using an astronomical code, we can also search and track celestial sources. Selected wavelength ...

  19. Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy: characterization using MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, and MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offiah, C. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hall, E. [Department of Neuroradiology, St Bartholomew' s and the London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: curtis.offiah@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk

    2008-02-15

    Aim: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy or 'chasing the dragon syndrome' and, in particular, the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) features. Material and methods: Six patients with a clinical or histopathological diagnosis of heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy were identified and MRI examinations, including DWI and single-voxel MRS, reviewed. Results: Cerebellar white matter was involved in all six cases demonstrating similar symmetrical distribution with sparing of the dentate nuclei. Brain stem signal change was evident in five of the six patients imaged. Supratentorial brain parenchymal involvement, as well as brain stem involvement, correlated anatomically with corticospinal tract distribution. None of the areas of signal abnormality were restricted on DWI. Of those patients subjected to MRS, the areas of parenchymal damage demonstrated reduced N-acetylaspartate, reduced choline, and elevated lactate. Conclusion: Heroin-induced leukoencephalopathy results in characteristic and highly specific signal abnormalities on MRI, which can greatly aid diagnosis. DWI and MRS findings can be explained by known reported neuropathological descriptions in this condition and can be used to support a proposed mechanism for the benefit of current recommended drug treatment regimes.

  20. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Elisabeth J. M.; Snaebjornsson, Petur; de Koning, Susan G. Brouwer; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Aalbers, Arend G. J.; Kok, Niels; Beets, Geerard L.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Kuhlmann, Koert F. D.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal surgery is the standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. To overcome two of the main challenges, the circumferential resection margin and postoperative complications, real-time tissue assessment could be of great benefit during surgery. In this ex vivo study, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to differentiate tumor tissue from healthy surrounding tissues in patients with colorectal neoplasia. DRS spectra were obtained from tumor tissue, healthy colon, or rectal wall and fat tissue, for every patient. Data were randomly divided into training (80%) and test (20%) sets. After spectral band selection, the spectra were classified using a quadratic classifier and a linear support vector machine. Of the 38 included patients, 36 had colorectal cancer and 2 had an adenoma. When the classifiers were applied to the test set, colorectal cancer could be discriminated from healthy tissue with an overall accuracy of 0.95 (±0.03). This study demonstrates the possibility to separate colorectal cancer from healthy surrounding tissue by applying DRS. High classification accuracies were obtained both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. This is a fundamental step toward the development of a tool for real-time in vivo tissue assessment during colorectal surgery.

  1. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250 μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness.

  3. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: Getting the Capillary Refill Test Under One's Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricson, Joakim; Toll John, Rani; Anderson, Chris D; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel

    2017-12-02

    The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physician's finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate. Critics, on the other hand, stress that the lack of standardization in how the test is performed and the highly subjective nature of the naked eye assessment, as well as the test's susceptibility to ambient factors, markedly lowers the clinical value. The aim of the present work is to describe in detail the course of the refill event and to suggest potentially more objective and exact endpoint values for the capillary refill test using diffuse polarization spectroscopy.

  4. Longitudinal, transcranial measurement of functional activation in the rat brain by diffuse correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Igor; Zirak, Peyman; Dragojević, Tanja; Castellvi, Clara; Durduran, Turgut; Justicia, Carles

    2017-10-01

    Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity. We were able to detect changes in CBF in the somatosensory cortex by using a model of electrical forepaw stimulation in rats. The suitability of DCS measurements for longitudinal monitoring was demonstrated by performing multiple sessions with the same animals at different ages (from 6 to 18 months). In addition, functional DCS has been cross-validated by comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the same animals in a subset of the time-points. The overall results obtained with transcutaneous DCS demonstrates that it can be utilized in longitudinal studies safely and reproducibly to locate changes in CBF induced by neural activity in the small animal brain.

  5. Decreased microvascular cerebral blood flow assessed by diffuse correlation spectroscopy after repetitive concussions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Erin M; Miller, Benjamin F; Golinski, Julianne M; Sadeghian, Homa; McAllister, Lauren M; Vangel, Mark; Ayata, Cenk; Meehan, William P; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Whalen, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive concussions are associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction that can be attenuated by increasing the time intervals between concussions; however, biomarkers of the safest rest interval between injuries remain undefined. We hypothesize that deranged cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a candidate biomarker for vulnerability to repetitive concussions. Using a mouse model of human concussion, we examined the effect of single and repetitive concussions on cognition and on an index of CBF (CBFi) measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy. After a single mild concussion, CBFi was reduced by 35±4% at 4 hours (Pconcussions spaced 1 day apart, CBFi was also reduced from preinjury levels 4 hours after each concussion but had returned to preinjury levels by 72 hours after the final concussion. Interestingly, in this repetitive concussion model, lower CBFi values measured both preinjury and 4 hours after the third concussion were associated with worse performance on the Morris water maze assessed 72 hours after the final concussion. We conclude that low CBFi measured either before or early on in the evolution of injury caused by repetitive concussions could be a useful predictor of cognitive outcome.

  6. Algorithm of extraction optics properties from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunill Rodriguez, Margarita; Delgado Atencio, Jose Alberto; Castro Ramos, Jorge; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    There are several methods to obtain the optical parameters of biological tissues from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance. One of them is well-known as Video Reflectometry in which a camera CCD is used as detection and recording system of the lateral distribution of diffuse reflectance Rd(r) when an infinitely narrow light beam impinges on the tissue. In this paper, we present an algorithm that we have developed for the calibration and application of an experimental set-up of Video Reflectometry destined to extract the optical properties of models of biological tissues with optical properties similar to the human skin. The results of evaluation of the accuracy of the algorithm for optical parameters extraction is shown for a set of proofs reflectance curves with known values of these parameters. In the generation of these curves the simulation of measurement errors was also considered. The results show that it is possible to extract the optical properties with an accuracy error of less than 1% for all the proofs curves. (Author)

  7. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. Magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy of noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, L.; Uba, S.; Antonov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) response of the noble metals Cu, Ag, and Au in the joint experimental and ab initio theoretical study is reported. The magneto-optical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectra of the noble-metal films were measured with the high sensitivity in the applied magnetic field of 1.5 T over the photon energy range 0.74-5.8 eV. Complete set of the optical conductivity tensor elements was determined precisely from the MOKE and the optical spectra measured at the same energy points. The importance of the off-diagonal intraband Drude-type transitions is demonstrated explicitly for each noble metal and found to be a substantial contribution to the observed spectra. It is shown that the first-principles calculations using the spin-polarized fully relativistic Dirac linear-muffin-tin-orbital method with the inclusion of correlation effects by GGA+U approach reproduce well the experimental spectra and allow to explain the microscopic origin of the noble metals' magneto-optical response in terms of interband transitions. Although the energy band structures of Cu, Ag, and Au are very similar, there are some distinctive differences in bandwidths and the energy positions of the bands (especially in X and L symmetry points), mainly due to different spin-orbit splitting and differences in the spatial extent of 3 d , 4 d , and 5 d valence wave functions of noble metals. It was found that the small differences in the band positions lead to significant differences in the MO properties of three noble metals. Although the spin-orbit interaction in Au is about six times larger than in Cu, and approximately two times larger than in Ag, the absolute value of Kerr rotation in Au is of the same magnitude as in Cu and one order of magnitude smaller as compared to Ag. The sharp Kerr effect spectral peak in Ag is not due to the electronic interband transitions, but rather to the plasma-edge splitting. The band-by-band decomposition of the Cu, Ag, and Au MO spectra is presented and the

  9. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  10. Changes of Radial Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotopy in the Optic Nerve and Optic Radiation of Glaucoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Engelhorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to evaluate with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI changes of radial diffusivity (RD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the optic nerve (ON and optic radiation (OR in glaucoma and to determine whether changes in RD and FA correlate with disease severity. Therefore, glaucoma patients and controls were examined using 3T. Regions of interest were positioned on RD and FA maps, and mean values were calculated for ON and OR and correlated with optic nerve atrophy and reduced spatial-temporal contrast sensitivity (STCS of the retina. We found, that RD in glaucoma patients was significantly higher in the ON (0.74 ± 0.21 versus 0.58 ± 0.17⋅10−3 mm2 s−1; P0.77. In conclusion, DTI at 3 Tesla allows robust RD and FA measurements in the ON and OR. Hereby, the extent of RD increase and FA decrease in glaucoma correlate with established ophthalmological examinations.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of known and suspected Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Fuller, G.A.; California Univ., Berkeley)

    1985-01-01

    Optical spectra of a number of suspected Herbig-Haro objects are presented. From these, the nature of these nebulosities are determined. Several of the nebulae are of very high density, perhaps due to their extreme youth. Extinctions measured toward DG Tau HH and the L1551 IRS 5 optical jet are in each case substantially less than the stellar values. It is suggested that this phenomenon reflects the existence of appreciably thick circumstellar dust disks around these, and two additional, exciting stars. Shock model diagnostics suggest that the emission lines in these Herbig-Haro nebulae arise in modest velocity shocks with sizable preshock densities in several cases. Radial velocities enable lower limits to be placed on the mass loss rates of those stars that have been detected in the radio continuum. 39 references

  12. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  13. Holography and thermalization in optical pump-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, A.; Craps, B.; Galli, F.; Keränen, V.; Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Zaanen, J.

    2018-04-01

    Using holography, we model experiments in which a 2 +1 D strange metal is pumped by a laser pulse into a highly excited state, after which the time evolution of the optical conductivity is probed. We consider a finite-density state with mildly broken translation invariance and excite it by oscillating electric field pulses. At zero density, the optical conductivity would assume its thermalized value immediately after the pumping has ended. At finite density, pulses with significant dc components give rise to slow exponential relaxation, governed by a vector quasinormal mode. In contrast, for high-frequency pulses the amplitude of the quasinormal mode is strongly suppressed, so that the optical conductivity assumes its thermalized value effectively instantaneously. This surprising prediction may provide a stimulus for taking up the challenge to realize these experiments in the laboratory. Such experiments would test a crucial open question faced by applied holography: are its predictions artifacts of the large N limit or do they enjoy sufficient UV independence to hold at least qualitatively in real-world systems?

  14. A cost-effective LED and photodetector based fast direct 3D diffuse optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Manob Jyoti; Manjappa, Rakesh; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2017-07-01

    A cost-effective and high-speed 3D diffuse optical tomography system using high power LED light sources and silicon photodetectors has been designed and built, that can continuously scan and reconstruct spectroscopic images at a frame rate of 2 fps. The system is experimentally validated with tissue mimicking cylindrical resin phantom having light absorbing inhomogeneities of different size, shape and contrast, and at different locations.

  15. Fiberoptic microneedles: novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Hood, Robert L; Rossmeisl, John H; Grant, David C; Xu, Yong; Robertson, John L; Rylander, Marissa Nichole; Rylander, Christopher G

    2011-11-01

    Photothermal therapies have limited efficacy and application due to the poor penetration depth of light inside tissue. In earlier work, we described the development of novel fiberoptic microneedles to provide a means to mechanically penetrate dermal tissue and deliver light directly into a localized target area.This paper presents an alternate fiberoptic microneedle design with the capability of delivering more diffuse, but therapeutically useful photothermal energy. Laser lipolysis is envisioned as a future clinical application for this design. A novel fiberoptic microneedle was developed using hydrofluoric acid etching of optical fiber to permit diffuse optical delivery. Microneedles etched for 10, 30, and 50 minutes, and an optical fiber control were compared with three techniques. First, red light delivery from the microneedles was evaluated by imaging the reflectance of the light from a white paper.Second, spatial temperature distribution of the paper in response to near-IR light (1,064 nm, 1 W CW) was recorded using infrared thermography. Third, ex vivo adipose tissue response during 1,064 nm, (5 W CW)irradiation was recorded with bright field microscopy. Acid etching exposed a 3 mm length of the fiber core, allowing circumferential delivery of light along this length. Increasing etching time decreased microneedle diameter, resulting in increased uniformity of red and 1,064 nm light delivery along the microneedle axis. For equivalent total energy delivery, thinner microneedles reduced carbonization in the adipose tissue experiments. We developed novel microscale optical diffusers that provided a more homogeneous light distribution from their surfaces, and compared performance to a flat-cleaved fiber, a device currently utilized in clinical practice. These fiberoptic microneedles can potentially enhance clinical laser procedures by providing direct delivery of diffuse light to target chromophores, while minimizing undesirable photothermal damage in adjacent

  16. Diffuse optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics in experimental and clinical neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Núñez, Igor D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the brain using diffuse optical methods has progressed rapidly in the recent years. The possibility of studying the cerebral microvasculature in addition to the portability and low cost of these devices, opens a new door in the study of the cerebral pathophysiologies. In this scenario, the study of the cerebral hemodynamics of ischemic patients might allow neurologists to improve the performance of the early medical treatments and therapies used up to date. In this thesis, I ...

  17. Saturation spectroscopy of an optically opaque argon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Ben; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2018-02-01

    A pure argon (Ar) plasma formed by a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge was analyzed using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy. The expected line shape was a characteristic of sub-Doppler spectra in the presence of velocity-changing collisions, a narrow Lorentzian centered on a Doppler pedestal, but the observed line shapes contain a multi-peak structure, attributed to opacity of the medium. Laser absorption and inter-modulated fluorescence spectroscopy measurements were made to validate opacity as a driving factor of the observed line shapes. Spectral line shapes are further complicated by the spatial dependence of the pump laser, probe laser and of the absorbing medium, as well as the large absorbance of the transition under investigation. A numerical line shape was derived by accounting for the spatial variation of the pump and probe with a saturated line shape obtained from the rate equations for an equivalent two-level system. This simulated line shape shows good qualitative agreement with the trends observed in the data.

  18. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  19. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsenyuk Olga V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  20. Space-Varying Iterative Restoration of Diffuse Optical Tomograms Reconstructed by the Photon Average Trajectories Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Lyubimov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the spatial resolution of diffuse optical tomograms reconstructed by the photon average trajectories (PAT method is substantiated. The PAT method recently presented by us is based on a concept of an average statistical trajectory for transfer of light energy, the photon average trajectory (PAT. The inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography is reduced to a solution of an integral equation with integration along a conditional PAT. As a result, the conventional algorithms of projection computed tomography can be used for fast reconstruction of diffuse optical images. The shortcoming of the PAT method is that it reconstructs the images blurred due to averaging over spatial distributions of photons which form the signal measured by the receiver. To improve the resolution, we apply a spatially variant blur model based on an interpolation of the spatially invariant point spread functions simulated for the different small subregions of the image domain. Two iterative algorithms for solving a system of linear algebraic equations, the conjugate gradient algorithm for least squares problem and the modified residual norm steepest descent algorithm, are used for deblurring. It is shown that a 27% gain in spatial resolution can be obtained.

  1. In-plane spectroscopy with optical fibers and liquid-filled APEX™ glass microcuvettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, William R; Tantawi, Khalid Hasan; Williams, John D; Waddell, Emanuel; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Chemical etching and laser drilling of microstructural glass results in opaque or translucent sidewalls, limiting the optical analysis of glass microfluidic devices to top down or non-planar topologies. These non-planar observation topologies prevent each layer of a multilayered device from being independently optically addressed. However, novel photosensitive glass processing techniques in APEX™ have resulted in microfabricated glass structures with transparent sidewalls. Toward the goal of a transparent multilayered glass microfluidic device, this study demonstrates the ability to perform spectroscopy with optical fibers and microcuvettes fabricated in photosensitive APEX™ glass. (technical note)

  2. Communication: atomic force detection of single-molecule nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Prasoon; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-04-28

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) allows for a highly sensitive detection of spectroscopic signals. This has been first demonstrated for NMR of a single molecule and recently extended to stimulated Raman in the optical regime. We theoretically investigate the use of optical forces to detect time and frequency domain nonlinear optical signals. We show that, with proper phase matching, the AFM-detected signals closely resemble coherent heterodyne-detected signals. Applications are made to AFM-detected and heterodyne-detected vibrational resonances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (χ((3))) and sum or difference frequency generation (χ((2))).

  3. Multi-spectral and fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlu, Alper

    Multi-spectral and fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (DOT) techniques are explored and applied to image human breast cancer in vivo. Image reconstruction algorithms that utilize first and second order gradient information are described in detail. Breast DOT requires large computational memory and long run times. To this end, parallel computation techniques were developed appropriate to each reconstruction algorithm. A parallel plate DOT instrument developed for breast cancer imaging is described. The system relies heavily on continuous-wave (CW) transmission measurements and utilizes frequency domain (FD) measurements on the reemission side. However, traditional DOT image reconstruction methods based on CW measurements fail to separate tissue absorption and scattering uniquely. In this manuscript, multi-spectral DOT is shown to be capable of minimizing cross-talk and retrieving spectral parameters almost uniquely when the measurement wavelengths are optimized. A theoretical framework to select optimum wavelengths is provided, and tested with computer simulations. Results from phantom spectroscopy experiments and in vivo patient measurements support the notion that multi-spectral methods are superior to traditional DOT image reconstruction schemes. The same breast DOT instrument is improved and utilized to obtain the first in vivo images of human breast cancer based on fluorescence DOT (FDOT). To this end the fluorophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) is injected intravenously and fluorescence excitation and detection are accomplished in the soft-compression, parallel-plane, transmission geometry using laser sources at 786 nm and spectrally filtered CCD detection. Careful phantom and in vivo measurements are carried on to assure that the signals are due to ICG fluorescence, rather than tissue autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. An in vivo measurement protocol is designed to maximize the ICG contrast by acquiring full fluorescence tomographic scan during

  4. Diameter grouping in bulk samples of single-walled carbon nanotubes from optical absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Dunsch, L.; Bauer, H.-D.; Reibold, M.; Knupfer, M.; Friedlein, R.; Pichler, T.; Jost, O.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis parameters on the mean characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in soot produced by the laser vaporization of graphite has been analyzed using optical absorption spectroscopy. The abundance and mean diameter of the nanotubes were found to be most influenced by

  5. Diagnosis of the local thermal equilibrium by optical emission spectroscopy in the evolution of electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia B, R.; Pacheco S, J.; Pacheco P, M.; Ramos F, F.; Cruz A, A.; Velazquez P, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work applies the technique of optical emission spectroscopy to diagnose the temperature of the species generated in plasma in the transition to glow discharge arc. Whit this diagnosis is possible to determine the local thermal equilibrium conditions of the discharge. (Author)

  6. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  7. Spectroscopic properties of a self-assembled zinc porphyrin tetramer I. Steady state optical spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yatskou, M.M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Donker, H.; Schaafsma, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Aggregation of zinc mono-(4-pyridyl)-triphenylporphyrin (ZnPyP) in toluene and polystyrene/toluene mixtures has been investigated by steady-state optical spectroscopy. The Q-band absorption spectra, as well as the fluorescence spectra, show a temperature-dependent red shift as a result of ligation

  8. Study of the interaction of Tb (III) with dextran through fluorescence spectroscopy and optical rotatory dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Sandra S.; Rodrigues, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the interaction of Tb(III) with dextran in aqueous solution was perform using fluorescence spectroscopy and optical rotatory dispersion. The results indicate the formation of a complex with the displacent of water from the cation coordinated sphere by hydroxyl groups at the second and third carbon atoms of the monomer unit. (Author) [pt

  9. Optical spectroscopy: current advances and future applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Hendriks, B.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy (OS) is a tissue-sensing technique that could enhance cancer diagnosis and treatment in the near future. With OS, tissue is illuminated with a selected light spectrum. Different tissue types can be distinguished from each other based on specific changes in the reflected light

  10. Optical Emission Spectroscopy of Plasma in Hybrid Pulsed Laser Deposition System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. 292-298 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110 Keywords : optical emission spectroscopy * pulsed laser deposition * RF discharge Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  11. Remote Spectroscopy in the Visible Using Fibers on the Optical Internet Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael A. S.; de Oliveira, Anderson R.; Zilio, Sergio C.

    2010-01-01

    The work presented here demonstrates the feasibility of using the single-mode fibers of an optical Internet network to deliver visible light between separate laboratories as a way to perform remote spectroscopy in the visible for teaching purposes. The coupling of a broadband light source into the single-mode fiber (SMF) and the characterization…

  12. Novel Chiroptical Analysis of Hemoglobin by Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Brazhe, Alexey; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The metalloprotein hemoglobin (Hb) was studied using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and surface enhanced resonance Raman optical activity (SERROA). The SERROA results are analyzed and compared with the SERRS, and the later to the resonance Raman (RRS) performed on Hb...

  13. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy of cross-beam pulsed laser ablation on graphite targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangines, R.; Sanchez Ake, C.; Sobral, H.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-beam pulsed laser ablation with two delayed lasers is performed on two perpendicular graphite targets. The time delay between lasers is varied by up to 5 μs, and physical changes on the second plasma, due to the interaction with the first generated one, are determined by time resolved optical emission spectroscopy

  14. Glow discharge lamp: a light source for optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanathan, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Nalini, S.; Mahalingam, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A glow discharge lamp based on a modified version of the Grimm design has been fabricated. Its utility as a radiation source for optical emmission spectrography by standardising a method for the analysis of low alloy steels using a set of certified standards from DMRL, Hyderabad, has been demonstrated. A model has been proposed where the sputtering rates of different metals have been correlated with their heats of sublimation, metallic radii and densities. Sputtering rates of ten different metals obtained from literature have been used to test this model, and the correlation appears to be excellent. (author). 19 re fs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Optical Absorption Spectroscopy for Gas Analysis in Biomass Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge

    important gas species of the low-temperature circulating fluidized bed gasifier. At first, a special gas cell,the hot gas flow cell (HGC), was build up and veried. In this custom-made gas cell, the optical properties, the so-called absorption cross-sections, of the most important sulfur and aromatic...... compounds were determined in laboratory experiments. By means of the laboratory results and spectroscopic databases,the concentrations of the major gas species and the aromatic compounds phenol and naphthalene were determined in extraction and in-situ measurements....

  16. Interstitial diffuse radiance spectroscopy of gold nanocages and nanorods in bulk muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G; Pang, Bo; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhiyuan; Xia, Younan; Whelan, William M

    2015-01-01

    Radiance spectroscopy was applied to the interstitial detection of localized inclusions containing Au nanocages or nanorods with various concentrations embedded in porcine muscle phantoms. The radiance was quantified using a perturbation approach, which enabled the separation of contributions from the porcine phantom and the localized inclusion, with the inclusion serving as a perturbation probe of photon distributions in the turbid medium. Positioning the inclusion at various places in the phantom allowed for tracking of photons that originated from a light source, passed through the inclusion's location, and reached a detector. The inclusions with high extinction coefficients were able to absorb nearly all photons in the range of 650-900 nm, leading to a spectrally flat radiance signal. This signal could be converted to the relative density of photons incident on the inclusion. Finally, the experimentally measured quantities were expressed via the relative perturbation and arranged into the classical Beer-Lambert law that allowed one to extract the extinction coefficients of various types of Au nanoparticles in both the transmission and back reflection geometries. It was shown that the spatial variation of perturbation could be described as 1/r dependence, where r is the distance between the inclusion and the detector. Due to a larger absorption cross section, Au nanocages produced greater perturbations than Au nanorods of equal particle concentration, indicating a better suitability of Au nanocages as contrast agents for optical measurements in turbid media. Individual measurements from different inclusions were combined into detectability maps.

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Heavy Fuel Oils Using a New Diffusing Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nathalie; Brahem, Zeineb; Amat, Sandrine; Kister, Jacky

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of heavy fuel oils (HFOs), used as fuel for boats, requires the analysis of various properties that are essential for engine optimization and pollution control. For some time, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric treatment of the spectra was used for on-line analysis. This preliminary study included 61 heavy fuels from Europe, America, and Asia with different specifications according to their geographical origin; their refining process; and their physicochemical properties, including density, flash point, viscosity, and sulfur content. We have developed a new method for sampling heavy fuels on a fiberglass cell support. This support offers the advantages of speed, easy implementation, repeatable results, and freedom from problems associated with tank cleaning. Two sample presentations, an integrating sphere and an optical fiber, were used to collect the NIR spectra. A theoretical study of the choice of the value of resolution, scan number, and spectral region was conducted. The best conditions were chosen as a function of the quality of quantitative analysis results on viscosity, sulfur content, flash point, and density. The two collecting methods were compared on the same criteria.

  18. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  19. Spectroscopy of molecules in very high rotational states using an optical centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liwei; Toro, Carlos; Bell, Mack; Mullin, Amy S

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a high power optical centrifuge for measuring the spectroscopy of molecules in extreme rotational states. The optical centrifuge has a pulse energy that is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than in earlier instruments. The large pulse energy allows us to drive substantial number densities of molecules to extreme rotational states in order to measure new spectroscopic transitions that are not accessible with traditional methods. Here we demonstrate the use of the optical centrifuge for measuring IR transitions of N2O from states that have been inaccessible until now. In these studies, the optical centrifuge drives N2O molecules into states with J ~ 200 and we use high resolution transient IR probing to measure the appearance of population in states with J = 93-99 that result from collisional cooling of the centrifuged molecules. High resolution Doppler broadened line profile measurements yield information about the rotational and translational energy distributions in the optical centrifuge.

  20. Optical frequency comb for high resolution hydrogen spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoult, O.

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we perform an absolute frequency measurement of the 1S-3S transition in atomic hydrogen, in order to improve the uncertainties on both the Rydberg constant and the Lamb shift L1S. In the experiment, a CW stabilized Ti:Sa laser is doubled twice in LBO (LiB 3 O 5 ) and BBO (β-BaB 2 O 4 ) crystals. The 1S-3S transition is excited by two photons at 205 nm in an optical cavity colinear with the atomic beam, at room temperature. The remaining second-order Doppler effect is compensated by a quadratic Stark effect resulting from an applied static magnetic field. An optical frequency comb is used to compare directly the Ti:Sa frequency with the microwave frequency standard. We detect fluorescence at 656 nm thanks to a CCD camera. Fitting the experimental data with our calculated line shapes leads to a value of the second-order Doppler effect in disagreement with approximative predictions for the 1S-3S frequency. We suggest the existence of stray electric fields as a possible systematic effect. The slides of the defence of the thesis have been added at the end of the document. (author)

  1. Localization Spectroscopy of a Single Ion in an Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Olivier Philippe Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing-wave. Bes...... as a new tool for future cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the Ion trap group at Aarhus University.......-wave. Besides providing a better understanding of the dynamics of an ion subjected to varying trapping conditions, this work establishes a basis for future studies of various quantum many-body physics models, for manipulations of the structure of large ion Coulomb crystals, and for optimization...... of the interaction between light and matter in connection with quantum information experiments. In addition to the deep, three-dimensional harmonic potential of the linear Paul trap which confines the ion in regions of several millimeters, one of the directions of the ion motion is constrained by the application...

  2. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  3. Retrieval of optical properties of skin from measurement and modeling the diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Lucien F. A.; Lucassen, Gerald W.

    2000-06-01

    We present results on the retrieval of skin optical properties obtained by fitting of measurements of the diffuse reflectance of human skin. Reflectance spectra are simulated using an analytical model based on the diffusion approximation. This model is implemented in a simplex fit routine. The skin optical model used consists of five layers representing epidermis, capillary blood plexus, dermis, deep blood plexus and hypodermis. The optical properties of each layer are assumed homogeneously distributed. The main optical absorbers included are melanin in epidermis and blood. The experimental setup consists of a HP photospectrometer equipped with a remote fiber head. Total reflectance spectra were measured in the 400 - 820 nm wavelength range on the volar underarm of 19 volunteers under various conditions influencing the blood content and oxygenation degree. Changes in the reflectance spectra were observed. Using the fit routine changes in blood content in the capillary blood plexus and in the deep blood plexus could be quantified. These showed different influences on the total reflectance. The method can be helpful to quantitatively assess changes in skin color appearance such as occurs in the treatment of port wine stains, blanching, skin irritation and tanning.

  4. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  5. Linear image reconstruction for a diffuse optical mammography system in a noncompressed geometry using scattering fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Tim; Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Beek, Michiel van; Uhlemann, Falk; Bontus, Claas; Koehler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a potential new imaging modality to detect or monitor breast lesions. Recently, Philips developed a new DOT system capable of transmission and fluorescence imaging, where the investigated breast is hanging freely into the measurement cup containing scattering fluid. We present a fast and robust image reconstruction algorithm that is used for the transmission measurements. The algorithm is based on the Rytov approximation. We show that this algorithm can be used over a wide range of tissue optical properties if the reconstruction is adapted to each patient. We use estimates of the breast shape and average tissue optical properties to initialize the reconstruction, which improves the image quality significantly. We demonstrate the capability of the measurement system and reconstruction to image breast lesions by clinical examples

  6. Imaging osteoarthritis in the knee joints using x-ray guided diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2010-02-01

    In our previous studies, near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) had been successfully applied to imaging osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints where significant difference in optical properties of the joint tissues was evident between healthy and OA finger joints. Here we report for the first time that large joints such as the knee can also be optically imaged especially when DOT is combined with x-ray tomosynthesis where the 3D image of the bones from x-ray is incorporated into the DOT reconstruction as spatial a priori structural information. This study demonstrates that NIR light can image large joints such as the knee in addition to finger joints, which will drastically broaden the clinical utility of our x-ray guided DOT technique for OA diagnosis.

  7. Assessment of Optic Nerve Impairment in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica by MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiye Chen

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI has been used for the evaluation of the white matter integrity. In this study, we evaluated optic nerve impairment in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO using DTI.Optic nerve DTI were performed on 28 NMO patients and 38 normal controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were measured in the anterior, middle, and posterior parts of the intraorbital optic nerve segment. For the posterior intraorbital optic nerve, FA values of BI (0.20±0.07, MI (0.24±0.16, and NA (0.25±0.14 decreased significantly compared with that of NC (0.43±0.07 (P<0.05, and ROC analysis demonstrated that the area under the curve (AUC measurements for BI vs. NC, MI vs. NC, NA vs. NC, and NMO (including BI, MI, and NA vs. NC were 0.99, 0.93, 0.88, and 0.96, respectively. The corresponding diagnostic sensitivities of ROC analysis were 100%, 80%, 80%, and 91%; and the specificities were 93%, 97%, 91%, and 93%.Decreased FA value in the intraorbital optic nerve, especially in the posterior part of the nerve, was demonstrated as a characteristic MR feature for NMO-related optic nerve impairment.

  8. Two-Photon Vibrational Spectroscopy using local optical fields of gold and silver nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Harald

    2007-03-01

    Spectroscopic effects can be strongly affected when they take place in the immediate vicinity of metal nanostructures due to coupling to surface plasmons. We introduce a new approach that suggests highly efficient two-photon labels as well as two-photon vibrational spectroscopy for non-destructive chemical probing. The underlying spectroscopic effect is the incoherent inelastic scattering of two photons on the vibrational quantum states performed in the enhanced local optical fields of gold nanoparticles, surface enhanced hyper Raman scattering (SEHRS). We infer effective two-photon cross sections for SEHRS on the order of 10^5 GM, similar or higher than the best known cross sections for two-photon fluorescence. SEHRS combines the advantages of two-photon spectroscopy with the structural information of vibrational spectroscopy, and the high sensitivity and nanometer-scale local confinement of plasmonics-based spectroscopy.

  9. Diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy following preterm birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.R.; Smith, M.F.; Whitby, E.H.; Alladi, S.; Wilkinson, S.; Paley, M.N.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the associations between magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (MRS) data and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) from the preterm brain with developmental outcome at 18 months corrected age and clinical variables. Materials and methods: A prospective observational cohort study of 67 infants born before 35 weeks gestational age who received both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain between 37 and 44 weeks corrected gestational age and developmental assessment around 18 months corrected age. Results: No relationships were found between ADC values and MRS results or outcome. MRS ratios involving N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from the posterior white matter were associated with ''severe'' and ''moderate to severe'' difficulties, and fine motor scores were significantly lower in participants with a visible lactate doublet in the posterior white matter. The presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was the only clinical factor related to NAA ratios. Conclusion: Altered NAA levels in the posterior white matter may reflect subtle white matter injury associated with neuro-developmental difficulties, which may be related to a PDA. Further work is needed to assess the longer-term neuro-developmental implications of these findings, and to study the effect of PDAs on developmental outcome in later childhood/adolescence. - Highlights: • ADC values around term corrected age from a wide area of the brain are not associated with developmental outcome. • NAA ratios from the posterior white matter are associated with adverse outcome. • No relationship between MRS data and ADC values exist when measured from the same region of the cerebral white matter. • The presence of a patent ductus arterious was associated with NAA ratios from the posterior white matter, but not outcome

  10. Interhemispheric connectivity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A near-infrared spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitzki, Klaus; Oldag, Andreas; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Machts, Judith; Veit, Maria; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kollewe, Katja; Petri, Susanne; Mohammadi, Bahram; Dengler, Reinhard; Kupsch, Andreas R; Vielhaber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate potential impairment of non-motor areas in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In particular, we evaluated whether homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of non-motor associated cortical areas correlates with clinical parameters and disease-specific degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) in ALS. Interhemispheric homotopic rs-FC was assessed in 31 patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) for 8 cortical sites, from prefrontal to occipital cortex, using NIRS. DTI was performed in a subgroup of 21 patients. All patients were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction in the executive, memory, and visuospatial domains. ALS patients displayed an altered spatial pattern of correlation between homotopic rs-FC values when compared to HCs ( p  = 0.000013). In patients without executive dysfunction a strong correlation existed between the rate of motor decline and homotopic rs-FC of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) (ρ = - 0.85, p  = 0.0004). Furthermore, antero-temporal homotopic rs-FC correlated with fractional anisotropy in the central corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tracts (CSTs), and forceps minor as determined by DTI ( p  < 0.05). The present study further supports involvement of non-motor areas in ALS. Our results render homotopic rs-FC as assessed by NIRS a potential clinical marker for disease progression rate in ALS patients without executive dysfunction and a potential anatomical marker for ALS-specific degeneration of the CC and CSTs.

  11. Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy of single optically trapped aerosol droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covert, Paul A.; Cremer, Johannes W.; Signorell, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Photoacoustics have been widely used for the study of aerosol optical properties. To date, these studies have been performed on particle ensembles, with minimal ability to control for particle size. Here, we present our singleparticle photoacoustic spectrometer. The sensitivity and stability of the instrument is discussed, along with results from two experiments that illustrate the unique capabilities of this instrument. In the first experiment, we present a measurement of the particle size-dependence of the photoacoustic response. Our results confirm previous models of aerosol photoacoustics that had yet to be experimentally tested. The second set of results reveals a size-dependence of photochemical processes within aerosols that results from the nanofocusing of light within individual droplets.

  12. Cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with optical feedback cw diode lasers for gas phase analysis and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert; Chu, Johnny; Hippler, Michael

    2012-10-21

    A variant of cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CERS) is introduced, in which diode laser radiation at 635 nm is coupled into an external linear optical cavity composed of two highly reflective mirrors. Using optical feedback stabilisation, build-up of circulating laser power by 3 orders of magnitude occurs. Strong Raman signals are collected in forward scattering geometry. Gas phase CERS spectra of H(2), air, CH(4) and benzene are recorded to demonstrate the potential for analytical applications and fundamental molecular studies. Noise equivalent limits of detection in the ppm by volume range (1 bar sample) can be achieved with excellent linearity with a 10 mW excitation laser, with sensitivity increasing with laser power and integration time. The apparatus can be operated with battery powered components and can thus be very compact and portable. Possible applications include safety monitoring of hydrogen gas levels, isotope tracer studies (e.g., (14)N/(15)N ratios), observing isotopomers of hydrogen (e.g., radioactive tritium), and simultaneous multi-component gas analysis. CERS has the potential to become a standard method for sensitive gas phase Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Optical spectroscopy of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canimoglu, A.; Karabulut, Y.; Ayvacikli, M.; Muresan, L.E.; Perhaita, I.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Karali, T.; Can, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report our results referring to the preparation of Ce doped Y 2.22 MgGa 2 Al 2 SiO 12 , Y 1.93 MgAl 4 SiO 12 and Y 2.22 Gd 0.75 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 using solid state reaction at high temperature. Several complementary methods (i.e. powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) were studied to examine the effects of the synthesis procedure on the morphology and structure. XRD analyses revealed that all compounds include yttrium aluminate phase with garnet structure. Cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out for clarification of relationship between host lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. Luminescence emission of phosphors is peaked at 530 nm assigned to 5d-4f transitions of the dopant Ce 3+ ions with a broad emission band in 400–700 nm range. Under electron irradiation, the emission spectrum of Ce doped (YGd) 3 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 is well defined and has a characteristic fairly narrow and sharp emission band peaking at 312 nm and 624 nm corresponding to transition of 6 P 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 and 6 G J → 6 P J (Gd 3+ ), respectively. We suggest some of phosphors might be excellent phototherapy phosphor materials under electron excitation. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Multicomponent Garnets were prepared solid state reaction method. • The shape and size of phosphor particles were examined. • The narrow band UV B emission due to Gd 3+ ions were observed.

  14. Titanium monoxide spectroscopy following laser-induced optical breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Keszler, Anna; Nemes, László; Hornkohl, James O.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates Titanium Monoxide (TiO) in ablation-plasma by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with 1 to 10 TW/cm 2 irradiance, pulsed, 13 nanosecond, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The analysis of TiO is based on our first accurate determination of transition line strengths for selected TiO A-X, B-X, and E-X transitions, particularly TiO A-X γ and B-X γ′ bands. Electric dipole line strengths for the A 3 Φ-X 3 δ and B 3 Π-X 3 δ bands of TiO are computed. The molecular TiO spectra are observed subsequent to laser-induced breakdown (LIB). We discuss analysis of diatomic molecular spectra that may occur simultaneously with spectra originating from atomic species. Gated detection is applied to investigate the development in time of the emission spectra following LIB. Collected emission spectra allow one to infer micro-plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density. Insight into the state of the micro-plasma is gained by comparing measurements with predictions of atomic and molecular spectra. Nonlinear fitting of recorded and computed diatomic spectra provides the basis for molecular diagnostics, while atomic species may overlap and are simultaneously identified. Molecular diagnostic approaches similar to TiO have been performed for diatomic molecules such as AlO, C 2 , CN, CH, N 2 , NH, NO and OH.

  15. Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite films studied by magneto-optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Višňovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Sahoo, Subasa C. [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala 671314 (India); Prasad, Shiva [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Venkataramani, N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bohra, Murtaza [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Okinawa (Japan); Krishnan, R. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-UVSQ, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78935 Versailles (France)

    2015-05-07

    Ferrimagnetic Zn-ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) films can be grown with the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 40 Oe at 9.5 GHz without going through a high temperature processing. This presents interest for applications. The work deals with laser ablated ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited at O{sub 2} pressure of 0.16 mbar onto fused quartz substrates. The films about 120 nm thick are nanocrystalline and their spontaneous magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, depends on the nanograin size, which is controlled by the substrate temperature (T{sub s}). At T{sub s} ≈ 350 °C, where the grain distribution peaks around ∼20–30 nm, the room temperature 4πM{sub s} reaches a maximum of ∼2.3 kG. The films were studied by magnetooptical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The complementary characteristics were provided by spectral ellipsometry (SE). Both the SE and MOKE spectra confirmed ferrimagnetic ordering. The structural details correspond to those observed in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} spinels. SE experiments confirm the insulator behavior. The films display MOKE amplitudes somewhat reduced with respect to those in Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to a lower degree of spinel inversion and nanocrystalline structure. The results indicate that the films are free of oxygen vacancies and Fe{sup 3+}-Fe{sup 2+} exchange.

  16. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. 07338 (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R, E-mail: reyes@fisica.unam.mx [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B. C. 22860 (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO{sub 2}. We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, {chi}{sup (3)}. We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.

  17. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Torres-Torres, C; Rangel-Rojo, R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO 2 . We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, χ (3) . We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.

  18. THz dynamics of nanoconfined water by ultrafast optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschin, A; Bartolini, P; Torre, R

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the vibrational dynamics and structural relaxation of water nanoconfined in porous silica samples with a pore size of 4 nm at different levels of hydration and temperature. We used the time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE), a spectroscopic technique that enables investigation of ultrafast water dynamics in a wide time (0.1–10 ps) or frequency (10 – 0.1 THz) window. At low hydration levels corresponding to two complete superficial water layers, no freezing occurs and the water remains mobile at all investigated temperatures. Meanwhile, at full hydration we witness a partial ice formation at about 248 K that coexists with the surface water remaining in the supercooled state. At low hydration, both structural and vibrational dynamics show significant modifications compared to bulk liquid water. This is due to the strong interaction of the water molecules with silica surfaces. Inner water, however, reveals relaxation dynamics very similar to bulk water. (paper)

  19. Optical spectroscopy versus mass spectrometry: The race for fieldable isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several techniques have been developed to provide on-site isotopic analyses, including decay-counting and mass spectrometry, as well as methods that rely on the accessibility of optical transitions for isotopic selectivity (e.g., laser-induced fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy). The authors have been investigating both mass spectrometry and optogalvanic spectroscopy for several years. Although others have considered these techniques for isotopic analysis, the authors have focussed on the use of a dc glow discharge for atomization and ionization, and a demountable discharge cell for rapid sample exchange. The authors' goal is a fieldable instrument that provides useful uranium isotope ratio information

  20. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  1. In vivo, noninvasive functional measurements of bone sarcoma using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Hannah M.; Hoang, Bang H.; Geller, David; Yang, Rui; Gorlick, Richard; Berger, Jeremy; Tingling, Janet; Roth, Michael; Gill, Jonathon; Roblyer, Darren

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) is an emerging near-infrared imaging technique that noninvasively measures quantitative functional information in thick tissue. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using DOSI to measure optical contrast from bone sarcomas. These tumors are rare and pose technical and practical challenges for DOSI measurements due to the varied anatomic locations and tissue depths of presentation. Six subjects were enrolled in the study. One subject was unable to be measured due to tissue contact sensitivity. For the five remaining subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, optical properties, and quantitative tissue concentrations of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids from tumor and contralateral normal tissues were assessed. Statistical differences between tumor and contralateral normal tissue were found in chromophore concentrations and optical properties for four subjects. Low signal-to-noise was encountered during several subject's measurements, suggesting increased detector sensitivity will help to optimize DOSI for this patient population going forward. This study demonstrates that DOSI is capable of measuring optical properties and obtaining functional information in bone sarcomas. In the future, DOSI may provide a means to stratify treatment groups and monitor chemotherapy response for this disease.

  2. DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) urban pollution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert K.; Vossler, T. L.

    1991-05-01

    During July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc. was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 (1099 m) and path 2 (1824 m), ozone (03), sulfur dioxide (SO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous acid (HNO2) formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRN) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of 03, NO2, and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for 03 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRN's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o- xylene. However, the correlation coefficient between the DOAS and GC measurements of toluene averaged only 0.15 for the two DOAS measurement paths. The lack of correlation and other factors indicate the possibility of a localized source of toluene near the GC. In general, disagreements between the two measurement methods could be caused by atmospheric inhomogeneities or interferences in the DOAS and other methods.

  3. Spatio-temporal imaging of the hemoglobin in the compressed breast with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverman, Gregory; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A.; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Selb, Juliette; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2007-07-01

    We develop algorithms for imaging the time-varying optical absorption within the breast given diffuse optical tomographic data collected over a time span that is long compared to the dynamics of the medium. Multispectral measurements allow for the determination of the time-varying total hemoglobin concentration and of oxygen saturation. To facilitate the image reconstruction, we decompose the hemodynamics in time into a linear combination of spatio-temporal basis functions, the coefficients of which are estimated using all of the data simultaneously, making use of a Newton-based nonlinear optimization algorithm. The solution of the extremely large least-squares problem which arises in computing the Newton update is obtained iteratively using the LSQR algorithm. A Laplacian spatial regularization operator is applied, and, in addition, we make use of temporal regularization which tends to encourage similarity between the images of the spatio-temporal coefficients. Results are shown for an extensive simulation, in which we are able to image and quantify localized changes in both total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Finally, a breast compression study has been performed for a normal breast cancer screening subject, using an instrument which allows for highly accurate co-registration of multispectral diffuse optical measurements with an x-ray tomosynthesis image of the breast. We are able to quantify the global return of blood to the breast following compression, and, in addition, localized changes are observed which correspond to the glandular region of the breast.

  4. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadhira, Vebi, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Kurniadi, Deddy, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Juliastuti, E., E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Sutiswan, Adeline, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id [Instrumentation and Control Research Group, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10 40132 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  5. Dynamics of an optically confined nanoparticle diffusing normal to a surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; O'Dell, Dakota; Erickson, David

    2016-06-01

    Here we measure the hindered diffusion of an optically confined nanoparticle in the direction normal to a surface, and we use this to determine the particle-surface interaction profile in terms of the absolute height. These studies are performed using the evanescent field of an optically excited single-mode silicon nitride waveguide, where the particle is confined in a height-dependent potential energy well generated from the balance of optical gradient and surface forces. Using a high-speed cmos camera, we demonstrate the ability to capture the short time-scale diffusion dominated motion for 800-nm-diam polystyrene particles, with measurement times of only a few seconds per particle. Using established theory, we show how this information can be used to estimate the equilibrium separation of the particle from the surface. As this measurement can be made simultaneously with equilibrium statistical mechanical measurements of the particle-surface interaction energy landscape, we demonstrate the ability to determine these in terms of the absolute rather than relative separation height. This enables the comparison of potential energy landscapes of particle-surface interactions measured under different experimental conditions, enhancing the utility of this technique.

  6. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  7. Molecular exchange of n-hexane in zeolite sieves studied by diffusion-diffusion and T{sub 1}-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance exchange spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neudert, Oliver; Stapf, Siegfried; Mattea, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.mattea@tu-ilmenau.de [Fachgebiet Technische Physik II/Polymerphysik, Institute of Physics, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PO Box 100 565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Molecular exchange properties and diffusion of n-hexane embedded in a bimodal pore structure with characteristic length scales in the order of nano and micrometres, respectively, formed by packing of zeolite particles, are studied. Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion correlation experiments together with relaxation-diffusion correlation experiments are performed at low magnetic field using a single-sided NMR scanner. The exchange time covers a range from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -1} s. The molecular exchange properties are modulated by transport inside the zeolite particles. Different exchange regimes are observed for molecules starting from different positions inside the porous sample. The influence of the spin-lattice relaxation properties of the fluid molecules inside the zeolite particles on the signal intensity is also studied. A Monte Carlo simulation of the exchange process is performed and is used to support the analysis of the experimental data.

  8. Simultaneous Absorptance and Thermal-Diffusivity Determination of Optical Components with Laser Calorimetry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Bincheng

    2012-11-01

    The laser calorimetry (LCA) technique is used to determine simultaneously the absorptances and thermal diffusivities of optical components. An accurate temperature model, in which both the finite thermal conductivity and the finite sample size are taken into account, is employed to fit the experimental temperature data measured with an LCA apparatus for a precise determination of the absorptance and thermal diffusivity via a multiparameter fitting procedure. The uniqueness issue of the multiparameter fitting is discussed in detail. Experimentally, highly reflective (HR) samples prepared with electron-beam evaporation on different substrates (BK7, fused silica, and Ge) are measured with LCA. For the HR-coated sample on a fused silica substrate, the absorptance is determined to be 15.4 ppm, which is close to the value of 17.6 ppm, determined with a simplified temperature model recommended in the international standard ISO11551. The thermal diffusivity is simultaneously determined via multiparameter fitting to be approximately 6.63 × 10-7 m2 · s-1 with a corresponding square variance of 4.8 × 10-4. The fitted thermal diffusivity is in reasonably good agreement with the literature value (7.5 × 10-7 m2 · s -1). Good agreement is also obtained for samples with BK7 and Ge substrates.

  9. Germania and Alumina Dopant Diffusion and Viscous Flow Effects at Preparation of Doped Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Kobelke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on germania and alumina dopant profile shift effects at preparation of compact optical fibers using packaging methods (Stack-and-Draw method, Rod-in-Tube (RiT technique. The sintering of package hollow volume by viscous flow results in a shift of the core-pitch ratio in all-solid microstructured fibers. The ratio is increased by about 5% in the case of a hexagonal package. The shift by diffusion effects of both dopants is simulated for typical slow speed drawing parameters. Thermodynamic approximations of surface dissociation of germania doped silica suggest the need of an adequate undoped silica barrier layer to prevent an undesired bubble formation at fiber drawing. In contrast, alumina doping does not estimate critical dissociation effects with vaporous aluminium oxide components. We report guide values of diffusion length of germania and alumina for the drawing process by kinetic approximation. The germania diffusion involves a small core enlargement, typically in the sub-micrometer scale. Though, the alumina diffusion enlarges it by a few micrometers. A drawn pure alumina preform core rod transforms to an amorphous aluminosilicate core with a molar alumina concentration of only about 50% and a non-gaussian concentration profile.

  10. Optical spectroscopy, optical conductivity, dielectric properties and new methods for determining the gap states of CuSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, G.B.; Yahia, I.S.; Fadel, M.; Fouad, S.S.; Romcevic, N.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The structural, optical dispersion parameters and the Raman spectroscopy have been studied for CuSe thin films. → X-ray diffraction results indicate the amorphous nature of the thermally evaporated CuSe thin films. → The refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion at the lower wavelength (absorption region) and a normal dispersion at the higher wavelengths (transparent region). → The refractive index dispersion obeys the single oscillator model proposed by Wemple and DiDomenico WDD model and the single oscillator parameters were determined. → The band gap of CuSe thin films was determined by three novel methods i.e. (relaxation time, real and imaginary dielectric constant and real and imaginary optical conductivity) which in a good agreement with the Tauc band gap value. - Abstract: The paper describes the structural and optical properties of CuSe thin films. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that CuSe thin film has an amorphous structure. Transmittance T(λ) and reflectance R(λ) measurements in the wavelength range (300-1700 nm) were used to calculate the refractive index n(λ), the absorption index and the optical dispersion parameters according to Wemple and Didomenico WDD model. The dispersion curve of the refractive index shows an anomalous dispersion in the absorption region and a normal dispersion in the transparent region. The optical bandgap has been estimated and confirmed by four different methods. The value for the direct bandgap for the as-deposited CuSe thin film approximately equals 2.7 eV. The Raman spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify the individual phases presented in the CuSe films.

  11. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Malin B; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Österlund, Lars; Baldissera, Gustavo; Persson, Clas; Valyukh, Iryna; Arwin, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO 3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (P tot ) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low P tot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies E g ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing P tot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO 3 , and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO 3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that E g in ε-WO 3 is higher than in the δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases, which provides an explanation for the P tot dependence of the optical data. (paper)

  12. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin B.; Baldissera, Gustavo; Valyukh, Iryna; Persson, Clas; Arwin, Hans; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Österlund, Lars

    2013-05-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (Ptot) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low Ptot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies Eg ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing Ptot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO3, and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that Eg in ε-WO3 is higher than in the δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases, which provides an explanation for the Ptot dependence of the optical data.

  13. Feasibility Study on Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Remote Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hyesu; Jang, Kyoung Won; Shin, Sang Hun and others

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors. As a result, the BGO was suitable for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor due to its high scintillation output and exact photoelectric peak for the gamma-ray energy. The basic principle of radiation detection is to detect the signals caused by interactions between radiations and materials. There are various types of radiation detectors depending on types of radiation to be detected and physical quantities to be measured. As one of the radiation detectors, a fiber-optic radiation sensor using a scintillator and an optical fiber has two advantages such as no space restraint and remote sensing. Moreover, in nuclear environments, this kind of sensor has immunities for electromagnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Thus, the fiber-optic radiation sensor can be used in various fields including nondestructive inspection, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy. As a fundamental study of the fiber-optic radiation sensor for remote gamma-ray spectroscopy, in this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors

  14. THE STUDY OF CLINOPTILOLITE MODIFIED WITH3d METALS HALIDES BY IR AND DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation of natural clinoptilolite (N-CLI and that modified with 3d metal halides (MeCl2/N-CLI, where Me are Cu, Co, and Mn by IR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy are summarized. A band at 3437 cm-1 assigned to stretching vibrations of hydroxyl groups (nOH is found in the IR spectrum of the N-CLI sample. A location of the band was practically the same as for all above MeCl2/N-CLI samples. A band of middle intensity at 1638 cm-1 in the range of deformation vibrations of zeolite water observed in the IR spectrum of N-CLI slightly displays to lower frequencies in the case of the modified samples. An intensive wide band of a complex shape in the range from 1250 to 980 cm-1 assigned to Si–O–Si and Si–O–Al vibrations appears in IR spectra of all samples. A doublet band of middle intensity at 797 and 778 cm-1 is assigned to external symmetric stretching T-O vibrations and a band at 606 cm-1-to vibrations of a double ring. A location of the above bands is the same for all listed samples but their intensity is higher for MnCl2/N-CLI and CoCl2/N-CLI samples. After the reaction with ozone, significant changes in the IR spectra are observed only for MnCl2/N-CLI. They are due to MnO2 formation on the clinoptilolite surface resulting in a high frequency displacement of some bands. Based on UV-vi spectroscopy results, it is reasonable to make conclusions about the coordination and valence state of a central atom in the MeCl2/N-CLI samples under study. A location of charge transfer bands for these samples only slightly differs from that for N-CLI however the intensity of such bands increases for the MeCl2/N-CLI samples. The UV-vis spectrum of MnCl2/N-CLI changes after the reaction with ozone: the appearance of new bands of  charge transfer at 363 and 354 nm and also the two-fold increase in intensity of a charge transfer band at 272 nm in comparison with those of N-CLI and MnCl2/N-CLI are the evidence of change in both the

  15. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  16. Remote in-situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Brian James

    The following dissertation describes the development of methods for performing remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using optical fibers. Studies were performed to determine the optimal excitation and collection parameters for remote LIBS measurements of glasses, soils and paint. A number of fiber-optic LIBS probes were developed and used to characterize various samples by plasma emission spectroscopy. A novel method for launching high-power laser pulses into optical fibers without causing catastrophic failure is introduced. A systematic study of a number of commercially available optical fibers was performed to determine which optical fibers were best suited for delivering high-power laser pulses. The general design of an all fiber-optic LIBS probe is described and applied to the determination of Pb in soil. A fiber-optic probe was developed for the microanalysis of solid samples remotely by LIBS, Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging. The design of the probe allows for real-time sample imaging in-situ using coherent imaging fibers. This allows for precise atomic emission and Raman measurements to be performed remotely on samples in hostile or inaccessible environments. A novel technique was developed for collecting spectral plasma images using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The spatial and temporal characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of delay time. From the plasma images the distribution of Pb emission could be determined and fiber-optic designs could be optimized for signal collection. The performance of a two fiber LIBS probe is demonstrated for the determination of the amount of lead in samples of dry paint. It is shown that dry paint samples can be analyzed for their Pb content in-situ using a fiber-optic LIBS probe with detection limits well below the levels currently regulated by the Consumer Products Safety Commission. It is also shown that these measurements can be performed on both latex and enamel paints, and

  17. The Stellar Populations of Two Ultra-diffuse Galaxies from Optical and Near-infrared Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Viraj; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Laine, Seppo; Brodie, Jean P.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Glaccum, William; Villaume, Alexa; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Krick, Jessica; Lasker, Ronald; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Martinez-Delgado, David; van Dokkum, Pieter

    2018-05-01

    We present observational constraints on the stellar populations of two ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) using optical through near-infrared (NIR) spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Our analysis is enabled by new Spitzer-IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging, archival optical imaging, and the prospector fully Bayesian SED fitting framework. Our sample contains one field UDG (DGSAT I), one Virgo cluster UDG (VCC 1287), and one Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical for comparison (VCC 1122). We find that the optical–NIR colors of the three galaxies are significantly different from each other. We infer that VCC 1287 has an old (≳7.7 Gyr) and surprisingly metal-poor ([Z/Z ⊙] ≲ ‑1.0) stellar population, even after marginalizing over uncertainties on diffuse interstellar dust. In contrast, the field UDG DGSAT I shows evidence of being younger than the Virgo UDG, with an extended star formation history and an age posterior extending down to ∼3 Gyr. The stellar metallicity of DGSAT I is sub-solar but higher than that of the Virgo UDG, with [Z/{Z}ȯ ]=-{0.63}-0.62+0.35; in the case of exactly zero diffuse interstellar dust, DGSAT I may even have solar metallicity. With VCC 1287 and several Coma UDGs, a general picture is emerging where cluster UDGs may be “failed” galaxies, but the field UDG DGSAT I seems more consistent with a stellar feedback-induced expansion scenario. In the future, our approach can be applied to a large and diverse sample of UDGs down to faint surface brightness limits, with the goal of constraining their stellar ages, stellar metallicities, and circumstellar and diffuse interstellar dust content.

  18. Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, Robert L P van; Amelink, Arjen; Menke-Pluymers, Marian; Pol, Carmen van der; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M

    2005-01-01

    Differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) was used to determine the local optical properties of breast tissue in vivo. DPS measurements were made on healthy and malignant breast tissue using a fibre-optic needle probe, and were correlated to the histological outcome of core-needle biopsies taken from the same location as the measurements. DPS yields information on the local tissue blood content, the local blood oxygenation, the average micro-vessel diameter, the β-carotene concentration and the scatter slope. Our data show that malignant breast tissue is characterized by a significant decrease in tissue oxygenation and a higher blood content compared to normal breast tissue

  19. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Brumfield, B. E.; LaHaye, N. L.; Hartig, K. C.; Phillips, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid materials is extremely important to a large number of applications, such as nuclear nonproliferation monitoring and forensics, geochemistry, archaeology, and biochemistry. Presently, isotopic measurements for these and many other fields are performed in laboratory settings. Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid material is possible with optical spectroscopy tools when combined with laser ablation. Laser ablation generates a transient vapor of any solid material when a powerful laser interacts with a sample of interest. Analysis of atoms, ions, and molecules in a laser-produced plasma using optical spectroscopy tools can provide isotopic information with the advantages of real-time analysis, standoff capability, and no sample preparation requirement. Both emission and absorption spectroscopy methods can be used for isotopic analysis of solid materials. However, applying optical spectroscopy to the measurement of isotope ratios from solid materials presents numerous challenges. Isotope shifts arise primarily due to variation in nuclear charge distribution caused by different numbers of neutrons, but the small proportional nuclear mass differences between nuclei of various isotopes lead to correspondingly small differences in optical transition wavelengths. Along with this, various line broadening mechanisms in laser-produced plasmas and instrumental broadening generated by the detection system are technical challenges frequently encountered with emission-based optical diagnostics. These challenges can be overcome by measuring the isotope shifts associated with the vibronic emission bands from molecules or by using the techniques of laser-based absorption/fluorescence spectroscopy to marginalize the effect of instrumental broadening. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy probe the ground state atoms existing in the plasma when it is cooler, which inherently provides narrower

  20. Brain activation and connectivity of social cognition using diffuse optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2009-02-01

    In the current research, diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is used for the first time towards studies related to sociocommunication impairments, which is a characteristic feature of autism. DOI studies were performed on normal adult volunteers to determine the differences in the brain activation (cognitive regions) in terms of the changes in the cerebral blood oxygenation levels in response to joint and non-joint attention based stimulus (i.e. socio-communicative paradigms shown as video clips). Functional connectivity models are employed to assess the extent of synchronization between the left and right pre-frontal regions of the brain in response to the above stimuli.

  1. A simple formalism for diffusion coefficient calculations in cells having a small optical thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1980-04-01

    A very simple formalism, using directionnal first flight collision probabilities, is established; it is assigned to the calculation of the diffusion coefficients in cells having a small optical thickness. This formalism can be used, at least as a first approximation, in lattices of sodium-cooled fast reactors or of light water reactors. However, due to the two assumptions -cylindricalization of the cell and restriction to the zeroth order term in B 2 (k)- this formalissm cannot be used for sodium-voided or gas-cooled fast reactor lattices [fr

  2. Single-particle spectroscopy of I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals: spectral diffusion and suppression of blinking by two-color excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Hirata, Shuzo; Bujak, Lukasz; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Kameyama, Tatsuya; Kishi, Marino; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Vacha, Martin

    2016-07-14

    Ternary I-III-VI semiconductor nanocrystals have been explored as non-toxic alternatives to II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic and sensing applications, but large photoluminescence spectral width and moderate brightness restrict their practical use. Here, using single-particle photoluminescence spectroscopy on nanocrystals of (AgIn)xZn2(1-x)S2 we show that the photoluminescence band is inhomogeneously broadened and that size distribution is the dominant factor in the broadening. The residual homogeneous linewidth of individual nanocrystals reaches up to 75% of the ensemble spectral width. Single nanocrystals undergo spectral diffusion which also contributes to the inhomogeneous band. Excitation with two lasers with energies above and below the bandgap reveals coexistence of two emitting donor states within one particle. Spectral diffusion in such particles is due to temporal activation and deactivation of one such state. Filling of a trap state with a lower-energy laser enables optical modulation of photoluminescence intermittency (blinking) and leads to an almost two-fold increase in brightness.

  3. Highly-sensitive and large-dynamic diffuse optical tomography system for breast tumor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Limin; Yin, Guoyan; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) as a new functional imaging has important clinical applications in many aspects such as benign and malignant breast tumor detection, tumor staging and so on. For quantitative detection of breast tumor, a three-wavelength continuous-wave DOT prototype system combined the ultra-high sensitivity of the photon-counting detection and the measurement parallelism of the lock-in technique was developed to provide high temporal resolution, high sensitivity, large dynamic detection range and signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally, a CT-analogous scanning mode was proposed to cost-effectively increase the detection data. To evaluate the feasibility of the system, a series of assessments were conducted. The results demonstrate that the system can obtain high linearity, stability and negligible inter-wavelength crosstalk. The preliminary phantom experiments show the absorption coefficient is able to be successfully reconstructed, indicating that the system is one of the ideal platforms for optical breast tumor detection.

  4. Proton and O sup(2-) ion diffusion studied by γ-γ angular correlation and by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Damasceno, O. de.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of sup(181) Ta quadrupole momentum with electric field gradient was measured by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy in polycrystalline samples of hafnium hydride and hafnium oxide. The measurements were done as function of the temperature, in cubic and tetragonal phases of hafnium hydride. In the cubic phase, spin relaxation effects related to proton diffusion with activation energy of 0.43 ± 0.05eV were observed, and in the tetragonal phase, the interaction was purely static. The hafnium oxide was studied in cubic phase stabilized by addition of calcium oxide or magnesium oxide. Relaxation effects probably due to O sup(2-) ion diffusion were verified. The protonic conduction in K H sub(2) PO sub(4) was studied by impedance spectroscopy, in pellets prepared by melting or powder compression using silver and platinum electrodes. In the case of silver electrodes, in the low frequency region, the impedance spectrum tends to a 45 sup(0) typical line of the diffusion process. It was attributed to hydrogen injection in the electrode. Heating k H sub(2) PO sub(4) at about 230 sup(0)C modifies significantly the electric properties. Two relaxation annealing reduced conductivities to constant values independently of preparation method. (author)

  5. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia]. E-mail: mvmfonte@uol.com.br; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Reed, Umbertina Conti [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Rosemberg, Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia

    2008-11-15

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  6. Medulloblastoma: correlation among findings of conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, Mariana Vieira de Melo da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lucato, Leandro Tavares; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Rosemberg, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    To correlate imaging findings of medulloblastomas at conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, comparing them with data in the literature. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies of nine pediatric patients with histologically confirmed medulloblastomas (eight desmoplastic medulloblastoma, and one giant cell medulloblastoma) were retrospectively reviewed, considering demographics as well as tumors characteristics such as localization, morphology, signal intensity, contrast-enhancement, dissemination, and diffusion-weighted imaging and spectroscopy findings. In most of cases the tumors were centered in the cerebellar vermis (77.8%), predominantly solid (88.9%), hypointense on T 1-weighted images and intermediate/hyperintense on T 2-FLAIR-weighted images, with heterogeneous enhancement (100%), tumor dissemination/extension (77.8%) and limited water molecule mobility (100%). Proton spectroscopy acquired with STEAM technique (n = 6) demonstrated decreased Na a / Cr ratio (83.3%) and increased Co/Cr (100%) and ml/Cr (66.7%) ratios; and with PRESS technique (n = 7) demonstrated lactate peak (57.1%). Macroscopic magnetic resonance imaging findings in association with biochemical features of medulloblastomas have been useful in the differentiation among the most frequent posterior fossa tumors. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. By assessing the eccentricity of the elliptic shape of a 2D optical correlation spectrum the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved through a very simple relationship. This method yielded both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system.

  8. The Properties of Post-Starburst Quasars Based on Optical Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cales, Sabrina L.; Brotherton, Michael S.; Shang, Zhaohui; Runnoe, Jessie C.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Stoll, R.; Ganguly, Rajib; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of a sample of 38 post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z ~ 0.3, 29 of which have morphological classifications based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. These broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) possess the spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations making them potentially useful for studying connections between nuclear activity and host galaxy evolution. We model the spectra in order to determine the ages and masses of the host stell...

  9. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) as a Sensor for Thin Film and Quantum Dot Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hao; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Chen, Jiajun; Wang, Wenyong; Dai, Qilin; Tang, Jinke

    2012-01-01

    Optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) is usually applied as a biosensor system to the sorption-desorption of proteins to waveguide surfaces. Here, we show that OWLS can be used to monitor the quality of oxide thin film materials and of coatings of pulsed laser deposition synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs) intended for solar energy applications. In addition to changes in data treatment and experimental procedure, oxide- or QD-coated waveguide sensors must be synthesized. We synthesi...

  10. Implementation of a lock-in amplifier for optical spectroscopy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homs, R.; Puron, E.

    2012-01-01

    The experimental set-up of an optical spectroscopy measurement based on virtual instrumentation is presented. A lock-in amplifier has been implemented by applying digital signal processing techniques to a PC-based data acquisition board. The application was developed in C++, on top of open source Qt/Qwt graphical framework. The emission spectral of reference light sources were measured in order to calibrate and validate the system. (Author)

  11. Self-absorption influence on the optical spectroscopy of zinc oxide laser produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Posada, E; Arronte, M A; Ponce, L; Rodriguez, E; Flores, T [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-Unidad Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Lunney, J G, E-mail: edeposada@ipn.mx [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-01-01

    Optical spectroscopy is used to study the laser ablation process of ZnO targets. It is demonstrated that even if Partial Local Thermal Equilibrium is present, self absorption process leads to a decrease of recorded lines emission intensities and have to be taken into account to obtain correct values of such parameters. It is presented a method that combines results of both Langmuir probe technique and Anisimov model to obtain correct values of plasma parameters.

  12. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-01

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  13. A versatile optical microscope for time-dependent single-molecule and single-particle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Yang, Haw

    2018-03-28

    This work reports the design and implementation of a multi-function optical microscope for time-dependent spectroscopy on single molecules and single nanoparticles. It integrates the now-routine single-object measurements into one standalone platform so that no reconfiguration is needed when switching between different types of sample or spectroscopy modes. The illumination modes include evanescent field through total internal reflection, dark-field illumination, and epi-excitation onto a diffraction-limited spot suitable for confocal detection. The detection modes include spectrally resolved line imaging, wide-field imaging with dual-color capability, and two-color single-element photon-counting detection. The switch between different spectroscopy and data acquisition modes is fully automated and executed through computer programming. The capability of this microscope is demonstrated through selected proof-of-principle experiments.

  14. Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of an Optically Thick Plasma in Combination with Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nomura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion of laser-induced fluorescence profiles attributable to optical absorption and saturation broadening was corrected in combination with laser absorption spectroscopy in argon plasma flow. At high probe-laser intensity, saturated absorption profiles were measured to correct probe-laser absorption. At low laser intensity, nonsaturated absorption profiles were measured to correct fluorescence reabsorption. Saturation broadening at the measurement point was corrected using a ratio of saturated to non-saturated broadening. Observed LIF broadening and corresponding translational temperature without correction were, respectively, 2.20±0.05 GHz and 2510±100 K and corrected broadening and temperature were, respectively, 1.96±0.07 GHz and 1990±150 K. Although this correction is applicable only at the center of symmetry, the deduced temperature agreed well with that obtained by LAS with Abel inversion.

  15. Determination of optical properties in heterogeneous turbid media using a cylindrical diffusing fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimofte, Andreea; Finlay, Jarod C; Liang Xing; Zhu, Timothy C

    2012-01-01

    For interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT), cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDFs) are often used to deliver light. This study examines the feasibility and accuracy of using CDFs to characterize the absorption (μ a ) and reduced scattering (μ′ s ) coefficients of heterogeneous turbid media. Measurements were performed in tissue-simulating phantoms with μ a between 0.1 and 1 cm −1 and μ′ s between 3 and 10 cm −1 with CDFs 2 to 4 cm in length. Optical properties were determined by fitting the measured light fluence rate profiles at a fixed distance from the CDF axis using a heterogeneous kernel model in which the cylindrical diffusing fiber is treated as a series of point sources. The resulting optical properties were compared with independent measurement using a point source method. In a homogenous medium, we are able to determine the absorption coefficient μ a using a value of μ′ s determined a priori (uniform fit) or μ′ s obtained by fitting (variable fit) with standard (maximum) deviations of 6% (18%) and 18% (44%), respectively. However, the CDF method is found to be insensitive to variations in μ′ s , thus requiring a complementary method such as using a point source for determination of μ′ s . The error for determining μ a decreases in very heterogeneous turbid media because of the local absorption extremes. The data acquisition time for obtaining the one-dimensional optical properties distribution is less than 8 s. This method can result in dramatically improved accuracy of light fluence rate calculation for CDFs for prostate PDT in vivo when the same model and geometry is used for forward calculations using the extrapolated tissue optical properties. (paper)

  16. Analysis of the human brain in primary progressive multiple sclerosis with mapping of the spatial distributions using H-1 MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Irwan, R; Potze, JH; Mostert, JP; De Keyser, J; Oudkerk, M

    Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (ppMS; n=4) patients and controls (n=4) were examined by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to map choline (Cho), creatine and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion

  17. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  18. Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (45°x: 45°) for color analysis of dental composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Federighi, Veronica; Sykes, Ros; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Varoni, Elena M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the application of a fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) prototype probe for 45°x: 45° FORS for determining color of dental materials. A portable spectrophotometer with a highly manageable fiber optics co-axial probe was used to apply 45°x: 45° FORS for color matching in restorative dentistry. The color coordinates in CIELAB space of two dental shade guides and of the corresponding photopolymerized composites were collected and compared. The 45°x: 45° FORS with the co-axial probe (test system), the integrating sphere spectroscopy (reference system) and a commercial dental colorimeter (comparator system) were used to collect data and calculate color differences (ΔE and ΔE00). FORS system displayed high repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy. ΔE and ΔE00 values between the shade-guide, each other, and the corresponding composites resulted above the clinically acceptable limit. The 45°x: 45° FORS test system demonstrated suitable in vitro performance for dental composite color evaluation. 45°x: 45° fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy allows reliable color analysis of small surfaces of dental composites, favoring the color matching of material with the closely surrounding dental tissue, and confirming significant color differences between shade guide tabs and photo-polymerized composites.

  19. A novel non-imaging optics based Raman spectroscopy device for transdermal blood analyte measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Ryon Kong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high chemical specificity, Raman spectroscopy has been considered to be a promising technique for non-invasive disease diagnosis. However, during Raman excitation, less than one out of a million photons undergo spontaneous Raman scattering and such weakness in Raman scattered light often require highly efficient collection of Raman scattered light for the analysis of biological tissues. We present a novel non-imaging optics based portable Raman spectroscopy instrument designed for enhanced light collection. While the instrument was demonstrated on transdermal blood glucose measurement, it can also be used for detection of other clinically relevant blood analytes such as creatinine, urea and cholesterol, as well as other tissue diagnosis applications. For enhanced light collection, a non-imaging optical element called compound hyperbolic concentrator (CHC converts the wide angular range of scattered photons (numerical aperture (NA of 1.0 from the tissue into a limited range of angles accommodated by the acceptance angles of the collection system (e.g., an optical fiber with NA of 0.22. A CHC enables collimation of scattered light directions to within extremely narrow range of angles while also maintaining practical physical dimensions. Such a design allows for the development of a very efficient and compact spectroscopy system for analyzing highly scattering biological tissues. Using the CHC-based portable Raman instrument in a clinical research setting, we demonstrate successful transdermal blood glucose predictions in human subjects undergoing oral glucose tolerance tests.

  20. SO2 EMISSION MEASUREMENT BY DOAS (DIFFERENTIAL OPTICAL ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND COSPEC (CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY AT MERAPI VOLCANO (INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanik Humaida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The SO2 is one of the volcanic gases that can use as indicator of volcano activity. Commonly, SO2 emission is measured by COSPEC (Correlation Spectroscopy. This equipment has several disadvantages; such as heavy, big in size, difficulty in finding spare part, and expensive. DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy is a new method for SO2 emission measurement that has advantages compares to the COSPEC. Recently, this method has been developed. The SO2 gas emission measurement of Gunung Merapi by DOAS has been carried out at Kaliadem, and also by COSPEC method as comparation. The differences of the measurement result of both methods are not significant. However, the differences of minimum and maximum result of DOAS method are smaller than that of the COSPEC. It has range between 51 ton/day and 87 ton/day for DOAS and 87 ton/day and 201 ton/day for COSPEC. The measurement of SO2 gas emission evaluated with the seismicity data especially the rockfall showed the presence of the positive correlation. It may cause the gas pressure in the subsurface influencing instability of 2006 eruption lava.   Keywords: SO2 gas, Merapi, DOAS, COSPEC

  1. Study of the effective inverse photon efficiency using optical emission spectroscopy combined with cavity ring-down spectroscopy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwei; Li, Cong; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhiwei; Feng, Chunlei; Ding, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The hydrocarbon impurities formation is inevitable due to wall erosion in a long pulse high performance scenario with carbon-based plasma facing materials in fusion devices. The standard procedure to determine the chemical erosion yield in situ is by means of inverse photon efficiency D/XB. In this work, the conversion factor between CH4 flux and photon flux of CH A → X transition (effective inverse photon efficiency PE-1) was measured directly using a cascaded arc plasma simulator with argon/methane. This study shows that the measured PE-1 is different from the calculated D/XB. We compared the photon flux measured by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calculated by electron impact excitation of CH(X) which was diagnosed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). It seems that charge exchange and dissociative recombination processes are the main channels of CH(A) production and removal which lead to the inconsistency of PE -1 and D/XB at lower temperature. Meanwhile, the fraction of excited CH(A) produced by dissociative recombination processes was investigated, and we found it increased with Te in the range from 4% to 13% at Te definition instead of D/XB since the electron impact excitation is not the only channel of CH(A) production. These results have an effect on evaluating the yield of chemical erosion in divertor of fusion device.

  2. Study of atmospheric air AC glow discharge using optical emission spectroscopy and near infrared diode laser cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang, Chuji; Dibble, Theodore S.

    2008-11-01

    AC glow discharges were generated in atmospheric pressure by applying high voltage AC in the range of 3500-15000 V to a pair of stainless steel electrodes separated by an air gap. The discharges were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (cw-CRDS). The electronic (Tex), vibrational (Tv), and rotational (Tr) temperatures were measured. Spectral stimulations of the emission spectra of several vibronic bands of the 2^nd positive system of N2, the 1^st negative system of N2^+, the (0,1,2,3-0) bands of NO (A-X), and the (0-0) band of OH (A-X), which were obtained under various plasma operating conditions, show that Tr, Tv, and Tex are in the ranges of 2000 - 3800, 3500 - 5000, and 6000 - 10500^ K, respectively. Emission spectra show that OH concentration increases while NO concentration decreases with an increase of electrode spacing. The absorption spectra of H2O and OH overtone in the near infrared (NIR) were measured by the cw-CRDS with a telecommunications diode laser at wavelength near 1515 nm.

  3. Effects of acetazolamide on the micro- and macro-vascular cerebral hemodynamics: A diffuse optical and transcranial doppler ultrasound study

    OpenAIRE

    Zirak P.; Delgado-Mederos R.; Marti-Fabregas J.; Durduran T.

    2010-01-01

    Acetazolamide (ACZ) was used to stimulate the cerebral vasculature on ten healthy volunteers to assess the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVR). We have combined near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) technologies to non-invasively assess CVR in real-time by measuring oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations, using NIRS, local cerebral blood flow (CBF), using DCS, and blood flow velocity (CBFV) in the middle cerebral artery, usi...

  4. Frequency stabilization of a 1083 nm fiber laser to {sup 4}He transition lines with optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, W.; Peng, X., E-mail: xiangpeng@pku.edu.cn; Li, W.; Guo, H., E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Center for Quantum Information Technology, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Two kinds of optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopies, namely, frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) and modulation transfer spectroscopy (MTS), are demonstrated for locking a fiber laser to the transition lines of metastable {sup 4}He atoms around 1083 nm. The servo-loop error signals of FMS and MTS for stabilizing laser frequency are optimized by studying the dependence of the peak-to-peak amplitude and slope on the optical power of pump and probe beams. A comparison of the stabilization performances of FMS/MTS and polarization spectroscopy (PS) is presented, which shows that MTS exhibits relatively superior performance with the least laser frequency fluctuation due to its flat-background dispersive signal, originated from the four-wave mixing process. The Allan deviation of the stabilized laser frequency is 5.4 × 10{sup −12}@100 s with MTS for data acquired in 1000 s, which is sufficiently applicable for fields like laser cooling, optical pumping, and optical magnetometry.

  5. Parallel Solver for Diffuse Optical Tomography on Realistic Head Models With Scattering and Clear Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placati, Silvio; Guermandi, Marco; Samore, Andrea; Scarselli, Eleonora Franchi; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is an imaging technique, based on evaluation of how light propagates within the human head to obtain the functional information about the brain. Precision in reconstructing such an optical properties map is highly affected by the accuracy of the light propagation model implemented, which needs to take into account the presence of clear and scattering tissues. We present a numerical solver based on the radiosity-diffusion model, integrating the anatomical information provided by a structural MRI. The solver is designed to run on parallel heterogeneous platforms based on multiple GPUs and CPUs. We demonstrate how the solver provides a 7 times speed-up over an isotropic-scattered parallel Monte Carlo engine based on a radiative transport equation for a domain composed of 2 million voxels, along with a significant improvement in accuracy. The speed-up greatly increases for larger domains, allowing us to compute the light distribution of a full human head ( ≈ 3 million voxels) in 116 s for the platform used.

  6. FORS, Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy con gli spettrometri miniaturizzati per l’identificazione dei pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuesto articolo riporta i risultati del test di un sistema FORS (Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy assemblato con componenti Ocean Optics. Questa ditta ha sviluppato una linea di spettrometri miniaturizzati e dal costo estremamente contenuto. Le trascurabili dimensioni e peso di questo sistema FORS lo rendono uno strumento assolutamente adatto alle indagini dell’arte in cantiere. Sono stati testati 54 pigmenti storici in polvere e stesi con gomma arabica, tempera all’uovo, olio e affresco. Il sistema è stato provato su un quadro dell’800 e su opere murali del barocco siciliano.   This paper shows the results of the testing of a FORS (Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy system assembled with Ocean Optics components and featuring a USB4000 miniaturized and low cost spectrometer. The small dimensions and little weight of this FORS system make it adapt for the specific needs of art examination in the field. 54 historical pigments have been tested both in powder and laid with gum Arabic, egg tempera, linseed oil and fresco. The FORS system was also tested on a 1800s oil painting and on 1700s Sicilian baroque murals and the results compared with multispectral imaging analysis.   

  7. Optical Spectroscopy Measurements of Shock Waves Driven by Intense Z-Pinch Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.; Bernard, M.; Bailey, J.E.; Carlson, A.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Hall, C.A.; Hanson, D.; Johnston, R.; Lake, P.; Lawrence, J.

    1999-01-01

    Z-pinches created using the Z accelerator generate approximately220 TW, 1.7 MJ radiation pulses that heat large (approximately10 cm 3 ) hohlraums to 100-150 eV temperatures for times of order 10 nsec. We are performing experiments exploiting this intense radiation to drive shock waves for equation of state studies. The shock pressures are typically 1-10 Mbar with 10 nsec duration in 6-mm-diameter samples. In this paper we demonstrate the ability to perform optical spectroscopy measurements on shocked samples located in close proximity to the z-pinch. These experiments are particularly well suited to optical spectroscopy measurements because of the relatively large sample size and long duration. The optical emission is collected using fiber optics and recorded with a streaked spectrograph. Other diagnostics include VISAR and active shock breakout measurements of the shocked sample and a suite of diagnostics that characterize the radiation drive. Our near term goal is to use the spectral emission to obtain the temperature of the shocked material. Longer term objectives include the examination of deviations of the spectrum from blackbody, line emission from lower density regions, determination of kinetic processes in molecular systems, evaluation of phase transitions such as the onset of metalization in transparent materials, and characterization of the plasma formed when the shock exits the rear surface. An initial set of data illustrating both the potential and the challenge of these measurements is described

  8. Combined multi-distance frequency domain and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system with simultaneous data acquisition and real-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Stefan A; Farzam, Parisa; Redes, Norin; Hueber, Dennis M; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2017-09-01

    Frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) have emerged as synergistic techniques for the non-invasive assessment of tissue health. Combining FD-NIRS oximetry with DCS measures of blood flow, the tissue oxygen metabolic rate can be quantified, a parameter more closely linked to underlying physiology and pathology than either NIRS or DCS estimates alone. Here we describe the first commercially available integrated instrument, called the "MetaOx", designed to enable simultaneous FD-NIRS and DCS measurements at rates of 10 + Hz, and offering real-time data evaluation. We show simultaneously acquired characterization data demonstrating performance equivalent to individual devices and sample in vivo measurements of pulsation resolved blood flow, forearm occlusion hemodynamic changes and muscle oxygen metabolic rate monitoring during stationary bike exercise.

  9. Optical measurements of absorption changes in two-layered diffusive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Francesco; Sassaroli, Angelo; Henry, Michael E; Fantini, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations for a two-layered diffusive medium to investigate the effect of a superficial layer on the measurement of absorption variations from optical diffuse reflectance data processed by using: (a) a multidistance, frequency-domain method based on diffusion theory for a semi-infinite homogeneous medium; (b) a differential-pathlength-factor method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a homogeneous medium and (c) a two-distance, partial-pathlength method based on a modified Lambert-Beer law for a two-layered medium. Methods (a) and (b) lead to a single value for the absorption variation, whereas method (c) yields absorption variations for each layer. In the simulations, the optical coefficients of the medium were representative of those of biological tissue in the near-infrared. The thickness of the first layer was in the range 0.3-1.4 cm, and the source-detector distances were in the range 1-5 cm, which is typical of near-infrared diffuse reflectance measurements in tissue. The simulations have shown that (1) method (a) is mostly sensitive to absorption changes in the underlying layer, provided that the thickness of the superficial layer is ∼0.6 cm or less; (2) method (b) is significantly affected by absorption changes in the superficial layer and (3) method (c) yields the absorption changes for both layers with a relatively good accuracy of ∼4% for the superficial layer and ∼10% for the underlying layer (provided that the absorption changes are less than 20-30% of the baseline value). We have applied all three methods of data analysis to near-infrared data collected on the forehead of a human subject during electroconvulsive therapy. Our results suggest that the multidistance method (a) and the two-distance partial-pathlength method (c) may better decouple the contributions to the optical signals that originate in deeper tissue (brain) from those that originate in more superficial tissue layers

  10. Diffusion of iron in β-iron telluride (Fe1.12Te) by Moessbauer spectroscopy and tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Tsuji, Toshihide; Naito, Keiji

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of iron in a β-iron telluride (Fe 1.12 Te) polycrystalline sample was measured by Moessbauer diffusional line broadening method which relates to the collapse of coherence in gamma-ray photon by the atomic jump at local sites. The diffusion coefficient of iron along the c-axis in nearly single crystal of β-iron telluride was also measured by tracer technique which shows the results of an atom transport in long distance. The activation energies for the diffusion of iron in Fe 1.12 Te obtained by the Moessbauer spectroscopy and the tracer method were 91.5±5.4 and 106±23 kJ/mol, respectively. The diffusion coefficients of iron in β-iron telluride obtained by Moessbauer line broadening are in fair agreement with the values averaged from that along c-axis obtained by tracer method and that along a- and b-axes obtained from reaction rate constant between iron and tellurium by the previous study of the present authors. (orig.)

  11. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  12. Effective scattering coefficient of the cerebral spinal fluid in adult head models for diffuse optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custo, Anna; Wells, William M., III; Barnett, Alex H.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Boas, David A.

    2006-07-01

    An efficient computation of the time-dependent forward solution for photon transport in a head model is a key capability for performing accurate inversion for functional diffuse optical imaging of the brain. The diffusion approximation to photon transport is much faster to simulate than the physically correct radiative transport equation (RTE); however, it is commonly assumed that scattering lengths must be much smaller than all system dimensions and all absorption lengths for the approximation to be accurate. Neither of these conditions is satisfied in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Since line-of-sight distances in the CSF are small, of the order of a few millimeters, we explore the idea that the CSF scattering coefficient may be modeled by any value from zero up to the order of the typical inverse line-of-sight distance, or approximately 0.3 mm-1, without significantly altering the calculated detector signals or the partial path lengths relevant for functional measurements. We demonstrate this in detail by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the RTE in a three-dimensional head model based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging data, with realistic optode geometries. Our findings lead us to expect that the diffusion approximation will be valid even in the presence of the CSF, with consequences for faster solution of the inverse problem.

  13. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  14. ACADEMIC TRAINING: Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    17, 18, 19 June LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Probing nature with high precision; particle traps, laser spectroscopy and optical combs by G. GABRIELSE / Harvard University, USA Experiments with atomic energy scales probe nature and its symmetries with exquisite precision. Particle traps allow the manipulation of single charged particles for months at a time, allow the most accurate comparison of theory and experiment, and promise to allow better measurement of fundamental quantities like the fine structure constant. Ions and atoms can be probed with lasers that are phase locked to microwave frequency standards via optical combs, thus calibrating optical sources in terms of the official cesium second. A series of three lectures will illustrate what can be measured and discuss key techniques.  ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  15. Comparison of spatially and temporally resolved diffuse transillumination measurement systems for extraction of optical properties of scattering media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rascón, E; Bruce, N C; Garduño-Mejía, J; Carrillo-Torres, R; Hernández-Paredes, J; Álvarez-Ramos, M E

    2017-11-20

    This paper discusses the main differences between two different methods for determining the optical properties of tissue optical phantoms by fitting the spatial and temporal intensity distribution functions to the diffusion approximation theory. The consistency in the values of the optical properties is verified by changing the width of the recipient containing the turbid medium; as the optical properties are an intrinsic value of the scattering medium, independently of the recipient width, the stability in these values for different widths implies a better measurement system for the acquisition of the optical properties. It is shown that the temporal fitting method presents higher stability than the spatial fitting method; this is probably due to the addition of the time of flight parameter into the diffusion theory.

  16. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  17. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography: benefits of using the time-resolved modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography enables the three-dimensional reconstruction of fluorescence markers injected within a biological tissue, with light in the near infrared range. The simple continuous modality uses steady excitation light and operates from the measurements at different positions of the attenuation of the incident beam. This technique is low-cost, non-ionizing, and easy to handle, but subject to low resolution for thick tissues due to diffusion. Hopefully, the time-resolved modality, which provides the time of flight of any detected photon, could overcome this limitation and pave the way to clinical applications. This thesis aims at determining the best way to exploit the time resolved information and at quantifying the advantages of this modality over the standard continuous wave one. Model deviations must be carefully limited when ill-posed problems as fluorescence diffuse optical tomography are considered. As a result, we have first addressed the modelling part of the problem. We have shown that the photons density models to good approximation the measurable quantity that is the quantity measured by an actual acquisition set-up. Then, the moment-based reconstruction scheme has been thoroughly evaluated by means of a theoretical analysis of the moments properties. It was found that the moment-based approach requires high photon counts to be profitable compared to the continuous wave modality. Last, a novel wavelet-based approach, which enables an improved reconstruction quality, has been introduced. This approach has shown good ability to exploit the temporal information at lower photon counts. (author) [fr

  18. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  19. Cerebral NMR spectroscopy to study intracellular space in vivo: methodological development for diffusion weighted spectroscopy at short time scale and for pH measurement using 31P detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchadour, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a unique modality to evaluate intracellular environment in vivo. Indeed observed molecules are specifically intracellular and generally have a biochemistry role and a specific cellular compartmentation. That could be a useful tool to understand cell functioning in their environment. My thesis work consisted in development of new sequence in both diffusion and phosphorus NMR spectroscopy.My first study was to develop a diffusion-weighted spectroscopy at ultra-short diffusion time to look at the anomalous diffusion in the rat brain. ADC evolution as a function of time shows that brain metabolites motion is mainly due to random diffusion and that active transport (if exist) are negligible. Data modeling evidences that diffusion at short diffusion time is sensitive to cytoplasm viscosity and short scale crowding. In collaboration with the pharmaceutical company, this technique was chosen to follow up transgenic mice (rTg4510), model of tau pathology. Preliminary results show significant differences of ADC at an early stage of neuro-degenerescence (3 and 6 months).Phosphorus spectroscopy allows observation of metabolites directly implicated in energetic processes. During this thesis, localization sequences were developed to measure intracellular pH in the primate striatum. These sequences are supposed to be used to evaluate the potential of pH as a bio-marker of neuro-degenerescence in a phenotypic model of the Huntington disease in the non-human primate. (author) [fr

  20. Photoacoustic detection and optical spectroscopy of high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced thermal lesions in biologic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamami, Mosa; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan, E-mail: jtavakkoli@ryerson.ca [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study are: (a) to investigate the capability of photoacoustic (PA) method in detecting high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatments in muscle tissuesin vitro; and (b) to determine the optical properties of HIFU-treated and native tissues in order to assist in the interpretation of the observed contrast in PA detection of HIFU treatments. Methods: A single-element, spherically concaved HIFU transducer with a centre frequency of 1 MHz was utilized to create thermal lesions in chicken breast tissuesin vitro. To investigate the detectability of HIFU treatments photoacoustically, PA detection was performed at 720 and 845 nm on seven HIFU-treated tissue samples. Within each tissue sample, PA signals were acquired from 22 locations equally divided between two regions of interest within two volumes in tissue – a HIFU-treated volume and an untreated volume. Optical spectroscopy was then carried out on 10 HIFU-treated chicken breast specimens in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm, in 1-nm increments, using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere attachment. The authors’ optical spectroscopy raw data (total transmittance and diffuse reflectance) were used to obtain the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of HIFU-induced thermal lesions and native tissues by employing the inverse adding-doubling method. The aforementioned interaction coefficients were subsequently used to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient and light penetration depth of HIFU-treated and native tissues in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm. Results: HIFU-treated tissues produced greater PA signals than native tissues at 720 and 845 nm. At 720 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± standard error of the mean). At 845 nm, the averaged ratio of the peak-to-peak PA signal amplitude of HIFU-treated tissue to that of native tissue was 3.75

  1. Optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudel, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Electronic excitations can be affected by exchange interactions in magnetically coupled systems. Exchange-induced energy splittings in the ground and excited states of dimers and higher cluster of paramagnetic transition metal ions are deduced from luminescence and absorption spectra. An exchange mechanism provides intensity for nominally spin-forbidden transitions. Combined exciton-magnon transitions are characteristic of magnetically ordered materials. Excitation energy transfer can occur as a consequence of exchange couplings in magnetically concentrated materials

  2. [Study on plasma parameters in diffuse discharge with semispherical electrod by optical emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Fang; Tong, Guo-Liang; Shen, Zhong-Kai; Liu, Liang; Ji, Ya-Fei; Zhao, Huan-Huan

    2012-06-01

    The diffuse discharge plasma in air was observed in a dielectric barrier discharge with two semispherical water electrodes. The variations of vibration temperature, rotation temperature, and average electron energy as the function of the applied voltage were studied by emission spectroscopy. The vibration temperature and the rotation temperature were calculated through the second positive band system (C3Pi(u)-->B3Pi(g)) of N2+ and the first negative band system (B2 Sigma(u+)-->Chi2Sigma(g+)) of N(2+) respectively. The average electron energy was studied by intensity ratio of 391.4 and 337.1 nm. It was found that the rotation temperature increases with the applied voltage increasing, while the vibration temperature and the electron energy decrease.

  3. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  4. Diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging guided by computed tomography: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as hemoglobin, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer imaging. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at the wavelength of 650 nm and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements and width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an air-cooling EMCCD camera is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six angular projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 2 and 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we have described our future research plan on integration of a multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  5. A time-domain fluorescence diffusion optical tomography system for breast tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Feng; Wu, LinHui; Ma, Wenjuan; Yang, Fang; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan

    2011-02-01

    A prototype time-domain fluorescence diffusion optical tomography (FDOT) system using near-infrared light is presented. The system employs two pulsed light sources, 32 source fibers and 32 detection channels, working separately for acquiring the temporal distribution of the photon flux on the tissue surface. The light sources are provided by low power picosecond pulsed diode lasers at wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm, and a 1×32-fiber-optic-switch sequentially directs light sources to the object surface through 32 source fibers. The light signals re-emitted from the object are collected by 32 detection fibers connected to four 8×1 fiber-optic-switch and then routed to four time-resolved measuring channels, each of which consists of a collimator, a filter wheel, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) photon-counting head and a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) channel. The performance and efficacy of the designed multi-channel PMT-TCSPC system are assessed by reconstructing the fluorescent yield and lifetime images of a solid phantom.

  6. Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-06-23

    This study aims to assess the clinical utility of a rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric precancer during endoscopic examination. We have developed a real-time fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from gastric tissue in vivo at endoscopy. A total of 5792 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal (n = 5160); dysplasia (n = 155), and adenocarcinoma (n = 477)) were acquired in real-time from 441 tissue sites (normal (n = 396); dysplasia (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma (n = 34)) of 191 gastric patients (normal (n = 172); dysplasia (n = 6), and adenocarcinoma (n = 13)) undergoing routine endoscopic examinations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented to develop robust spectral diagnostic models. The FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the stomach, which can be attributed to changes in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content. PLS-DA and LOPCV show that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy provides diagnostic sensitivities of 96.0%, 81.8% and 88.2%, and specificities of 86.7%, 95.3% and 95.6%, respectively, for the classification of normal, dysplastic and cancerous gastric tissue, superior to either the FP or HW Raman techniques alone. Further dichotomous PLS-DA analysis yields a sensitivity of 90.9% (10/11) and specificity of 95.9% (380/396) for the detection of gastric dysplasia using FP/HW Raman spectroscopy, substantiating its clinical advantages over white light reflectance endoscopy (sensitivity: 90.9% (10/11), and specificity: 51.0% (202/396)). This work demonstrates that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique has great promise for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric

  7. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  8. Potential prospects in archaeological research by using optical spectroscopy through a black glass ocular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, P.; Meulebroeck, W.; Thienpont, H.; Nys, K.

    The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the potential usefulness of optical spectroscopy within the archaeological discourse. We therefore use the standardized color coordinates and the transmittance spectra in the region between 350- 1650 nm of nine fragmented Roman black glass artifacts from archaeological contexts in Avenches (Switzerland) and an intact piece from Tongeren (Belgium). Firstly, we demonstrate how the use of UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy can help the archaeologist in understanding the various excavated features containing glass artifacts. The analysis of the optical spectra of Roman black glass artifacts demonstrates in the first place that an object has a very homogenous composition. The clustering of the different fragments with characteristic spectra permits to connect the pieces from various areas of an excavation to one single object or to several objects from the same batch. These results provide the archaeologist the possibility to merge recognized layers or to connect different features in the surrounding area. Secondly, we demonstrate how the use of UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy can help improve the analysis process. This inexpensive method can facilitate a more convenient and purposive sampling by means of a preliminary inquiry, selecting the most interesting pieces out of a large group of artifacts suitable for chemical analysis.

  9. Study of optic nerve in patients with neuromyelitis optica using diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiye; Zhu Lijun; Lou Xin; Li Jinfeng; Yang Yang; Ma Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of optic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detecting the impairment of optic nerve in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Methods: Conventional MRI and optic DTI were performed in 28 NMO patients and 38 normal controls (NC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured in the anterior part, middle part and posterior part of intraorbital segment of optic nerve. The patients were classified into 3 groups based on the impairment of vision and visual evoked potential (VEP): monocular impairment (MI) group, 10 eyes; biocular impairment (BI) group, 36 eyes; and normal-appearing (NA) group, 10 eyes. All patients were performed with the evaluation of expanded disability status scale (EDSS). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and Spearman correlation analysis were performed among the subgroups of NMO and normal controls. Results: There was significantly statistical difference between the four groups (F=43.54, P<0.01). Decreased FA values were demonstrated in the MI group (0.29 ±0.08), BI group (0.27 ±0.08), and NA group (0.35 ±0.13) compared with NC (0.45 ±0.07) (P<0.01). FA value in BI group was significantly lower than that of NA group (P<0.01). Area under curve by ROC analysis in NC vs MI, NC vs BI, NC vs NA, and NC vs NMO was 0.92, 0.95, 0.74, and 0.91, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity of ROC was 80%, 86%, 50%, and 79%, respectively. The diagnostic specificity of ROC was 95% for the each compared groups. FA value showed no correlation with EDSS for each NMO groups, and showed negative correlation with disease duration for BI group (r=-0.371, P<0.05). Conclusions: Various degrees of optic nerve injuries, indicated by decreased FA value,are present in NMO patients, and optic DTI may be a simple and effective tool for the quantitative evaluation of optic nerve in NMO patients. (authors)

  10. Laser cooling of neutral atoms by red-shifted diffuse light in an optical integral sphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhu; Chen Hongxin; Cai Weiquan; Liu Liang; Zhou Shanyu; Shu Wei; Li Fosheng

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we report a cooling and deceleration experiment of a thermal beam by using a nearly resonant red-shifted diffuse light in an optical integral sphere cavity. With this red-shifted diffuse light, a part of thermal sodium atoms is cooled to 380m/s and the velocity width of cooled atoms is about 20m/s. The mechanism of this kind of laser cooling and the experimental results are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  11. Characterization of tunable light source by optical parametric oscillator for high resolution spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J. W. [Ewha Womens Univ., Seoul (Korea); Rhee, B. G. [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea); Park, S. W. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea); Noh, J. W. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    A tunable light source is developed by the optical parametric oscillator, which is very useful for a high resolution spectroscopy. The electronic structure of molecules and atoms can be examined by a proper coherent light source. Optical parametric oscillator provides light sources stable and widely tunable. In this work, the characteristics of the parametric optical generation are examined in the LiNbO{sub 3}. The theoretical analysis as well as the experimental measurement is performed. The pump laser is a second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser, and the parametric gain is measured. The characteristics of singly resonant oscillator and doubly resonant oscillator is studied as a function of temperature. It is found that 1mole% MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal provides the tunability from 0.6{mu}m to 3.0{mu}m wavelength. Both the critical and noncritical phase matching are studied. The optical damage occurring in a congruent LiNbO{sub 3} crystal was not observed in 1mole% MgO:LiNbO{sub 3} crystal, opening a possibility for a high power optical parametric oscillation generation. The current work can be extended to an experiment employing the fundamental Nd:YAG as pump to provide a coherent light source for the study of molecular vibrations. 28 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  12. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  13. From Selenium- to Tellurium-Based Glass Optical Fibers for Infrared Spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lucas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses are based on sulfur, selenium and tellurium elements, and have been studied for several decades regarding different applications. Among them, selenide glasses exhibit excellent infrared transmission in the 1 to 15 µm region. Due to their good thermo-mechanical properties, these glasses could be easily shaped into optical devices such as lenses and optical fibers. During the past decade of research, selenide glass fibers have been proved to be suitable for infrared sensing in an original spectroscopic method named Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS. FEWS has provided very nice and promising results, for example for medical diagnosis. Then, some sophisticated fibers, also based on selenide glasses, were developed: rare-earth doped fibers and microstructured fibers. In parallel, the study of telluride glasses, which can have transmission up to 28 µm due to its atom heaviness, has been intensified thanks to the DARWIN mission led by the European Space Agency (ESA. The development of telluride glass fiber enables a successful observation of CO2 absorption band located around 15 µm. In this paper we review recent results obtained in the Glass and Ceramics Laboratory at Rennes on the development of selenide to telluride glass optical fibers, and their use for spectroscopy from the mid to the far infrared ranges.

  14. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes.

  15. Development of micro-optics for high-resolution IL spectroscopy with a proton microbeam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-01-01

    Confocal optics for ion luminescence (IL) was developed for the precise analysis of the chemical composition of microscopic targets with an external proton microbeam probe. Anti-reflection-coated confocal micro-lens optics with an effective focus area of approximately 800 × 800 μm was installed on the microbeam line of a single-ended accelerator. Chromatic aberrations of the confocal optics were examined at wavelengths of 300–900 nm. An electrically-cooled back-thinned charge coupled device spectrometer with a wavelength resolution of 0.5 nm was used for the microscopic spectroscopy and IL imaging of microscopic mineral targets. Simultaneous microscopic IL and micro-PIXE analysis were performed using an external 3 MeV H + microbeam with a current of less than 100 pA. A spectral resolution of 3 nm was achieved for a single IL peak which corresponded to Cr 3+ impurities in a single-crystal of aluminum oxide. The use of IL spectroscopy and imaging for aerosol targets revealed microscopic distributions of the chemical and elemental composition in the atmosphere

  16. Interstitial near-infrared photoimmunotherapy: effective treatment areas and light doses needed for use with fiber optic diffusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Shuhei; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Ogata, Fusa; Maruoka, Yasuhiro; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2018-02-16

    Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a promising cancer therapy utilizing an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) and NIR light, which induces rapid necrotic cell death only in APC-bound cells. Effective NIR-PIT in mouse models has been achieved using superficial light illumination (SLI) with light emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, but in the clinical setting, fiber optic diffusers have been employed to deliver light to deeper tumors. However, the performance of NIR light in tissue delivered by fiber optic diffusers is poorly understood. Here, we investigated NIR-PIT using a cylindrical fiber optic diffuser in a mouse model of A431 tumors. NIR-PIT with 100 J/cm, the same light dose used in clinical trials of NIR-PIT, was applied after insertion of the diffuser within the tumor bed, and then both bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging were analyzed to assess the therapeutic efficacy. The diffuser can deliver adequate NIR light dose for effective NIR-PIT to the A431 tumor at a distance of approximately 1 cm around the light source at 100 J/cm. At 50 J/cm NIR light effective NIR-PIT was reduced to a distance of 5 - 7 mm diameter around the light source. These results indicate that the energy of interstitial light (measured in Joules/cm) administered via a fiber diffuser determines the depth of effective NIR-PIT around the diffuser and determines the spacing at which such diffusers should be placed to entirely cover the tumor. Thermal measurements demonstrate that interstitial light for NIR-PIT does not cause damage to the skin overlying the diffuser.

  17. Diffusivity, solubility and thermodynamic modelling of diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3 thin film for integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Zhang, Qun; Zhang, Pei; Kang, Jian; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3(LT) thin film was studied thermodynamically. Some Ga"3"+-doped LT thin films were grown on LT surface by in-diffusion of homogeneously coated Ga_2O_3 film at the temperature range of (1273 to 1473) K. The Ga"3"+ profile in the grown thin film was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Form the measured Ga"3"+ profiles, some thermodynamic parameters were obtained. These include diffusivity, diffusion constant, chemical activation energy, solubility, solubility constant and enthalpy of solution. These parameters are crucial to design and growth of a Ga"3"+-doped LT thin film with desired Ga"3"+ profile for integrated optics application. A thermodynamic model is suggested for the growth and verified experimentally. - Highlights: • Diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3 thin film were studied thermodynamically. • Diffusion constant is 1.41 · 10"−"6 m"2/s and activation energy is 237.2 kJ/mol. • Solubility constant is 22.9 · 10"2"6 ions/m"3 and enthalpy of solution is 28.9 kJ/mol. • Ga"3"+ dopant has small effect on LiTaO_3 refractive index. • Ga"3"+ growth can be described by a Fick-type equation with a constant diffusivity. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study was performed on diffusion growth of Ga"3"+-doped LiTaO_3(LT) thin film for integrated optics. Some Ga"3"+-doped LT thin films were grown on LT surface by in-diffusion of homogeneously coated Ga_2O_3 film at the temperature range of (1273 to 1473) K. After growth, the refractive indices at Ga"3"+-doped and un-doped surface parts were measured by prism coupling technique and Li composition there was evaluated from the measured refractive indices. The results show that Ga"3"+ dopant has small effect on the LT index. Li_2O out-diffusion is not measurable. The Ga"3"+ profile in the grown thin film was analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It is found that the grown Ga"3"+ ions follow a complementary error function profile. A

  18. Development and Optical Testing of the Camera, Hand Lens, and Microscope Probe with Scannable Laser Spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Gursel, Yekta; Sepulveda, Cesar A.; Anderson, Mark; La Baw, Clayton; Johnson, Kenneth R.; Deans, Matthew; Beegle, Luther; Boynton, John

    2008-01-01

    Conducting high resolution field microscopy with coupled laser spectroscopy that can be used to selectively analyze the surface chemistry of individual pixels in a scene is an enabling capability for next generation robotic and manned spaceflight missions, civil, and military applications. In the laboratory, we use a range of imaging and surface preparation tools that provide us with in-focus images, context imaging for identifying features that we want to investigate at high magnification, and surface-optical coupling that allows us to apply optical spectroscopic analysis techniques for analyzing surface chemistry particularly at high magnifications. The camera, hand lens, and microscope probe with scannable laser spectroscopy (CHAMP-SLS) is an imaging/spectroscopy instrument capable of imaging continuously from infinity down to high resolution microscopy (resolution of approx. 1 micron/pixel in a final camera format), the closer CHAMP-SLS is placed to a feature, the higher the resultant magnification. At hand lens to microscopic magnifications, the imaged scene can be selectively interrogated with point spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, microscopic Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (micro-LIBS), laser ablation mass-spectrometry, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and/or Reflectance spectroscopy. This paper summarizes the optical design, development, and testing of the CHAMP-SLS optics.

  19. Collinear laser spectroscopy of manganese isotopes using optical pumping in ISCOOL

    CERN Multimedia

    Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Flanagan, K; Rajabali, M M; Reponen, M; Campbell, P; Procter, T J

    Recently, optical pumping of ions has been achieved inside an ion beam cooler-buncher. By illuminating the central axis of the cooler with laser light, subsequent decay populates selected ionic metastable states. This population enhancement is retained as the ion beam is delivered to an experimental station. In the case of collinear laser spectroscopy, transitions can then be excited from a preferred metastable level, rather than the ground-state. This proposal seeks to establish and develop the technique for ISCOOL. As a test of efficiency, this will be applied to the study of $^{55-66}$Mn isotopes using collinear laser spectroscopy-expanding an earlier study where the benefit of the technique was demonstrated. This will provide nuclear spins, magnetic-dipole and electric-quadrupole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii across N = 40 shell closure candidate and into a region where an onset of deformation, and a new "island of inversion" is predicted.

  20. Deep-level optical spectroscopy investigation of N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2005-01-01

    N-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. Additionally, the 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing by mixing with the O 2p valence band

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging helps differentiate multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica-related acute optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hailin; He, Huijin; Zhang, Fang; Sha, Yan; Tian, Guohong

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-related acute optic neuritis (ON) patients and predict their optic nerve atrophy of optic coherence tomography (OCT) parameters. Nineteen MS and 15 NMO-related acute ON patients who underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging sequence in 3.0 Tesla MR scanner and a follow-up OCT examination after 6 months were included. The ADC values, thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) between MS and NMO related ON were assessed. The mean ADC value of the NMO-ON, (0.691 ± 0.195[SD]) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, was significantly smaller (P = 0.0133) than that of MS-ON. The mean ADC value of MS-ON, (0.879 ± 0.144) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, was significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than that of control group, (1.025 ± 0.067) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s. Using an ADC value smaller than 0.830 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s as the threshold value for differentiating MS-ON from NMO-ON patients, the highest accuracy of 76.7%, with 75.0% sensitivity and 78.3% specificity, was obtained. The ADC value measured at the acute stage of ON was correlated with the thickness of the RNFL (r = 0.441; P = 0.006) and the GCC (r = 0.526; P < 0.0001) after 6 months. The ADC value might be helpful for differentiating MS-ON from NMO-ON patients. The decreased ADC value was correlated with optic nerve atrophy on OCT. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;45:1780-1785. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Measurement of shear-induced diffusion of red blood cells using dynamic light scattering-optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianbo; Erdener, Sefik Evren; Li, Baoqiang; Fu, Buyin; Sakadzic, Sava; Carp, Stefan A.; Lee, Jonghwan; Boas, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic Light Scattering-Optical Coherence Tomography (DLS-OCT) takes the advantages of using DLS to measure particle flow and diffusion within an OCT resolution-constrained 3D volume, enabling the simultaneous measurements of absolute RBC velocity and diffusion coefficient with high spatial resolution. In this work, we applied DLS-OCT to measure both RBC velocity and the shear-induced diffusion coefficient within penetrating venules of the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice. Blood flow laminar profile measurements indicate a blunted laminar flow profile, and the degree of blunting decreases with increasing vessel diameter. The measured shear-induced diffusion coefficient was proportional to the flow shear rate with a magnitude of 0.1 to 0.5 × 10-6 mm2 . These results provide important experimental support for the recent theoretical explanation for why DCS is dominantly sensitive to RBC diffusive motion.

  3. Study of Surface Wettability Change of Unconsolidated Sand Using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómora-Herrera, Diana; Navarrete Bolaños, Juan; Lijanova, Irina V; Olivares-Xometl, Octavio; Likhanova, Natalya V

    2018-04-01

    The effects exerted by the adsorption of vapors of a non-polar compound (deuterated benzene) and a polar compound (water) on the surface of Ottawa sand and a sample of reservoir sand (Channel), which was previously impregnated with silicon oil or two kinds of surfactants, (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium oleate (HETAO) and (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium azelate (HETAA), were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface chemistry of the sandstone rocks was elucidated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Terminal surface groups such as hydroxyls can strongly adsorb molecules that interact with these surface groups (surfactants), resulting in a wettability change. The wettability change effect suffered by the surface after treating it with surfactants was possible to be detected by the DRIFTS technique, wherein it was observed that the surface became more hydrophobic after being treated with silicon oil and HETAO; the surface became more hydrophilic after treating it with HETAA.

  4. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy diffusion laws in the presence of moving nanodomains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šachl, Radek; Bergstrand, J.; Widengren, J.; Hof, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2016), 114002 ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC14-03141J Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : FCS * lipid nanodomains * anomalous diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  5. Pleckstrin Homology Domain Diffusion in Dictyostelium Cytoplasm Studied Using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Hink, Mark A.; Bosgraaf, Leonard; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  6. Pleckstrin homology domain diffusion in Dictyostelium cytoplasm studied using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruchira, A.; Hink, M.A.; Bosgraaf, L.; Haastert, van P.J.M.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2004-01-01

    The translocation of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane plays an important role in the chemotaxis mechanism of Dictyostelium cells. The diffusion of three PH domain-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions (PH2-GFP, PH10-GFP, and PH-CRAC

  7. Identification of prefrontal cortex (BA10) activation while performing Stroop test using diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Sabin; Chityala, Srujan R.; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2011-03-01

    Stroop test is commonly used as a behavior-testing tool for psychological examinations that are related to attention and cognitive control of the human brain. Studies have shown activations in Broadmann area 10 (BA10) of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during attention and cognitive process. The use of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for human brain mapping is becoming more prevalent. In this study we expect to find neural correlates between the performed cognitive tasks and hemodynamic signals detected by a DOT system. Our initial observation showed activation of oxy-hemoglobin concentration in BA 10, which is consistent with some results seen by positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Our study demonstrates the possibility of combining DOT with Stroop test to quantitatively investigate cognitive functions of the human brain at the prefrontal cortex.

  8. Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlu, Alper; Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Rosen, Mark A.; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon R.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-05-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) in vivo images of human breast cancer based on fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT). To our knowledge, this work represents the first reported 3D fluorescence tomography of human breast cancer in vivo. In our protocol, the fluorophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) is injected intravenously. Fluorescence excitation and detection are accomplished in the soft-compression, parallel-plane, transmission geometry using laser sources at 786 nm and spectrally filtered CCD detection. Phantom and in vivo studies confirm the signals are due to ICG fluorescence, rather than tissue autofluorescence and excitation light leakage. Fluorescence images of breast tumors were in good agreement with those of MRI, and with DOT based on endogenous contrast. Tumorto- normal tissue contrast based on ICG fluorescence was two-to-four-fold higher than contrast based on hemoglobin and scattering parameters. In total the measurements demonstrate that FDOT of breast cancer is feasible and promising.

  9. Impact of errors in experimental parameters on reconstructed breast images using diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Lundqvist, Mats; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A

    2018-03-01

    Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (NIR-DOT) is an emerging technology that offers hemoglobin based, functional imaging tumor biomarkers for breast cancer management. The most promising clinical translation opportunities are in the differential diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions, and in early response assessment and guidance for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accurate quantification of the tissue oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration across the field of view, as well as repeatability during longitudinal imaging in the context of therapy guidance, are essential for the successful translation of NIR-DOT to clinical practice. The ill-posed and ill-condition nature of the DOT inverse problem makes this technique particularly susceptible to model errors that may occur, for example, when the experimental conditions do not fully match the assumptions built into the image reconstruction process. To evaluate the susceptibility of DOT images to experimental errors that might be encountered in practice for a parallel-plate NIR-DOT system, we simulated 7 different types of errors, each with a range of magnitudes. We generated simulated data by using digital breast phantoms derived from five actual mammograms of healthy female volunteers, to which we added a 1-cm tumor. After applying each of the experimental error types and magnitudes to the simulated measurements, we reconstructed optical images with and without structural prior guidance and assessed the overall error in the total hemoglobin concentrations (HbT) and in the HbT contrast between the lesion and surrounding area vs. the best-case scenarios. It is found that slight in-plane probe misalignment and plate rotation did not result in large quantification errors. However, any out-of-plane probe tilting could result in significant deterioration in lesion contrast. Among the error types investigated in this work, optical images were the least likely to be impacted by breast shape inaccuracies but suffered the

  10. Improved Algorithms for Accurate Retrieval of UV - Visible Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in Optically Complex, Inshore Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This

  11. Visualisation of details of a complicated inner structure of model objects by the method of diffusion optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, Evgeniy V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V; Shutov, I V

    2002-01-01

    An approximate algorithm is tested for solving the problem of diffusion optical tomography in experiments on the visualisation of details of the inner structure of strongly scattering model objects containing scattering and semitransparent inclusions, as well as absorbing inclusions located inside other optical inhomogeneities. The stability of the algorithm to errors is demonstrated, which allows its use for a rapid (2 - 3 min) image reconstruction of the details of objects with a complicated inner structure. (laser biology and medicine)

  12. Diffuse optical characterization of an exercising patient group with peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mary; Chandra, Malavika; Yu, Guoqiang; Xing, Xiaoman; Han, Sung Wan; Lech, Gwen; Shang, Yu; Durduran, Turgut; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, Arjun G.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common condition with high morbidity. While measurement of tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) has been demonstrated, this is the first study to assess both StO2 and relative blood flow (rBF) in the extremities of PAD patients. Diffuse optics is employed to measure hemodynamic response to treadmill and pedal exercises in 31 healthy controls and 26 patients. For StO2, mild and moderate/severe PAD groups show pronounced differences compared with controls. Pre-exercise mean StO2 is lower in PAD groups by 9.3% to 10.6% compared with means of 63.5% to 66.2% in controls. For pedal, relative rate of return of StO2 to baseline is more rapid in controls (p<0.05). Patterns of rBF also differ among groups. After both exercises, rBF tend to occur at depressed levels among severe PAD patients compared with healthy (p<0.05); post-treadmill, rBF tend to occur at elevated levels among healthy compared with severe PAD patients (p<0.05). Additionally, relative rate of return to baseline StO2 is more rapid among subjects with reduced levels of depression in rBF (p=0.041), even after adjustment for ankle brachial index. This suggests a physiologic connection between rBF and oxygenation that can be measured using diffuse optics, and potentially employed as an evaluative tool in further studies. PMID:23708193

  13. Multi-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography for the discrimination of colonic adenocarcinoma from normal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Bellini, Nicola; Riches, Andrew; Dholakia, Kishan; Herrington, C. Simon

    2013-01-01

    We report a multimodal optical approach using both Raman spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in tandem to discriminate between colonic adenocarcinoma and normal colon. Although both of these non-invasive techniques are capable of discriminating between normal and tumour tissues, they are unable individually to provide both the high specificity and high sensitivity required for disease diagnosis. We combine the chemical information derived from Raman spectroscopy with the texture parameters extracted from OCT images. The sensitivity obtained using Raman spectroscopy and OCT individually was 89% and 78% respectively and the specificity was 77% and 74% respectively. Combining the information derived using the two techniques increased both sensitivity and specificity to 94% demonstrating that combining complementary optical information enhances diagnostic accuracy. These data demonstrate that multimodal optical analysis has the potential to achieve accurate non-invasive cancer diagnosis. PMID:24156073

  14. Optical feedback in dfb quantum cascade laser for mid-infrared cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terabayashi, Ryohei, E-mail: terabayashi.ryouhei@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Sonnenschein, Volker, E-mail: volker@nagoya-u.jp; Tomita, Hideki, E-mail: tomita@nagoya-u.jp; Hayashi, Noriyoshi, E-mail: hayashi.noriyoshi@h.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Kato, Shusuke, E-mail: katou.shuusuke@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Jin, Lei, E-mail: kin@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yamanaka, Masahito, E-mail: yamanaka@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Nishizawa, Norihiko, E-mail: nishizawa@nuee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Sato, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.sato@sekisui.com; Nozawa, Kohei, E-mail: kohei.nozawa@sekisui.com; Hashizume, Kenta, E-mail: kenta.hashizume@sekisui.com; Oh-hara, Toshinari, E-mail: toshinari.ohara@sekisui.com [Sekisui Medical Co., Ltd., Drug Development Solutions Center (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo, E-mail: t-iguchi@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Department of Quantum Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    A simple external optical feedback system has been applied to a distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB QCL) for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and a clear effect of feedback was observed. A long external feedback path length of up to 4m can decrease the QCL linewidth to around 50kHz, which is of the order of the transmission linewidth of our high finesse ring-down cavity. The power spectral density of the transmission signal from high finesse cavity reveals that the noise at frequencies above 20kHz is reduced dramatically.

  15. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2018-04-20

    This review article covers the present status of isotope detection through emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy of atoms and molecules in a laser-produced plasma formed from a solid sample. A description of the physics behind isotope shifts in atoms and molecules is presented, followed by the physics behind solid sampling of laser ablation plumes, optical methods for isotope measurements, the suitable physical conditions of laser-produced plasma plumes for isotopic analysis, and the current status. Finally, concluding remarks will be made on the existing gaps between previous works in the literature and suggestions for future work.

  16. Optical-fiber-based laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for detection of early caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system targeting for the in vivo analysis of tooth enamel is described. The system is planned to enable real-time analysis of teeth during laser dental treatment by utilizing a hollow optical fiber that transmits both Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light for LIBS and infrared Er:YAG laser light for tooth ablation. The sensitivity of caries detection was substantially improved by expanding the spectral region under analysis to ultraviolet (UV) light and by focusing on emission peaks of Zn in the UV region. Subsequently, early caries were distinguished from healthy teeth with accuracy rates above 80% in vitro.

  17. High resolution optical spectroscopy of air-induced electrical instabilities in n-type polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Riccardo; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2012-07-03

    We use high-resolution charge-accumulation optical spectroscopy to measure charge accumulation in the channel of an n-type organic field-effect transistor. We monitor the degradation of device performance in air, correlate the onset voltage shift with the reduction of charge accumulated in the polymer semiconductor, and explain the results in view of the redox reaction between the polymer, water and oxygen in the accumulation layer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  19. Dynamic studies of small animals with a four-color diffuse optical tomography imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Christoph H.; Graber, Harry L.; Pei Yaling; Farber, Mark; Stewart, Mark; Levina, Rita D.; Levin, Mikhail B.; Xu Yong; Barbour, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    We present newly developed instrumentation for full-tomographic four-wavelength, continuous wave, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) imaging on small animals. A small-animal imaging stage was constructed, from materials compatible with in-magnet studies, which offers stereotaxic fixation of the animal and precise, stable probe positioning. Instrument performance, based on calibration and phantom studies, demonstrates excellent long-term signal stability. DOT measurements of the functional rat brain response to electric paw stimulation are presented, and these demonstrate high data quality and excellent sensitivity to hemodynamic changes. A general linear model analysis on individual trials is used to localize and quantify the occurrence of functional behavior associated with the different hemoglobin state responses. Statistical evaluation of outcomes of individual trials is employed to identify significant regional response variations for different stimulation sites. Image results reveal a diffuse cortical response and a strong reaction of the thalamus, both indicative of activation of pain pathways by the stimulation. In addition, a weaker lateralized functional component is observed in the brain response, suggesting presence of motor activation. An important outcome of the experiment is that it shows that reactions to individual provocations can be monitored, without having to resort to signal averaging. Thus the described technology may be useful for studies of long-term trends in hemodynamic response, as would occur, for example, in behavioral studies involving freely moving animals

  20. Optical and Magnetic Resonance Studies of Na-Diffused ZnO Bulk Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, E. R.; Garces, N. Y.; Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2013-03-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz were performed on bulk ZnO crystals after diffusion of Na impurities that were explored as an alternate doping source for p-type conductivity. PL at 2K revealed strong bandedge excitonic recombination at 3.361 eV and a broad ``orange'' PL band at 2.17 eV with FWHM of ~0.5 eV. This ``orange'' emission is very similar to that reported previously[1] from thermoluminescence measurements of intentionally Na-doped bulk ZnO and, thus, strongly suggests the incorporation and activation of the Na-diffused impurities. ODMR performed on this ``orange'' PL revealed two signals. The first was a sharp feature with g-value of ~1.96 and is a well-known ``fingerprint'' of shallow donors in ZnO. The second signal consisted of a pair of lines with an intensity ratio of ~3:1 and with g-tensors (g∥,g⊥ ~2.008-2.029) very similar to ESR signals attributed previously[2] to holes bound to Na impurities located at the axial and non-axial Zn host lattice sites in Na-doped ZnO. Thus, the ``orange'' PL can be tentatively assigned to radiative recombination between residual shallow donors and deep Na-related hole traps.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of Eu3+ doped Th(MoO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskar, Meera; Phatak, Rohan; Gupta, Santhosh; Natarajan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Eu 3+ is often used as a structural probe, because of the relative simplicity of its energy-level structure and dependence on its site symmetry in the host material. The phonon energy of the host for rare-earth ions is a crucial factor to be considered for developing luminescent materials.Thorium molybdate can satisfy both low phonon energy environment for rare-earth ions and good chemical and mechanical stabilities for practical use. Thus Eu 3+ doped Th(MoO 4 ) 2 are expected to be a good promising optical materials. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on optical spectroscopy of Eu 3+ doped thorium molybdate and thus work has been carried out and discussed in this paper

  2. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Falomo, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B., E-mail: angela.sandrinelli@brera.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  3. Towards optical fibre based Raman spectroscopy for the detection of surgical site infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J.; Koziej, Lukasz; Williams, Huw D.; Elson, Daniel S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common post-surgical complications that remain significant clinical problems, as they are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. As such, there is significant interest in the development of minimally invasive techniques that permit early detection of SSIs. To this end, we are applying a compact, clinically deployable Raman spectrometer coupled to an optical fibre probe to the study of bacteria, with the long term goal of using Raman spectroscopy to detect infection in vivo. Our system comprises a 785 nm laser diode for excitation and a commercial (Ocean Optics, Inc.) Raman spectrometer for detection. Here we discuss the design, optimisation and validation of this system, and describe our first experiences interrogating bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) in vitro.

  4. Investigation of optical pump on dielectric tunability in PZT/PT thin film by THz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Luo, Chunya; Rao, Yunkun; Ling, Furi; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-07-11

    The dielectric spectra of single-layer PbTiO3 (PT), single-layer PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) and multilayer PZT/PT thin films under an external optical field were investigated at room temperature by time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. Results showed that the real part of permittivity increased upon application of an external optical field, which could be interpreted as hardening of the soft mode and increasing of the damping coefficient and oscillator strength. Furthermore, the central mode was observed in the three films. Among the dielectric property of the three thin films studied, the tunability of the PZT/PT superlattice was the largest.

  5. Spectrally selective molecular doped solids: spectroscopy, photophysics and their application to ultrafast optical pulse processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The persistent spectral hole-burning (PSHB) phenomenon observed in molecular doped polymers cooled down to liquid helium temperatures allows the engraving of spectral structures in the inhomogeneous absorption profile of the material. This phenomenon known since 1974 has became a fruitful field for the study of the intimacy of complex molecular systems in the solid state, revealing high-resolution spectroscopy, photophysics, photochemistry and dynamics of molecular doped amorphous media, organic as well as inorganic. A PSHB molecular doped solid can be programmed in spectral domain and therefore, it can be converted in an optical processor capable to achieve user-defined optical functions. Some aspects of this field are illustrated in the present paper. An application is presented where a naphthalocyanine doped polymer film is used in a demonstrative experiment to prove that temporal aberration free re-compression of ultra-short light pulses is feasible. Perspectives for the coherent control of light fields or photochemical processes are also evoked

  6. Circularly polarized infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation spectroscopy: Vibrational optical activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Sangheon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2005-01-01

    Vibrational optical activity spectroscopies utilizing either circularly polarized ir or circularly polarized visible beams were theoretically investigated by considering the infrared and visible sum-frequency-generation (IV-SFG) schemes. In addition to the purely electric dipole-allowed chiral component of the IV-SFG susceptibility, the polarizability-electric quadrupole hyperpolarizability term also contributes to the vibrationally resonant IV-SFG susceptibility. The circular-intensity-difference signal is shown to be determined by the interferences between the all-electric dipole-allowed chiral component and the polarizability-electric-dipole or electric-dipole-electric-quadrupole Raman optical activity tensor components. The circularly polarized SFG methods are shown to be potentially useful coherent spectroscopic tools for determining absolute configurations of chiral molecules in condensed phases

  7. Challenges and opportunities in clinical translation of biomedical optical spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Jermyn, Michael; Leblond, Frederic

    2018-03-01

    Medical devices face many hurdles before they enter routine clinical practice to address unmet clinical needs. This is also the case for biomedical optical spectroscopy and imaging systems that are used here to illustrate the opportunities and challenges involved. Following initial concept, stages in clinical translation include instrument development, preclinical testing, clinical prototyping, clinical trials, prototype-to-product conversion, regulatory approval, commercialization, and finally clinical adoption and dissemination, all in the face of potentially competing technologies. Optical technologies face additional challenges from their being extremely diverse, often targeting entirely different diseases and having orders-of-magnitude differences in resolution and tissue penetration. However, these technologies can potentially address a wide variety of unmet clinical needs since they provide rich intrinsic biochemical and structural information, have high sensitivity and specificity for disease detection and localization, and are practical, safe (minimally invasive, nonionizing), and relatively affordable.

  8. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 2. Molecules and photons - Spectroscopy and collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter [Max-Born-Institut fuer Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    This is the second volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 2 introduces lasers and quantum optics, while the main focus is on the structure of molecules and their spectroscopy, as well as on collision physics as the continuum counterpart to bound molecular states. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  9. Plasmonic optical antenna design for performing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharintsev, S S; Fishman, A I; Salakhov, M Kh; Hoffmann, G G

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights optical plasmonic antennas designed with dc-pulsed low-voltage electrochemical etching of a gold wire for implementing tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) measurements. We demonstrate a versatile electrochemical system that allows one to engineer TERS-active metallic gold tips with diverse shapes and sizes in a highly reproducible fashion. The underlying etching mechanism at a voltage-driven meniscus around a gold wire immersed into an electrolyte is discussed in detail. We show that the developed method is suitable to produce not only the simplest geometries such as cones and spheroids, but more complex designs. Attempts have been made to design plasmonic tapered antennas with quasi-uniformly spaced nano-sized bumps on the mesoscopic zone for the extra surface plasmon-light coupling. The capability of the patterned antenna to enhance and localize optical fields is demonstrated with near-field Raman microscopy and spectroscopy of single-walled carbon nanotubes bundles. (paper)

  10. High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Electron Spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salewski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for investigating complex quantum mechanical systems. While it was conceived decades ago in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using microwaves and radio waves, it has recently been extended into the visible and UV spectral range. However, resolving MHz energy splittings with ultrashort laser pulses still remains a challenge. Here, we analyze two-dimensional Fourier spectra for resonant optical excitation of resident electrons to localized trions or donor-bound excitons in semiconductor nanostructures subject to a transverse magnetic field. Particular attention is devoted to Raman coherence spectra, which allow one to accurately evaluate tiny splittings of the electron ground state and to determine the relaxation times in the electron spin ensemble. A stimulated steplike Raman process induced by a sequence of two laser pulses creates a coherent superposition of the ground-state doublet which can be retrieved only optically because of selective excitation of the same subensemble with a third pulse. This provides the unique opportunity to distinguish between different complexes that are closely spaced in energy in an ensemble. The related experimental demonstration is based on photon-echo measurements in an n-type CdTe/(Cd,MgTe quantum-well structure detected by a heterodyne technique. The difference in the sub-μeV range between the Zeeman splittings of donor-bound electrons and electrons localized at potential fluctuations can be resolved even though the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transitions is larger by 2 orders of magnitude.

  11. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fayed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1H-MRS (1.5 T of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA by MR-DTI. RESULTS: Myo-inositol (mI was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019. We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045, NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003 and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047 in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  12. Estimation of biomedical optical properties by simultaneous use of diffuse reflectometry and photothermal radiometry: investigation of light propagation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E. S. R.; de Jesus, M. E. P.

    2007-07-01

    The estimation of optical properties of highly turbid and opaque biological tissue is a difficult task since conventional purely optical methods rapidly loose sensitivity as the mean photon path length decreases. Photothermal methods, such as pulsed or frequency domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR), on the other hand, show remarkable sensitivity in experimental conditions that produce very feeble optical signals. Photothermal Radiometry is primarily sensitive to absorption coefficient yielding considerably higher estimation errors on scattering coefficients. Conversely, purely optical methods such as Local Diffuse Reflectance (LDR) depend mainly on the scattering coefficient and yield much better estimates of this parameter. Therefore, at moderate transport albedos, the combination of photothermal and reflectance methods can improve considerably the sensitivity of detection of tissue optical properties. The authors have recently proposed a novel method that combines FD-PTR with LDR, aimed at improving sensitivity on the determination of both optical properties. Signal analysis was performed by global fitting the experimental data to forward models based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Although this approach is accurate, the associated computational burden often limits its use as a forward model. Therefore, the application of analytical models based on the diffusion approximation offers a faster alternative. In this work, we propose the calculation of the diffuse reflectance and the fluence rate profiles under the δ-P I approximation. This approach is known to approximate fluence rate expressions better close to collimated sources and boundaries than the standard diffusion approximation (SDA). We extend this study to the calculation of the diffuse reflectance profiles. The ability of the δ-P I based model to provide good estimates of the absorption, scattering and anisotropy coefficients is tested against Monte-Carlo simulations over a wide range of scattering to

  13. Clinical research device for ovarian cancer detection by optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet C-visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ronie; Chandrasekaran, Archana; Brewer, Molly A.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2010-09-01

    Early detection of ovarian cancer could greatly increase the likelihood of successful treatment. However, present detection techniques are not very effective, and symptoms are more commonly seen in later stage disease. Amino acids, structural proteins, and enzymatic cofactors have endogenous optical properties influenced by precancerous changes and tumor growth. We present the technical details of an optical spectroscopy system used to quantify these properties. A fiber optic probe excites the surface epithelium (origin of 90% of cases) over 270 to 580 nm and collects fluorescence and reflectance at 300 to 800 nm with four or greater orders of magnitude instrument to background suppression. Up to four sites per ovary are investigated on patients giving consent to oophorectomy and the system's in vivo optical evaluation. Data acquisition is completed within 20 s per site. We illustrate design, selection, and development of the components used in the system. Concerns relating to clinical use, performance, calibration, and quality control are addressed. In the future, spectroscopic data will be compared with histological biopsies from the corresponding tissue sites. If proven effective, this technique can be useful in screening women at high risk of developing ovarian cancer to determine whether oophorectomy is necessary.

  14. Photoacoustic spectroscopy applied to the optical characterization of calcium phosphates for biomedical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, M. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz O, A. [CINVESTAV, Dept. of Physics, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS), based on the Rosencwaig and Gersho model, has been used for thermal and optical characterization of diverse materials. The use of PAS has become an important tool because is a nondestructive and no contact analytical technique. Furthermore its use to measure optical absorption spectra has advantages over the usual transmission measurements due to important features as the fact that scattered light does not disturb the measurements significantly and also the sample don't need to be prepared to have good quality surfaces. Then the optical properties of biological samples can be easily investigated with this technique. In the present study PAS is applied to obtain the optical absorption spectra of hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca{sub 10} (PO{sub 4} ){sub 6} (OH ){sub 2}] and bioactive calcium phosphates. The spectra of these samples ranged from 300 to 800 nm. All samples were prepared in a power form with particle size < 741m. Complementary studies X-ray diffraction and EDC were performed. (Author)

  15. Microwave-optical double resonance spectroscopy. Progress report, February 1, 1975--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Zero-field and high-field optical detection of magnetic resonance (ODMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and optical spectroscopy experiments were performed on several systems in order to further basic knowledge of the structure, reactions, and response to radiation of atoms, molecules, and ions. Results on the following studies are reported: the direct observation of level anticrossing and mixing effects in excited molecular triplet states; anomalous zero-field splittings in the lowest triplet state of 1-iodonaphthalene; evidence for second-order spin-orbit coupling and spin delocalization effects in the lowest triplet state of benzophenone; direct observation of the optical absorption spectra of reactive free radicals at room temperature; measurements of the activation and thermodynamic parameters of several cyclohexenyl and cyclohexanonyl radicals; complete analyses of the level anticrossing and cross relaxation spectra of oriented molecular triplet states; solutions to the spin Hamiltonian for S = 1, I = 5/2 systems in both zero-field and high-field, an improvement by a factor of ten in the resolution of ODMR experiments in high field; and measurements of the optical and magnetic resonance properties of a series of halogenated naphthalenes in their lowest triplet states

  16. Determination of diffusion coefficients in Au/Ni thin films by Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Lettif, Ahmed M. [Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University, Hilla (Iraq)

    2004-07-01

    Interdiffusion in vacuum-deposited Au/Ni thin films at temperatures in the range 200-500 C has been investigated using the Auger depth profiling technique and X-ray diffraction analysis. A modified Wipple model was used to determine the diffusion coefficients of Ni in Au to be 5.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 500 C, 4.0 x 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2}/s at 400 C, 2.5 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 C, and 1.2 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/s at 200 C. An activation energy of 0.87 eV was calculated. The present diffusion data differ significantly from the corresponding values extracted by some other investigators and the reasons for this disagreement were discussed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Effect of Shot Noise on Simultaneous Sensing in Frequency Division Multiplexed Diffuse Optical Tomographic Imaging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hansol; Lim, Gukbin; Hong, Keum-Shik; Cho, Jaedu; Gulsen, Gultekin; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2017-11-28

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has been studied for use in the detection of breast cancer, cerebral oxygenation, and cognitive brain signals. As optical imaging studies have increased significantly, acquiring imaging data in real time has become increasingly important. We have developed frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) DOT systems to analyze their performance with respect to acquisition time and imaging quality, in comparison with the conventional time-division multiplexing (TDM) DOT. A large tomographic area of a cylindrical phantom 60 mm in diameter could be successfully reconstructed using both TDM DOT and FDM DOT systems. In our experiment with 6 source-detector (S-D) pairs, the TDM DOT and FDM DOT systems required 6.18 and 1 s, respectively, to obtain a single tomographic data set. While the absorption coefficient of the reconstruction image was underestimated in the case of the FDM DOT, we experimentally confirmed that the abnormal region can be clearly distinguished from the background phantom using both methods.

  18. Solid tissue simulating phantoms having absorption at 970 nm for diffuse optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon T.; Lentsch, Griffin R.; Trieu, Brandon; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-07-01

    Tissue simulating phantoms can provide a valuable platform for quantitative evaluation of the performance of diffuse optical devices. While solid phantoms have been developed for applications related to characterizing exogenous fluorescence and intrinsic chromophores such as hemoglobin and melanin, we report the development of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) tissue phantom that mimics the spectral characteristics of tissue water. We have developed these phantoms to mimic different water fractions in tissue, with the purpose of testing new devices within the context of clinical applications such as burn wound triage. Compared to liquid phantoms, cured PDMS phantoms are easier to transport and use and have a longer usable life than gelatin-based phantoms. As silicone is hydrophobic, 9606 dye was used to mimic the optical absorption feature of water in the vicinity of 970 nm. Scattering properties are determined by adding titanium dioxide, which yields a wavelength-dependent scattering coefficient similar to that observed in tissue in the near-infrared. Phantom properties were characterized and validated using the techniques of inverse adding-doubling and spatial frequency domain imaging. Results presented here demonstrate that we can fabricate solid phantoms that can be used to simulate different water fractions.

  19. CCD-camera-based diffuse optical tomography to study ischemic stroke in preclinical rat models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jing; Niu, Haijing; Liu, Yueming; Su, Jianzhong; Liu, Hanli

    2011-02-01

    Stroke, due to ischemia or hemorrhage, is the neurological deficit of cerebrovasculature and is the third leading cause of death in the United States. More than 80 percent of stroke patients are ischemic stroke due to blockage of artery in the brain by thrombosis or arterial embolism. Hence, development of an imaging technique to image or monitor the cerebral ischemia and effect of anti-stoke therapy is more than necessary. Near infrared (NIR) optical tomographic technique has a great potential to be utilized as a non-invasive image tool (due to its low cost and portability) to image the embedded abnormal tissue, such as a dysfunctional area caused by ischemia. Moreover, NIR tomographic techniques have been successively demonstrated in the studies of cerebro-vascular hemodynamics and brain injury. As compared to a fiberbased diffuse optical tomographic system, a CCD-camera-based system is more suitable for pre-clinical animal studies due to its simpler setup and lower cost. In this study, we have utilized the CCD-camera-based technique to image the embedded inclusions based on tissue-phantom experimental data. Then, we are able to obtain good reconstructed images by two recently developed algorithms: (1) depth compensation algorithm (DCA) and (2) globally convergent method (GCM). In this study, we will demonstrate the volumetric tomographic reconstructed results taken from tissuephantom; the latter has a great potential to determine and monitor the effect of anti-stroke therapies.

  20. Performance analysis of stationary Hadamard matrix diffusers in free-space optical communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Derek J.; Middlebrook, Christopher T.

    2017-08-01

    Wireless communication systems that employ free-space optical links in place of radio/microwave technologies carry substantial benefits in terms of data throughput, network security and design efficiency. Along with these advantages comes the challenge of counteracting signal degradation caused by atmospheric turbulence in free-space environments. A fully coherent laser source experiences random phase delays along its traversing path in turbulent conditions forming a speckle pattern and lowering the received signal-to-noise ratio upon detection. Preliminary research has shown that receiver-side speckle contrast may be significantly reduced and signal-to-noise ratio increased accordingly through the use of a partially coherent light source. While dynamic diffusers and adaptive optics solutions have been proven effective, they also add expense and complexity to a system that relies on accessibility and robustness for successful implementation. A custom Hadamard diffractive matrix design is used to statically induce partial coherence in a transmitted beam to increase signal-to-noise ratio for experimental turbulence scenarios. Atmospheric phase screens are generated using an open-source software package and subsequently loaded into a spatial light modulator using nematic liquid crystals to modulate the phase.