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Sample records for diffuse infiltrative lung

  1. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  2. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

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    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joung Sook [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  3. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A; Kim, Joung Sook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  4. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  5. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  6. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  7. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

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    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  8. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

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    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

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    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  10. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

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    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  11. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Leukemic Infiltration of the Lung

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    Yao-Kuang Wu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count.

  12. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

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    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  14. Diffuse lung disease: Pneumoconioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the 1980 International Labour Organization classification of the pneumoconioses. Emphasis is on the common pneumoconioses, that is, silicosis, coalworker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal disease. Examples of the five radiographic forms of silicosis-simple and complicated silicosis, Caplan syndrome, silicotuberculosis, and acute silicosis- are presented, and the differential diagnoses are discussed. Discussion of asbestos-related disease included pleural manifestations such as plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, and asbestos pleural effusion as well as asbestosis and malignancies associated with asbestos exposure, such as bronchogenic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. Although the standard radiographic findings are stressed, the use of CT in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and the staging of dust-related malignancies is also discussed

  15. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  16. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

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    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  17. Correlation between surgical lung biopsy and autopsy findings and clinical data in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory failure Correlação entre achados de biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica e de autópsia e dados clínicos em pacientes com infiltrados pulmonares difusos e insuficiência respiratória aguda

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    Mauro Canzian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surgical lung biopsy is an invasive procedure performed when other procedures have failed to provide an urgent and specific diagnosis, but there may be reluctance to perform it in critically ill patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, the changes in therapy and survival of patients with diffuse lung infiltrates, mostly presenting acute respiratory failure, who underwent surgical biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively examined medical records and surgical lung biopsies from 1982 to 2003 of 63 patients older than 18 years with diffuse infiltrates. Clinical diagnoses were compared to histopathological ones, from biopsies and autopsies. Laboratory and epidemiological data were evaluated, and their relationship to hospital survival was analyzed. RESULTS: All histological specimens exhibited abnormalities, mostly presenting benign/inflammatory etiologies. Fifteen patients had an etiologic factor determined in biopsy, most commonly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The preoperative diagnosis was rectified in 37 patients. Autopsies were obtained in 25 patients and confirmed biopsy results in 72% of cases. Therapy was changed for 65% of patients based on biopsy results. Forty-nine percent of patients survived to be discharged from the hospital. Characteristics that differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors included sex (P = 0.05, presence of comorbidity (P = 0.05, SpO2 (P = 0.05, and presence of diffuse alveolar damage in the biopsy (P = 0.004. CONCLUSION: Surgical lung biopsy provided a specific, accurate etiologic diagnosis in many patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates when clinical improvement did not occur after standard treatment. Surgical lung biopsy may reveal a specific diagnosis that requires distinct treatment, and it would probably have an impact in lowering the mortality of these patients.INTRODUÇÃO: A biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica é um procedimento invasivo

  18. Hazy increased density in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.S.; Webb, W.R.; Gamsu, G.; Warnock, M.; Park, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of ground glass density on high-resolution CT scans of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other lung disorders, the authors have reviewed 200 high-resolution CT studies and found 50 cases demonstrating areas of hazy increased lung density. Disease entities most often associated with this finding included DIP, UIP, alveolar proteinosis, sarcoidosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans/ organizing pneumonia. Pathologic examination revealed either cellular or fluid material lining terminal air spaces, often associated with alveolar wall infiltration and an absence of fibrosis. Gallium scans and bronchoalveolar lavage in some cases showed active inflammation Follow-up high-resolution CT studies in 10 patients showed either change or resolution of the hazy densities, confirming the presence of a reversible parenchymal lesion

  19. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

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    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  20. Lung diffusion of soluble radioaerosols in scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.K.; Taplin, G.V.; Tashkin, D.P.; Elam, D.

    1978-01-01

    Diffusion rates of soluble radioaerosols of sodium pertechnetate (/sup 99m/TcO 4 ; mol. wt. 163) and diethylentriaminepentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; mol. wt. 492) were determined in ten normal subjects and ten patients with scleroderma having lung involvement. Twenty millicuries (mCi) each of /sup 99m/TcO 4 and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA in 5 ml saline were aerosolized and inhaled on two different days. Initial lung retention after three minutes of administration was approximately 2 mCi. Two regions of interest over each posterior lung field were monitored with a scintillation camera and data were stored on magnetic tape. Decreasing levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically and half time (T 1 / 2 ) removal rates were calculated

  1. Evaluation of MR diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busard, M.P.H.; Pieters-van den Bos, I.C.; Mijatovic, V.; Van Kuijk, C.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel may be difficult to differentiate from colorectal carcinoma in cases that present with non-specific clinical and imaging features. The aim of this study is to assess the value of MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating endometriosis infiltrating the bowel from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: In 66 patients, MR DWI was added to the standard imaging protocol in patients visiting our outdoor MR clinic for the analysis of suspected or known deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). In patients diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging, high b-value diffusion-weighted images were qualitatively assessed by two readers in consensus and compared to high b-value diffusion weighted images in 15 patients evaluated for colorectal carcinoma. In addition, ADC values of lesions were calculated, using b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm 2 . Results: A total of 15 patients were diagnosed with DIE infiltrating the bowel on MR imaging. Endometriosis infiltrating the bowel showed low signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients, whereas colorectal carcinoma showed high signal intensity on high b-value diffusion-weighted images in all patients. Mean ADC value in endometriosis infiltrating the bowel (0.80 ± 0.06 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower compared to mean ADC value in colorectal carcinoma (0.86 ± 0.06 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s), but with considerable overlap between ADC values. Conclusion: Only qualitative assessment of MR DWI may be valuable to facilitate differentiation between endometriosis infiltrating the bowel and colorectal carcinoma.

  2. Gamma Delta T-Cells Regulate Inflammatory Cell Infiltration of the Lung after Trauma-Hemorrhage

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    2015-06-01

    suggesting a role for this T- cell subset in both innate and acquired immunity (7, 8). Studies have shown that +% T cells are required for both controlled...increased infiltration of both lymphoid and myeloid cells in WT mice after TH-induced ALI. In parallel to +% T cells , myeloid cells (i.e., monocytes...GAMMA DELTA T CELLS REGULATE INFLAMMATORY CELL INFILTRATION OF THE LUNG AFTER TRAUMA-HEMORRHAGE Meenakshi Rani,* Qiong Zhang,* Richard F. Oppeltz

  3. Nicotinamide exacerbates hypoxemia in ventilator-induced lung injury independent of neutrophil infiltration.

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    Heather D Jones

    Full Text Available Ventilator-induced lung injury is a form of acute lung injury that develops in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and has a high degree of mortality. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase is an enzyme that is highly upregulated in ventilator-induced lung injury and exacerbates the injury when given exogenously. Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 directly inhibits downstream pathways activated by Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and is protective in other models of acute lung injury.We administered nicotinamide i.p. to mice undergoing mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes to study the effects of nicotinamide on ventilator-induced lung injury. Measures of injury included oxygen saturations and bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil counts, protein, and cytokine levels. We also measured expression of nicotinamide phosophoribosyltransferase, and its downstream effectors Sirt1 and Cebpa, Cebpb, Cebpe. We assessed the effect of nicotinamide on the production of nitric oxide during ventilator-induced lung injury. We also studied the effects of ventilator-induced lung injury in mice deficient in C/EBPε.Nicotinamide treatment significantly inhibited neutrophil infiltration into the lungs during ventilator-induced lung injury, but did not affect protein leakage or cytokine production. Surprisingly, mice treated with nicotinamide developed significantly worse hypoxemia during mechanical ventilation. This effect was not linked to increases in nitric oxide production or alterations in expression of Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase, Sirt1, or Cebpa and Cebpb. Cebpe mRNA levels were decreased with either nicotinamide treatment or mechanical ventilation, but mice lacking C/EBPε developed the same degree of hypoxemia and ventilator-induced lung injury as wild-type mice.Nicotinamide treatment during VILI inhibits neutrophil infiltration of the lungs consistent with a strong anti-inflammatory effect, but paradoxically also leads to the

  4. Quantitative stratification of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

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    Sushravya Raghunath

    Full Text Available Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients.

  5. Quantitative Stratification of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases

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    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Maldonado, Fabien; Peikert, Tobias; Moua, Teng; Ryu, Jay H.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) are characterized by widespread pathological changes within the pulmonary tissue that impair the elasticity and gas exchange properties of the lungs. Clinical-radiological diagnosis of these diseases remains challenging and their clinical course is characterized by variable disease progression. These challenges have hindered the introduction of robust objective biomarkers for patient-specific prediction based on specific phenotypes in clinical practice for patients with DPLD. Therefore, strategies facilitating individualized clinical management, staging and identification of specific phenotypes linked to clinical disease outcomes or therapeutic responses are urgently needed. A classification schema consistently reflecting the radiological, clinical (lung function and clinical outcomes) and pathological features of a disease represents a critical need in modern pulmonary medicine. Herein, we report a quantitative stratification paradigm to identify subsets of DPLD patients with characteristic radiologic patterns in an unsupervised manner and demonstrate significant correlation of these self-organized disease groups with clinically accepted surrogate endpoints. The proposed consistent and reproducible technique could potentially transform diagnostic staging, clinical management and prognostication of DPLD patients as well as facilitate patient selection for clinical trials beyond the ability of current radiological tools. In addition, the sequential quantitative stratification of the type and extent of parenchymal process may allow standardized and objective monitoring of disease, early assessment of treatment response and mortality prediction for DPLD patients. PMID:24676019

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

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    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  7. Infiltrative Lung Diseases: Complications of Novel Antineoplastic Agents in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

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    Bobbak Vahid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infiltrative lung disease is a well-known complication of antineoplastic agents in patients with hematological malignancies. Novel agents are constantly being added to available treatments. The present review discusses different pulmonary syndromes, pathogenesis and management of these novel agents.

  8. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema.

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    van Agteren, Joseph Em; Carson, Kristin V; Tiong, Leong Ung; Smith, Brian J

    2016-10-14

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) performed to treat patients with severe diffuse emphysema was reintroduced in the nineties. Lung volume reduction surgery aims to resect damaged emphysematous lung tissue, thereby increasing elastic properties of the lung. This treatment is hypothesised to improve long-term daily functioning and quality of life, although it may be costly and may be associated with risks of morbidity and mortality. Ten years have passed since the last version of this review was prepared, prompting us to perform an update. The objective of this review was to gather all available evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) versus non-surgical standard therapy in improving health outcomes for patients with severe diffuse emphysema. Secondary objectives included determining which subgroup of patients benefit from LVRS and for which patients LVRS is contraindicated, to establish the postoperative complications of LVRS and its morbidity and mortality, to determine which surgical approaches for LVRS are most effective and to calculate the cost-effectiveness of LVRS. We identified RCTs by using the Cochrane Airways Group Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) register, in addition to the online clinical trials registers. Searches are current to April 2016. We included RCTs that studied the safety and efficacy of LVRS in participants with diffuse emphysema. We excluded studies that investigated giant or bullous emphysema. Two independent review authors assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. When possible, we combined data from more than one study in a meta-analysis using RevMan 5 software. We identified two new studies (89 participants) in this updated review. A total of 11 studies (1760 participants) met the entry criteria of the review, one of which accounted for 68% of recruited participants. The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate owing to an unclear risk

  9. Analysis of diffuse gallium lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Masahumi; Sui, Osamu; Mukaijo, Toshihumi; Tokuyama, Noritami; Tanouchi, Miki; Kitsukawa, Kaoru

    1989-01-01

    Diffuse lung uptake of Ga-67 was observed on scintigrams in 56 patients. It was considered attributable to drugs in 21 patients. Only 7 patients complained of fever, cough, and dyspnea, 5 of whom spontaneously recovered without any treatment. This seemed to reflect clinically reversible cases, as well as to support the usefulness of Ga-67 scintigraphy in early detection of drug-induced pneumonitis. In one patient that died of acute pneumonitis, only a small amount of cyclophosphamide (3,400 mg) had been administered. Drug dosage seemed to be unrelated to the prognosis of drug-induced pneumonitis. Seventeen patients underwent Ga-67 scintigraphy within one month after the completion of chemotherapy. The most frequently given dosage of cyclophosphamide was 2,000 mg or less. In early detecting drug-induced pneumonitis, the optimum time of Ga-67 scintigraphy was considered to be the first one month after completion of chemotherapy. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Apparent diffusion coefficient mapping in medulloblastoma predicts non-infiltrative surgical planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marupudi, Neena I; Altinok, Deniz; Goncalves, Luis; Ham, Steven D; Sood, Sandeep

    2016-11-01

    An appropriate surgical approach for posterior fossa lesions is to start tumor removal from areas with a defined plane to where tumor is infiltrating the brainstem or peduncles. This surgical approach minimizes risk of damage to eloquent areas. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current standard preoperative imaging obtained for diagnosis and surgical planning of pediatric posterior fossa tumors, it offers limited information on the infiltrative planes between tumor and normal structures in patients with medulloblastomas. Because medulloblastomas demonstrate diffusion restriction on apparent diffusion coefficient map (ADC map) sequences, we investigated the role of ADC map in predicting infiltrative and non-infiltrative planes along the brain stem and/or cerebellar peduncles by medulloblastomas prior to surgery. Thirty-four pediatric patients with pathologically confirmed medulloblastomas underwent surgical resection at our facility from 2004 to 2012. An experienced pediatric neuroradiologist reviewed the brain MRIs/ADC map, assessing the planes between the tumor and cerebellar peduncles/brain stem. An independent evaluator documented surgical findings from operative reports for comparison to the radiographic findings. The radiographic findings were statistically compared to the documented intraoperative findings to determine predictive value of the test in identifying tumor infiltration of the brain stem cerebellar peduncles. Twenty-six patients had preoperative ADC mapping completed and thereby, met inclusion criteria. Mean age at time of surgery was 8.3 ± 4.6 years. Positive predictive value of ADC maps to predict tumor invasion of the brain stem and cerebellar peduncles ranged from 69 to 88 %; negative predictive values ranged from 70 to 89 %. Sensitivity approached 93 % while specificity approached 78 %. ADC maps are valuable in predicting the infiltrative and non-infiltrative planes along the tumor and brain stem interface in

  11. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1982-06-01

    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  12. Bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for the diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Kropski

    Full Text Available Although in some cases clinical and radiographic features may be sufficient to establish a diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD, surgical lung biopsy is frequently required. Recently a new technique for bronchoscopic lung biopsy has been developed using flexible cryo-probes. In this study we describe our clinical experience using bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.A retrospective study of subjects who had undergone bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for evaluation of DPLD at an academic tertiary care center from January 1, 2012 through January 15, 2013 was performed. The procedure was performed using a flexible bronchoscope to acquire biopsies of lung parenchyma. H&E stained biopsies were reviewed by an expert lung pathologist.Twenty-five eligible subjects were identified. With a mean area of 64.2 mm(2, cryobiopsies were larger than that typically encountered with traditional transbronchial forceps biopsy. In 19 of the 25 subjects, a specific diagnosis was obtained. In one additional subject, biopsies demonstrating normal parenchyma were felt sufficient to exclude diffuse lung disease as a cause of dyspnea. The overall diagnostic yield of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy was 80% (20/25. The most frequent diagnosis was usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP (n = 7. Three of the 25 subjects ultimately required surgical lung biopsy. There were no significant complications.In patients with suspected diffuse parenchymal lung disease, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is a promising and minimally invasive approach to obtain lung tissue with high diagnostic yield.

  13. Diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrate associated with retroperitoneal mass: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, A.A.; Ramos, M.V.; Natal, M.R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrate associated with retroperitoneal mass. Both patients were females and presented spontaneous pneumothorax. One of them had a typical hystological presentation of lymphangiomyomatosis and in the other on the retroperitoneal mass was classified as an angiomyolipoma. Angiomyomatosis are often associated with tuberous sclerosis and lymphangiomyomatosis. A review of the literature and the differential diagnosis are presented. (author)

  14. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration in neoplastic hematological disease. Comparison between MR imaging and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozawa, Eito; Sato, Youichi; Heshiki, Atsuko; Kayano, Shuuichi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between out-of-phase and in-phase imaging with pathologic data of patients with bone marrow invasion by tumor-like hematological disease. Twenty-three patients with hematological disease (malignant lymphoma [10], multiple myeloma [7], leukemia [2], myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS; 3], and myelofibrosis [1]) were studied. Fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequencing was performed to obtain out-of-phase and in-phase images with breath-holding at 110/2.3 and 4.7. Out-of-phase and in-phase imaging were measured over a region of interest (ROI) at spinal vertebra L3, and SIR (out of phase/in phase) was calculated. Results were confirmed by bone marrow aspiration or biopsy. Patients with hematological disease were divided into those with and without diffuse bone marrow infiltration. The statistical significance between these ratios in the two groups was assessed by unpaired t-test (p<0.01). The SIRs were 0.94±0.12 (mean±SD) for the group with diffuse bone marrow infiltration and 0.54±0.17 (mean±SD) for the group without (p<0.01). In-phase and out-of-phase imaging can be helpful in predicting the diffuse infiltration of bone marrow by hematological disease. (author)

  15. Ischaemic colitis and lung infiltrates caused by extramedullary haematopoiesis in a patient with an acute erythroid leukaemia following polycythaemia vera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brada, SJL; de Wolf, JTM; Poppema, S; Vellenga, E

    A patient with 'spent' polycythaemia vera showed extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in non-haematopoietic tissue clinically resulting in an ischaemic colitis and respiratory symptoms due to lung infiltrates. On laboratory investigation, the EMH also included immature erythroblasts due to

  16. Metastatic Lung Lesions as a Preferred Resection Site for Immunotherapy With Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avi, Ronny; Itzhaki, Orit; Simansky, David; Zippel, Dov; Markel, Gal; Ben Nun, Alon; Schachter, Jacob; Besser, Michal J

    2016-06-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) yields 50% response rates in metastatic melanoma and shows promising clinical results in other solid tumors. Autologous TIL cultures are isolated from resected tumor tissue, expanded ex vivo to large numbers and reinfused to the preconditioned patient. In this prospective study, we validate the origin of the tumor biopsy and its effect on T-cell function and clinical response. One hundred forty-four patients underwent surgery and 79 patients were treated with TIL adoptive cell therapy. Cultures from lung tissue were compared with other origins. The success rate of establishing TIL culture from lung tissue was significantly higher compared with nonlung tissue (94% vs. 72%, respectively, P≤0.003). Lung-derived TIL cultures gave rise to higher cell numbers (P≤0.011) and exhibited increased in vitro antitumor reactivity. The average fold expansion for lung-derived TIL during a rapid expansion procedure was 1349±557 compared with 1061±473 for nonlung TIL (P≤0.038). Patients treated with TIL cultures of lung origin (compared with nonlung) had prolonged median overall survival (29 vs. 9.5 mo; P≤0.065). Given the remarkable advancement in minimally invasive thoracic surgery and the results of this study, we suggest efforts should be taken to resect lung metastasis rather than other sites to generate TIL cultures for clinical use.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  18. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  19. Diffuse lung uptake (DLU) on Ga-67 scintigraph: Clinical, radiologic and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Seo, I.S.; Vieira, J.; Zaman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Review, analysis and correlation (clinical, radiologic and pathologic) of 29 consecutive adults (16 drug addicts and/or homosexuals) with DLU on Ga-67 scintigraph were made. Diffuse increased uptake of at least 75% of both lungs was considered as DLU. WFOF cameras were used to obtain 24 to 96 hr. scintigraphs after IV injection of 3-5 mCi of Ga-67 citrate. In 26, tissue diagnosis established: pneumocystis carinii (PC) 15, miliary tuberculosis (TB) 3, sarcoidosis (SR) 3, drug-induced toxicity 2, and toxoplasmosis (TX), primary hyperparathyroidism and nonspecific lymphocytic pneumonia-one each. In two with breast and one with esophageal carcinomas, no lung tissue diagnosis was sought. Concurrent chest x-rays were negative in 16, but in 7/16, lung infiltrate was later documented. An average of 31 days elapsed before x-rays became positive in four with PC, 7 days in two with TB, and 22 days in one with TX. In 13, concurrent x-rays showed lung infiltrate, but in 6, only subtle, localized rather than diffuse infiltrate was noted. Fourteen of 29 had at least two Ga-67 studies. In 12 (7 PC, 2 TB, 3 SR) of 14 whose repeat studies showed significant to total disappearance of DLU, all did well clinically. In two whose initial studies were negative or equivocal, they became clinically worse when the repeat study showed DLU. In three others (2 PC, 1 TX) who died, their single studies recorded intense DLU. DLU on gallium scintigraph indicated a variety of pathology. In 55.2%, gallium scintigraph predated x-ray findings by a few days to weeks. In 20.3%, x-ray findings were only subtle or localized. Scintigraphic changes correlated well with the clinical courses in various diseases

  20. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  1. Diffusion on Networks and Diffusion Weighted NMR of the Human Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Niels

    2011-01-01

    of the diffusion propagator to general properties of the underlying graph. Diffusion weighted NMR of the human lung with hyperpolarized noble gases, which over the last decade has been demonstrated to be a very promising way of detecting and quantifying lung diseases like emphysema, represent an obvious...... application of the above mentioned theory, given that the human lung consists of a large network of bifurcating tube like airways. 90-95% of the gas in a human lung resides in the ~30000 pulmonary acini, each of these consists of ~500 airways, which are connected as the edges in a binary tree. We model...... diffusion in the pulmonary acini as diffusion on metric graphs with this structure. The metric graph for each individual pulmonary acinus is embedded in three dimensional space via line segments. By considering an isotropic distribution of acini and a symmetric branching geometry for the line segments...

  2. Regulation of Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Lung PMN Infiltration by Transglutaminase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijli, Kaiser M.; Kanter, Bryce G.; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Leonard, Antony; Xu, Lei; Fazal, Fabeha; Rahman, Arshad

    2014-01-01

    We addressed the role of transglutaminase2 (TG2), a calcium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes crosslinking of proteins, in the mechanism of endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and lung PMN infiltration. Exposure of EC to thrombin, a procoagulant and proinflammatory mediator, resulted in activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and its target genes, VCAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6. RNAi knockdown of TG2 inhibited these responses. Analysis of NF-κB activation pathway showed that TG2 knockdown was associated with inhibition of thrombin-induced DNA binding as well as serine phosphorylation of RelA/p65, a crucial event that controls transcriptional capacity of the DNA-bound RelA/p65. These results implicate an important role for TG2 in mediating EC inflammation by promoting DNA binding and transcriptional activity of RelA/p65. Because thrombin is released in high amounts during sepsis and its concentration is elevated in plasma and lavage fluids of patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), we determined the in vivo relevance of TG2 in a mouse model of sepsis-induced lung PMN recruitment. A marked reduction in NF-κB activation, adhesion molecule expression, and lung PMN sequestration was observed in TG2 knockout mice compared to wild type mice exposed to endotoxemia. Together, these results identify TG2 as an important mediator of EC inflammation and lung PMN sequestration associated with intravascular coagulation and sepsis. PMID:25057925

  3. Doppler waveforms of the hepatic veins in children with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Hakan; Yazici, Burhan; Erdogmus, Besir; Kocabay, Kenan; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yazgan, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL) on the Doppler waveform pattern in the hepatic veins of obese children. Methods: In this prospective study, 59 patients with diffuse FIL and 45 normal healthy children who served as control group underwent hepatic vein B-mod and duplex Doppler sonography. The Doppler sonography spectrum of the right hepatic vein was classified into three groups: triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform, and monophasic or flat waveform. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the phasicity of hepatic venous flow between patients and control subjects (p < 0.001). The Doppler flow pattern in the right hepatic vein was triphasic in 28 (47.5%), biphasic in 28 (47.5%), and monophasic in 3 (5%) children with fatty liver, while it was triphasic in 43 (95.6%) and biphasic in 2 (4.4%) control subjects. There was an inverse correlation between the sonographic grade of fatty infiltration of the liver and the phasicity of hepatic venous flow (r = -0.479, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Abnormal right hepatic vein Doppler waveform, biphasic as well as monophasic, can be seen in healthy obese children with diffuse FIL.

  4. On the validity of a Fickian diffusion model for the spreading of liquid infiltration plumes in partially saturated heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.

    1994-01-01

    Localized infiltration of aqueous and -non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) occurs in many circumstances. Examples include leaky underground pipelines and storage tanks, landfill and disposal sites, and surface spills. Because of ever-present heterogeneities on different scales such infiltration plumes are expected to disperse transversally and longitudinally. This paper examines recent suggestions that liquid plumes are being dispersed from medium heterogeneities in a manner that is analogous to Fickian diffusion. Numerical simulation experiments on liquid infiltration in heterogeneous media are performed to study the dispersive effects of small-scale heterogeneity. It is found that plume spreading indeed tends to be diffusive. Our results suggest that, as far as infiltration of liquids is concerned, broad classes of heterogeneous media behave as dispersive media with locally homogeneous (albeit anisotropic) permeability

  5. A rare case of anasarca caused by infiltration of the pituitary gland by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Aikawa, Masaki; Mori, Masaki; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Background Anasarca in patients with lymphoma is a rare symptom. We report a patient with DLBCL associated with pituitary gland infiltration that was diagnosed based on significant anasarca. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman with a 10-year history of hypertension visited a local hospital presenting with anasarca and 15-kg weight gain in the past 3?months. we clinically diagnosed central hypothyroidism caused by pituitary gland infiltration of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (clinica...

  6. Diffuse Lymphomatous Infiltration of Kidney Presenting as Renal Tubular Acidosis and Hypokalemic Paralysis: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhamb, Rajat; Gupta, Naresh; Garg, Sandeep; Kumar, Sachin; Gulati, Sameer; Mishra, Deepak; Beniwal, Pankaj

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with acute onset flaccid quadriparesis. Physical examination showed mild pallor with cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and bilateral smooth enlarged kidneys. Neurological examination revealed lower motor neuron muscle weakness in all the four limbs with hyporeflexia and normal sensory examination. Laboratory investigations showed anemia, severe hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Urinalysis showed a specific gravity of 1.010, pH of 7.0, with a positive urine anion gap. Ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly with bilateral enlarged smooth kidneys. Renal biopsy was consistent with the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B cell type). Metabolic acidosis, alkaline urine, and severe hypokalemia due to excessive urinary loss in our patient were suggestive of distal renal tubular acidosis. Renal involvement in lymphoma is usually subclinical and clinically overt renal disease is rare. Diffuse lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys may cause tubular dysfunction and present with hypokalemic paralysis. PMID:18074421

  7. The hydraulic diffusivity and conductivity determination of structured purple soil and purple latosol by vertical infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Souza, A.D.B. de; Fante Junior, L.; Oliveira Junior, J.M. de; Oliveira, J.C.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    The hydraulic diffusivity and conductivity functions of LR (purple latosol) and TE (structured purple soil) (levels A and B) soil samples from the Londrina-PR region were calculated by means of the moisture profile and data from the time evolution of the wet front, taken through measurements of the water infiltration in a soil column and a variational of the vertical flow. The wet front data were taken in a acrylic column coupled in bits base with a porous plate that permitted the water flow against the gravitational field with a suitable velocity of 0.12 cm/min. The moisture profile data were obtained by the gamma ray attenuation method, with a 60 Co source and a Na I (TL) scintillation detector. With a vertical and horizontal measurement table the moisture profile data θ (z,t) were taken in many points of the soil column. (author)

  8. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  9. Hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Yildirim, Tulin; Torun, Dilek; Tercan, Fahri; Kizilkilic, Osman; Niron, E. Alp

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform in patients with diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL). Materials and methods: In this prospective study, 40 patients with diffuse FIL and 50 normal healthy adults who served as control group underwent hepatic vein (HV) Doppler ultrasonography. The patients with the diagnosis of FIL were 23 men (57.5%) and 17 women aged 30-62 years (mean age ± S.D., 42 ± 12 years). Subjects in the control group were 27 men (54%) and 23 women aged 34-65 years (mean age ± S.D., 45 ± 14 years). The diagnosis of FIL was confirmed with computed tomography density measurements. The waveforms of HV were classified into three groups: regular triphasic waveform, biphasic waveform without a reverse flow, and monophasic or flat waveform. Etiological factors for FIL were diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia and obesity (body mass index > 25). Serum lipid profile was obtained from all the patients with FIL. Results: Seventeen of the 40 patients (43%) with FIL had an abnormal HV Doppler waveform, whereas only one of the 50 (2%) healthy subjects had an abnormal waveform. The difference in the distribution of normal Doppler waveform pattern between the patients and the control group was significant (P 0.05). There was not any correlation between the degree of fat infiltration and the hepatic vein waveform pattern (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Patients with fatty liver has a high rate of an abnormal hepatic vein Doppler waveform pattern which can be biphasic or monophasic. We could not find a relation between the etiological factors for FIL and the occurrence of an abnormal HV Doppler waveform

  10. Sclerotherapy of Diffuse and Infiltrative Venous Malformations of the Hand and Distal Forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Carlos J.; Gonzalez-Araiza, Guillermo; Kim, Seung K.; Sheybani, Elizabeth; Darcy, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeVenous malformations (VM) involving the hand and forearm often lead to chronic pain and dysfunction, and the threshold for treatment is high due to the risk of nerve and skin damage, functional deterioration and compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that sclerotherapy of diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand is a safe and effective therapy.Materials and MethodsA retrospective review of all patients with diffuse and infiltrative VM of the hand and forearm treated with sclerotherapy from 2001 to 2014 was conducted. All VM were diagnosed during the clinical visit by a combination of physical examination and imaging. Sclerotherapy was performed under imaging guidance using ethanol and/or sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Clinical notes were reviewed for signs of treatment response and complications, including skin blistering and nerve injury.ResultsSeventeen patients underwent a total of 40 sclerotherapy procedures. Patients were treated for pain (76 %), swelling (29 %) or paresthesias (6 %). Treatments utilized ethanol (70 %), sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam (22.5 %) or a combination of these (7.5 %). Twenty-four percent of patients had complete resolution of symptoms, 24 % had partial relief of symptoms without need for further intervention, and 35 % had some improvement after initial treatment but required additional treatments. Two skin complications were noted, both of which resolved. No motor or sensory loss was reported.ConclusionSclerotherapy is a safe and effective therapy for VM of the hand with over 83 % of patients experiencing relief.

  11. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, Yunfei; Li, Maojin; Yang, Jianyong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters of diffuse spinal bone marrow infiltration in patients with hematological malignancies. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed in 26 patients with histologically proven diffuse bone marrow infiltration, including multiple myeloma (n = 6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). Twenty subjects whose spinal MRI was normal, made up the control group. Peak enhancement percentage (E max ), enhancement slope (ES), and time to peak (TTP) were determined from a time intensity curve (TIC) of lumbar vertebral bone marrow. A comparison between baseline and follow-up MR images and its histological correlation were evaluated in 10 patients. The infiltration grade of hematopoietic marrow with plasma cells was evaluated by a histological assessment of bone marrow. Differences in E max , ES, and TTP values between the control group and the patients with diffuse bone marrow infiltration were significant (t = -11.51, -9.81 and 3.91, respectively, p max , ES, and TTP values were significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 1 and Grade 2 (Z = -2.72, -2.24 and -2.89 respectively, p max , ES and TTP values were not significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 2 and Grade 3 (Z = -1.57, -1.82 and -1.58 respectively, p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between E max , ES values and the histological grade of bone marrow infiltration (r = 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p max and ES values was observed with increased TTP values after treatment in all of the 10 patients who responded to treatment (t = -7.92, -4.55, and 5.12, respectively, p max , ES, and TTP can reflect the malignancies' histological grade

  12. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Diffuse Spinal Bone Marrow Infiltration in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yunfei; Li, Maojin [Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Yang, Jianyong [the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate the significance of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters of diffuse spinal bone marrow infiltration in patients with hematological malignancies. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the lumbar spine was performed in 26 patients with histologically proven diffuse bone marrow infiltration, including multiple myeloma (n = 6), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5), chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 7), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2). Twenty subjects whose spinal MRI was normal, made up the control group. Peak enhancement percentage (E{sub max}), enhancement slope (ES), and time to peak (TTP) were determined from a time intensity curve (TIC) of lumbar vertebral bone marrow. A comparison between baseline and follow-up MR images and its histological correlation were evaluated in 10 patients. The infiltration grade of hematopoietic marrow with plasma cells was evaluated by a histological assessment of bone marrow. Differences in E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values between the control group and the patients with diffuse bone marrow infiltration were significant (t = -11.51, -9.81 and 3.91, respectively, p < 0.01). E{sub max}, ES, and TTP values were significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 1 and Grade 2 (Z = -2.72, -2.24 and -2.89 respectively, p < 0.05). E{sub max}, ES and TTP values were not significantly different between bone marrow infiltration groups Grade 2 and Grade 3 (Z = -1.57, -1.82 and -1.58 respectively, p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between E{sub max}, ES values and the histological grade of bone marrow infiltration (r = 0.86 and 0.84 respectively, p < 0.01). A negative correlation was found between the TTP values and bone marrow infiltration histological grade (r = -0.54, p < 0.01). A decrease in the E{sub max} and ES values was observed with increased TTP values after treatment in all of the 10 patients who responded to treatment (t

  13. Sustainable Zero-Valent Metal (ZVM Water Treatment Associated with Diffusion, Infiltration, Abstraction, and Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D.J. Antia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources have resulted in increased global demand for water while at the same time the proportion of potential water resources which are adversely affected by sodification/salinisation, metals, nitrates, and organic chemicals has increased. Nano-zero-valent metal (n-ZVM injection or placement in aquifers offers a potential partial solution. However, n-ZVM application results in a substantial reduction in aquifer permeability, which in turn can reduce the amount of water that can be abstracted from the aquifer. This study using static diffusion and continuous flow reactors containing n-ZVM and m-ZVM (ZVM filaments, filings and punchings has established that the use of m-ZVM does not result in a reduction in aquifer permeability. The experimental results are used to design and model m-ZVM treatment programs for an aquifer (using recirculation or static diffusion. They also provide a predictive model for water quality associated with specific abstraction rates and infiltration/injection into an aquifer. The study demonstrates that m-ZVM treatment requires 1% of the weight required for n-ZVM treatment for a specific flow rate. It is observed that 1 t Fe0 will process 23,500 m3 of abstracted or infiltrating water. m-ZVM is able to remove >80% of nitrates from flowing water and adjust the water composition (by reduction in an aquifer to optimize removal of nitrates, metals and organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that ZVM treatment of an aquifer can be used to reduce groundwater salinity by 20 –> 45% and that an aquifer remediation program can be designed to desalinate an aquifer. Modeling indicates that widespread application of m-ZVM water treatment may reduce global socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources. The rate of oxygen formation during water reduction [by ZVM (Fe0, Al0 and Cu0] controls aquifer permeability, the associated aquifer pH, aquifer Eh

  14. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  15. Implications of infiltrating immune cells within bone marrow of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Juhyeon; Oh, Eun Ji; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Sun Och

    2017-06-01

    The implications of infiltrating immune cells, especially T cells and macrophages, in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have rarely been studied. We aimed to investigate the significance of infiltrating immune cells in the BM microenvironment as a prognostic factor for DLBCL patients. Using the initial pretreatment BM biopsy obtained from 198 DLBCL patients, we semiquantitatively evaluated CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages that infiltrate into the paratrabecular and interstitial areas of BM by immunohistochemistry and analyzed their clinicopathological and prognostic implications. Levels of infiltrating CD3+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD163+ macrophages were significantly higher in BM with DLBCL involvement (BMI-positive group) than in that without DLBCL involvement (BMI-negative group). Infiltration of CD8+ T cells significantly increased in cases with advanced Ann Arbor stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, extranodal site involvement ≥2 sites, higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and higher International Prognostic Index (IPI) risk. High levels of CD3+ T cells were significantly associated with age ≤60, and high levels of CD163+ macrophages were associated with advanced Ann Arbor stage and higher IPI risk. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells was significantly related to inferior overall and recurrence-free survival rate, even in the BMI-negative group. High infiltration of CD8+ T cells within the pretreatment BM was related to poor prognosis, and might be a useful prognostic factor of DLBCL patients. Therefore, evaluation of CD8+ T cells is helpful for predicting prognosis in initial pretreatment BM biopsy of DLBCL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffuse Infiltrative Splenic Lymphoma: Diagnostic Efficacy of Arterial-Phase CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, June-Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kim, Song Soo; You, Sun Kyoung; Park, Jae Woo; Shin, Hye Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang [Department of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon 35015 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen (ONHES) on arterial phase (AP) computed tomography (CT) images in diffuse infiltrative splenic lymphoma (DISL). One hundred and thirty-six patients with lymphoma who had undergone two-phase (arterial and portal venous) abdominal CT were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of ONHES on AP CT in diagnosing DISL. Two observers evaluated ONHES on AP CT using the 5-point confidence level and assessed the presence or absence of subjective splenomegaly on axial CT images. Another two observers measured the splenic index as proposed by objective CT criteria. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance of CT findings. Eleven of the 136 patients with lymphoma had DISL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ONHES (0.948 for observer 1 and 0.922 for observer 2) was superior to that of the splenic index (0.872 for observer 3 and 0.877 for observer 4), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of ONHES in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly showed higher diagnostic performance, as compared with subjective splenomegaly alone (accuracy: 100% and 85.3% for observer 1, 98.5% and 87.5% for observer 2; positive predictive value: 100% and 35.5% for observer 1, 90.9% and 39.3% for observer 2, respectively). Obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly can improve the diagnostic performance for DISL. Our results suggest that ONHES on AP CT images could be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic indicator of DISL in patients with lymphoma.

  17. Diffuse infiltrative splenic lymphoma; Diagnostic efficacy of arterial-phase CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kim, Song Soo; You, Sun Kyoung; Park, Jae Woo; Shin, Hye Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen (ONHES) on arterial phase (AP) computed tomography (CT) images in diffuse infiltrative splenic lymphoma (DISL). One hundred and thirty-six patients with lymphoma who had undergone two-phase (arterial and portal venous) abdominal CT were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of ONHES on AP CT in diagnosing DISL. Two observers evaluated ONHES on AP CT using the 5-point confidence level and assessed the presence or absence of subjective splenomegaly on axial CT images. Another two observers measured the splenic index as proposed by objective CT criteria. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance of CT findings. Eleven of the 136 patients with lymphoma had DISL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ONHES (0.948 for observer 1 and 0.922 for observer 2) was superior to that of the splenic index (0.872 for observer 3 and 0.877 for observer 4), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of ONHES in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly showed higher diagnostic performance, as compared with subjective splenomegaly alone (accuracy: 100% and 85.3% for observer 1, 98.5% and 87.5% for observer 2; positive predictive value: 100% and 35.5% for observer 1, 90.9% and 39.3% for observer 2, respectively). Obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly can improve the diagnostic performance for DISL. Our results suggest that ONHES on AP CT images could be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic indicator of DISL in patients with lymphoma.

  18. Diffuse Infiltrative Splenic Lymphoma: Diagnostic Efficacy of Arterial-Phase CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, June-Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Kim, Song Soo; You, Sun Kyoung; Park, Jae Woo; Shin, Hye Soo; Yoon, Yeo Chang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen (ONHES) on arterial phase (AP) computed tomography (CT) images in diffuse infiltrative splenic lymphoma (DISL). One hundred and thirty-six patients with lymphoma who had undergone two-phase (arterial and portal venous) abdominal CT were included in this study. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of ONHES on AP CT in diagnosing DISL. Two observers evaluated ONHES on AP CT using the 5-point confidence level and assessed the presence or absence of subjective splenomegaly on axial CT images. Another two observers measured the splenic index as proposed by objective CT criteria. Statistical analysis included interobserver agreement and diagnostic performance of CT findings. Eleven of the 136 patients with lymphoma had DISL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ONHES (0.948 for observer 1 and 0.922 for observer 2) was superior to that of the splenic index (0.872 for observer 3 and 0.877 for observer 4), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of ONHES in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly showed higher diagnostic performance, as compared with subjective splenomegaly alone (accuracy: 100% and 85.3% for observer 1, 98.5% and 87.5% for observer 2; positive predictive value: 100% and 35.5% for observer 1, 90.9% and 39.3% for observer 2, respectively). Obliteration of normal heterogeneous enhancement of the spleen in conjunction with subjective splenomegaly can improve the diagnostic performance for DISL. Our results suggest that ONHES on AP CT images could be useful as an adjunctive diagnostic indicator of DISL in patients with lymphoma

  19. Lung function study and diffusion capacity in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, T; Boland, B; Beguin, C; Veriter, C; Stanescu, D; Frans, A; Lambert, M

    2000-08-01

    In humans, malnutrition alters the respiratory system in different ways. It impairs the ventilatory drive, decreases respiratory muscle strength and reduces immune competence. In addition, typical emphysema-like changes were demonstrated in starved animals. The presence of emphysema has never been demonstrated in starved humans. Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary emphysema occurs in anorexia nervosa by means of a pulmonary function study. We examined 24 women aged between 14 and 38 years (nine smokers). We studied the lung function including lung volumes, ventilatory capacity, maximal respiratory pressures and transfer factor, as well as PaO2. All respiratory tests were within normal limits with the exception of decreased maximal inspiratory (59% of predicted values) and expiratory pressures (35%), and increased residual volume (162%). Diffusion capacity (98.1 +/- 16.2%) and transfer coefficient (98.4 +/- 16.2%) were also normal. The diffusion coefficient was lower in current smokers than in those who had never smoked (P anorexia nervosa, pulmonary function tests are within normal limits with the exception of maximal pressures and residual volume. Diffusion capacity is not decreased. The present results within the limitations of the used method are not compatible with the hypothesis of starvation-induced pulmonary emphysema.

  20. Open lung biopsy in patients on mechanical ventilation with suspected diffuse lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Melo

    2009-07-01

    precoce de BPC poderia, em alguns casos, originar resultados ainda mais significativos. Key-words: Open lung biopsy, mechanical ventilation, diffuse lung infiltrates, Palavras-chave: Biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica, ventilação invasiva, infiltrados pulmonares difusos

  1. Detecting lung cancer symptoms with analogic CNN algorithms based on a constrained diffusion template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshifumi; Ushida, Akio; Ueno, Junji; Kasem, I.; Nishitani, Hiromu; Rekeczky, C.; Roska, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, a new type of diffusion template and an analogic CNN algorithm using this diffusion template for detecting some lung cancer symptoms in X-ray films are proposed. The performance of the diffusion template is investigated and our CNN algorithm is verified to detect some key lung cancer symptoms, successfully. (author)

  2. Airway surface irregularities promote particle diffusion in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonen, T.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Bottei, G.

    1995-01-01

    Current NCRP and ICRP particle deposition models employed in risk assessment analyses treat the airways of the human lung as smooth-walled tubes. However, the upper airways of the tracheobronchial (TB) tree are line with cartilaginous rings. Recent supercomputer simulations of in vivo conditions (cited herein), where cartilaginous ring morphologies were based upon fibre-optic bronchoscope examinations, have clearly demonstrated their profound effects upon fluid dynamics. A physiologically based analytical model of fluid dynamics is presented, focusing upon applications to particle diffusion within the TB tree. The new model is the first to describe particle motion while simultaneously simulating effects of wall irregularities, entrance conditions and tube curvatures. This study may explain the enhanced deposition by particle diffusion detected in replica case experiments and have salient implications for the clinically observed preferential distributions of bronchogenic carcinomas associated with inhaled radionuclides. (author)

  3. REACTIVITY AND ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION CELLULAR TESTS OF THE FIRST TIME DIAGNOSTED SOCIALLY ADOPTED PATIENTS WITH INFILTRATIVE LUNG TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the endogenous intoxication degree and reactivity condition of an organism by calculation the blood leukocyte indexes and their influence assessment for the outcome of first time diagnosed infiltrative lung tuberculosis for the revealed socially safe patients. Case-records of 260 patients were analysed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were: first time diagnosed and confirmed diagnosis of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis; age at least 18 years; socially adopted patients (the patients taking official or informal work place, the constant income in a family, a residence, a registration. Exception criteria were: extra pulmonary or other forms of lung tuberculosis at the patient; existence of a serious somatic illness; HIV infection; existence of malignant new growths; mental diseases; the social disadaptation (homeless persons who aren’t working, released from jails or being under examination, abusing alcohol in the form of hard drinkings and accepting drugs. All patients included in research were divided into two groups: first (main — patients with a failure in quantity the 66, second (group of comparison — patients with a favourable outcome of infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, in number of 194. Failure criterion was the existence (preservation of a disintegration lung cavity confirmed by the last X-ray picture. According patients blood test results the intoxication leukocyte index (ILI, with Kalf-Kalif formula, an blood leukocytes shift index (BLSI, an organism resistance index (ORI, a Dashtayants nuclear index was carried out. Followly the Spirmen correlation analysis with Statistica 6.0 software package was estimated. As a result of research the following data were obtained. The Dashtayants nuclear index high level at primary blood test has the strongest impact on development of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis failure in patients; the ILI and BLSI high levels at the time of the beginning of

  4. Classification of diffuse lung diseases: why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, David M

    2013-09-01

    The understanding of complex lung diseases, notably the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and small airways diseases, owes as much to repeated attempts over the years to classify them as to any single conceptual breakthrough. One of the many benefits of a successful classification scheme is that it allows workers, within and between disciplines, to be clear that they are discussing the same disease. This may be of particular importance in the recruitment of individuals for a clinical trial that requires a standardized and homogeneous study population. Different specialties require fundamentally different things from a classification: for epidemiologic studies, a classification that requires categorization of individuals according to histopathologic pattern is not usually practicable. Conversely, a scheme that simply divides diffuse parenchymal disease into inflammatory and noninflammatory categories is unlikely to further the understanding about the pathogenesis of disease. Thus, for some disease groupings, for example, pulmonary vasculopathies, there may be several appropriate classifications, each with its merits and demerits. There has been an interesting shift in the past few years, from the accepted primacy of histopathology as the sole basis on which the classification of parenchymal lung disease has rested, to new ways of considering how these entities relate to each other. Some inventive thinking has resulted in new classifications that undoubtedly benefit patients and clinicians in their endeavor to improve management and outcome. The challenge of understanding the logic behind current classifications and their shortcomings are explored in various examples of lung diseases.

  5. Diffusion-Tensor Imaging of Thigh Muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy Values With Fatty Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gui Dian; Liang, Ying Yin; Xu, Ping; Ling, Jian; Chen, Ying Ming

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values with fatty infiltration in the thigh muscles of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one boys with DMD were recruited. The grade of fatty infiltration and the ADC and FA values of four thigh muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, sartorius, and gracilis) were measured, and the FA and ADC values were compared with the grade of fatty infiltration. Twenty age-matched healthy boys were enrolled as the control group. The differences in the ADC and FA values of the thigh muscles between patients with DMD and the control group were compared. The patients with DMD showed lower FA values and higher ADC values in all measured muscles when compared with the control group. The FA and ADC values were correlated with the grade of fatty infiltration. For the rectus femoris muscle, r = -0.753 and p = 0.007 for FA, and r = 0.685 and p = 0.001 for ADC. For the semitendinosus muscle, r = -0.621 and p = 0.041 for FA, and r = 0.705 and p = 0.021 for ADC. For the sartorius muscle, r = -0.662 and p = 0.027 for FA, and r = 0.701 and p = 0.017 for ADC. For the gracilis muscle, r = -0.618 and p = 0.043 for FA, and r = 0.695 and p = 0.022 for ADC. Damage to the thigh muscles in patients with DMD can be detected by ADC and FA values using DTI. DTI can be used to assess the severity of the disease.

  6. When is the last time you looked for diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data synthesis: Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren's syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren's syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren's which are CD4+.

  7. Lung clearance of 99mTc-DTPA aerosols in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial pneumopathy diffuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, Carmelindo; Mello, Rossana Corbo de; Fonseca, Lea M.B.; Maliska, Celsa M.; Wolosker, Sara; Albernaz, Marta S.; Marinho, J.C.A.; Lima, Jose E.T.; Jansen, Jose M.

    1996-01-01

    An increasement in pulmonary epithelial permeability occurs when the alveolar-capillary units are disrupted. This permeability increasement can be measured by the 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol washout from lungs. Twenty three patients (10 healthy normal controls, 6 with COPD, 5 with diffuse infiltrative lung disease (DILD) and 2 asyntomatic patients that underwent radioiodine therapy dose) in order to verify the lung clearance rate of 99m Tc-DTPA in our population. The mean and standard deviation of pulmonary clearance rate in the normal group was 0,722±0,098%min -1 . The COPD patients rate resembled to the normal group rate. Four in five DILD patients had increased pulmonary clearance rate. The 2 patients that underwent radioiodine therapeutic showed normal clearance values of 99m Tc-DTPA from lungs. Our preliminary observations suggest that 99 'm Tc-DTPA clearance can be used as valuable tool in assessing early stages of pulmonary disorders in systemic diseases that may affect the lung. We also suggest that COPD does not seem to raise the pulmonary epithelial permeability. (author)

  8. A rare case of anasarca caused by infiltration of the pituitary gland by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Aikawa, Masaki; Mori, Masaki; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-03-25

    Anasarca in patients with lymphoma is a rare symptom. We report a patient with DLBCL associated with pituitary gland infiltration that was diagnosed based on significant anasarca. A 72-year-old woman with a 10-year history of hypertension visited a local hospital presenting with anasarca and 15-kg weight gain in the past 3 months. we clinically diagnosed central hypothyroidism caused by pituitary gland infiltration of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (clinical stage IV in the Ann Arbor staging classification). The first course of chemotherapy improved anasarca remarkably and the patient's body weight returned to what it was 3 months before. We experienced a patient with remarkable anasarca caused by DLBCL infiltration of the pituitary gland. A pituitary gland lesion with central hypothyroidism should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of edema. This case was very valuable because we could assess it by following the time course of symptoms (edema and delayed relaxation time of the Achilles tendon reflex), laboratory data, and imaging findings (swelling anterior pituitary lobe).

  9. Terrestrial Fe-oxide Concretions and Mars Blueberries: Comparisons of Similar Advective and Diffusive Chemical Infiltration Reaction Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A. J.; Chan, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Abundant iron oxide concretions occurring in Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah and those discovered at Meridiani Planum, Mars share many common observable physical traits such as their spheriodal shapes, occurrence, and distribution patterns in sediments. Terrestrial concretions are products of interaction between oxygen-rich aquifer water and basin-derived reducing (iron-rich) water. Water-rock interaction simulations show that diffusion of oxygen and iron supplied by slow-moving water is a reasonable mechanism for producing observed concretion patterns. In short, southern Utah iron oxide concretions are results of Liesegang-type diffusive infiltration reactions in sediments. We propose that the formation of blueberry hematite concretions in Mars sediments followed a similar diagenetic mechanism where iron was derived from the alteration of volcanic substrate and oxygen was provided by the early Martian atmosphere. Although the terrestrial analog differs in the original host rock composition, both the terrestrial and Mars iron-oxide precipitation mechanisms utilize iron and oxygen interactions in sedimentary host rock with diffusive infiltration of solutes from two opposite sources. For the terrestrial model, slow advection of iron-rich water is an important factor that allowed pervasive and in places massive precipitation of iron-oxide concretions. In Mars, evaporative flux of water at the top of the sediment column may have produced a slow advective mass-transfer mechanism that provided a steady source and the right quantity of iron. The similarities of the terrestrial and Martian systems are demonstrated using a water-rock interaction simulator Sym.8, initially in one-dimensional systems. Boundary conditions such as oxygen content of water, partial pressure of oxygen, and supply rate of iron were varied. The results demonstrate the importance of slow advection of water and diffusive processes for producing diagenetic iron oxide concretions.

  10. Prognostic significance of focal lesions and diffuse infiltration on MRI for multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Park, Hee-Jin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Jung [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yu Ri [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Oh, Suk Joong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    MRI of bone marrow of the axial skeleton is recommended for evaluation of multiple myeloma. The impact of bone marrow involvement pattern on MRI for determining progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) is not yet clear. We performed a meta-analysis of research on the prognostic significance of MRI patterns for OS and PFS using a random effects model. Databases searched without language restriction were MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (January 1976 to April 2014). Manual searches were also conducted. Of 10,953 citations identified in the original search, 10 cohort studies for a total of 2015 patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine of the 10 included studies are from three research groups. Pooled hazard ratios were 1.80 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.32-2.46; P < 0.001) for OS and 2.30 (95 % CI 1.65-3.20; P < 0.001) for PFS for focal lesions on MRI; and 1.70 (95 % CI 1.30-2.21; P < 0.001) for OS and 1.74 (95 % CI 1.07-2.85; P = 0.03) for PFS for diffuse infiltration on MRI. No significant heterogeneity was observed among studies. This meta-analysis demonstrated an association between focal lesions and diffuse infiltration and poor prognosis in this population. (orig.)

  11. Impaired Tumor-infiltrating T Cells in Patients with COPD Impacts Lung Cancer Response to PD-1 Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Jérôme; Ouakrim, Hanane; Dechartres, Agnès; Alifano, Marco; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Si, Han; Halpin, Rebecca; Creasy, Todd; Bantsimba-Malanda, Claudie; Arrondeau, Jennifer; Goldwasser, François; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Fournel, Ludovic; Roche, Nicolas; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Goc, Jeremy; Devi-Marulkar, Priyanka; Germain, Claire; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Cremer, Isabelle; Herbst, Ronald; Damotte, Diane

    2018-03-08

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a higher prevalence of lung cancer. The chronic inflammation associated with COPD probably promotes the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. However, once tumors have progressed to malignancy, the impact of COPD on the tumor immune microenvironment remains poorly defined, and its effects on immune-checkpoint blockers' efficacy are still unknown. To study the impact of COPD on the immune contexture of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed in depth immune profiling of lung tumors by immunohistochemistry and we determined its impact on patients' survival (n=435). Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte (TILs) exhaustion by flow cytometry (n=50) was also investigated. The effectiveness of an anti-PD-1 treatment (nivolumab) was evaluated in 39 advanced-stage NSCLC patients. All data were analyzed according to patients' COPD status. Measurments and Main Results: Remarkably, COPD severity is positively correlated with the coexpression of PD-1/TIM-3 by CD8 T cells. In agreement, we observed a loss of CD8 T cell-associated favorable clinical outcome in COPD+ patients. Interestingly, a negative prognostic value of PD-L1 expression by tumor cells was observed only in highly CD8 T cell-infiltrated tumors of COPD+ patients. Finally, data obtained on 39 advanced-stage NSCLC patients treated by an anti-PD-1 antibody showed longer progression free survival in COPD+ patients, and also that the association between the severity of smoking and the response to nivolumab was preferentially observed in COPD+ patients. COPD is associated with an increased sensitivity of CD8 TILs to immune escape mechanisms developed by tumors, thus suggesting a higher sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in patients with COPD.

  12. Role of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsies in Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases: Interest of a Sequential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bondue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsies (TBLCs are a promising diagnostic tool in the setting of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. However, no comparison with surgical lung biopsy (SLB in the same patient is available. Methods. The diagnostic yield and safety data of TBLCs, as well as the result of SLB performed after TBLCs, were analysed in a multicentric Belgian study. A SLB was performed after TBLCs in absence of a definite pathological diagnosis or if a NSIP pattern was observed without related condition identified following multidisciplinary discussion. Results. Between April 2015 and November 2016, 30 patients were included. Frequent complications included pneumothorax (20% and bleeding (severe 7%, moderate 33%, and mild 53%. There was no mortality. The overall diagnostic yield was 80%. A SLB was performed in six patients (three without definite histological pattern and three with an NSIP. The surgical biopsy changed the pathological diagnosis into a UIP pattern in five patients and confirmed a NSIP pattern in one patient. Conclusion. TBLCs are useful in the diagnostic work-up of DPLDs avoiding a SLB in 80% of the patients. However, surgical biopsies, performed as a second step after TBLCs because of an indefinite diagnosis or a NSIP pattern, provide additional information supporting the interest of a sequential approach in these patients.

  13. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  14. Graves' Disease Patients with Persistent Hyperthyroidism and Diffuse Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration in the Thyroid Show No Histopathological Compatibility with IgG4-Related Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijun Nishihara

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a novel disease entity characterized by diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis into multiple organs. There is still controversy over whether some thyroid diseases are actually IgG4-related disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of Graves' disease with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the thyroid.Among 1,484 Graves' disease patients who underwent thyroidectomy, we examined their histopathological findings including the degree of lymphoplasmacytic and fibrotic infiltration and levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Their clinical pictures were defined by laboratory and ultrasonographic evaluation.A total of 11 patients (0.74% showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, other patients showed variable lymphoid infiltration ranging from absent to focally dense but no aggregation of plasma cells in the thyroid gland. Based on the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease, 5 of the 11 subjects had specifically increased levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Fibrotic infiltration was present in only 1 patient developing hypothyroidism after anti-thyroid drug treatment for 4 years, but not in the other 10 patients with persistent hyperthyroidism. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified in any of the 11 subjects. Thyroid ultrasound examination showed 1 patient developing hypothyroidism who had diffuse hypoechogenicity, but the other hyperthyroid patients had a coarse echo texture.In our study, Graves' disease patients with persistent hyperthyroidism who had diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid showed no concomitant fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis.

  15. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine

  16. Effect of nuclear factor kappa B on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and neutrophil infiltration in lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-Feng; Yao, Ji-Hong; Li, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Song; Feng, Bing-An; Yang, Chun-Ming; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and its effect on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and neutrophil infiltration. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided randomly into control, I/R and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) treatment groups, n = 8 in each. I/R group and PDTC treatment group received superior mysenteric artery (SMA) occluding for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h. PDTC group was administrated with intraperitoneal injection of 2% 100 mg/kg PDTC 1 h before surgery. Lung histology and bronchia alveolus lung fluid (BALF) protein were assayed. Serum IL-6, lung malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as well as the expression level of NF-κB and ICAM-1 were measured. RESULTS: Lung injury induced by intestinal I/R, was characterized by edema, hemorrhage and neutrophil infiltration as well as by the significant rising of BALF protein. Compared to control group, the levels of serum IL-6 and lung MDA and MPO increased significantly in I/R group (P = 0.001). Strong positive expression of NF-κB p65 and ICAM-1 was observed. After the administration of PDTC, the level of serum IL-6, lung MDA and MPO as well as NF-κB and ICAM-1 decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to I/R group. CONCLUSION: The activation of NF-κB plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung injury induced by intestinal I/R through upregulating the neutrophil infiltration and lung ICAM-1 expression. PDTC as an inhibitor of NF-κB can prevent lung injury induced by intestinal I/R through inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. PMID:16489637

  17. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  18. The value of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles in the diagnosis of diffused lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tieyi; Ji Jingling

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles in the differential diagnosis of the diffuse lung disease, seventy-two patients with diffuse lung diseases were evaluated, 15 of 72 patients were pathologically proven and the others clinically proven. Of these 72 patients, there were 33 patients with diffuse pulmonary interstitial disease, 5 patients with pulmonary parenchymal disease, 14 patients with bronchial disease, and 20 patients with disseminated disease. All patients had conventional CT scan of the chest, some also had HRCT scan. All CT images were jointly reviewed by two radiologists. The features of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles included: (1) Thinning of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in diffuse interstitial disease of lung and chronic bronchitis; (2) thickening of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in interstitial diseases and disseminated lung diseases such as sarcoidosis and lymphangitis carcinomatosis with beaded appearance of bronchovascular bundles; (3) Increased visibility of bronchovascular bundles, predominantly seen in bronchiolitis and disseminated lung diseases. CT features of the abnormalities of bronchovascular bundles are present in 80% of diffuse lung diseases. The features are not specific, but the beaded bronchovascular bundles are always seen in sarcoidosis and lymphangitis carcinomatosis. In making a distinction between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic bronchitis complicated with interstitial fibrosis, the position of diaphragm is of value in differential diagnosis, normal or elevated diaphragm is usually seen in the former, while low and flattened diaphragm in the latter. Change of the appearance of bronchovascular bundles from normality to abnormality reflects the process of development of the lung disease

  19. Critical role of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase in thrombin-induced endothelial cell inflammation and lung PMN infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Fabeha; Bijli, Kaiser M; Murrill, Matthew; Leonard, Antony; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Anwar, Khandaker N; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Watterson, D Martin; Rahman, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) involves bidirectional cooperation and close interaction between inflammatory and coagulation pathways. A key molecule linking coagulation and inflammation is the procoagulant thrombin, a serine protease whose concentration is elevated in plasma and lavage fluids of patients with ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the mechanism by which thrombin contributes to lung inflammatory response. In this study, we developed a new mouse model that permits investigation of lung inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation. Using this mouse model and in vitro approaches, we addressed the role of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in thrombin-induced endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and lung neutrophil (PMN) infiltration. Our in vitro experiments revealed a key role of nmMLCK in ICAM-1 expression by its ability to control nuclear translocation and transcriptional capacity of RelA/p65 in EC. When subjected to intraperitoneal thrombin challenge, wild type mice showed a marked increase in lung PMN infiltration via expression of ICAM-1. However, these responses were markedly attenuated in mice deficient in nmMLCK. These results provide mechanistic insight into lung inflammatory response associated with intravascular coagulation and identify nmMLCK as a critical target for modulation of lung inflammation.

  20. The importance of balanced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in diffuse lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strieter Robert

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lung responds to a variety of insults in a remarkably consistent fashion but with inconsistent outcomes that vary from complete resolution and return to normal to the destruction of normal architecture and progressive fibrosis. Increasing evidence indicates that diffuse lung disease results from an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, with a persistent imbalance that favors pro-inflammatory mediators dictating the development of chronic diffuse lung disease. This review focuses on the mediators that influence this imbalance.

  1. Diffusion of gases into the lung: How physics can help to understand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the human lung, the gas transfer between air and blood is achieved in terminal units that are called `acini'. Whereas convection is still the predominant transport phenomenon at the acinus entrance, most of the acinar surface is in fact accessed by diffusion. The transition between convection and diffusion, and thus the ...

  2. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

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    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants. Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers. Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk. Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years. Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  3. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response to chemotherapy in patients with advance non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ye, Jin; Li, Hongtao; Huang, Jing; Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benquan; Huang, Xubing; Hou, Jinghui

    2012-10-01

    Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests that anticancer immune responses contribute to the success of chemotherapy. The predictive significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of TIL subtypes in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. In total, 159 patients with stage III and IV NSCLC were retrospectively enrolled. The prevalence of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and Foxp3(+) TILs was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissue obtained before chemotherapy. The density of TILs subgroups was treated as dichotomous variables using the median values as cutoff. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in overall survival between groups were determined using the Log-rank test. Prognostic effects of TIL subsets density were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. The presence of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and FOXP3(+) TILs was not correlated with any clinicopathological features. Neither the prevalence of TILs nor combined analysis displayed obvious prognostic performances for overall survival in Cox regression model. Instead, higher FOXP3(+)/CD8(+) ratio in tumor sites was an independent factor for poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy in overall cohort. These findings suggest that immunological CD8(+) and FOXP3(+)Tregs cell infiltrate within tumor environment is predictive of response to platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC patients. The understanding of the clinical relevance of the microenvironmental immunological milieu might provide an important clue for the design of novel strategies in cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Inverse relationship of tumors and mononuclear cell leukemia infiltration in the lungs of F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    In 1970 and F344 rat, along with the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse, were selected as the standard rodents for the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenic Bioassay program for studies of potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The F344 rat has also been used in a variety of other carcinogenesis studies, including numerous studies at ITRI. A major concern to be considered in evaluating carcinogenic bioassay studies using the F344 rat is the relatively high background incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia (MCL) (also referred to as large granular lymphocytic leukemia, Fischer rat leukemia, or monocytic leukemia). Incidences of MCL ranging from 10 to 72% in male F344 rats to 6 to 31% in female F344 rats have been reported. Gaining the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the negative correlations noted should enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of lung cancer.

  5. Surgical lung biopsy for diffuse lung disease. Our experience in the last 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blanco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical lung biopsy is a technique that presents a morbi-mortality rate of considerable importance. We analyze our experience with surgical lung biopsies for the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease and the effect produced on the indications for surgical biopsy in these pathologies after the publication of the consensus of the ATS (American Thoracic Society and ERS (European Respiratory Society for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective review of 171 patients operated between January 1997 and December 2011. We divided the series into 2 groups: group 1 (operated between 1997 and 2002 and group 2 (operated between 2003 and 2011. Suspected preoperative diagnosis, respiratory status, pathological postoperative diagnoses, percentage of thoracotomies, mean postoperative stay and perioperative morbidity and mortality were analyzed. Results: Group 1 consisted of 99 patients and group two 72. The most frequent postoperative diagnoses were: usual interstitial pneumonia and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. There were ten (5.84% deaths. Death was caused by progressive respiratory failure that was related to interstitial lung disease in 7 (70% of 10 cases, alveolar haemorrhage in 2 (20% and heart failure in 1 (10%. Conclusions: Since the publication of the ATS and ERS consensus on the IPF, we have observed a noticeable decrease in the number of indications for surgical lung biopsy. This technique, though simple, has a considerable morbidity and mortality. Resumo: Introdução: A biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica é uma técnica com uma morbimortalidade não negligenciável. Este trabalho resulta da experiência adquirida na realização de biópsias pulmonares cirúrgicas para o diagnóstico da doença pulmonar intersticial difusa, bem como pelo efeito provocado sobre as indicações da biópsia cirúrgica nesta entidade, após a publicação do consenso da ATS (American Thoracic Society e da ERS (European

  6. [New toxicity of fotemustine: diffuse interstitial lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Wémeau-Stervinou, L; Gauthier, S; Auffret, M; Mortier, L

    2012-04-01

    Fotemustine is an alkylating cytostatic drug belonging to the nitrosourea family and is used in particular in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of interstitial lung disease associated with fotemustine. An 81-year-old man treated with fotemustine for metastatic melanoma presented acute interstitial lung disease 20 days after a fourth course of fotemustine monotherapy. The condition regressed spontaneously, with the patient returning to the clinical, radiological and blood gas status that had preceded fotemustine treatment. After other potential aetiologies had been ruled out, acute fotemustine-induced lung toxicity was considered and this treatment was definitively withdrawn. Other cytostatic agents belonging to the nitrosourea family can cause similar pictures, with a number of cases of interstitial lung disease thus being ascribed to fotemustine and dacarbazine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial lung disease induced by fotemustine monotherapy. This diagnosis should be considered where respiratory signs appear in melanoma patients undergoing fotemustine treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Case Report HOT TUB LUNG: AN INTRIGUING DIFFUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.ghanamedj.org Volume 51 Number 3 September 2017. 143. HOT TUB LUNG: AN ... We report a case of HTL to increase the awareness of this rare and enigmatic disease ..... Taylor RH, Falkinham JO III, Norton CD,. LeChevallier MW.

  8. Diffuse malignant lymphoma type B with optic chiasm infiltration, visual disturbances, hypopituitarism, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes insipidus. Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanowski, M.; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M.; Sokolska, V.

    2006-01-01

    The case is reported of a 55-year-old man with diffuse malignant lymphoma type B associated with transient optic chiasm infiltration and visual disturbances but with persistent hypopituitarism, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes insipidus. The patient was administered chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Repeated MR and CT scans showed optic chiasm infiltration, which disappeared in the course of the chemotherapy but then recurred, changed its appearance and finally disappeared again. In the meantime visual disturbances occurred and disappeared during the therapy. Hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and hyperprolactinaemia were diagnosed and replacement therapy was administered. Later on abdominal pain occurred, and a CT scan revealed bilateral kidney masses and enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes. These were diffuse malignant lymphoma with regional lymphonodulitis in histology. Finally, hydrothorax and hydroretroperitoneum were diagnosed. The patient died as a result of systemic complications of the disease. The length of survival time documented following the hypothalamochiasmatic infiltration and diagnosis of lymphoma makes the case an unusual one for patients with CNS lymphoma. Hormonal disturbances accompanying the suprasellar region infiltration are very important from the practical point of view. (author)

  9. Infundibulo-hypophysitis-like radiological image in a patient with pituitary infiltration of a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A León-Suárez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a hematological tumor caused by abnormal lymphoid proliferation. NHL can arise in any part of the body, including central nervous system (CNS. However, pituitary involvement is a quite rare presentation. The diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common subtype when pituitary is infiltrated. Here, we report a case of pituitary infiltration of NHL DLBCL type in a woman with hypopituitarism and an infundibulum-hypophysitis-like image on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A female aged 64 years, complained of dyspepsia, fatigue, weight loss and urine volume increment with thirst. Endoscopy and gastric biopsy confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with chemotherapy using R-CHOP was initiated. During her hospitalization, hypotension and polyuria were confirmed. Hormonal evaluation was compatible with central diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism. Simple T1 sequence of MRI showed thickening of the infundibular stalk with homogeneous enhancement. After lumbar puncture analysis, CNS infiltration was confirmed showing positive atypical lymphocytes. Pituitary and infundibular stalk size normalized after R-CHOP chemotherapy treatment. In conclusion, pituitary infiltration of NHL with infundibular-hypophysitis-like image on MRI is a rare finding. Clinical picture included hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis should be suspected after biochemical analysis and MRI results. Treatment consists of chemotherapy against NHL and hormonal replacement for pituitary dysfunction.

  10. Bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation between FDG-PET uptake and type of cellular infiltrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paone, Gaetano; Itti, Emmanuel; Lin, Chieh; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Dupuis, Jehan; Gaulard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    To assess, in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), whether the low sensitivity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for bone marrow assessment may be explained by histological characteristics of the cellular infiltrate. From a prospective cohort of 110 patients with newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma, 21 patients with DLBCL had bone marrow involvement. Pretherapeutic FDG-PET images were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, then correlated with the type of cellular infiltrate and known prognostic factors. Of these 21 patients, 7 (33%) had lymphoid infiltrates with a prominent component of large transformed lymphoid cells (concordant bone marrow involvement, CBMI) and 14 (67%) had lymphoid infiltrates composed of small cells (discordant bone marrow involvement, DBMI). Only 10 patients (48%) had abnormal bone marrow FDG uptake, 6 of the 7 with CBMI and 4 of the 14 with DBMI. Therefore, FDG-PET positivity in the bone marrow was significantly associated with CBMI, while FDG-PET negativity was associated with DBMI (Fisher's exact test, p=0.024). There were no significant differences in gender, age and overall survival between patients with CBMI and DBMI, while the international prognostic index was significantly higher in patients with CBMI. Our study suggests that in patients with DLBCL with bone marrow involvement bone marrow FDG uptake depends on two types of infiltrate, comprising small (DBMI) or large (CBMI) cells. This may explain the apparent low sensitivity of FDG-PET previously reported for detecting bone marrow involvement. (orig.)

  11. An Unusual Radiologic Manifestation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Bilateral Multiple Lung Nodules and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seo In; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is very rare. Here, we report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage mimicking granulomatous vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis.

  12. Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy and Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Lung Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease. A Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Imran H; Alghothani, Lana; Sardi, Alejandro; Berkowitz, David; Musani, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy is increasingly being used for the assessment of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Several studies have shown larger biopsy samples and higher yields compared with conventional transbronchial biopsies. However, the higher risk of bleeding and other complications has raised concerns for widespread use of this modality. To study the diagnostic accuracy and safety profile of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and compare with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) by reviewing available evidence from the literature. Medline and PubMed were searched from inception until December 2016. Data on diagnostic performance were abstracted by constructing two-by-two contingency tables for each study. Data on a priori selected safety outcomes were collected. Risk of bias was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy were 83.7% (76.9-88.8%), 87% (85-89%), and 57% (40-73%), respectively. The pooled diagnostic yield, pooled sensitivity, and pooled specificity of VATS were 92.7% (87.6-95.8%), 91.0% (89-92%), and 58% (31-81%), respectively. The incidence of grade 2 (moderate to severe) endobronchial bleeding after transbronchial lung cryobiopsy and of post-procedural pneumothorax was 4.9% (2.2-10.7%) and 9.5% (5.9-14.9%), respectively. Although the diagnostic test accuracy measures of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy lag behind those of VATS, with an acceptable safety profile and potential cost savings, the former could be considered as an alternative in the evaluation of patients with diffuse parenchymal lung diseases.

  13. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Günther; Kiesel, Barbara; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Aygül; Göd, Sabine; Mallouhi, Ammar; Knosp, Engelbert; Marosi, Christine; Trattnig, Siegfried; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Preusser, Matthias; Widhalm, Georg

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. • 7 Tesla local image variance helps to quantify hypointense susceptibility-weighted imaging structures. • SWI-LIV is significantly increased in high-grade and IDH1-R132H negative gliomas. • SWI-LIV is a promising technique for improved preoperative glioma characterization. • Preoperative management of diffusely infiltrating gliomas will be optimized.

  14. Lung injury induced by secondhand smoke exposure detected with hyperpolarized helium-3 diffusion MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbo; Mugler, John P; de Lange, Eduard E; Patrie, James T; Mata, Jaime F; Altes, Talissa A

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether helium-3 diffusion MR can detect the changes in the lungs of healthy nonsmoking individuals who were regularly exposed to secondhand smoke. Three groups were studied (age: 59 ± 9 years): 23 smokers, 37 exposure-to-secondhand-smoke subjects, and 29 control subjects. We measured helium-3 diffusion values at diffusion times from 0.23 to 1.97 s. One-way analysis of variance revealed that the mean area under the helium-3 diffusion curves (ADC AUC) of the smokers was significantly elevated compared with the controls and to the exposure-to-secondhand-smoke subjects (P exposure-to-secondhand-smoke subjects and that of the controls was found (P = 0.115). However, application of a receiver operator characteristic-derived rule to classify subjects as either a "control" or a "smoker," based on ADC AUC, revealed that 30% (11/37) of the exposure-to-secondhand subjects were classified as "smokers" indicating an elevation of the ADC AUC. Using helium-3 diffusion MR, elevated ADC values were detected in 30% of nonsmoking healthy subjects who had been regularly exposed to secondhand smoke, supporting the concept that, in susceptible individuals, secondhand smoke causes mild lung damage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Computerized detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT: the usefulness of statistical texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiahui; Li Qiang; Li Feng; Doi Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Accurate detection of diffuse lung disease is an important step for computerized diagnosis and quantification of this disease. It is also a difficult clinical task for radiologists. We developed a computerized scheme to assist radiologists in the detection of diffuse lung disease in multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists selected 31 normal and 37 abnormal CT scans with ground glass opacity, reticular, honeycombing and nodular disease patterns based on clinical reports. The abnormal cases in our database must contain at least an abnormal area with a severity of moderate or severe level that was subjectively rated by the radiologists. Because statistical texture features may lack the power to distinguish a nodular pattern from a normal pattern, the abnormal cases that contain only a nodular pattern were excluded. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. The lungs were first segmented in each slice by use of a thresholding technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64 x 64 x 64 matrix size. For each VOI, we determined and employed statistical texture features, such as run-length and co-occurrence matrix features, to distinguish abnormal from normal lung parenchyma. In particular, we developed new run-length texture features with clear physical meanings to considerably improve the accuracy of our detection scheme. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by the use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. We investigated the impact of new and conventional texture features, VOI size and the dimensionality for regions of interest on detecting diffuse lung disease. When we employed new texture features for 3D VOIs of 64 x 64 x 64 voxels, our system achieved the

  16. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabner, Guenther; Kiesel, Barbara; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Ayguel; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Widhalm, Georg; Woehrer, Adelheid; Goed, Sabine; Mallouhi, Ammar; Marosi, Christine; Preusser, Matthias; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p < 0.0001), IDH1-R132H negative compared to IDH1-R132H positive gliomas (109.9 versus 38.3; p < 0.0001) and tumours with significant CE compared to non-significant CE (120.1 versus 39.0; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that 7 Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. (orig.)

  17. Local image variance of 7 Tesla SWI is a new technique for preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas: correlation with tumour grade and IDH1 mutational status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabner, Guenther [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Sciences and Social Work, Klagenfurt am Woerthersee (Austria); Kiesel, Barbara; Millesi, Matthias; Wurzer, Ayguel; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Widhalm, Georg [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Woehrer, Adelheid [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Institute of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Goed, Sabine [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Mallouhi, Ammar [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Marosi, Christine; Preusser, Matthias [Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine I, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Central Nervous System Tumours Unit (CCC-CNS), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate the value of local image variance (LIV) as a new technique for quantification of hypointense microvascular susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) structures at 7 Tesla for preoperative glioma characterization. Adult patients with neuroradiologically suspected diffusely infiltrating gliomas were prospectively recruited and 7 Tesla SWI was performed in addition to standard imaging. After tumour segmentation, quantification of intratumoural SWI hypointensities was conducted by the SWI-LIV technique. Following surgery, the histopathological tumour grade and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)-R132H mutational status was determined and SWI-LIV values were compared between low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG), IDH1-R132H negative and positive tumours, as well as gliomas with significant and non-significant contrast-enhancement (CE) on MRI. In 30 patients, 9 LGG and 21 HGG were diagnosed. The calculation of SWI-LIV values was feasible in all tumours. Significantly higher mean SWI-LIV values were found in HGG compared to LGG (92.7 versus 30.8; p < 0.0001), IDH1-R132H negative compared to IDH1-R132H positive gliomas (109.9 versus 38.3; p < 0.0001) and tumours with significant CE compared to non-significant CE (120.1 versus 39.0; p < 0.0001). Our data indicate that 7 Tesla SWI-LIV might improve preoperative characterization of diffusely infiltrating gliomas and thus optimize patient management by quantification of hypointense microvascular structures. (orig.)

  18. Monte Carlo dose calculations for BNCT treatment of diffuse human lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the possibility to apply BNCT in the core of diffuse lung tumours, dose distribution calculations were made. The simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP.4c2, using the male computational phantom Adam, version 07/94. Volumes of interest were voxelized for the tally requests, and results were obtained for tissues with and without Boron. Different collimated neutron sources were tested in order to establish the proper energies, as well as single and multiple beams to maximize neutron flux uniformity inside the target organs. Flux and dose distributions are reported. The use of two opposite epithermal neutron collimated beams insures good levels of dose homogeneity inside the lungs, with a substantially lower radiation dose delivered to surrounding structures. (author)

  19. Morphological appearance, content of extracellular matrix and vascular density of lung metastases predicts permissiveness to infiltration by adoptively transferred natural killer and T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Q.; Goding, S.; Hagenaars, M.

    2006-01-01

    . Analyses of tumors for extracellular matrix (ECM) components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature, revealed that the I-R lesions are hypovascularized and contain very little laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In contrast, the I-P loose tumors are well-vascularized and they contain high amounts of ECM components....... Interestingly, the distribution pattern of ECM components in the I-P loose tumors is almost identical to that of the normal lung tissue, indicating that these tumors develop around the alveolar walls which provide the loose tumors with both a supporting tissue and a rich blood supply. In conclusion, tumor...... infiltration by activated NK and T cells correlates with the presence of ECM components and PECAM-1(+) vasculature in the malignant tissue. Thus, analysis of the distribution of ECM and vasculature in tumor biopsies may help select patients most likely to benefit from cellular adoptive immunotherapy....

  20. Morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of the lungs of ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J Matthias; Aupperle, Heike; Kiefer, Ingmar; Weimer, Isabel; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Pees, Michael

    2012-08-01

    This study aims at a functional and morphological characterization of the lung of a boid snake. In particular, we were interested to see if the python's lungs are designed with excess capacity as compared to resting and working oxygen demands. Therefore, the morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of ball pythons (Python regius) was examined following a stereological, hierarchically nested approach. The volume of the respiratory exchange tissue was determined using computed tomography. Tissue compartments were quantified using stereological methods on light microscopic images. The tissue diffusion barrier for oxygen transport was characterized and measured using transmission electron micrographs. We found a significant negative correlation between body mass and the volume of respiratory tissue; the lungs of larger snakes had relatively less respiratory tissue. Therefore, mass-specific respiratory tissue was calculated to exclude effects of body mass. The volume of the lung that contains parenchyma was 11.9±5.0mm(3)g(-1). The volume fraction, i.e., the actual pulmonary exchange tissue per lung parenchyma, was 63.22±7.3%; the total respiratory surface was, on average, 0.214±0.129m(2); it was significantly negatively correlated to body mass, with larger snakes having proportionally smaller respiratory surfaces. For the air-blood barrier, a harmonic mean of 0.78±0.05μm was found, with the epithelial layer representing the thickest part of the barrier. Based on these findings, a median diffusion capacity of the tissue barrier ( [Formula: see text] ) of 0.69±0.38ml O(2)min(-1)mmHg(-1) was calculated. Based on published values for blood oxygen concentration, a total oxygen uptake capacity of 61.16mlO(2)min(-1)kg(-1) can be assumed. This value exceeds the maximum demand for oxygen in ball pythons by a factor of 12. We conclude that healthy individuals of P. regius possess a considerable spare capacity for tissue oxygen exchange. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Gmb

  1. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes differs depending on histological type and smoking habit in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Muramatsu, R; Fujita, T; Nagumo, H; Sakurai, T; Noji, S; Takahata, E; Yaguchi, T; Tsukamoto, N; Kudo-Saito, C; Hayashi, Y; Kamiyama, I; Ohtsuka, T; Asamura, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-11-01

    T-cell infiltration in tumors has been used as a prognostic tool in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the influence of smoking habit and histological type on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in NSCLC remains unclear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of TILs (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD20 + , and FOXP3 + ) according to histological type and smoking habit using automatic immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in 218 patients with NSCLC. In multivariate survival analyses of clinical, pathological, and immunological factors, a high ratio of FOXP3 + to CD4 + T cells (FOXP3/CD4) [hazard ratio (HR): 4.46, P smoking habit in AD, a high FOXP3/CD4 ratio was poorly prognostic with a smoking history (HR: 5.21, P smoking habit on the immunological environment may lead to the establishment of immunological diagnosis and appropriate individualized immunotherapy for NSCLC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prediction of Early Response to Chemotherapy in Lung Cancer by Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether change of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value could predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Materials and Methods. Twenty-five patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer underwent chest MR imaging including DWI before and at the end of the first cycle of chemotherapy. The tumor’s mean ADC value and diameters on MR images were calculated and compared. The grouping reference was based on serial CT scans according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Logistic regression was applied to assess treatment response prediction ability of ADC value and diameters. Results. The change of ADC value in partial response group was higher than that in stable disease group (P=0.004. ROC curve showed that ADC value could predict treatment response with 100% sensitivity, 64.71% specificity, 57.14% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value, and 82.7% accuracy. The area under the curve for combination of ADC value and longest diameter change was higher than any parameter alone (P≤0.01. Conclusions. The change of ADC value may be a sensitive indicator to predict early response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Prediction ability could be improved by combining the change of ADC value and longest diameter.

  3. A novel, diffusely infiltrative xenograft model of human anaplastic oligodendroglioma with mutations in FUBP1, CIC, and IDH1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Klink

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglioma poses a biological conundrum for malignant adult human gliomas: it is a tumor type that is universally incurable for patients, and yet, only a few of the human tumors have been established as cell populations in vitro or as intracranial xenografts in vivo. Their survival, thus, may emerge only within a specific environmental context. To determine the fate of human oligodendroglioma in an experimental model, we studied the development of an anaplastic tumor after intracranial implantation into enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP positive NOD/SCID mice. Remarkably after nearly nine months, the tumor not only engrafted, but it also retained classic histological and genetic features of human oligodendroglioma, in particular cells with a clear cytoplasm, showing an infiltrative growth pattern, and harboring mutations of IDH1 (R132H and of the tumor suppressor genes, FUBP1 and CIC. The xenografts were highly invasive, exhibiting a distinct migration and growth pattern around neurons, especially in the hippocampus, and following white matter tracts of the corpus callosum with tumor cells accumulating around established vasculature. Although tumors exhibited a high growth fraction in vivo, neither cells from the original patient tumor nor the xenograft exhibited significant growth in vitro over a six-month period. This glioma xenograft is the first to display a pure oligodendroglioma histology and expression of R132H. The unexpected property, that the cells fail to grow in vitro even after passage through the mouse, allows us to uniquely investigate the relationship of this oligodendroglioma with the in vivo microenvironment.

  4. Diffusion Lung Capacity Changes in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Before and After ABVD Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.; Alam, S.; Majid, A.; Zafar, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy consisting of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Doxorubicin (ABVD), which is the mainstay of treatment in Hodgkins Lymphoma (HL), is associated with both acute and long-term pulmonary toxicity primarily due to Bleomycin. Bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity (BPT) is clinically detected using diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in DLCO in HL patients before and after ABVD chemotherapy. Methods: Medical records of all adult HL patients treated with ABVD chemotherapy at a single centre in Lahore, Pakistan during the entire calendar year 2012 were analysed. Patients with pre-existing pulmonary dysfunction, history of thoracic surgery and smokers were excluded. Results: A total of 179 HL patients were identified during the study period who received ABVD chemotherapy. Out of these, 93 (51.95 percent) patients had undergone both a pre- and post-chemotherapy DLCO measurements. The remaining patients had only one DLCO reading available and were not included in the analysis. The mean percentage difference between pre- and post-chemotherapy values for DLCO (5.49 percent; 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.56-9.43 percent) and for Haemoglobin-adjusted DLCO (8.24 percent; 95 percent CI 3.90-12.57 percent) were statistically significant at p<0.01. Diffusing lung capacity for carbon (DLCO) values declined from pre-treatment to post-treatment by 1-10 percent in 23 (24.7 percent) patients, by 10-20 percent in 19 (20.4 percent) patients, by 20-30 percent in 10 (10.8 percent) patients and >30 percent in 10 (10.8 percent) patients. After adjusting for age, a 1mg/m/sup 2/ increase in dose of Bleomycin was significantly associated with 0.14 percent (95 percent CI: 0.03-0.25 percent) decline in DLCO and 0.13 percent (95 percent CI: 0.10-0.26 percent) decline in haemoglobin-adjusted DLCO from pre-treatment value. Conclusions: Mild to moderate dysfunction in diffusion lung capacity is

  5. {sup 89}Zr-labeled nivolumab for imaging of T-cell infiltration in a humanized murine model of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Christopher G.; Ehlerding, Emily B.; Ellison, Paul A.; Hernandez, Reinier; Barnhart, Todd E. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Jiang, Dawei [Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Guangzhou (China); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Rekoske, Brian T. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); McNeel, Douglas G. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Huang, Peng [Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Guangzhou (China); Cai, Weibo [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin - Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody specific for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T-cell activation and response. Acting as an immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab binds to PD-1 expressed on the surface of many immune cells and prevents ligation by its natural ligands. Nivolumab is only effective in a subset of patients, and there is limited evidence supporting its use for diagnostic, monitoring, or stratification purposes. {sup 89}Zr-Df-nivolumab was synthesized to map the biodistribution of PD-1-expressing tumor infiltrating T-cells in vivo using a humanized murine model of lung cancer. The tracer was developed by radiolabeling the antibody with the positron emitter zirconium-89 ({sup 89}Zr). Imaging results were validated by ex vivo biodistribution studies, and PD-1 expression was validated by immunohistochemistry. Data obtained from PET imaging were used to determine human dosimetry estimations. The tracer showed elevated binding to stimulated PD-1 expressing T-cells in vitro and in vivo. PET imaging of {sup 89}Zr-Df-nivolumab allowed for clear delineation of subcutaneous tumors through targeting of localized activated T-cells expressing PD-1 in the tumors and salivary glands of humanized A549 tumor-bearing mice. In addition to tumor uptake, salivary and lacrimal gland infiltration of T-cells was noticeably visible and confirmed via histological analysis. These data support our claim that PD-1-targeted agents allow for tumor imaging in vivo, which may assist in the design and development of new immunotherapies. In the future, noninvasive imaging of immunotherapy biomarkers may assist in disease diagnostics, disease monitoring, and patient stratification. (orig.)

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing focal pulmonary lesions and characterizing the subtype of lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guohua; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu [Sichuan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The potential performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions, further characterizing the subtype of lung cancer was assessed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and three Chinese databases were searched to identify eligible studies on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of focal pulmonary lesions. ADC values of malignant and benign lesions were extracted by lesion type and statistically pooled based on a linear mixed model. Further analysis for subtype of lung cancer was also performed. The methodological quality was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Thirty-four articles involving 2086 patients were included. Malignant pulmonary lesions have significantly lower ADC values than benign lesions [1.21 (95 % CI, 1.19-1.22) mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.76 (95 % CI, 1.72-1.80) mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.05]. There is a significant difference between ADC values of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05), while the differences were not significant among histological subtypes of lung cancer. The methodological quality was relatively high, and the data points from Begg's test indicated that there was probably no obvious publication bias. The ADC value is helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions and provides a promising method for differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI in lung cancers. ADC test-retest repeatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Alex; Papoutsaki, Marianthi Vasiliki; Blackledge, Matthew; DeSouza, Nandita M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom); Waterton, John C. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas University, Milan (Italy); Stroobants, Sigrid [Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kuijer, Joost [Vrije Universiteit Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Morgan, Veronica [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the test-retest repeatability of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements across institutions and MRI vendors, plus investigate the effect of post-processing methodology on measurement precision. Thirty malignant lung lesions >2 cm in size (23 patients) were scanned on two occasions, using echo-planar-Diffusion-Weighted (DW)-MRI to derive whole-tumour ADC (b = 100, 500 and 800 s/mm{sup -2}). Scanning was performed at 4 institutions (3 MRI vendors). Whole-tumour volumes-of-interest were copied from first visit onto second visit images and from one post-processing platform to an open-source platform, to assess ADC repeatability and cross-platform reproducibility. Whole-tumour ADC values ranged from 0.66-1.94x10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (mean = 1.14). Within-patient coefficient-of-variation (wCV) was 7.1% (95% CI 5.7-9.6%), limits-of-agreement (LoA) -18.0 to 21.9%. Lesions >3 cm had improved repeatability: wCV 3.9% (95% CI 2.9-5.9%); and LoA -10.2 to 11.4%. Variability for lesions <3 cm was 2.46 times higher. ADC reproducibility across different post-processing platforms was excellent: Pearson's R{sup 2} = 0.99; CoV 2.8% (95% CI 2.3-3.4%); and LoA -7.4 to 8.0%. A free-breathing DW-MRI protocol for imaging malignant lung tumours achieved satisfactory within-patient repeatability and was robust to changes in post-processing software, justifying its use in multi-centre trials. For response evaluation in individual patients, a change in ADC >21.9% will reflect treatment-related change. (orig.)

  8. Opacity annotation of diffuse lung diseases using deep convolutional neural network with multi-channel information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabu, Shingo; Kido, Shoji; Hashimoto, Noriaki; Hirano, Yasushi; Kuremoto, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    This research proposes a multi-channel deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) that classifies normal and abnormal opacities of diffuse lung diseases in Computed Tomography (CT) images. Because CT images are gray scale, DCNN usually uses one channel for inputting image data. On the other hand, this research uses multi-channel DCNN where each channel corresponds to the original raw image or the images transformed by some preprocessing techniques. In fact, the information obtained only from raw images is limited and some conventional research suggested that preprocessing of images contributes to improving the classification accuracy. Thus, the combination of the original and preprocessed images is expected to show higher accuracy. The proposed method realizes region of interest (ROI)-based opacity annotation. We used lung CT images taken in Yamaguchi University Hospital, Japan, and they are divided into 32 × 32 ROI images. The ROIs contain six kinds of opacities: consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), emphysema, honeycombing, nodular, and normal. The aim of the proposed method is to classify each ROI into one of the six opacities (classes). The DCNN structure is based on VGG network that secured the first and second places in ImageNet ILSVRC-2014. From the experimental results, the classification accuracy of the proposed method was better than the conventional method with single channel, and there was a significant difference between them.

  9. Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spliethoff, Jarich; Prevoo, Warner; Meier, Mark A.J.; de Jong, Jeroen; Evers, Daniel; Evers, Daniel J.; Sterenborg, Hendricus J.C.M.; Lucassen, Gerald; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Hendriks, Benno H.W.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during image-guided percutaneous lung biopsies using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) sensing at the tip of a biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. Experimental Design: Tissues from 21 consented patients

  10. GRANULOCYTE INFILTRATION AND EXPRESSION OF THE PRO-ANGIOGENIC BV8 PROTEIN IN EXPERIMENTAL EL4 AND LEWIS LUNG CARCINOMA TUMORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kan; Kwak, Hyeongil; Tosato, Giovanna

    2013-01-18

    Although Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)-targeted therapies have shown efficacy in the treatment of certain advanced cancers, benefits to patients have been modest, which is attributed to tumor resistance to VEGF neutralization. Recent efforts to identify new targets to inhibit tumor angiogenesis have identified Bv8 (prokineticin 2), a myeloid cell-derived protein that promotes endothelial cell growth and tumor angiogenesis, but many mechanistic aspects of the pro-tumorigenic function of Bv8 are unclear. Here we demonstrate that CD11b+, Ly6C+, Ly6G+ granulocytes are the predominant cell source of Bv8 expression in bone marrow, spleen and in tumor tissues. Using granulocyte-deficient Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1)-null mutant mice and normal littermates, we found that EL4 lymphoma tumors grow significantly larger in the granulocyte and Bv8-deficient mutant mice in comparison to the normal mice that display abundant tumor-associated granulocytes and Bv8 expression. Conversely, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC-1) tumors grew to a significantly greater size in the normal mice in comparison to the Gfi1-null mice, but normal granulocyte tumor infiltration was modest. Quantitative analysis of tissue vascularization showed that EL4 and LLC-1 tumors from normal and Gfi1-mutant mice are similarly vascularized. These results confirm the critical contribution of the tumor microenvironment in determining the rate of tumor progression independently of tumor angiogenesis, and reveal some of the complexities of granulocyte and Bv8 functions in modulating tumor growth.

  11. Prognostic and predictive role of FOXP3 positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs in curatively resected non small cell lung cancer other than stage IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kose

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and responsible for 1.6 million deaths per year through world-wide. Surgical resection with negative margin combined with the adjuvant therapy [except for stage IA and IB (<4 cm] is the Standard treatment for early-stage Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Early-stage NSCLC, however, has relapse rate over 40% mostly at distant sites. Therefore, high relapse rate necessitates urgent novel biomarker for these patients. In this study, we aim to evaluate the predictive and prognostic role of FOXP3+ Treg cells along with well defined Clinicohistopathological factors in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. FOXP3 expression in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL was examined by immunohistochemical staining from resected early-stage 48 NSCLC patients. Data of patients and FOXP3 expression status along with common clinicohistopathological prognostic factors were evaluated retrospectively. Median age of patients was 62 years-old (range 43–78. Mean follow-up, median overall survival (OS, and disease-free survival (DFS were 49, 49 and 30 months, respectively. FOXP3 expression was positive in 23 (47.9% patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy (4 cycles of cisplatin-vinorelbine was given to 16 patients (33.3% at physician discretion. Patients with a FOXP3 expression of 25% or higher significantly lower OS and DFS when compared with patients with a FOXP3 staining lower than 25% with p-value of 0.016 and 0.032, respectively. In the patients with high FOXP3 expression, platin-based adjuvant chemotherapy had showed a detrimental effect on DFS and OS. These results suggest that FOXP3 expression may be used as useful prognostic biomarker in resected NSCLC. Our findings also suggest that resected NSCLC patients with FOXP3 expression of 25% or higher staining intensity may not get any benefit even disfavor from adjuvant platin chemotherapy.

  12. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  13. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  14. FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging for resected lung cancer: correlation of maximum standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient value with prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Katsuo; Funasaki, Aika; Sekimura, Atsushi; Motono, Nozomu; Matoba, Munetaka; Doai, Mariko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Ueda, Yoshimichi; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2018-04-09

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for detecting malignant tumors and the assessment of lymph nodes, as FDG-PET/CT is. But it is not clear how DWI influences the prognosis of lung cancer patients. The focus of this study is to evaluate the correlations between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG-PET/CT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of DWI with known prognostic factors in resected lung cancer. A total of 227 patients with resected lung cancers were enrolled in this study. FEG-PET/CT and DWI were performed in each patient before surgery. There were 168 patients with adenocarcinoma, 44 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, and 15 patients with other cell types. SUVmax was a factor that was correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation. ADC of lung cancer was a factor that was not correlated to T factor, or N factor. There was a significantly weak inverse relationship between SUVmax and ADC (Correlation coefficient r = - 0.227). In analysis of survival, there were significant differences between the categories of sex, age, pT factor, pN factor, cell differentiation, cell type, and SUVmax. Univariate analysis revealed that SUVmax, pN factor, age, cell differentiation, cell type, sex, and pT factor were significant factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that SUVmax and pN factor were independent significant prognostic factors. SUVmax was a significant prognostic factor that is correlated to T factor, N factor, or cell differentiation, but ADC was not. SUVmax may be more useful for predicting the prognosis of lung cancer than ADC values.

  15. Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their HIV clinical stage with longer survival.2,7 Some authors however report that up to 37% of their patients met the Centers for Disease. Control and Prevention case definition of AIDS.3 There has been no published literature on the CD8+ cell counts in patients with DILS. Our own experience suggests that most of our ...

  16. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  17. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  18. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: Initial results in comparison to HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, U.I., E-mail: ulrike.attenberger@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, J.N. [Scott and White Hospital, Texas A and M Health Sciences Center, Temple (United States); Henzler, T. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Buchheidt, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Fink, C. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology, AKH Celle, Celle (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reichert, M. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Material and methods: In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23–77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24 h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6 mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TE < 1 ms (TE/TR 0.8/2.9 ms, slice thickness 2 mm). The VIBE sequence was examined before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet). The presence of pulmonary abnormalities, their location within the lung, and lesion type (nodules, consolidations, glass opacity areas) were analyzed by one reader and compared to the findings of HRCT, which was evaluated by a second independent radiologist who served as the reference standard. The findings were compared per lobe in each patient and rated as true positive (TP) findings if all three characteristics (presence, location, and lesion type) listed above were concordant to HRCT. Results: Pulmonary abnormalities were characterized by 3 Tesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were

  19. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: initial results in comparison to HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, U I; Morelli, J N; Henzler, T; Buchheidt, D; Fink, C; Schoenberg, S O; Reichert, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23-77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TETesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were disseminated in these patients, accurate treatment decisions were possible in every case based on MRI. In one case MRI showed a central area of cavitation, which was not visualized by HRCT. Infectious nodules and consolidations can be detected in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia with a sufficient diagnostic accuracy by 3 Tesla MRI. Detection of ground glass opacity areas is the main limitation of 3-Tesla MRI when compared to HRCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in a case of chronic arsenic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old housewife, the resident of rural part of West Bengal, presented with gradually progressive exertional dyspnea associated with a dry cough for last 3 years clinical features were suggestive of diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD. Her chest X-ray posteroanterior view and high resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax showed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities and reticulonodular pattern. Search for the etiology revealed classical skin findings of chronic arsenic exposure in the form of generalized darkening and thickening of skin and keratotic lesions over the palms and soles and classical raindrop pigmentation over leg which was present for last 7 years subsequently her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, hair, nail, and drinking water showed significant amount of arsenic contamination. By exclusion of all known causes of DPLD, we concluded that it was a case of DPLD due to chronic arsenic exposure. To the best of our knowledge, only few case report of DPLD in chronic arsenicosis has been reported till date.

  1. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de

    2003-01-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  2. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion of gases into the lung: How physics can help to understand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    responding subacini work under diffusion limited conditions, while the part of the ... Three-dimensional simulations of the steady-state diffusion of oxy- ... plays an important role, in particular in pulmonary diseases, as it procures a safety.

  4. Successful treatment with nivolumab for lung cancer with low expression of PD-L1 and prominent tumor-infiltrating B cells and immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Takayuki; Fukuda, Yuichi; Soda, Hiroshi; Ogawara, Daiki; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Hara, Takuya; Yoshida, Masataka; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Umemura, Asuka; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    Little is known about the anti-tumor activity of humoral immunity in lung cancer patients treated with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor. Herein, we report a case of lung cancer with 5% expression of PD-L1, in which a partial response to nivolumab was sustained for > 7 months. Immunohistochemical analysis of the metastatic lymph node biopsy specimen showed prominent accumulation of plasma cells and immunoglobulin G. These findings suggest that pre-existing humoral immunity may be worth considering as a candidate therapeutic biomarker of nivolumab in some lung cancer patients. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan J

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL CO ), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (Dm CO ), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (Vc) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (W peak ) in four groups: 1 ) Young [27 ± 3 yr, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o 2max ): 110 ± 18% age predicted]; 2) Young Highly Fit (27 ± 3 yr, V̇o 2max : 147 ± 8% age predicted); 3 ) Old (69 ± 5 yr, V̇o 2max : 116 ± 13% age predicted); and 4 ) Old Highly Fit (65 ± 5 yr, V̇o 2max : 162 ± 18% age predicted). At rest and at 90% W peak , DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc were decreased with age. At 90% W peak , DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc were greater in Old Highly Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DL CO -cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end exercise at 90% W peak was not different between Young, Young Highly Fit, Old, and Old Highly Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 ml CO ·mmHg -1 ·liter blood -1 , P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for Dm CO -Q̇ and Vc-Q̇. V̇o 2max was positively correlated with 1 ) DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc at rest; and 2 ) the rest to end exercise change in DL CO , Dm CO , and Vc. In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Healthy aging is a crucial area of research. This article details how differences in age and cardiorespiratory fitness level affect lung diffusing capacity, particularly during high-intensity exercise. We conclude that highly fit older adults do not experience a limit in lung diffusing capacity during

  6. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik; Kim, Myoung Nam

    2000-01-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  7. Volume-controlled histographic analysis of pulmonary parenchyma in normal and diffuse parenchymal lung disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyo Yong; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Jong Seob; Won, Chyl Ho; Kang, Duk Sik [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Nam [The University of Iowa (United States)

    2000-06-01

    located in an area of higher density. Using a home-made histographic analysis system which included a lung volume controller, patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease could be distinguished from normal contros. The method may be useful for the diagnosis and follow up of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. (author)

  8. Postural variation of pulmonary diffusing capacity as a marker of lung microangiopathy in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Interaction between AGE and its receptor leads to endothelial damage and microangiopathy. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using a postural variation of diffusing capacity as an early marker of lung microangiopathy and its correlation with the level of adhesion molecules, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, and insulin resistance in type 2 DM (T2DM patients with and without microangiopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty patients having T2DM without any microangiopathy (n = 20 as well as with microangiopathy (n = 20, and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities were done. DLco was measured in sitting and supine position. Levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, E-selectin, fasting glucose, and insulin were estimated in plasma of the patients and compared with controls. Results: Restrictive type of ventilatory change was observed in DM patients. Diffusing capacity (% predicted in the supine position (P < 0.0001, postural change in DLco (P < 0.0001, and coefficient of diffusion were significantly less in DM patients as compared to controls. Plasma levels of VCAM-1 were significantly higher in DM patients without microangiopathy and negatively correlated (r = −0.4054, P = 0.0094 with Δ DLco in all diabetic subjects. All patients had significantly higher insulin resistance. Conclusion: Lack of postural increase in diffusing capacity in type 2 diabetic patients along with increased VCAM-1 levels could reflect the presence of an early microangiopathy of the small pulmonary vessels.

  9. Diffuse interstitial lung disease as a first manifestation of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuegra, Angélica; Marcos, Pedro J; Vázquez, Rubén; Pombo, Jorge; Debén, Guillermo; Verea-Hernando, Héctor

    2014-04-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoid malignancy characterized by infiltration, mainly of the bone marrow and lymph nodes, by small mature lymphocytes showing plasmacytoid differentiation, associated with an IgM monoclonal band, and, in general, a low degree of aggressiveness. We present the first case reported in the Spanish literature of interstitial lung disease presenting as MW and we review the literature. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Postural variation of pulmonary diffusing capacity as a marker of lung microangiopathy in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avinash; Bade, Geetanjali; Trivedi, Anjali; Jyotsna, Viveka P; Talwar, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Interaction between AGE and its receptor leads to endothelial damage and microangiopathy. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using a postural variation of diffusing capacity as an early marker of lung microangiopathy and its correlation with the level of adhesion molecules, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, and insulin resistance in type 2 DM (T2DM) patients with and without microangiopathy. Forty patients having T2DM without any microangiopathy (n = 20) as well as with microangiopathy (n = 20), and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities were done. DLco was measured in sitting and supine position. Levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, fasting glucose, and insulin were estimated in plasma of the patients and compared with controls. Restrictive type of ventilatory change was observed in DM patients. Diffusing capacity (% predicted) in the supine position (P capacity in type 2 diabetic patients along with increased VCAM-1 levels could reflect the presence of an early microangiopathy of the small pulmonary vessels.

  11. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Daniel; Evers, D.J.; Nachabe, R.; Klomp, H.M.; van Sandick, J.W.; Wouters, M.W.; Lucassen, G.W.; Lucassen, Gerald; Hendriks, B.H.; Wesseling, J.; Ruers, Theo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A significant number of percutaneous intrathoracic biopsy procedures result in indeterminate cytologic or histologic diagnosis in clinical practice. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical technique that can distinguish different tissue types on a microscopic level. DRS may

  12. Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of 3He gas diffusion in simple geometries: implications for analytical models of 3He MR lung morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Robles, J; Ajraoui, S; Deppe, M H; Parnell, S R; Wild, J M

    2010-06-01

    Models of lung acinar geometry have been proposed to analytically describe the diffusion of (3)He in the lung (as measured with pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) methods) as a possible means of characterizing lung microstructure from measurement of the (3)He ADC. In this work, major limitations in these analytical models are highlighted in simple diffusion weighted experiments with (3)He in cylindrical models of known geometry. The findings are substantiated with numerical simulations based on the same geometry using finite difference representation of the Bloch-Torrey equation. The validity of the existing "cylinder model" is discussed in terms of the physical diffusion regimes experienced and the basic reliance of the cylinder model and other ADC-based approaches on a Gaussian diffusion behaviour is highlighted. The results presented here demonstrate that physical assumptions of the cylinder model are not valid for large diffusion gradient strengths (above approximately 15 mT/m), which are commonly used for (3)He ADC measurements in human lungs. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular infiltrates and injury evaluation in a rat model of warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putte, BP; Kesecioglu, J; Hendriks, JMH; Persy, VP; van Marck, E; Van Schil, PEY; De Broe, ME

    Introduction Beside lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass, isolated lung perfusion and sleeve resection result in serious pulmonary ischemia - reperfusion injury, clinically known as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Very little is known about cells infiltrating the lung during ischemia -

  14. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  15. Xiao-Ai-Ping, a TCM Injection, Enhances the Antigrowth Effects of Cisplatin on Lewis Lung Cancer Cells through Promoting the Infiltration and Function of CD8+ T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanshuai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate how Xiao-Ai-Ping injection, a traditional Chinese medicine and an ancillary drug in tumor treatment, enhances the antitumor effects of cisplatin on Lewis lung cancer (LLC cells. Methods. LLC-bearing mice were daily intraperitoneally injected with various doses of cisplatin, Xiao-Ai-Ping, or cisplatin plus Xiao-Ai-Ping, respectively. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured every three days. Results. Combination of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin yielded significantly better antigrowth and proapoptotic effects on LLC xenografts than sole drug treatment did. In addition, we found that Xiao-Ai-Ping triggered the infiltration of CD8+ T cells, a group of cytotoxic T cells, to LLC xenografts. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (ifn-γ, perforin-1 (prf-1, and granzyme B (gzmb in CD8+ T cells were significantly increased after combination treatment of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin. In vitro studies showed that Xiao-Ai-Ping markedly upregulated the mRNA levels of ifn-γ, prf-1, and gzmb in CD8+ T cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that Xiao-Ai-Ping augments the function of CD8+ T cells. Conclusions. Xiao-Ai-Ping promotes the infiltration and function of CD8+ T cells and thus enhances the antigrowth effects of cisplatin on LLC xenografts, which provides new evidence for the combination of Xiao-Ai-Ping and cisplatin in clinic in China.

  16. Local Control of Lung Derived Tumors by Diffusing Alpha-Emitting Atoms Released From Intratumoral Wires Loaded With Radium-224

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooks, Tomer; Schmidt, Michael; Bittan, Hadas; Lazarov, Elinor; Arazi, Lior; Kelson, Itzhak; Keisari, Yona

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy (DART) is a new form of brachytherapy enabling the treatment of solid tumors with alpha radiation. The present study examines the antitumoral effects resulting from the release of alpha emitting radioisotopes into solid lung carcinoma (LL2, A427, and NCI-H520). Methods and Materials: An in vitro setup tested the dose-dependent killing of tumor cells exposed to alpha particles. In in vivo studies, radioactive wires (0.3 mm diameter, 5 mm long) with 224 Ra activities in the range of 21-38 kBq were inserted into LL/2 tumors in C57BL/6 mice and into human-derived A427 or NCI-H520 tumors in athymic mice. The efficacy of the short-lived daughters of 224 Ra to produce tumor growth retardation and prolong life was assessed, and the spread of radioisotopes inside tumors was measured using autoradiography. Results: The insertion of a single DART wire into the center of 6- to 7-mm tumors had a pronounced retardation effect on tumor growth, leading to a significant inhibition of 49% (LL2) and 93% (A427) in tumor development and prolongations of 48% (LL2) in life expectancy. In the human model, more than 80% of the treated tumors disappeared or shrunk. Autoradiographic analysis of the treated sectioned tissue revealed the intratumoral distribution of the radioisotopes, and histological analysis showed corresponding areas of necrosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent killing of tumors cells exposed to alpha particles. Conclusions: Short-lived diffusing alpha-emitters produced tumor growth retardation and increased survival in mice bearing lung tumor implants. These results justify further investigations with improved dose distributions.

  17. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  18. Diffuse lung neoplasms. Correlation between high resolution computerized tomography and anatomopathology; Neoplasias pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia do Pavilhao Pereira Filho; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2002-08-01

    A short comparative evaluation study between high resolution computerized tomography and anatomopathologic findings is presented. The association of these two diagnostic techniques is discussed as a factor to enhance the accuracy of diffuse lung diseases, such as carcinomatous lymphangitis, Kaposi's Sarcoma, lymphomas, hematogenic metastases, bronchiole-alveolar carcinoma and leukemia. (MAC)

  19. Comparative study on the analgesic effect of acute ipsilateral shoulder pain after open thoracotomy between preoperative ultrasound guided suprascapular nerve block (SNB) and intraoperative phrenic nerve infiltration (PNI) in cancer lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfokery, Bassel M; Tawfic, Sahar A; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman M; Abbas, Dina N; Abdelghaffar, Ikramy M

    2018-03-01

    Acute ipsilateral shoulder pain (ISP) is a common complaint in patients after thoracotomy. The incidence ranges from 21% to 97%. Unfortunately, clinical studies did not put enough focus on ISP post thoracic surgery. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of suprascapular nerve block (SNB) and phrenic nerve infiltration (PNI) for controlling ISP. One hundred and thirty-five lung cancer patients (135) scheduled for open-lung surgery were randomly allocated into three equal groups; control group: received thoracic epidural with general anesthesia, suprascapular group: (SNB) one hour before the operation with 10 ml bupivacaine plus thoracic epidural with general anesthesia and phrenic nerve group: (PNI) was performed by the operating surgeon with 10 ml bupivacaine plus thoracic epidural with general anesthesia. The visual analogue score (VAS) of ISP, rescue of ketorolac for break through shoulder pain, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and arterial blood gases were measured every 6 h postoperatively for 48 h. The VAS, rescue doses of ketorolc and PEFR were significantly lower in the phrenic nerve group (P-value 0.05). PNI is more effective than SNB for ISP. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Quantitative consensus of supervised learners for diffuse lung parenchymal HRCT patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    Automated lung parenchymal classification usually relies on supervised learning of expert chosen regions representative of the visually differentiable HRCT patterns specific to different pathologies (eg. emphysema, ground glass, honey combing, reticular and normal). Considering the elusiveness of a single most discriminating similarity measure, a plurality of weak learners can be combined to improve the machine learnability. Though a number of quantitative combination strategies exist, their efficacy is data and domain dependent. In this paper, we investigate multiple (N=12) quantitative consensus approaches to combine the clusters obtained with multiple (n=33) probability density-based similarity measures. Our study shows that hypergraph based meta-clustering and probabilistic clustering provides optimal expert-metric agreement.

  1. The role of perfusion lung scanning and diffusion capacity for early diagnosis of micro circulatory disturbances in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, D.; Shoshlov, P.; Hadjikostova, H.

    2002-01-01

    The development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the frequent inflammatory exacerbations with development of respiratory failure lead to changes in the micro circulatory and an increased risk of lung thrombotic and thromboembolic complication. The aim of the study was to establish the possibility of the perfusion lung scanning and diffusion capacity for early diagnosis of pulmonary micro circulatory disturbances in COPD with mild and moderate respiratory failure. 59 COPD patients were investigated. The data presented significant segmental disorders. Only in 5 (8.47%) of them the perfusion lung scintigrams were normal. In 23 of the patients, single-breath diffusing capacity (DICO) and its two components: membranous component (Dm) and capillary blood component (Vc) were determined. DICO was lower especially Vc the mean sign of micro circulatory disorders. A relationship between the degree of hypoxaemia and the changes found in the perfusion scintigraphy was found. Changes in the pulmonary lung scanning and in the diffusion capacity in COPD with mild respiratory failure seem to be an early diagnostic test. The early anticoagulant and desaggregant prevention may decrease the risk of thrombotic complications in the development of the disease. (authors)

  2. Comparison of Shallow and Deep Learning Methods on Classifying the Regional Pattern of Diffuse Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Guk Bae; Jung, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Yeha; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Namkug; Jun, Sanghoon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A

    2017-10-17

    This study aimed to compare shallow and deep learning of classifying the patterns of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Using high-resolution computed tomography images, two experienced radiologists marked 1200 regions of interest (ROIs), in which 600 ROIs were each acquired using a GE or Siemens scanner and each group of 600 ROIs consisted of 100 ROIs for subregions that included normal and five regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticular opacity, emphysema, and honeycombing). We employed the convolution neural network (CNN) with six learnable layers that consisted of four convolution layers and two fully connected layers. The classification results were compared with the results classified by a shallow learning of a support vector machine (SVM). The CNN classifier showed significantly better performance for accuracy compared with that of the SVM classifier by 6-9%. As the convolution layer increases, the classification accuracy of the CNN showed better performance from 81.27 to 95.12%. Especially in the cases showing pathological ambiguity such as between normal and emphysema cases or between honeycombing and reticular opacity cases, the increment of the convolution layer greatly drops the misclassification rate between each case. Conclusively, the CNN classifier showed significantly greater accuracy than the SVM classifier, and the results implied structural characteristics that are inherent to the specific ILD patterns.

  3. The radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Li Liping; Yan Hongzhen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung. Methods: Twenty-five patients with lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung were examined by X-ray film, tomography, and CT. Results: Multiple and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were observed in 2 patients with pulmonary pseudolymphoma. Multiple nodules or masses were observed in 4 patients with pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy was observed in each patient with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, 2 patients had multiple nodules or masses, 8 patients had single or multiple patchy infiltrations, 10 had diffuse interstitial infiltrations. 3 patients with Castlemen' disease had a mass in the mediastinum, and another patient had mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings of lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung are varied, and the final diagnosis relies on pathology

  4. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  5. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  6. Single-Shot Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging at 3T and 1.5T for Differentiation of Benign Vertebral Fracture Edema and Tumor Infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Youn, In Young [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance was higher with an additional DWI in both 1.5T and 3T, but the sensitivities were similar with the addition of b values of 400 and 1000. The specificities of the diagnostic performances did not show significant differences (p value > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.

  7. Signal-shot echo-planner diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign vertebral fracture edema and tumor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance was higher with an additional DWI in both 1.5T and 3T, but the sensitivities were similar with the addition of b values of 400 and 1000. The specificities of the diagnostic performances did not show significant differences (p value > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.

  8. Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, G.L.; Blankenship, W.J.; Burdine, J.A. Jr.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    At present no simple statement can be made relative to the role of radionuclidic lung studies in the pediatric population. It is safe to assume that they will be used with increasing frequency for research and clinical applications because of their sensitivity and ready applicability to the pediatric patient. Methods comparable to those used in adults can be used in children older than 4 years. In younger children, however, a single injection of 133 Xe in solution provides an index of both regional perfusion and ventilation which is easier to accomplish. This method is particularly valuable in infants and neonates because it is rapid, requires no patient cooperation, results in a very low radiation dose, and can be repeated in serial studies. Radionuclidic studies of ventilation and perfusion can be performed in almost all children if the pediatrician and the nuclear medicine specialist have motivation and ingenuity. S []ontaneous pulmonary vascular occlusive disease which occurs in infants and pulmonary emboli in children are easily detected using radionuclides. The pathophysiologic defects of pulmonary agenesis, bronchopulmonary sequestration, and foreign body aspiration may be demonstrated by these techniques. These techniques also appear to be useful in following patients with bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital emphysema, and postinfection pulmonary abnormalities. (auth)

  9. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  10. Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse epibulbar extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as uveitis masquerade syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasić, D M; Stanković, Z; Terzić, T; Kovacević, D; Koturović, Z; Marković, V

    2010-09-01

    To report a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse extraocular episcleral extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as longstanding uveitis masquerade syndrome. Interventional case reports with histopathological correlation. We describe a 80-year-old male patient with a 3-year history of chronic recurrent hypertensive (pan) uveitis associated with ocular pain, unresponsive to topical and systemic anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antibiotic/antiviral and antiglaucomatous therapy. Because the eye was not salvageable with conservative treatment, enucleation of blind and painful eye was performed. Findings from histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination of the enucleated eye showed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uveal tract with massive epibulbar extension and optic nerve and meningeal penetration. During almost 3 years of clinical course and 6 months after the enucleation, there were no systemic manifestations of lymphoma, and patient has not required subsequent treatment. Primary lymphoproliferative lesions of the uvea, comprising the iris, ciliary body and choroid are very rare, associated with epibulbar extension extremely and with optic nerve and menigeal penetration exceptionally. Despite its rarity, primary lymphoma of the uvea should be included in the differential diagnosis particularly in older patients with longstanding recurrent uveitis.

  11. Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in relation to morphological changes as assessed by computed tomography in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to large-scale destruction, changes in membrane diffusion (Dm may occur in cystic fibrosis (CF, in correspondence to alterations observed by computed tomography (CT. Dm can be easily quantified via the diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO, as opposed to the conventional diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO. We thus studied the relationship between DLNO as well as DLCO and a CF-specific CT score in patients with stable CF. Methods Simultaneous single-breath determinations of DLNO and DLCO were performed in 21 CF patients (mean ± SD age 35 ± 9 y, FEV1 66 ± 28%pred. Patients also underwent spirometry and bodyplethysmography. CT scans were evaluated via the Brody score and rank correlations (rS with z-scores of functional measures were computed. Results CT scores correlated best with DLNO (rS = -0.83; p S = -0.63; p CO (rS = -0.79; p NO were significantly lower than for DLCO (p 1, IVC or bodyplethysmographic (e.g., SRaw, RV/TLC indices were weaker than for DLNO or DLCO but most of them were also significant (p Conclusion In this cross sectional study in patients with CF, DLNO and DLCO reflected CT-morphological alterations of the lung better than other measures. Thus the combined diffusing capacity for NO and CO may play a future role for the non-invasive, functional assessment of structural alterations of the lung in CF.

  12. Radiographic and microscopic correlation of diffuse interstitial and bronchointerstitial pulmonary patterns in the caudodorsal lung of adult Thoroughbred horses in race training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisner, E.R.; O'Brien, T.R.; Lakritz, J.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wilson, D.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Complete thoracic radiographic examinations were performed on 7 horses ranging in age from 24 to 60 months, followed by in-situ lung fixation. Radiographs were examined by 3 radiologists for the presence, degree and distribution of generalised pulmonary patterns within a region of interest in the caudodorsal lung. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 12 sites within a designated volume of interest in the caudodorsal lung, corresponding to the area of interest evaluated radiographically, and examined for the presence, character and severity of microscopic lesions. Radiographic findings within the volume of interest consisted of mild to moderate bronchial, bronchointerstitial, or interstitial pulmonary patterns. Interstitial and bronchointerstitial radiographic findings were related to severity of peribronchiolar mononuclear cell infiltrates, the degree of bronchiolar mucosal plication, and alveolar capillary and peribronchial blood vessel erythrocyte content. The severity of the interstitial radiographic pattern was inversely associated with the perceived diagnostic quality of the radiographic examinations. There was no evidence of spatial variation in the severity of the microscopic changes examined in this limited pulmonary region. Inter-rater reliability between radiologists was good in the assessment of diagnostic quality of the radiographic examinations but poor in assessing severity of the primary generalised pulmonary patterns within the radiographic region of interest

  13. Diagnostic significance of gallium lung uptake in patients with normal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, H.; Bekerman, C.

    1978-01-01

    Nine patients were encountered with normal chest radiographs, but diffuse bilateral lung uptake of 67 Ga-citrate. They were divided into three groups. The first consisted of 6 patients who had lymphoma or leukemia and had had multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Here, abnormal uptake may have resulted from a toxic effect of the drugs or from a low-grade, subclinical infectious process. The 2 patients in the second group were drug addicts and a subradiographic interstitial inflammatory reaction was probably responsible for abnormal uptake. The last patient had diffuse uptake of 67 Ga-citrate throughout the lungs two weeks before lymphomatous infiltrates became radiographically visible

  14. Pulmonary hypertension due to unclassified interstitial lung disease in a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomoya; Nakamura, Kensuke; Tatsuyuki, Osuga; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ichii, Osamu; Yabuki, Akira; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-04-23

    A 12 year-old intact male Pembroke Welsh corgi weighing 10.8 kg was presented for evaluation of a 3-month history of dyspnea, and a 1-week history of exercise intolerance and anorexia. Severe hypoxemia (PaO 2 56 mmHg), diffuse lung alveolar infiltration, and severe pulmonary hypertension (tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient was 81 mmHg) were identified. A tentative diagnosis of severe PH due to lung disease or pulmonary thromboembolism was made and treated intensively. After 5 days of hospitalization, the dog died despite oxygen supplementation and anticoagulant therapy. This dog was diagnosed as unclassified interstitial lung disease based on histopathological findings.

  15. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  16. IgG4-related lung disease presenting as interstitial lung disease with bronchiolitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Fan; Chu, Kuo-An; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Wu, Chang-Che; Lai, Ruay-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    IgG4-related disease is a rare and novel disease entity that tends to involve multiple organs. The pulmonary manifestation of this disease is highly variable and may mimic lung cancer, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease (ILD), sarcoidosis, and so forth. Small airway disease is rarely reported in IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD). In the current study, we describe a rare case of IgG4-RLD with patterns of ILD and bronchiolitis. A 43-year-old man had chronic cough and dyspnea on exertion for 4 years. Initial chest radiography showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Follow-up chest computed tomography 4 years later revealed bilateral diffuse centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud pattern, bronchial wall thickening, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Bilateral diffuse multifocal ground-glass opacities and mosaic attenuation were also observed. Pulmonary function test revealed mixed restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum IgG4 level also showed remarkable elevation. Therefore, IgG4-RLD is confirmed. VATS wedge resection of right upper lobe and mediastinal lymph node. The patient responded well to steroid and immunosuppression therapy, and was regular followed-up in outpatient clinic. IgG4-RLD should be considered not only in ILD, but also in small airway disease. Serum IgG4 level may be a useful tool for screening.

  17. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging for assessment of treatment response to invasive fungal infection in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chenggong; Xiong, Wei; Wu, Yuankui; Li, Caixia; Xu, Yikai [Southern Medical University, Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jun; Wei, Qi; Feng, Ru; Liu, Qifa [Southern Medical University, Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, New Territories, Hon Kong (China)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) -derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) could act as imaging biomarkers for predicting antifungal treatment response. Forty-six consecutive patients (mean age, 33.9 ± 13.0 y) with newly diagnosed invasive fungal infection (IFI) in the lung according to EORTC/MSG criteria were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T using 11 b values (0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}). ADC, pseudodiffusion coefficient D*, perfusion fraction f, and the diffusion coefficient D were compared between patients with favourable (n=32) and unfavourable response (n=14). f values were significantly lower in the unfavourable response group (12.6%±4.4%) than in the favourable response group (30.2%±8.6%) (Z=4.989, P<0.001). However, the ADC, D, and D* were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed f to be a significant predictor for differentiation, with a sensitivity of 93.8% and a specificity of 92.9%. IVIM-MRI is potentially useful in the prediction of antifungal treatment response to patients with IFI in the lung. Our results indicate that a low perfusion fraction f may be a noninvasive imaging biomarker for unfavourable response. (orig.)

  18. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Sato, Shuntaro; Tanaka, Tomonori; Hashisako, Mikiko; Kashima, Yukio; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Junya

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU). We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of pores of Kohn had a significant effect on an increase in residual capacity. A breakdown in the lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn are associated with a decrease in DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume with/without emphysema.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  20. The impact of iterative reconstruction in low-dose computed tomography on the evaluation of diffuse interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Chung, Myung Jin; Shin, Kyung Eun; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology nd Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) on the assessment of diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) using CT. An American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom (module 4 to assess spatial resolution) was scanned with 10-100 effective mAs at 120 kVp. The images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), with blending ratios of 0%, 30%, 70% and 100%, and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), and their spatial resolution was objectively assessed by the line pair structure method. The patient study was based on retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data, and it was approved by the institutional review board. Chest CT scans of 23 patients (mean age 64 years) were performed at 120 kVp using 1) standard dose protocol applying 142-275 mA with dose modulation (high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT]) and 2) low-dose protocol applying 20 mA (low dose CT, LDCT). HRCT images were reconstructed with FBP, and LDCT images were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR, and MBIR. Matching images were randomized and independently reviewed by chest radiologists. Subjective assessment of disease presence and radiological diagnosis was made on a 10-point scale. In addition, semi-quantitative results were compared for the extent of abnormalities estimated to the nearest 5% of parenchymal involvement. In the phantom study, ASIR was comparable to FBP in terms of spatial resolution. However, for MBIR, the spatial resolution was greatly decreased under 10 mA. In the patient study, the detection of the presence of disease was not significantly different. The values for area under the curve for detection of DILD by HRCT, FBP, ASIR, and MBIR were as follows: 0.978, 0.979, 0.972, and 0.963. LDCT images reconstructed with FBP, ASIR, and MBIR tended to underestimate reticular or honeycombing opacities (-2.8%, -4.1%, and -5.3%, respectively) and overestimate ground glass opacities (+4.6%, +8.9%, and

  1. Modelling non-homogeneous stochastic reaction-diffusion systems: the case study of gemcitabine-treated non-small cell lung cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, Paola; Morpurgo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Reaction-diffusion based models have been widely used in the literature for modeling the growth of solid tumors. Many of the current models treat both diffusion/consumption of nutrients and cell proliferation. The majority of these models use classical transport/mass conservation equations for describing the distribution of molecular species in tumor spheroids, and the Fick's law for describing the flux of uncharged molecules (i.e oxygen, glucose). Commonly, the equations for the cell movement and proliferation are first order differential equations describing the rate of change of the velocity of the cells with respect to the spatial coordinates as a function of the nutrient's gradient. Several modifications of these equations have been developed in the last decade to explicitly indicate that the tumor includes cells, interstitial fluids and extracellular matrix: these variants provided a model of tumor as a multiphase material with these as the different phases. Most of the current reaction-diffusion tumor models are deterministic and do not model the diffusion as a local state-dependent process in a non-homogeneous medium at the micro- and meso-scale of the intra- and inter-cellular processes, respectively. Furthermore, a stochastic reaction-diffusion model in which diffusive transport of the molecular species of nutrients and chemotherapy drugs as well as the interactions of the tumor cells with these species is a novel approach. The application of this approach to he scase of non-small cell lung cancer treated with gemcitabine is also novel. We present a stochastic reaction-diffusion model of non-small cell lung cancer growth in the specification formalism of the tool Redi, we recently developed for simulating reaction-diffusion systems. We also describe how a spatial gradient of nutrients and oncological drugs affects the tumor progression. Our model is based on a generalization of the Fick's first diffusion law that allows to model diffusive transport in non

  2. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  3. CT findings of inoperable lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Black, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    CT is useful in the evaluation of patients with newly diagnosed or highly suspected lung cancer. The principal role of CT is to screen those patients with metastatic disease beyond the hili from an attempt at curative thoracotomy. While CT is regarded as very sensitive, it is not considered highly specific, and thus a surgical procedure is usually recommended for definitive diagnosis of most ''positive'' CT findings. However, the authors demonstrate a few characteristic CT findings that are highly predictive of unresectable metastatic disease. These CT findings include massive mediastinal lymphadenopathy, diffuse mediastinal infiltration, pericardial involvement, vascular encasement, and advanced chest wall invasion

  4. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique; Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity (≥64%) and specificity (≥78%) and a high negative predictive value (≥93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity (≥78%) and specificity (≥89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  5. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  6. Evaluation of connectivity map-discovered celastrol as a radiosensitizing agent in a murine lung carcinoma model: Feasibility study of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Young Jun

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify potential radiosensitizing (RS agents for combined radio- and chemotherapy in a murine model of human lung carcinoma, and to evaluate the in vivo effect of the RS agents using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI. Radioresistance-associated genes in A549 and H460 cells were isolated on the basis of their gene expression profiles. Celastrol was selected as a candidate RS by using connectivity mapping, and its efficacy in lung cancer radiotherapy was tested. Mice inoculated with A549 carcinoma cells were treated with single ionizing radiation (SIR, single celastrol (SC, or celastrol-combined ionizing radiation (CCIR. Changes in radiosensitization over time were assessed using DW-MRI before and at 3, 6, and 12 days after therapy initiation. The tumors were stained with hematoxylin and eosin at 6 and 12 days after therapy. The percentage change in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC value in the CCIR group was significantly higher than that in the SC and SIR group on the 12th day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.05; Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05. A significant correlation (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient of 0.713, p = 0.001 was observed between the mean percentage tumor necrotic area and the mean ADC values after therapy initiation. These results suggest that the novel radiosensitizing agent celastrol has therapeutic effects when combined with ionizing radiation (IR, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effect of radiation in non-small cell lung carcinoma. In addition, DW-MRI is a useful noninvasive tool to monitor the effects of RS agents by assessing cellularity changes and sequential therapeutic responses.

  7. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Freitag, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T 2 -TSE and T 2 -HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T 2 -HASTE and T 2 -TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T 2 -weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p 2 -weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to detect pneumonia in patients. (orig.) [de

  8. Lung morphometry using hyperpolarized 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI with compressed sensing in healthy subjects and patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiting; Xie, Junshuai; Xiao, Sa; Zhao, Xiuchao; Zhang, Ming; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ke; Wu, Guangyao; Sun, Xianping; Ye, Chaohui; Zhou, Xin

    2018-05-04

    To demonstrate the feasibility of compressed sensing (CS) to accelerate the acquisition of hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI for quantitative assessments of lung microstructural morphometry. Six healthy subjects and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects underwent HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI (b = 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s/cm 2 ). First, a fully sampled (FS) acquisition of HP 129 Xe multi-b diffusion MRI was conducted in one healthy subject. The acquired FS dataset was retrospectively undersampled in the phase encoding direction, and an optimal twofold undersampled pattern was then obtained by minimizing mean absolute error (MAE) between retrospective CS (rCS) and FS MR images. Next, the FS and CS acquisitions during separate breath holds were performed on five healthy subjects (including the above one). Additionally, the FS and CS synchronous acquisitions during a single breath hold were performed on the sixth healthy subject and one COPD subject. However, only CS acquisitions were conducted in the rest of the five COPD subjects. Finally, all the acquired FS, rCS and CS MR images were used to obtain morphometric parameters, including acinar duct radius (R), acinar lumen radius (r), alveolar sleeve depth (h), mean linear intercept (L m ), and surface-to-volume ratio (SVR). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Bland-Altman plot were employed to assess the fidelity of the CS reconstruction. Moreover, the t-test was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the multi-b diffusion MRI with CS in clinical applications. The retrospective results demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between rCS and FS measurements using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P > 0.05). Good agreement between measurements obtained with the CS and FS acquisitions during separate breath holds was demonstrated in Bland-Altman plots of slice differences. Specifically, the mean biases of the R, r, h, L m , and SVR between the CS and

  9. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in comparison to integrated [18F]-FDG PET/CT for N-staging in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, Sandra; Schmidt, Stefan A.; Juchems, Markus S.; Klass, Oliver; Luster, Markus; Reske, Sven Norbert; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Feuerlein, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using MRI in the staging of thoracic lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer, and to compare the performance to that of PET/CT. Patients and Method 20 consecutive patients (pts) with histologically proven lung cancer were included in this study. In all pts FDG-PET/CT was routinely performed to stage lung carcinoma. Additionally, MRI (1.5 T) was performed including native T1w, T1w post contrast medium, T2w, and DWI sequences. Regarding the N stage based on the results of the PET/CT there were 5 patients with N0, 3 patients with N1, 5 patients with N2 and 7 patients with N3. Image analysis was performed by two radiologists (R1 and R2), respectively. The reviewers had to chose between 1 (at least one lymph node within a station is malignant) or 0 (no lymph nodes suspicious for malignancy). First the T1 post contrast sequence was analyzed. In a second step the DWI sequence (b = 800) was analyzed. Both steps were performed in a blinded fashion. Results MR imaging with or without DWI only agreed with the results of the PET/CT regarding the N stage in 80% of the patients—15% were understaged and 5% overstaged. There was excellent interobserver agreement; the N-staging result only differed in 1 patient for DWI, resulting in correlation coefficients of 0.98 for DWI and 1.0 for MRI. Compared to PET-CT MRI overstaged one and understaged 4 patients, while DWI overstaged one and understaged 3 patients. This resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.814 (R1 and R2) for MRI and 0.815 (R1) and 0.804 (R2) for DWI. Regarding the ADC values there were no significant differences between ipsilateral hilar (1.03 mm 2 /s ± 0.13), subcarinal (0.96 mm 2 /s ± 0.24), ipsilateral mediastinal (1.0 mm 2 /s ± 0.18), contralateral mediastinal (0.93 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) and supraclavicular (0.9 mm 2 /s ± 0.23) lymph nodes. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging does not

  11. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  12. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  13. Breakdown of lung framework and an increase in pores of Kohn as initial events of emphysema and a cause of reduction in diffusing capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yoshikawa,1 Shuntaro Sato,2,3 Tomonori Tanaka,1 Mikiko Hashisako,1,4 Yukio Kashima,5,6 Tomoshi Tsuchiya,7 Naoya Yamasaki,7 Takeshi Nagayasu,7 Hiroshi Yamamoto,2 Junya Fukuoka1,6 1Nagasaki Educational and Diagnostic Center of Pathology (NEDCP, Department of Pathology, 2Clinical Research Center, Nagasaki University Hospital, Nagasaki, 3Division of Biostatistics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, 4Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 5Department of Pathology, Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Medical Center, Sumoto, 6Department of Pathology, 7Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Purpose: Pulmonary emphysema is the pathological prototype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is also associated with other lung diseases. We considered that observation with different approaches may provide new insights for the pathogenesis of emphysema. Patients and methods: We reviewed tissue blocks of the lungs of 25 cases with/without emphysema and applied a three-dimensional observation method to the blocks. Based on the three-dimensional characteristics of the alveolar structure, we considered one face of the alveolar polyhedron as a structural unit of alveoli and called it a framework unit (FU. We categorized FUs based on their morphological characteristics and counted their number to evaluate the destructive changes in alveoli. We also evaluated the number and the area of pores of Kohn in FUs. We performed linear regression analysis to estimate the effect of these data on pulmonary function tests. Results: In multivariable regression analysis, a decrease in the number of FUs without an alveolar wall led to a significant decrease in the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO and DLCO per unit alveolar volume, and an increase in the area of

  14. Trace metals in fluids lining the respiratory system of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, Elena; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rosi, Elisabetta; Prasse, Antje; Rota, Emilia; Voltolini, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis and an undefined etiopathogenesis. Oxidative stress contributes to alveolar injury and fibrosis development and, because transition metals are essential to the functioning of most proteins involved in redox reactions, a better knowledge of metal concentrations and metabolism in the respiratory system of IPF patients may provide a valuable complementary approach to prevent and manage a disease which is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed in later stages. The present review summarizes and discusses literature data on the elemental composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients affected by IPF and healthy subjects. Available data are scanty and the lack of consistent methods for the collection and analysis of lung and airways lining fluids makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. However, the elemental composition of BAL samples from IPF patients seems to have a specific profile that can be distinguished from that of patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) or control subjects. Suggestions are given towards standard sampling and analytical procedures of BAL samples, in the aim to assess typical element concentration patterns and their potential role as biomarkers of IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  16. Diffusion of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe in the lung: a simplified model of {sup 129}Xe septal uptake and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, Samuel; Muradyan, Iga; Dabaghyan, Mikayel; Washko, George R; Hatabu, Hiroto; Butler, James P [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Departments of Radiology and Pulmonary Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hrovat, Mirko I, E-mail: patz@bwh.harvard.edu [Mirtech, Inc., Brockton, MA 02301 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We used hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe NMR to measure pulmonary alveolar surface area per unit gas volume S{sub A}/V{sub gas}, alveolar septal thickness h and capillary transit time {tau}, three critical determinants of the lung's primary role as a gas exchange organ. An analytical solution for a simplified diffusion model is described, together with a modification of the xenon transfer contrast imaging technique utilizing 90{sup 0} radio-frequency pulses applied to the dissolved phase, rather than traditional 180{sup 0} pulses. With this approach, three-dimensional (3D) maps of S{sub A}/V{sub gas} were obtained. We measured global S{sub A}/V{sub gas}, h and {tau} in four normal subjects, two subjects with mild interstitial lung disease (ILD) and two subjects with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In normals, S{sub A}/V{sub gas} decreased with increasing lung volume from {approx}320 to 80 cm{sup -1}; both h{approx}13 {mu}m and {tau}{approx}1.5 s were relatively constant. For the two ILD subjects, h was, respectively, 36 and 97% larger than normal, quantifying an increased gas/blood tissue barrier; S{sub A}/V{sub gas} and {tau} were normal. The two COPD subjects had S{sub A}/V{sub gas} values {approx}25% that of normals, quantifying septal surface loss in emphysema; h and {tau} were normal. These are the first noninvasive, non-radiation-based, quantitative measurements of h and {tau} in patients with pulmonary disease.

  17. Change in Diffusing Capacity After Radiation as an Objective Measure for Grading Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients Treated for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio, Seville (Spain); Gomez, Daniel, E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Eapen, George [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Liu Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Scoring of radiation pneumonitis (RP), a dose-limiting toxicity after thoracic radiochemotherapy, is subjective and thus inconsistent among studies. Here we investigated whether the extent of change in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) after radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could be used as an objective means of quantifying RP. Patients and Methods: We analyzed potential correlations between DLCO and RP in 140 patients who received definitive RT ({>=}60 Gy) with or without chemotherapy for primary NSCLC. All underwent DLCO analysis before and after RT. Post-RT DLCO values within 1 week of the RP diagnosis (Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3) were selected and compared with that individual's preradiation values. Percent reductions in DLCO and RP grade were compared by point biserial correlation in the entire patient group and in subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Results: Patients experiencing Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3 RP had median percentage changes in DLCO after RT of 10.7%, 13%, 22.1%, or 35.2%. Percent reduction in DLCO correlated with RP Grade {<=}1 vs. {>=}2 (p = 0.0004). This association held for the following subgroups: age {>=}65 years, advanced stage, smokers, use of chemotherapy, volume of normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy {>=}30%, and baseline DLCO or forced expiratory volume in 1 second {>=}60%. Conclusions: By correlating percent change in DLCO from pretreatment values at the time of diagnosis of RP with RP grade, we were able to identify categories of RP based on the change in DLCO. These criteria provide a basis for an objective scoring system for RP based on change in DLCO.

  18. Change in Diffusing Capacity After Radiation as an Objective Measure for Grading Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients Treated for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Gomez, Daniel; Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B.; Eapen, George; Liu Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Scoring of radiation pneumonitis (RP), a dose-limiting toxicity after thoracic radiochemotherapy, is subjective and thus inconsistent among studies. Here we investigated whether the extent of change in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) after radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could be used as an objective means of quantifying RP. Patients and Methods: We analyzed potential correlations between DLCO and RP in 140 patients who received definitive RT (≥60 Gy) with or without chemotherapy for primary NSCLC. All underwent DLCO analysis before and after RT. Post-RT DLCO values within 1 week of the RP diagnosis (Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3) were selected and compared with that individual’s preradiation values. Percent reductions in DLCO and RP grade were compared by point biserial correlation in the entire patient group and in subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Results: Patients experiencing Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3 RP had median percentage changes in DLCO after RT of 10.7%, 13%, 22.1%, or 35.2%. Percent reduction in DLCO correlated with RP Grade ≤1 vs. ≥2 (p = 0.0004). This association held for the following subgroups: age ≥65 years, advanced stage, smokers, use of chemotherapy, volume of normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy ≥30%, and baseline DLCO or forced expiratory volume in 1 second ≥60%. Conclusions: By correlating percent change in DLCO from pretreatment values at the time of diagnosis of RP with RP grade, we were able to identify categories of RP based on the change in DLCO. These criteria provide a basis for an objective scoring system for RP based on change in DLCO.

  19. Discrete multi-physics simulations of diffusive and convective mass transfer in boundary layers containing motile cilia in lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariane, Mostapha; Kassinos, Stavros; Velaga, Sitaram; Alexiadis, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the mass transfer coefficient (permeability) of boundary layers containing motile cilia is investigated by means of discrete multi-physics. The idea is to understand the main mechanisms of mass transport occurring in a ciliated-layer; one specific application being inhaled drugs in the respiratory epithelium. The effect of drug diffusivity, cilia beat frequency and cilia flexibility is studied. Our results show the existence of three mass transfer regimes. A low frequency regime, which we called shielding regime, where the presence of the cilia hinders mass transport; an intermediate frequency regime, which we have called diffusive regime, where diffusion is the controlling mechanism; and a high frequency regime, which we have called convective regime, where the degree of bending of the cilia seems to be the most important factor controlling mass transfer in the ciliated-layer. Since the flexibility of the cilia and the frequency of the beat changes with age and health conditions, the knowledge of these three regimes allows prediction of how mass transfer varies with these factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakeine, G.J. [Department of Clinical Medicine and Neurology, Cattinara Hospital, University of Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: jamesbakeine1@yahoo.com; Di Salvo, M. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bruschi, P. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R. [Department of Animal Biology University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C. [Department of Surgery University of Pavia, Piazza Botta, Pavia (Italy); Marchetti, A. [Scientific Research Office, Fondazione San Matteo University Policlinic, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) Section of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, Pavia (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  1. Feasibility study on the utilization of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a rat model of diffuse lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeine, G.J.; Di Salvo, M.; Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Bruschi, P.; Bertolotti, A.; Nano, R.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, C.; Marchetti, A.; Altieri, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to be eligible for application in lung tumour disease, three fundamental criteria must be fulfilled: there must be selective uptake of boron in the tumour cells with respect to surrounding healthy tissue, biological effectiveness of the radiation therapy and minimal damage or collateral effects of the irradiation on the surrounding tissues. In this study, we evaluated the biological effectiveness of BNCT by in vitro irradiation of rat colon-carcinoma cells previously incubated in boron-enriched medium. One part of these cells was re-cultured in vitro while the other was inoculated via the inferior vena cava to induce pulmonary metastases in a rat model. We observed a post-irradiation in vitro cell viability of 0.05% after 8 days of cell culture. At 4 months follow-up, all animal subjects in the treatment group that received irradiated boron-containing cells were alive. No animal survived beyond 1 month in the control group that received non-treated cells (p<0.001 Kaplan-Meier). These preliminary findings strongly suggest that BNCT has a significant lethal effect on tumour cells and post irradiation surviving cells lose their malignant capabilities in vivo. This radio-therapeutic potential warrants the investigation of in vivo BNCT for lung tumour metastases.

  2. Acute effects of combined exercise and oscillatory positive expiratory pressure therapy on sputum properties and lung diffusing capacity in cystic fibrosis: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Böni, Lukas; Bohnacker, Peter; Maggi-Beba, Marion; Fischer, Peter; Kriemler, Susi; Benden, Christian; Dressel, Holger

    2018-06-14

    Regular airway clearance by chest physiotherapy and/or exercise is critical to lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combination of cycling exercise and chest physiotherapy using the Flutter® device on sputum properties has not yet been investigated. This prospective, randomized crossover study compared a single bout of continuous cycling exercise at moderate intensity (experiment A, control condition) vs a combination of interval cycling exercise plus Flutter® (experiment B). Sputum properties (viscoelasticity, yield stress, solids content, spinnability, and ease of sputum expectoration), pulmonary diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) were assessed at rest, directly and 45 min post-exercise (recovery) at 2 consecutive visits. Primary outcome was change in sputum viscoelasticity (G', storage modulus; G", loss modulus) over a broad frequency range (0.1-100 rad.s - 1 ). 15 adults with CF (FEV 1 range 24-94% predicted) completed all experiments. No consistent differences between experiments were observed for G' and G" and other sputum properties, except for ease of sputum expectoration during recovery favoring experiment A. DLNO, DLCO, alveolar volume (V A ) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V cap ) increased during experiment A, while DLCO and V cap increased during experiment B (all P < 0.05). We found no differences in absolute changes in pulmonary diffusing capacity and its components between experiments, except a higher V A immediately post-exercise favoring experiment A (P = 0.032). The additional use of the Flutter® to moderate intensity interval cycling exercise has no measurable effect on the viscoelastic properties of sputum compared to moderate intensity continuous cycling alone. Elevations in diffusing capacity represent an acute exercise-induced effect not sustained post-exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02750722 ; URL: clinical.trials.gov; Registration date: April 25th, 2016.

  3. Hybrid [{sup 18}F]-FDG PET/MRI including non-Gaussian diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI): Preliminary results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, Philipp [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Köhler, Jens [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Wittsack, Hans-Joerg [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Heusner, Till A., E-mail: Heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Buchbender, Christian [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Poeppel, Thorsten D. [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Nensa, Felix; Wetter, Axel [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Gauler, Thomas [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Hartung, Verena [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Lanzman, Rotem S. [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of non-Gaussian DWI as part of a FDG-PET/MRI protocol in patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer. Material and methods: 15 consecutive patients with histologically proven NSCLC (mean age 61 ± 11 years) were included in this study and underwent whole-body FDG-PET/MRI following whole-body FDG-PET/CT. As part of the whole-body FDG-PET/MRI protocol, an EPI-sequence with 5 b-values (0, 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 s/mm{sup 2}) was acquired for DWI of the thorax during free-breathing. Volume of interest (VOI) measurements were performed to determine the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}; SUV{sub mean}). A region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn around the tumor on b = 0 images and then transferred to the corresponding parameter maps to assess ADC{sub mono}, D{sub app} and K{sub app}. To assess the goodness of the mathematical fit R{sup 2} was calculated for monoexponential and non-Gaussian analysis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare SUV values and diffusion coefficients. A Student's t-test was performed to compare the monoexponential and non-Gaussian diffusion fitting (R{sup 2}). Results: T staging was equal between FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/MRI in 12 of 15 patients. For NSCLC, mean ADC{sub mono} was 2.11 ± 1.24 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s, D{sub app} was 2.46 ± 1.29 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s and mean K{sub app} was 0.70 ± 0.21. The non-Gaussian diffusion analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.98) provided a significantly better mathematical fitting to the DWI signal decay than the monoexponetial analysis (R{sup 2} = 0.96) (p < 0.001). SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} of NSCLC was 13.5 ± 7.6 and 7.9 ± 4.3 for FDG-PET/MRI. ADC{sub mono} as well as D{sub app} exhibited a significant inverse correlation with the SUV{sub max} (ADC{sub mono}: R = −0.67; p < 0.01; D{sub app}: R = −0.69; p < 0.01) as well as with SUV{sub mean} assessed by FDG-PET/MRI (ADC{sub mono}: R

  4. Non-small cell lung cancer: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Doai, Mariko; Usuda, Katsuo; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Tonami, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

  5. Quantitative cerebral blood flow calculation method using xenon CT. Introduction of a factor reflecting diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sase, Shigeru; Honda, Mitsuru; Noguchi, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    In calculating cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and exerts considerable influence on the accuracy of CBF. In xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT), the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke), which can be measured, and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) have been assumed to be equal. However, it has been pointed out that there are large differences between Ke and Ka in many cases. We have introduced a single factor (γ) which correlates Ke with Ka in the equation Ka=γ x (1-e -Ke/γ ). This factor, γ, reflects the diffusing capacity of the lung for xenon; larger γ values correspond to larger diffusing capacities and Ka is equal to Ke when γ is infinity. Kety's equation contains two parameters: CBF and xenon solubility coefficient We added a third parameter, γ, to Kety's equation, and developed an efficient method to obtain the γ value for each Xe-CT study. Applying this method to ten normal subjects (35.4±16.3 years, mean±standard deviation (SD)), we obtained γ value of 1.01±0.17 and the average CBF value of 38.8±7.5 mL/100 g/min in basal ganglia. The wash-in period could be shortened to two minutes using this method. Xe-CT with this factor (γ) as a parameter enhances its clinical availability as well as the accuracy of CBF. (author)

  6. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  7. Prognostic Value of the Pretreatment Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Hoon; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Lim, Joo Han

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI, body mass index × albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of survival in some solid cancers. We retrospectively investigated the usefulness of the ALI to predict chemotherapy response and survival in 212 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy. Patients were allocated to a low ALI group (n = 82, 38.7%) or a high ALI group (n = 130, 61.3%) according to an optimal pretreatment ALI cut-off value of 15.5 as determined by receiver operating curve analysis. The low ALI group displayed more adverse clinical characteristics, lower rates of complete remission (54.9 vs. 75.4%, p = 0.008), and poorer 5-year progression-free (PFS, 58.1 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.006) and overall (OS, 64.2 vs. 80.2%, p = 0.008) survival. Multivariate analysis showed that low ALI was found to independently predict shorter PFS and OS. Interestingly, a low ALI reverted to a high ALI during treatment in 58 patients (27.4%), and the 5-year OS of these patients was better than that of patients whose ALI remained low (n = 24, 72.5 vs. 24%, p ALI might be an easily available marker for predicting clinical outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. WE-G-18C-02: Estimation of Optimal B-Value Set for Obtaining Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Free From Perfusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, K; Hugo, G; Ford, J; Saraiya, S; Weiss, E [Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Olsen, K; Groves, R [Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) is increasingly being investigated for radiotherapy planning and response assessment. Selection of a limited number of b-values in DW-MRI is important to keep geometrical variations low and imaging time short. We investigated various b-value sets to determine an optimal set for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Methods: Seven patients had 27 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5T scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR=4500ms approximately, TE=74ms, pixel size=1.98X1.98mm{sub 2}, slice thickness=4–6mm and 7 axial slices. Diffusion gradients were applied to all three axes producing traceweighted images with eight b-values of 0–1000μs/μm{sup 2}. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to ADCIVIM using all b-values. To compare the relative noise in ADC maps, intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumor volumes was computed. Results: ADCIVIM, perfusion coefficient and perfusion fraction for tumor volumes were in the range of 880-1622 μm{sup 2}/s, 8119-33834 μm{sup 2}/s and 0.104–0.349, respectively. ADC values using sets of 250, 800 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250–1000μs/μm{sup 2} only were not significantly different from ADCIVIM(p>0.05, paired t-test). Error in ADC values for 0–1000, 50–1000, 100–1000, 250–1000, 500–1000, and three b-value sets- 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; and 250, 800 and 1000μs/μm{sup 2} were 15.0, 9.4, 5.6, 1.4, 11.7, 3.7, 2.0 and 0.2% relative to the reference-standard ADCIVIM, respectively. Mean intrascan CV was 20.2, 20.9, 21.9, 24.9, 32.6, 25.8, 25.4 and 24.8%, respectively, whereas that for ADCIVIM was 23.3%. Conclusion: ADC values of two 3 b-value sets

  9. Deep neural network convolution (NNC) for three-class classification of diffuse lung disease opacities in high-resolution CT (HRCT): consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), and normal opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Noriaki; Suzuki, Kenji; Liu, Junchi; Hirano, Yasushi; MacMahon, Heber; Kido, Shoji

    2018-02-01

    Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) are two major types of opacities associated with diffuse lung diseases. Accurate detection and classification of such opacities are crucially important in the diagnosis of lung diseases, but the process is subjective, and suffers from interobserver variability. Our study purpose was to develop a deep neural network convolution (NNC) system for distinguishing among consolidation, GGO, and normal lung tissue in high-resolution CT (HRCT). We developed ensemble of two deep NNC models, each of which was composed of neural network regression (NNR) with an input layer, a convolution layer, a fully-connected hidden layer, and a fully-connected output layer followed by a thresholding layer. The output layer of each NNC provided a map for the likelihood of being each corresponding lung opacity of interest. The two NNC models in the ensemble were connected in a class-selection layer. We trained our NNC ensemble with pairs of input 2D axial slices and "teaching" probability maps for the corresponding lung opacity, which were obtained by combining three radiologists' annotations. We randomly selected 10 and 40 slices from HRCT scans of 172 patients for each class as a training and test set, respectively. Our NNC ensemble achieved an area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.981 and 0.958 in distinction of consolidation and GGO, respectively, from normal opacity, yielding a classification accuracy of 93.3% among 3 classes. Thus, our deep-NNC-based system for classifying diffuse lung diseases achieved high accuracies for classification of consolidation, GGO, and normal opacity.

  10. Diffusion weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Does the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlate with tracer uptake (SUV)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, M.; Derlin, T.; Schwarz, D.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Buhk, J.-H.; Kooijman, H.; Adam, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the potential correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and glucose metabolism determined by the standardized uptake value (SUV) at 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI (TR/TE, 2000/66 ms; b-values, 0 and 500 s/mm 2 ) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with histologically verified NSCLC. Analysing the PET-CT data calculation of the mean (SUV mean ) and maximum (SUV max ) SUV was performed. By placing a region-of-interest (ROI) encovering the entire tumor mean (ADC mean ) and minimum ADC (ADC min ) were determined by two independent radiologists. Results of 18F-FDG PET-CT and DWI were compared on a per-patient basis. For statistical analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland–Altman and regression analysis were assessed. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of the ADC min and SUV max (r = −0.46; p = 0.032). Testing the correlation of the ADC min and SUV max for each histological subtype separately revealed that the inverse correlation was good for both adenocarcinomas (r = −0.47; p = 0.03) and squamouscell carcinomas (r = −0.71; p = 0.002), respectively. No significant correlation was found for the comparison of ADC min and SUV mean (r = −0.29; p = 0.27), ADC mean vs. SUV mean (r = −0.28; p = 0.31) or ADC mean vs. SUV max (r = −0.33; p = 0.23). The κ-value of 0.88 indicated a good agreement between both observers. Conclusion: This preliminary study is the first to verify the relation between the SUV and the ADC in NSCLC. The significant inverse correlation of these two quantitative imaging approaches points out the association of metabolic activity and tumor cellularity. Therefore, DWI with ADC measurement might represent a new prognostic marker in NSCLC

  11. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  12. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  13. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  14. Perfusion- and pattern-based quantitative CT indexes using contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography in diffuse interstitial lung disease: relationships with physiologic impairment and prediction of prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jung Won [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jang Pyo; Kim, Namkug; Chang, Yongjun; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Man Pyo; Park, Hye Yun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pulmonology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate automated texture-based segmentation of dual-energy CT (DECT) images in diffuse interstitial lung disease (DILD) patients and prognostic stratification by overlapping morphologic and perfusion information of total lung. Suspected DILD patients scheduled for surgical biopsy were prospectively included. Texture patterns included ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation and consolidation. Pattern- and perfusion-based CT measurements were assessed to extract quantitative parameters. Accuracy of texture-based segmentation was analysed. Correlations between CT measurements and pulmonary function test or 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were calculated. Parameters of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP) and non-IPF/UIP were compared. Survival analysis was performed. Overall accuracy was 90.47 % for whole lung segmentation. Correlations between mean iodine values of total lung, 50-97.5th (%) attenuation and forced vital capacity or 6MWT were significant. Volume of GGO, reticulation and consolidation had significant correlation with DLco or SpO{sub 2} on 6MWT. Significant differences were noted between IPF/UIP and non-IPF/UIP in 6MWT distance, mean iodine value of total lung, 25-75th (%) attenuation and entropy. IPF/UIP diagnosis, GGO ratio, DILD extent, 25-75th (%) attenuation and SpO{sub 2} on 6MWT showed significant correlations with survival. DECT combined with pattern analysis is useful for analysing DILD and predicting survival by provision of morphology and enhancement. (orig.)

  15. Estimation of optimal b-value sets for obtaining apparent diffusion coefficient free from perfusion in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Kishor; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Ford, John C; Olsen, Kathryn M; Saraiya, Siddharth; Groves, Robert; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2015-10-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimal sets of b-values in diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) for obtaining monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) close to perfusion-insensitive intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model ADC (ADCIVIM) in non-small cell lung cancer. Ten subjects had 40 DW-MRI scans before and during radiotherapy in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Respiratory triggering was applied to the echo-planar DW-MRI with TR ≈ 4500 ms, TE  =  74 ms, eight b-values of 0-1000 μs μm(-2), pixel size  =  1.98 × 1.98 mm(2), slice thickness  =  6 mm, interslice gap  =  1.2 mm, 7 axial slices and total acquisition time ≈6 min. One or more DW-MRI scans together covered the whole tumour volume. Monoexponential model ADC values using various b-value sets were compared to reference-standard ADCIVIM values using all eight b-values. Intra-scan coefficient of variation (CV) of active tumour volumes was computed to compare the relative noise in ADC maps. ADC values for one pre-treatment DW-MRI scan of each of the 10 subjects were computed using b-value pairs from DW-MRI images synthesized for b-values of 0-2000 μs μm(-2) from the estimated IVIM parametric maps and corrupted by various Rician noise levels. The square root of mean of squared error percentage (RMSE) of the ADC value relative to the corresponding ADCIVIM for the tumour volume of the scan was computed. Monoexponential ADC values for the b-value sets of 250 and 1000; 250, 500 and 1000; 250, 650 and 1000; 250, 800 and 1000; and 250-1000 μs μm(-2) were not significantly different from ADCIVIM values (p > 0.05, paired t-test). Mean error in ADC values for these sets relative to ADCIVIM were within 3.5%. Intra-scan CVs for these sets were comparable to that for ADCIVIM. The monoexponential ADC values for other sets-0-1000; 50-1000; 100-1000; 500-1000; and 250 and 800 μs μm(-2) were significantly different from the ADCIVIM values. From Rician noise

  16. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Pungnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs-normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For

  17. Investigation of isothermal water infiltration into fired clay brick by scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.; Abdel-Monem, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    A method based on neutron scattering was proposed to investigate isothermal water infiltration in porous media. Two different kinds of fired clay bricks were investigated. While the sample absorb water, scattered neutrons from the different wetted regions, along the flow direction were continuously recorded. The results were discussed in terms of the theory of water infiltration in unsaturated porous media as well as by an anomalous diffusion approach. It was shown that the infiltration process in the Canadian clay brick (CCB) is Fickian and the water diffusivity was analytically determined, while it is non-Fickian in the Egyptian clay brick (ECB). The infiltration process in ECB can be modeled as a two stage Fickian process, at the low and high absorption times. The anomalous diffusion approach failed to describe the diffusion process in the ECB at all water contents. (author)

  18. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  1. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  2. The assessment of severity of lung injury in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Ljubica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is an acute and severe pulmonary dysfunction. It is clinically characterized by dyspnea and tachypnea, progressive hypoxemia (within 12-48 hours, reduction of pulmonary compliance and diffuse bilateral infiltrates seen on pulmonary radiogram. Etiological factors giving rise to development of the syndrome are numerous. The acute lung injury (AU is defined as the inflammation syndrome and increased permeability, which is associated with radiological and physiological disorders. Lung injury score (LIS, which is composed of four components, is used for making a distinction between two separate but rather similar syndromes. The study was aimed at the assessment of the severity of the lung injury in patients who had suffered from sepsis of the gynecological origin and its influence on the outcome of the disease. The total of 43 female patients was analyzed. Twenty patients (46.51% were diagnosed as having ARDS based on the lung injury score, while 23 patients (53.48% were diagnosed with acute lung injury. In our series, lung injury score ranged from 0.7 to 3.3 in ARDS patients, and lethal outcome ensued in 11 (55% cases in this group. As for the patients with the acute lung injury, the score values ranged from 0.3 to 1.3 and only one patient from this group died (4.34%. The obtained results indicate that high values of the lung injury score are suggestive of the severe respiratory dysfunction as well as that lethal outcome is dependent on LIS value.

  3. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  4. A support vector machine classifier reduces interscanner variation in the HRCT classification of regional disease pattern in diffuse lung disease: Comparison to a Bayesian classifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yongjun; Lim, Jonghyuck; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lynch, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of using different computed tomography (CT) scanners on the accuracy of high-resolution CT (HRCT) images in classifying regional disease patterns in patients with diffuse lung disease, support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian classifiers were applied to multicenter data. Methods: Two experienced radiologists marked sets of 600 rectangular 20 × 20 pixel regions of interest (ROIs) on HRCT images obtained from two scanners (GE and Siemens), including 100 ROIs for each of local patterns of lungs—normal lung and five of regional pulmonary disease patterns (ground-glass opacity, reticular opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and consolidation). Each ROI was assessed using 22 quantitative features belonging to one of the following descriptors: histogram, gradient, run-length, gray level co-occurrence matrix, low-attenuation area cluster, and top-hat transform. For automatic classification, a Bayesian classifier and a SVM classifier were compared under three different conditions. First, classification accuracies were estimated using data from each scanner. Next, data from the GE and Siemens scanners were used for training and testing, respectively, and vice versa. Finally, all ROI data were integrated regardless of the scanner type and were then trained and tested together. All experiments were performed based on forward feature selection and fivefold cross-validation with 20 repetitions. Results: For each scanner, better classification accuracies were achieved with the SVM classifier than the Bayesian classifier (92% and 82%, respectively, for the GE scanner; and 92% and 86%, respectively, for the Siemens scanner). The classification accuracies were 82%/72% for training with GE data and testing with Siemens data, and 79%/72% for the reverse. The use of training and test data obtained from the HRCT images of different scanners lowered the classification accuracy compared to the use of HRCT images from the same scanner. For integrated ROI

  5. Evaluation of Tl-201 lung uptake and impairment of pulmonary perfusion on scintigraphies in pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keishi

    2000-01-01

    Tl-201 lung uptake in 74 patients (85 lesions) and pulmonary perfusion in 105 patients were studied to evaluate clinical usefulness of Tl-201 lung uptake and perfusion lung scintigraphy in pulmonary tuberculosis, using a scintillation camera with a mini-computer system. As indices of Tl-201 lung uptake, lung (lesion) to upper mediastinum uptake ratio (L/M) and visual grading were used. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis was 1.96±0.66, which was significantly larger than 1.04±0.24 in healthy controls and lower than that in heart diseases with left heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, and showed no significant differences with that in acute pneumonia, pyothorax, primary lung cancer and malignant mediastinal tumor. L/M in pulmonary tuberculosis did not correlate with CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Gaffky number of sputum and body temperature. It correlated with the type of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the Gakken Classification reflecting the disease activity. It was larger in the exudative type, caseo-infiltrative one, disseminated one, one with cavity in infiltrative lesion than the fibro-caseous one. On perfusion lung scintigram, impairment of pulmonary perfusion larger than area of the entire unilateral lung was observed in 68 cases (64.8%). Area of hypoperfused lung field, which correlated with % vital capacity (r=0.60, p=0.0002) and PaO 2 (r=0.39,p=0.0024), was significantly larger in patients with silicosis and those with bilateral pleural involvements such as pleural callosity than in those with type III according to the Gakkai Classification. Most of the patients showed decreased pulmonary perfusion and Tl-201 accumulation of which grade reflects the disease activity in active tuberculous lesion. Patients with miliary tuberculosis and those with silicotuberculosis showed diffuse Tl-201 accumulation in the both lungs. Tl-201 lung scintigraphy seems to be useful for visualizing active tuberculous lesions, particularly the ones that

  6. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  8. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP): relationship to Hamman-Rich syndrome, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Parambil, Joseph G

    2012-10-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features. Cases that meet clinical and pathologic criteria for AIP overlap substantially with those that fulfill clinical criteria for ARDS. The main differences between AIP and ARDS are that AIP requires a histologic diagnosis of DAD and exclusion of known etiologies. AIP should also be distinguished from "acute exacerbation of IPF," a condition in which acute lung injury (usually DAD) supervenes on underlying usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  10. Diffus lungesygdom hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse lung disease in children represents a heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders with high morbidity and mortality. Typical features include tachypnoea, failure to thrive, diffuse radiological and histopathological abnormalities. Advances in genetics and pathophysiology, combined...

  11. Establishment and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-xin DUAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog. Methods A rat model of inhalation lung injury was established by analyzing the composition of ship materials after combustion. Forty- two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group and 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h groups (6 eachafter inhalation, these rats were killed at each time point, and the changes of arterial blood gas, coagulation function, the lung water content (% were detected. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissues were observed to judge the degree of lung injury. Results The main components after combustion of 7 kinds of nonmetal materials on ship included CO, CO2, H2S, NOx and other harmful gases in this study, AIKE in one gas detector was used to monitor O2, CO, CO2 and H2S, and their concentrations remained relatively stable within 15 minutes, and the injury time was 15 minutes. The rats presented with shortness of breath and mouth breathing. Smoke inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 2h and the lung water content (% did 6h after inhalation (P<0.05. It is metabolic acidosis in the early stage after inhalation, but metabolic acidosis combined with respiratory acidosis in the later period. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue as manifestations of lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 72h after inhalation, the change of blood coagulation function was not statistically significant. Conclusion A rat model of inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog has been successfully established, and has the advantages of easy replication, stability and reliability, thus can be used to research and treat inhalation lung injury induced by ship smog in naval war environment and other cases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.03.14

  12. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3–4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1–2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  13. EFFECTS OF A BASKETBALL ACTIVITY ON LUNG CAPILLARY BLOOD VOLUME AND MEMBRANE DIFFUSING CAPACITY, MEASURED BY NO/CO TRANSFER IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Dridi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In both children and adults, acute exercise increases lung capillary blood volume (Vc and membrane factor (DmCO. We sought to determine whether basketball training affected this adaptation to exercise in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two years sport activity on the components of pulmonary gas transfer in children. Over a 2-yr period, we retested 60 nine year old boys who were initially separated in two groups: 30 basketball players (P (9.0 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 5.2 kg; 1.43 ± 0.05 m, and matched non players controls (C (8.9 ± 1.0 yrs; 35.0 ± 6.0 kg; 1.44 ± 0.06 m who did not perform any extracurricular activity, Vc and DmCO were measured by the NO/CO transfer method at rest and during sub-maximal exercise. Maximal aerobic power and peak power output was 12% higher in the trained group compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Nitric oxide lung transfer (TLNO per unit lung volume and thus, DmCO per unit of lung volume (VA were higher at rest and during exercise in the group which had undergone regular basketball activity compared to matched controls (p < 0.05. Neither lung capillary blood volume nor total lung transfer for carbon monoxide (TLCO were significantly different between groups. These results suggest that active sport can alter the properties of the lung alveolo-capillary membrane by improving alveolar membrane conductance in children

  14. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  15. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  16. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  17. Novel Anterior Brainstem Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC is found in around 4% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The most common radiological finding of LC is diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement on contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Herein, we report a novel brain MRI finding—non-enhanced, band-like, symmetric restricted diffusion along the anterior surface of the brainstem—of LC in four patients with NSCLC. We also identified three additional cases with similar MRI findings in a literature review. We hypothesized that the restricted diffusion along the anterior brainstem was caused by malignant cells concentrating in the cistern around the brainstem and infiltrating into the circumferential perforating arteries along the anterior brainstem surface, which then resulted in microinfarctions.

  18. Hyperpolarized 3He apparent diffusion coefficient MRI of the lung: reproducibility and volume dependency in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.; Casselbrant, I.; Piitulainen, E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16...... patients with emphysema were examined after inhalation of HP (3)He gas mixed with nitrogen (N(2)) during breathhold starting from functional residual capacity (FRC) in supine position. Coronal diffusion-sensitized MR images were acquired. Each subject was imaged on three separate days over a seven...... in mean ADC with increased inhaled gas volume was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: Mean ADC and SD of HP (3)He MRI is reproducible and discriminates well between healthy controls and patients with emphysema at the higher gas volume. This method is robust and may be useful to gain new insights...

  19. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  20. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  1. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  2. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  3. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  4. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  5. The 'fragmented' scintigraphic lung pattern in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis secondary to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A V; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Vella, A; Volterrani, D

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) is an unusual presentation of diffuse infiltrative lung disease. In this report we present two cases secondary to breast cancer; the diagnosis was made by means of transbronchial lung biopsy or postmortem examination. The goal of this study was to analyze the scintigraphic pattern of pulmonary perfusion performed with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) in the hope of achieving improved recognition of PLC and its subsequent diagnosis. Upon admission, both patients underwent routine clinical exams followed by chest X-rays. The second patient also underwent CT examination, and both were ultimately examined using pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy with 99mTc-MAA. In the various exams performed, the most reliable and easily identified diagnostic finding turned out to be a characteristic 'fragmented' lung pattern revealed with the perfusion lung scan. Unfortunately, in both cases the patients' conditions rapidly worsened and death occurred shortly following scintigraphy. We were able to conclude that the recognition of the mentioned fragmented scintigraphic lung pattern may be useful in suspected PLC, whereas the nonspecific clinical presentation of this pathology makes diagnosis extremely difficult, with the most significant results being achieved through a comparison of scintigraphic and high resolution CT data.

  6. Reproduction and evaluation of a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fan LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce and evaluate a rat model of inhalation lung injury caused by black gunpowder smog. Methods The smog composition was analyzed and a rat model of inhalation lung injury was reproduced. Forty two healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC group and 1h, 2h, 6h, 24h, 48h and 96h after inhalation group (n=6. The arterial blood gas, wet to dry weight ratio (W/D of lung, leukocyte count, and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were determined. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in lung tissue were observed. Results The composition of black gunpowder smog was composed mainly of CO2 and CO, and their concentrations remained stable within 12 minutes. Smog inhalation caused a significant hypoxemia, the concentration of blood COHb reached a peak value 1h, and the W/D of lung reached peak value 2h after inhalation (P<0.05. The amount of leukocytes and content of protein in BALF increased significantly within 24h after inhalation (P<0.05. Histopathological observation showed diffuse hemorrhage, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue as manifestations of acute lung injury, and the injury did not recover at 96h after inhalation. Conclusion The rat model of inhalation lung injury can be reproduced using black gunpowder smog, and it has the advantages of its readiness for reproduction, reliability and stability, and it could be used for the experiment of inhalation injury in a battlefield environment.

  7. The Spatial Relationship between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Standardized Uptake Value of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Has a Crucial Influence on the Numeric Correlation of Both Parameters in PET/MRI of Lung Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Alexander W; Stieltjes, Bram; Weikert, Thomas; Gatidis, Sergios; Wiese, Mark; Klarhöfer, Markus; Wild, Damian; Lardinois, Didier; Bremerich, Jens; Sommer, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC min ) derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of FDG-PET are markers of aggressiveness in lung cancer. The numeric correlation of the two parameters has been extensively studied, but their spatial interplay is not well understood. After FDG-PET and DW-MRI coregistration, values and location of ADC min - and SUV max -voxels were analyzed. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for registration accuracy of sequential PET/MRI was 12 mm, and the mean distance ( D ) between ADC min - and SUV max -voxels was 14.0 mm (average of two readers). Spatial mismatch ( D > 12 mm) between ADC min and SUV max was found in 9/25 patients. A considerable number of mismatch cases (65%) was also seen in a control group that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI. In the entire patient cohort, no statistically significant correlation between SUV max and ADC min was seen, while a moderate negative linear relationship ( r = -0.5) between SUV max and ADC min was observed in tumors with a spatial match ( D ≤ 12 mm). In conclusion, spatial mismatch between ADC min and SUV max is found in a considerable percentage of patients. The spatial connection of the two parameters SUV max and ADC min has a crucial influence on their numeric correlation.

  8. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Sampaio Barbosa Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. Methods: This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1, 7 (EG7, and 21 (EG21. After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. Results: No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates.

  9. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO 2 , was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p 81m Kr or 133 Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  10. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies; Sensitivitaet der MRT fuer alveolaere Infiltrate. Experimentelle Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinikum fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Muhle, C. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Freitag, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Informatik und Statistik

    2002-08-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T{sub 2}-TSE and T{sub 2}-HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T{sub 2}-HASTE and T{sub 2}-TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T{sub 2}-weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p<0.01) and 60% at 200 ml (p<0.01). With 2D- and 3D-GRE the infiltrates were not visible, although the lung parenchyma signal increase was statistically significant. On 2D-GRE the increase in signal intensity reached 0.74% (p=0.32) after 100 ml and 5.6% (p<0.01) after 200 ml for 3D-GRE: 2.2% [p=0.02] at 100 ml and 4.4% at 200 ml [p<0.001]. The CT controls revealed a significant increase of lung density of 17. H.E. at 100 ml (p=0.02) and 75 H.E. at 200 ml (p<0.01). Conclusions: MRI with T{sub 2}-weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to

  11. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  12. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  13. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  14. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Aki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic

  15. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  16. [A patient with acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis with a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung, who responded to therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Rie; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Ikushima, Souichiro; Oristu, Masaru; Takemura, Tamiko

    2010-02-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old woman and current smoker. In May 2007, she moved to a new residence. In the middle of the following month, she developed acute respiratory distress and a fever (38 degrees C) after running her air conditioner continuously throughout the night. The chest X-ray film showed diffuse infiltrative shadows in the middle and lower lung fields. After hospital admission, her oxygenation improved without treatment and the infiltrates improved over the clinical course. As a consequence, we suspected hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The bronchoalveolar lavage showed predominant lymphocytes of 72.6%, with a low CD 4/8 ratio of 0.2. Transbronchial lung biopsy findings corresponded to acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The results of the environmental challenge test were positive only when her air conditioner was on, resulting, in a diagnosis of air-conditioner lung. Several microorganisms were detected in an environmental sample, but 20 kinds of serum precipitating antibodies were negative on a thorough screening, so no responsible antigen could be identified. The patient's symptoms did not recur after her air conditioner was replaced.

  17. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    treatment (baseline) and after 1 year of treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included as control group. RESULTS: (mean+/-S.E.M.): K(CO) at baseline was 0.95+/-0.06 and 1.25+/-0.04 mmol/min x kPa/l in HF patients......AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE......-inhibitor/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists on K(CO) in these patients. METHODS: Non-medicated patients (except for diuretics) with symptoms of heart failure (NYHA II-III) and echocardiographically estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

  18. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Bäuerle, Tobias [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Landgren, Ola [Multiple Myeloma Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Schirmacher, Peter [Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens, E-mail: jens.hillengass@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells.

  19. Infiltration patterns in monoclonal plasma cell disorders: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging with matched bone marrow histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrulis, Mindaugas; Bäuerle, Tobias; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Delorme, Stefan; Landgren, Ola; Schirmacher, Peter; Hillengass, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how plasma cell infiltration patterns detected by MRI match the plasma cell distribution in bone marrow biopsy. Methods: We assessed 50 patients with monoclonal plasma cell disorders of all clinical stages. MRI infiltration pattern was compared with matched BM histology from the same anatomic region. Results: MRI revealed a minimal (n = 11, 22%), focal (n = 5, 10%), diffuse (n = 14, 28%) and mixed (n = 20, 40%) infiltration pattern. Diffuse MRI pattern was predominant in smoldering myeloma patients whereas the MRI patterns with “focal component” (i.e. focal and mixed) were most common in symptomatic myeloma (p < 0.01). In histology an interstitial (n = 13, 26%), nodular (n = 23, 46%) and packed marrow (n = 14, 28%) was found respectively. All three histological types of infiltration were observed in patients with diffuse and mixed MRI patterns. Minimal MRI pattern was found in all MGUS patients and was associated with an interstitial BM infiltration. In two patients with minimal MRI pattern an extensive micro-nodular BM infiltration was found in histology. Conclusions: Infiltration patterns in MRI represent different histological growth patterns of plasma cells, but the MRI resolution is not sufficient to visualize micro-nodular aggregates of plasma cells

  20. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rate at Hanford, Washington, Inferred from Sr Isotope Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, Katharine; DePaolo, Donald J.; Conrad, Mark E.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Sr isotope ratios were measured in the pore water, acid extracts, and sediments of a 70-m vadose zone core to obtain estimates of the long-term infiltration flux for a site in the Hanford/DOE complex in eastern Washington State. The 87Sr/86Sr values of the pore waters decrease systematically with depth, from a high value of 0.721 near the surface toward the bulk sediment average value of 0.711. Estimates of the bulk weathering rate combined with Sr isotopic data were used to constrain the long-term (century to millenial scale) natural diffuse infiltration flux for the site given both steady state and nonsteady state conditions. The models suggest that the infiltration fluc for the site is 7+- 3 mm/yr. The method shows potential for providing long-term in situ estimates of infiltration rates for deep heterogeneous vadose zones

  1. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  2. Transmission gamma ray study in horizon transition interface in soil, during infiltration and water redistribution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appoloni, C.R.; Saito, H.; Algozini Junior, A.

    1992-01-01

    The horizontal erosion process in soil internal layers, in which exists a interface between different horizons or a high degree compaction region, can be emphasized through an alteration on hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity functions. With this objective, we measured the vertical infiltration and the water redistribution, in soil sample 'latossolo vermelho escuro - fase argilosa'. (author)

  3. [Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis manifested as interstitial lung diseases.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ju-Hong; Feng, Rui-E; Tian, Xin-Lun; Xu, Wen-Bing; Xu, Zuo-Jun; Liu, Hong-Rui; Zhu, Yuan-Jue

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the clinical and radiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We analyzed the data of cases suspected of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases at this hospital between October 2003 and October 2007. The diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis was based on epithelioid granuloma or positive acid-fast bacilli in lung biopsy and changes on serial radiographs obtained during treatment. The data of a series of 230 consecutive patients with suspected ILD were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. Twelve patients were confirmed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. There were 5 males and 7 females with a mean age of 38 +/- 11 years (range, 17 - 68). The median course of disease in these patients was 3 months (range, 0.5 - 18 months). Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis presented with fever (11/12), cough (9/12), weight loss (7/12), dyspnea (7/12), lymphadenopathy (4/12), and splenohepatomegaly (2/12). On chest CT scan, ground-glass attenuation was identified in 4, bilateral patchy infiltration in 5, tree-in-bud appearance 1, and centrilobular lesions in 2 of the 12 patients. During the follow-up period (median, 9 month, range from 3 to 12 month), 11 patients improved, but 1 died of diabetic ketoacidosis. The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis should be considered in suspected ILD patients presenting with fever, splenohepatomegaly and lymphadenopathy.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  5. Comparison of STIR turbo SE imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of the lung: capability for detection and subtype classification of pulmonary adenocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Nogami, Munenobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Aoyama, Nobukazu [Kobe University Hospital, Division of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Nishio, Wataru [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular, Thoracic and Pediatric Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Ohbayashi, Chiho [Hyogo Cancer Center, Division of Pathology, Akashi (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for detection and subtype classification in pulmonary adenocarcinomas through comparison with short TI inversion recovery turbo spin-echo imaging sequence (STIR). Thirty-two patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with 33 adenocarcinomas (mean diameter, 27.6 mm) were enrolled in this study. The detection rates of both sequences were compared. The ADC values on DWI and the contrast ratio (CR) between cancer and muscle on STIR were measured and those were compared across subtype classifications. Finally, ROC-based positive tests were performed to differentiate subtype classifications, and differentiation capabilities were compared. The DWI detection rate [85% (28/33)] was significantly lower than that of STIR [100% (33/33), P < 0.05]. The ADC values showed no significant difference regarding subtype classification; however, the CRs of bronchio-alveolar carcinomas (BACs) were significantly lower than those of other types (P < 0.05). When threshold values for differentiating BACs from others were adapted, the sensitivity and accuracy of DWI were significantly lower than those of STIR (P < 0.05). For differentiating adenocarcinomas with mixed subtypes from those with no BA component, there were no significant differences between the two sequences. STIR is more sensitive for detection and subtype classification than DWI. (orig.)

  6. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation; Opacidades em vidro fosco nas doencas pulmonares difusas: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Lucia de Oliveira; Vianna, Alberto Domingues; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Radiologia; Moraes, Heleno Pinto de [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@zipmail.com.br

    2003-12-01

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  7. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  8. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  9. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushianthan, A; Grocott, M P W; Postle, A D; Cusack, R

    2011-09-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life threatening respiratory failure due to lung injury from a variety of precipitants. Pathologically ARDS is characterised by diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar capillary leakage, and protein rich pulmonary oedema leading to the clinical manifestation of poor lung compliance, severe hypoxaemia, and bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Several aetiological factors associated with the development of ARDS are identified with sepsis, pneumonia, and trauma with multiple transfusions accounting for most cases. Despite the absence of a robust diagnostic definition, extensive epidemiological investigations suggest ARDS remains a significant health burden with substantial morbidity and mortality. Improvements in outcome following ARDS over the past decade are in part due to improved strategies of mechanical ventilation and advanced support of other failing organs. Optimal treatment involves judicious fluid management, protective lung ventilation with low tidal volumes and moderate positive end expiratory pressure, multi-organ support, and treatment where possible of the underlying cause. Moreover, advances in general supportive measures such as appropriate antimicrobial therapy, early enteral nutrition, prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism and gastrointestinal ulceration are likely contributory reasons for the improved outcomes. Although therapies such as corticosteroids, nitric oxide, prostacyclins, exogenous surfactants, ketoconazole and antioxidants have shown promising clinical effects in animal models, these have failed to translate positively in human studies. Most recently, clinical trials with β2 agonists aiding alveolar fluid clearance and immunonutrition with omega-3 fatty acids have also provided disappointing results. Despite these negative studies, mortality seems to be in decline due to advances in overall patient care. Future directions of research are likely to concentrate on identifying potential

  11. Liquid infiltration through the boiling-point isotherm in a desiccating fractured rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, O.M.

    1994-01-01

    Over a long time interval, the integrity of the radioactive waste repository proposed at Yucca Mountain may be compromised by corrosion accelerated by intermittent wetting which could occur by episodic infiltration of meteoric water from above through the fracture network. A simple two-dimensional model is constructed for the infiltration of liquid water down a fracture in a permeable rock matrix, beyond the boiling-point isotherm. The water may derive from episodic infiltration or from the condensation of steam above a desiccating region. Boiling of the water in the fracture is maintained by heat transfer from a surrounding superheated matrix blocks. There are two intrinsic length scales in this situation, (1): l s = ρ l q o L/(k m β) which is such that the total heat flow over this lateral distance balances that needed for evaporation of the liquid water infiltration, and (2): The thermal diffusion distance l θ = (k m t) 1/2 which increases with time after the onset of infiltration. The primary results are: (a) for two-dimensional infiltration down an isolated fracture or fault, the depth of penetration below the (undisturbed) boiling point isotherm is given by 1/2 π 1/2 (l s l θ ) 1/2 , and so increases as t 1/4 . Immediately following the onset of infiltration, penetration is rapid, but quickly slows. This behavior continues until l θ (and D) become comparable with l s . (b) With continuing infiltration down an isolated fracture or cluster of fractures, when l θ >> l s the temperature distribution becomes steady and the penetration distance stabilizes at a value proportional to l s . (c) Effects such as three-dimensionality of the liquid flow paths and flow rates, matrix infiltration, etc., appear to reduce the penetration distance

  12. Clinical and radiological aspects of limited forms of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and slowly resolving pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraiani, Olga; Lesnic, Evelina; Niguleanu, Adriana; Niguleanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Despite of a clearly defined diagnostic algorithm of pulmonary tuberculosis, low sensibility of contemporary laboratory methods in limited forms of pulmonary tuberculosis contributes to a difficult differential diagnosis with community acquired pneumonia, especially with slowly resolving pneumonia. A case-control, prospective, selective, comparative and descriptive study was performed using a group of 180 patients, divided into two samples: I group - 125 cases with limited form of pulmonary infiltrative tuberculosis; II group - 55 cases with slowly resolving community-acquired pneumonia. The findings identified the prevalence of intoxication syndrome in the slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Lung destructions and bronchogenous dissemination was identified only in the tuberculosis sample. A higher impact of comorbidities and old age was more relevant in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Clinical and radiological improvement was established in most patients of both groups, but the considerable resorption of lung infiltrates predominated in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. (authors)

  13. Numb Chin Syndrome as First Symptom of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Carbone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numb chin syndrome is a rare sensory neuropathy of the mental nerve characterized by numbness, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, and very rarely pain. Dental causes, especially iatrogenic ones, maxillofacial trauma, or malignant neoplasm are etiologic factors for this rare syndrome. Many malignant and metastatic neoplasms are causing this syndrome, like primary osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mandibular metastasis of primary carcinoma of breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate, and nasopharynx. Haematological malignancies like acute lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and myeloma can cause this neuropathy. The authors report a case of a 71-year-old woman in which the numb chin syndrome was the first symptom of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which caused infiltration and reabsorption of the alveolar ridge and lower mandibular cortex. A biopsy of the mass was performed on fragments of tissue collected from the mandibular periosteum, medullary and cortical mandibular bone, and inferior alveolar nerve.

  14. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  15. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  16. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  17. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  18. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  19. Iron behaviour in the process of stratum-infiltration uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmariovich, E.M.; Golubev, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated has been the behaviour of iron in the process of stratum infiltration uranium mineralization. Iron is partially avacuated from the forward part of the stratum oxidation zone during the development of infiltration uranium mineralization in pyritiferous rocks. This phenomenon is characterized quantitatively and described on the basis of equations of physical chemistry and dynamics of geochemical processes. Local regions of epigenetic ferruginization caused by opposite diffusion of iron and its precipitation in oxygenous conditions often occur at the sections of sharp moderation of limonitization zone advance. Formation of similar ferruginous margins takes place in a very short geological period (less than thousand years)

  20. Correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC with the standardized uptake value (SUV in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients using hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Michael Schaarschmidt

    Full Text Available To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC in lymph node metastases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with standardized uptake values (SUV derived from combined 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (18F-FDG PET/MRI.38 patients with histopathologically proven NSCLC (mean age 60.1 ± 9.5 y received whole-body PET/CT (Siemens mCT™ 60 min after injection of a mean dose of 280 ± 50 MBq 18F-FDG and subsequent PET/MRI (mean time after tracer injection: 139 ± 26 min, Siemens Biograph mMR. During PET acquisition, simultaneous diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, b values: 0, 500, 1000 s/mm² was performed. A maximum of 10 lymph nodes per patient suspicious for malignancy were analyzed. Regions of interest (ROI were drawn covering the entire lymph node on the attenuation-corrected PET-image and the monoexponential ADC-map. According to histopathology or radiological follow-up, lymph nodes were classified as benign or malignant. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated for all lymph node metastases correlating SUVmax and SUVmean with ADCmean.A total of 146 suspicious lymph nodes were found in 25 patients. One hundred lymph nodes were eligible for final analysis. Ninety-one lymph nodes were classified as malignant and 9 as benign according to the reference standard. In malignant lesions, mean SUVmax was 9.1 ± 3.8 and mean SUVmean was 6.0 ± 2.5 while mean ADCmean was 877.0 ± 128.6 x10(-5 mm²/s in PET/MRI. For all malignant lymph nodes, a weak, inverse correlation between SUVmax and ADCmean as well as SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.30, p<0.05 and r = -0.36, p<0.05 existed.The present data show a weak inverse correlation between increased glucose-metabolism and cellularity in lymph node metastases of NSCLC patients. 18F-FDG-PET and DWI thus may offer complementary information for the evaluation of treatment response in lymph node metastases of NSCLC.

  1. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  2. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  3. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  4. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  5. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  6. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  7. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  8. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  9. INFILTRATE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS, GASTRIC ULCER AND HIV INFECTION (COMORBIDITY AND MULTIMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Skvortsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is registered in 20,5% of those suffering from infiltrate pulmonary tuberculosis and in 19,5% of HIV patients at C2 stage, ill with infiltrate pulmonary tuberculosis and presenting complaints about dyspeptic disorders. The following is typical of multimorbidity of pulmonary tuberculosis, HIV infection and peptic ulcer: oligosymptomatic start of tuberculosis, asthenic syndrome dominating among clinical symptoms, manifestations of gastric and intestinal indigestion, weight loss (2-4 times more often compared to HIV negative patients, less expressed lung tissue destruction (2 time less compared to HIV negative patients. H. pylori is a causative agent of the peptic ulcer in 62,5% of patients with infiltrate pulmonary tuberculosis and in 58,7% of HIV infected patients at C2 stage, suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. Comorbidity of H. pilori negative peptic ulcer and infiltrate pulmonary tuberculosis differs from comorbidity of H. pilori positive peptic ulcer and infiltrate pulmonary tuberculosis since the first has confidently true unfavorable forecast of the outcome.

  10. Unusual presentation of perirenal lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, D.L.; Heinze, S.B.; Dowling, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is not commonly known to metastasise to the perirenal space, with only five such cases previously published. We present an unusual case of perirenal lung metastases manifesting as diffuse perinephric stranding which to our knowledge has not been described before Copyright (2006) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  11. Doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória Respiratory bronchilitis-associated interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia CS. Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória faz parte do espectro anatomopatológico das lesões pulmonares infiltrativas difusas induzidas pela fumaça de cigarro. Raramente tem apresentação clínico-funcional exuberante. Descrevemos dois casos diagnosticados por biópsia pulmonar aberta, caracterizados por dispnéia de evolução insidiosa, baqueteamento digital, lesões císticas à tomografia computadorizada e hipoxemia ao exercício. Enfatizamos considerar, em indivíduos tabagistas, a doença pulmonar intersticial associada a bronquiolite respiratória no contexto das pneumopatias intersticiais císticas, juntamente com a linfangioleiomiomatose, o granuloma eosinofílico e a fibrose pulmonar idiopática.Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease is one of many within the spectrum of smoking-related diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. The clinical and functional characteristics are typically subtle. Herein, we describe two cases of diagnosed through open-lung biopsy, and characterized by insidious evolution of dyspnea, digital clubbing, cystic lesions on computed tomography scans, and hipoxemia upon exertion. We emphasize that, when smokers are evaluated, it is imprtant to consider a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease in the context of interstitial cystitis, as well as in that of lymphangioleiomyomatosis, eosinophilic granuloma and idiophatic pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  13. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  14. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  15. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  16. [Clinicopathological study of diffuse carcinoma of stomach (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, T

    1978-11-01

    The biological behavior of ulcer type gastric carcinoma was studied on 114 cases of diffuse carcinoma (Borrmann's 4 type) and 262 cases of early like advanced carcinoma (including superficial spreading type). In both types of gastric carcinoma, the age distribution, location, ulcer with cancer focus and prognosis differed greatly. The early like carcinoma was speculated to have advanced maintaining the groos findings of early gastric carcinoma, and its location and associated ulcer were the same as the early ulcer type of carcinoma. The prognosis of this type of carcinoma was good, showing a figure of 70% in 3 year survival rate. On the other hand, diffuse carcinoma demonstrated diffuse extensive infiltration of tumor cells along the gastric wall, resulting in poor prognosis with a 3 year survival rate of almost 0%. Histologically, diffuse type of carcinoma showed lymphatic infiltration of tumor cells, and this is probably the main reason for the diffuse infiltration in this type of carcinoma. Diffuse carcinoma is, therefore, considered to be one special type of carcinoma having different biological behavior compared with the other ulcer type of carcinoma, and diffuse carcinoma is not the terminal stage of early like advanced carcinoma. There are three stages in diffuse carcinoma: 1. Infiltrative stage: wide spread infiltration of cancer cells through lymphatic channels (lymphangiosis carcinomatosa) 2. Edematous stage: soluble collagen appearing in gastric wall 3. Sclerosing stage: soluble collagen changing into insoluble collagen leading to marked thickening and stiffness of the gastric wall. This is the end stage of gastric diffuse carcinoma. It is difficult to explain that the marked fibrosis of gastric wall is a result to stromal reaction from tumor cell infiltration, since extensive fibrosis is found in areas without tumor cells and stiffness of the gastric wall occurs in a too short period of time. The production of abundunt soluble collagen is probably

  17. X-ray and CT signs of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanova, L.A.; Sharmazanova, O.P.

    2009-01-01

    The x-ray signs of connective tissue systemic dysplasia (CTSD) in patients with primarily diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis was investigated. Fifty-four patients (28 med and 26 women aged 18-70) with primarily diagnosed infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis underwent x-ray study. In patients with infiltration pulmonary tuberculosis CTSD in the lungs manifests by their diminishing, deformity of the lung pattern, high position of the diaphragm cupola, mediastinum shift to the side of the pathology, which is better seen on CT. The degree of CTSD x-ray signs in the lungs depends on the number of phenotypical signs that is the degree of the disease manifestation. CT allows more accurate determining of the signs of connective tissue dysplasia in which tuberculosis develops

  18. Respiratory Failure due to Possible Donor-Derived Sporothrix schenckii Infection in a Lung Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C. Bahr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. De novo and donor-derived invasive fungal infections (IFIs contribute to morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT recipients. Reporting of donor-derived IFIs (DDIFIs to the Organ Procurement Transplant Network has been mandated since 2005. Prior to that time no systematic monitoring of DDIFIs occurred in the United States. Case Presentation. We report a case of primary graft dysfunction in a 49-year-old male lung transplant recipient with diffuse patchy bilateral infiltrates likely related to pulmonary Sporothrix schenckii infection. The organism was isolated from a bronchoalveolar lavage on the second day after transplantation. Clinical and radiographic responses occurred after initiation of amphotericin B lipid formulation. Conclusion. We believe that this was likely a donor-derived infection given the early timing of the Sporothrix isolation after transplant in a bilateral single lung transplant recipient. This is the first case report of sporotrichosis in a lung transplant recipient. Our patient responded well to amphotericin induction therapy followed by maintenance therapy with itraconazole. The implications of donor-derived fungal infections and Sporothrix in transplant recipients are reviewed. Early recognition and management of these fungi are essential in improving outcomes.

  19. Drug-induced lung disease: High-resolution CT and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleverley, Joanne R.; Screaton, Nicholas J.; Hiorns, Melanie P.; Flint, Julia D.A.; Mueller, Nestor L.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To compare the parenchymal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances with histological findings in patients with drug-induced lung disease and to determine the prognostic value of HRCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drug history, HRCT features, histological findings and outcome at 3 months in 20 patients with drug induced-lung disease were reviewed retrospectively. The HRCT images were assessed for the pattern and distribution of abnormalities and classified as most suggestive of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), organizing pneumonia (OP) reaction, or a hypersensitivity reaction. RESULTS: On histopathological examination there were eight cases of interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis, five of DAD, five of OP reactions, one of hypersensitivity reaction and one of pulmonary eosinophilia. The most common abnormalities on HRCT were ground-glass opacities (n = 17), consolidation (n = 14), interlobular septal thickening (n = 15) and centrilobular nodules (n 8). HRCT interpretation and histological diagnosis were concordant in only nine (45%) of 20 patients. The pattern, distribution, and extent of HRCT abnormalities were of limited prognostic value: all eight patients with histological findings of OP, hypersensitivity reaction, or eosinophilic infiltrate improved on follow-up compared to only five of 13 patients with interstitial pneumonitis/fibrosis or DAD. CONCLUSION: In many cases of drug-induced lung injury HRCT is of limited value in determining the histological pattern and prognosis. Cleverly, J.R. et al

  20. Slug flow model for infiltration into fractured porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A model for transient infiltration into a periodically fractured porous layer is presented. The fracture is treated as a permeable-walled slot and the moisture distribution is in the form of a slug being an advancing meniscus. The wicking of moisture from the fracture to the unsaturated porous matrix is a nonlinear diffusion process and is approximately by self-similar solutions. The resulting model is a nonlinear Volterra integral equation with a weakly singular kernel. Numerical analysis provides solutions over a wide range of the parameter space and reveals the asymptotic forms of the penetration of this slug in terms of dimensionless variables arising in the model. The numerical solutions corroborate asymptotic results given earlier by Nitao and Buscheck (1991), and by Martinez (1988). Some implications for the transport of liquid in fractured rock are discussed

  1. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lung carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene: report of 2 infantile cases and review of the differential diagnosis of infantile pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Kushitani, Kei; Yoshida, Misa; Kurihara, Sho; Kawashima, Masumi; Ueda, Yuka; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Yoshinao; Takeshima, Yukio; Hiyama, Eiso; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2017-08-01

    We report 2 infantile cases of pulmonary tumor carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene. A2M-ALK is a newly identified anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-related chimeric gene from a tumor diagnosed as fetal lung interstitial tumor (FLIT). FLIT is a recently recognized infantile pulmonary lesion defined as a mass-like lesion that morphologically resembles the fetal lung. Grossly, FLIT characteristically appears as a well-circumscribed spongy mass, whereas the tumors in these patients were solid and firm. Histologically, the tumors showed intrapulmonary lesions composed of densely proliferating polygonal or spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells with diffuse and dense infiltrations of inflammatory cells forming microcystic or micropapillary structures lined by thyroid transcription factor 1-positive pneumocytes, favoring inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor rather than FLIT. The proliferating cells were immunoreactive for ALK, and A2M-ALK was identified in both tumors with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, immunoreactivity for ALK, and identification of an ALK-related chimeric gene suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Histologically, most reported FLITs show sparse inflammatory infiltrates and a relatively low density of interstitial cells in the septa, although prominent infiltration of inflammatory cells and high cellularity of interstitial cells are seen in some FLITs. The present cases suggest that ALK rearrangements, including the chimeric A2M-ALK gene, may be present in these infantile pulmonary lesions, especially those with inflammatory cell infiltration. We propose that these infantile pulmonary lesions containing a chimeric A2M-ALK gene be categorized as a specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor that develops exclusively in neonates and infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism—Influence of window settings on the diagnosis of underlying pathologies of perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J. Matthias; Weber, Eva; Weisser, Philipp; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: On lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT (DECT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly three patterns of perfusion defects (PD) are observed: wedge-shaped, circumscribed but not wedge-shaped, and patchy. We investigated the influence of different window settings on the identification of the underlying pathologies for these types of PD. Materials and methods: 3724 segments in 196 consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary DECT angiography for clinically suspected acute PE were analyzed. Iodine distribution in the lung parenchyma was calculated from the dual energy data and displayed as color map in axial, sagittal and coronal view. Afterwards, lung and angiography window were applied separately and assessed for pulmonary embolism and pathologies of the lung parenchyma. Results: 1420 segments in 141 patients showed PD, of which 276 were wedge-shaped, 287 circumscribed and 857 patchy. Circumscribed PD were associated in 99% with interstitial or alveolar fluid collections and in 1% with located bullae. Patchy PD were associated in 65% with emphysematous or fibrotic changes, in 38% with diffuse infiltrations or interstitial fluid collections and in 0.2% with PE. The underlying pathologies for wedge-shaped PD were in 78% PE, in 3% tumors compressing pulmonary arteries, in another 3% located bullae and in further 3% infiltrations. 13% (n = 15) of the segments in this group did not show vascular or parenchymal pathologies, but in 80% (n = 10) of these cases patients had PE in another segment. Totally n = 6 of wedge-shaped PD in 5 patients remained with unclear direct cause. Conclusion: Whereas patchy and circumscribed PD are almost exclusively associated with pathologies of the lung parenchyma, wedge-shaped PD are mostly associated with PE. For a small number of wedge-shaped PD the underlying cause cannot be detected with DECT. Very small peripherally situated micro-emboli may be discussed as a reason. However, prospective trials are

  4. 67Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting

  5. /sup 67/Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-02-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting.

  6. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis of Infiltrating Neoplastic Cells at the Migrating Front of Human Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Darmanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is notoriously difficult to treat because of its diffuse nature. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq on 3,589 cells in a cohort of four patients. We obtained cells from the tumor core as well as surrounding peripheral tissue. Our analysis revealed cellular variation in the tumor’s genome and transcriptome. We were also able to identify infiltrating neoplastic cells in regions peripheral to the core lesions. Despite the existence of significant heterogeneity among neoplastic cells, we found that infiltrating GBM cells share a consistent gene signature between patients, suggesting a common mechanism of infiltration. Additionally, in investigating the immunological response to the tumors, we found transcriptionally distinct myeloid cell populations residing in the tumor core and the surrounding peritumoral space. Our data provide a detailed dissection of GBM cell types, revealing an abundance of information about tumor formation and migration. : Darmanis et al. perform single-cell transcriptomic analyses of neoplastic and stromal cells within and proximal to primary glioblastomas. The authors describe a population of neoplastic-infiltrating glioblastoma cells as well as a putative role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in supporting tumor growth. Keywords: single cell, RNA-seq, glioma, glioblastoma, GBM, brain, heterogeneity, infiltrating, diffuse, checkpoint

  8. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Haschek, W.M.; Meyer, K.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O 2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O 2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O 2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  9. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  10. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  11. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  12. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  14. Focal fatty infiltration of the liver: demonstration by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenker, J.C.; Baker, M.K.; Ellis, J.H.; Glant, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a recently recognized yet poorly understood entity, which has become more apparent since the onset of widespread computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Recent reports have suggested that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be sensitive in the evaluation of diffuse fatty liver. A case is presented in which MRI was as sensitive as CT and sonography in the demonstration of focal fatty change within the liver

  15. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  16. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  17. CT findings of peritoneal tuberculosis and peritoneal carcinomatosis: relationship between peritoneal change and omental infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seong Ki; Jung, Hae Jong; Kang, Sung Hag; Shin, Sung Ran; Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Min Jin; Lee, Sang Chun

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT findings of peritoneal tuberculosis (PT) and peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) based on the morphologic features of the peritoneum and assess the relationship between the degree of peritoneal thickness and the severity of omental infiltration in PT and PC. We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of 15 patients with PT and 14 with PC. We checked morphologic changes of the peritoneum as seen on CT, for the following points: 1) the presence of peritoneal change: 2) the pattern of any change-diffuse thickening, plaque or nodularity, combined thickening (diffuse and plaque, or nodularity) 3) the degree of thickness on the whole peritoneum - mild (grossly definite, but not more than 3mm), moderate (more than 3mm); 4) the presence of irregularity on the peritoneal surface. We also evaluated the significance of the relationship between peritoneal thickness and omental infiltration in both disease entities. The degree of omental infiltration was described as follows : grade 1 (no change or focal smudge pattern); grade 2 (diffuse smudge), grade 3 (omental cake regardless extent). Peritoneal change was seen in 12 of 15 PT patients and in 7 of 14 PC patients. In all 12 PT patients, the pattern of change was diffuse thickening, and among the seven PC patients, there was diffuse thickening in one, plaque or nodular thickening in four, and combined thickening in two. In PT patients, the degree of thickness on the whole peritoneum was mild in six and moderate in six, and in PC patients it was mild in two and moderate in one. An irregular peritoneum surface was seen in one patient with PT and in two with PC. The degree of omental infiltration in PT was grade 1 in four patients, grade 2 in six and grade 3 in five. In PC, it was grade 1 in six patients, grade 2 in two and grade 3 in six. Smooth diffuse thickening of the peritoneum was seen in 11 of 15 PT cases and in one of 14 PC (P 0.5). In PT and PC different CT findings based on peritoneal morphologic changes

  18. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogeochemical transport modeling of 24 years of Rhine water infiltration in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, B.M.; Appelo, C.A.J.; Olsthoorn, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    Water quality changes were modelled along a flowpath in a plume of artificially recharged, pretreated Rhine water in the dunes of the Amsterdam Water Supply, after 24 years of infiltration. The hydrogeochemical transport model PHREEQC was extended with dispersion/diffusion and kinetics for selected

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension in Parenchymal Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Iraklis; Tsaknis, Georgios; Anthi, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E.

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) has been extensively investigated, although it represents a less common form of the pulmonary hypertension (PH) family, as shown by international registries. Interestingly, in types of PH that are encountered in parenchymal lung diseases such as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and many other diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, some of which are very common, the available data is limited. In this paper, we try to browse in the latest available data regarding the occurrence, pathogenesis, and treatment of PH in chronic parenchymal lung diseases. PMID:23094153

  1. Prevalence of polyreactive innate clones among graft--infiltrating B cells in human cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debanjana; Moore, Carolina; Gao, Baoshan; Clerkin, Kevin J; See, Sarah B; Shaked, David; Rogers, Kortney; Nunez, Sarah; Veras, Yokarla; Addonizio, Linda; Givertz, Michael M; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Vasilescu, Rodica; Marboe, Charles; Restaino, Susan; Madsen, Joren C; Zorn, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) has been associated with graft-infiltrating B cells, although their characteristics are still unclear. In this study we examined the frequency, localization and reactivity profile of graft-infiltrating B cells to determine their contribution to the pathophysiology of CAV. B cells, plasma cells and macrophages were examined by immunohistochemistry in 56 allografts with CAV, 49 native failed hearts and 25 autopsy specimens. A total of 102 B-cell clones were immortalized directly from the infiltrates of 3 fresh cardiac samples with CAV. Their secreted antibodies were assessed using enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry. B-cell infiltration was observed around coronary arteries in 93% of allograft explants with CAV. Comparatively, intragraft B cells were less frequent and less dense in the intraventricular myocardium from where routine biopsies are obtained. Plasma cells and macrophages were also detected in 85% and 95% of explants, respectively. Remarkably, B-cell infiltrates were not associated with circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or prior episodes of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Among all B-cell clones generated from 3 explants with CAV, a majority secreted natural antibodies reactive to multiple autoantigens and apoptotic cells, a characteristic of innate B cells. Our study reveals a high frequency of infiltrating B cells around the coronary arteries of allografts with CAV, independent of DSA or AMR. These cells are enriched for innate B cells with a polyreactive profile. The findings shift the focus from conventional DSA-producing B cells to the potentially pathogenic polyreactive B cells in the development of clinical CAV. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "Open lung ventilation optimizes pulmonary function during lung surgery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John B; Robinson, Lary A; Steighner, Michael L; Thrush, David; Reich, Richard R; Räsänen, Jukka O

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated an "open lung" ventilation (OV) strategy using low tidal volumes, low respiratory rate, low FiO2, and high continuous positive airway pressure in patients undergoing major lung resections. In this phase I pilot study, twelve consecutive patients were anesthetized using conventional ventilator settings (CV) and then OV strategy during which oxygenation and lung compliance were noted. Subsequently, a lung resection was performed. Data were collected during both modes of ventilation in each patient, with each patient acting as his own control. The postoperative course was monitored for complications. Twelve patients underwent open thoracotomies for seven lobectomies and five segmentectomies. The OV strategy provided consistent one-lung anesthesia and improved static compliance (40 ± 7 versus 25 ± 4 mL/cm H2O, P = 0.002) with airway pressures similar to CV. Postresection oxygenation (SpO2/FiO2) was better during OV (433 ± 11 versus 386 ± 15, P = 0.008). All postoperative chest x-rays were free of atelectasis or infiltrates. No patient required supplemental oxygen at any time postoperatively or on discharge. The mean hospital stay was 4 ± 1 d. There were no complications or mortality. The OV strategy, previously shown to have benefits during mechanical ventilation of patients with respiratory failure, proved safe and effective in lung resection patients. Because postoperative pulmonary complications may be directly attributable to the anesthetic management, adopting an OV strategy that optimizes lung mechanics and gas exchange may help reduce postoperative problems and improve overall surgical results. A randomized trial is planned to ascertain whether this technique will reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  4. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  5. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  6. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  7. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  8. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  9. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  10. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  11. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  12. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  13. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  14. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  15. The cause of fever and pulmonary infiltrate: a difficult etiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset Still’s disease is a rare condition that typically presents itself with intermittent fever, arthralgia and salmon colored rash. The involvement of the in lung is less common and very rare. Diagnosis is relatively difficult because of the presence of non-specific symptoms and the lack of serological markers specific to the disease. We report the case of a patient having a pulmonary infiltrate/infiltration compatible with pneumonia, cutaneous/skin rash and persistence of fever with multiple admissions to the Emergency Room due to the failure of treatment with antibiotics. After an appropriate work-up, a diagnosis of adult-onset Still’s disease was made.

  16. Lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, H.K.; Kang, M.W.; Park, J.M.; Yang, W.J.; Shinn, K.S.; Bahk, Y.W.

    1993-01-01

    Lung abscess was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage in 5 of 6 patients. Complete abscess resolution occurred in 4 patients, partial resolution in one, and no response in one. The duration of drainage ranged from 7 to 18 days (mean 15.5 days) in successful cases. The failure of drainage in one neurologicall impaired patient was attributed to persistent aspiration. In 2 patients, concurrent pleural empyema was also cured. CT provided the anatomic details necessary for choosing the puncture site and avoiding puncture of the lung parenchyma. Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective method for treating lung abscess. (orig.)

  17. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  18. Clinical study of the histologic host response of the patients with lung cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gose, Kyuhei

    1984-01-01

    Serial bronchofiberscopic biopsies were performed during radiotherapy in 28 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The effect of radiotherapy on tumor tissue was examined histologically as to the responsiveness of the host against tumor cells. The mononuclear cell infiltration induced in the tumor by irradiation correlated well with its direct effect on the tumor cells. The most remarkable infiltration was observed at the dose of 2000 rad and in the polypoid type. Indirect immunofluonescent technique with monoclonal anti OKT 3 and OKIa revealed that most of the infiltrated cells were T-lymphocytes. There was a good relationship between the grade of mononuclear cell infiltration and the survival period. These facts suggest that the mononuclear cells in the irradiated tumor tissues represent host resistance against cancer and the intensity of the infiltration correlates with the clinical course and prognosis of the lung cancer patients. (author)

  19. Radioopacity of the right paracardiac lung field due to pectus excavatum (funnel chest)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Winants, D.; Marcon, F.; Worms, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Increased density of the right paracardiac lung field is frequently visible in patients with pectus excavatum. This sign is due to compression of the lungs by the bent costal cartilages of the pectus and should not be interpreted as evidence of pulmonary infiltrate. (orig.) [de

  20. Adult Lung Spheroid Cells Contain Progenitor Cells and Mediate Regeneration in Rodents With Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Eric; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Anthony, Shirena; Vandergriff, Adam; de Andrade, James B M; Allen, Tyler; Caranasos, Thomas G; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Lung diseases are devastating conditions and ranked as one of the top five causes of mortality worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for lung regeneration. Previous animal and clinical studies have focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (from other parts of the body) for lung regenerative therapies. We report a rapid and robust method to generate therapeutic resident lung progenitors from adult lung tissues. Outgrowth cells from healthy lung tissue explants are self-aggregated into three-dimensional lung spheroids in a suspension culture. Without antigenic sorting, the lung spheroids recapitulate the stem cell niche and contain a natural mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. In vitro, lung spheroid cells can be expanded to a large quantity and can form alveoli-like structures and acquire mature lung epithelial phenotypes. In severe combined immunodeficiency mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, intravenous injection of human lung spheroid cells inhibited apoptosis, fibrosis, and infiltration but promoted angiogenesis. In a syngeneic rat model of pulmonary fibrosis, lung spheroid cells outperformed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in reducing fibrotic thickening and infiltration. Previously, lung spheroid cells (the spheroid model) had only been used to study lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that lung spheroids and lung spheroid cells from healthy lung tissues are excellent sources of regenerative lung cells for therapeutic lung regeneration. The results from the present study will lead to future human clinical trials using lung stem cell therapies to treat various incurable lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here also provide fundamental knowledge regarding how injected stem cells mediate lung repair in pulmonary fibrosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  2. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  3. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Robotic surgery may also be used. Lung surgery using ... Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  4. Computed Tomography Appearance of Early Radiation Injury to the Lung: Correlation With Clinical and Dosimetric Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Welsh, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically assess the spectrum of radiologic changes in the lung after radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the cases of 146 patients treated with radical radiotherapy at our institution. All patients had computed tomography (CT) scans performed 3 months after completion of therapy. Radiographic appearances were categorized using a standard grading system. The association of these abnormalities with pretreatment factors and clinical radiation pneumonitis (RP) was investigated. Results: New intrapulmonary abnormalities were seen in 92 patients (63%). These were ground-glass opacity in 16 (11%), patchy consolidation in 19 (13%), and diffuse consolidation in 57 (39%). Twenty-five patients (17%) developed clinical symptoms of RP. Although 80% of the patients with RP had areas of consolidation seen on the posttreatment CT scan, the majority (74%) of patients with such radiographic changes were asymptomatic. For patients with lung infiltrates, the minimum isodose encompassing the volume of radiologic abnormality was usually ≥27 Gy. Traditional dose-volume metrics, pulmonary function tests, and the coadministration of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) were all strongly correlated with the presence of radiologic injury on univariate analysis (p ≤ 0.002). There was also an inverse correlation between prior smoking history and CT scan changes (p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, dosimetric parameters and the use of ACE-I retained significance (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is substantial interindividual variation in lung radiosensitivity. ACE-I prevented the radiologic changes seen after high-dose radiation therapy, and their role as radioprotectants warrants further investigation.

  5. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  6. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  7. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  8. Unexpandable lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Marco F; Ferreiro, Lucía; Valdés, Luis

    2013-02-01

    Unexpandable lung is a mechanical complication by which the lung does not expand to the chest wall, impeding a normal apposition between the two pleural layers. The main mechanism involved is the restriction of the visceral pleura due to the formation of a fibrous layer along this pleural membrane. This happens because of the presence of an active pleural disease (lung entrapment), which can be resolved if proper therapeutic measures are taken, or a remote disease (trapped lung), in which an irreversible fibrous pleural layer has been formed. The clinical suspicion arises with the presence of post-thoracocentesis hydropneumothorax or a pleural effusion that cannot be drained due to the appearance of thoracic pain. The diagnosis is based on the analysis of the pleural liquid, the determination of pleural pressures as we drain the effusion and on air-contrast chest CT. As both represent the continuity of one same process, the results will depend on the time at which these procedures are done. If, when given a lung that is becoming entrapped, the necessary therapeutic measures are not taken, the final result will be a trapped lung. In this instance, most patients are asymptomatic or have mild exertional dyspnea and therefore they do not require treatment. Nevertheless, in cases of incapacitating dyspnea, it may be necessary to use pleural decortication in order to resolve the symptoms. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  10. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  11. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional.

  12. CT of diffuse pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Harumi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Todo, Giro

    1987-01-01

    While the theory of chest radiographic interpretation in diagnosing diffuse pulmonary diseases has not yet been established, X-ray computed tomography (CT), having intrinsic high contrast resolution and improved spatial resolution, has proved to offer important imformation concerning the location and invasion of diffuse pulmonary lesions. This study related to CT-pathologic correlation, focusing on perivascular interstitial space and secondary pulmonary lobule at macroscopic levels. The perivascular interstitial space was thickened as a result of the infiltration of cancer, granulomas, and inflammatory cells. This finding appeared as irregular contour of the blood vessel on CT. Centrilobular nodules were distributed at the tip of the bronchus or pulmonary artery on CT. The distance from the terminal and respiratory bronchioles to the lobular border was 2 to 3 mm. Lobular lesions were delineated as clear margin on CT. Contribution of these CT features to chest radiographic interpretation must await further studies. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Increased NY-ESO-1 Expression and Reduced Infiltrating CD3+ T Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Giavina-Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 is a cancer-testis antigen aberrantly expressed in melanomas, which may serve as a robust and specific target in immunotherapy. NY-ESO-1 antigen expression, tumor features, and the immune profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were assessed in primary cutaneous melanoma. NY-ESO-1 protein was detected in 20% of invasive melanomas (16/79, rarely in in situ melanoma (1/10 and not in benign nevi (0/20. Marked intratumoral heterogeneity of NY-ESO-1 protein expression was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression was associated with increased primary tumor thickness (P=0.007 and inversely correlated with superficial spreading melanoma (P<0.02. NY-ESO-1 expression was also associated with reduced numbers and density of CD3+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (P=0.017. When NY-ESO-1 protein was expressed, CD3+ T cells were less diffusely infiltrating the tumor and were more often arranged in small clusters (P=0.010 or as isolated cells (P=0.002 than in large clusters of more than five lymphocytes. No correlation of NY-ESO-1 expression with gender, age, tumor site, ulceration, lymph node sentinel status, or survival was observed. NY-ESO-1 expression in melanoma was associated with tumor progression, including increased tumor thickness, and with reduced tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

  14. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  15. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  16. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  17. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  18. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  19. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  20. INFLUENCE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON AN OUTCOME FOR THE FIRST TIME DIAGNOSED INFILTRATIVE TUBERCULOSIS IN SOCIALLY SAFE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of immunological indicators in 76 first time diagnosed infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs in socially safe patients prior to treatment and in 2 months of chemotherapy was carried out. It is revealed that immunological disorders are connected with efficiency of tuberculosis treatment . It can be criterion of quality of provided chemotherapy. The activation of cell immunity, stimulation of phagocytosis activity of neutrophils would contribute for effective treatment of tuberculosis.

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Rizzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rizzo H., Silva Júnior V., Mota R.A., Rocha L.L.L., Ono M.S.B., Cruz J.A.L. de O., de Torres S.M., Coutinho L.C. de A., Guimarães J.A. & Dantas A.C. [Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report.] Aspergillus fumigatus em pulmão de ovino no Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:413-419, 2016. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brasil. E-mail: hubervet@gmail.com Its described a case of mycotic pneumonia caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a three months old sheep, that died during the treatment period at the AGA/DMV/UFRPE consequence of skin lesions caused by dog attack. The animal did not respond to antibiotic treatment base on florafenicol, keeping high leukometric values. Macroscopically the lungs showed multifocal areas of cheesy aspect, varing shape and sizes, with yellowish tinge to the center and red at the edges. Microscopically were found granulomatous lesion with extensive dystrophic calcification area, presence of fibrin exudate in the bronchi, inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear diffuse, fibroblast proliferation delimiting a capsule around the inflammatory foci, epiteliodida robe with negative images of hyphae in the lung parenchyma, foamy macrophages, but no giant cells were seen. The blood culture on agar revealed the development of filamentous fungus with grayish color and lots of aerial hyphae, and the culture on Sabouraud media were seen colonies of dark green color with whitish borders both compatible with macromorphology colonies of A. fumigatus . The micromorphology of fungal growth revealed vesicles stick format with sporulation begins in the upper half of the vesicles. The imprints of nodular lesions of the lungs on slides, through panotic dye, showed septate hyphae and branched invading the tissue. Pulmonary infection by A. fumigatus, showed fatal and

  2. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  3. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  4. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in this model. After 4, 8 and 12 ... measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. ... endothelial and infiltrating inflammatory cells results in the ... Electrophoresis apparatus and electric switch slot were ... after tying off the right lung at the main stem bronchus.

  5. PET/CT versus bone marrow biopsy in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in various pediatric malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Claudia P; Cuglievan, Branko; Zapata, Catalina M; Olavarrieta, Raquel; Raskin, Scott; Desai, Kavita; De Angulo, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    Accurate staging is essential in the prognosis and management of pediatric malignancies. Current protocols require screening for marrow infiltration with bone marrow biopsy (BMB) as the gold standard. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is commonly used to complete the staging process and can also be used to evaluate marrow infiltration. To compare PET-CT and BMB in the initial evaluation of bone marrow infiltration in pediatric cancers. We retrospectively reviewed new cases of EWS, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma diagnosed between January 2009 and October 2014. Each case had undergone both PET-CT and BMB within 4 weeks without treatment in the interval between screening modalities. We reviewed 69 cases. Bone marrow infiltration was demonstrated in 34 cases by PET-CT and in 18 cases by BMB. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of PET-CT were both 100%. Interestingly, the cases in which infiltration was not detected on BMB had an abnormal marrow signal on PET-CT focal or distant to iliac crest. PET-CT has a high sensitivity when assessing marrow infiltration in pediatric malignancies. Advances in radiologic modalities may obviate the use of invasive, painful, and costly procedures like BMB. Furthermore, biopsy results are limited by insufficient tissue or the degree of marrow infiltration (diffuse vs. focal disease). PET-CT can improve the precision of biopsy when used as a guiding tool. This study proposes the use of PET-CT as first-line screening for bone marrow infiltration to improve the accuracy of staging in new diagnoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Static inflation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in an isolated rat lung in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Hsu, Kang; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) lung injury is an important clinical issue in lung transplantation. In the present study, we observed the effects of lung static inflation, different perfusates, and ventilatory gas with nitrogen or oxygen on the I/R-induced pulmonary damage. A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The lung was isolated in situ. In an isolated lung, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight (LW)/body weight (BW) ratio, and protein concentration in BAL fluid (PCBAL) were measured or calculated to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Histologic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed. I/R caused lung injury, as reflected by increases in Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, and PCBAL. The histopathologic picture revealed the presence of hyaline membrane formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. These values were significantly attenuated by static lung inflation. The I/R lung damage appeared to be less in the lung perfused with whole blood than in the lung perfused with an isotonic solution. Therapy with ventilatory air (ie, nitrogen or oxygen) did not alter the I/R lung damage. The data suggest that lung inflation is protective to I/R injury, irrespective of the type of ventilatory air used for treatment. The preservation of the lung for transplantation is better kept at a static inflation state and perfused with whole blood instead of an isotonic physiologic solution.

  7. Primary Pulmonary Plasmacytoma with Diffuse Alveolar Consolidation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mohammad Taheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that tend to develop in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues including the sinonasal or nasopharyngeal regions. Primary plasmacytoma of the lung is exceedingly rare and often presents as a solitary mass or nodule in mid-lung or hilar areas and diagnosed after resection. Herein, we report a case of primary pulmonary plasmacytoma that presented with diffuse alveolar consolidation and diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy.

  8. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  9. The study on fatty infiltration of the liver with the use of CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Tadaharu; Hirofuji, Hideo; Yatomi, Akira; Kawabe, Masami; Sugie, Hajime

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of experience thus far, it is said that the diagnosis of fatty liver is comparatively difficult. It has been reported that the diagnosis of fatty liver can be done by its decreased attenuation number on CT scan among diffuse liver diseases. We investigated 80 cases of which attenuation number revealed below 35 Hn (Hounsfield units). Analysis of correlations between eight variables (T. Cholesterol, β-lipoprotein, Triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, Cholinesterase, Obsity index, BSP and the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver specimen) and mean attenuation number of the liver were investigated and highly significant correlation was found only between the degree of fatty infiltration of the liver and the mean attenuation number of the liver (r = -0.746, p < 0.01). Therefore, it is concluded that CT scan is an epochmaking morphological examination of fatty liver. (author)

  10. Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan-Xue

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extramedullary plasmacytomas are seldom solitary and usually progress to diffuse myelomatosis. Plasmacytomas of the breast are rare, especially when not associated multiple myeloma. Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast have not previously reported. Case presentation A 27-years-old woman with an untreated upper outer quadrant breast mass for 1-year was referred to our cancer hospital for surgical evaluation of increasing breast pain. Postoperatively, microscopic examination revealed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma complicated by an extramedullary plasmacytoma divided by fibrous tissue in one section. Following surgery, the patient received chemotherapy for the carcinoma and radiotherapy for the plasmacytoma. Conclusion In this case, careful histopathology examination was essential to make the correct diagnosis and therapy for these synchronous lesions. The patient finished chemotherapy and radiotherapy without significant adverse effects.

  11. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  12. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  13. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  14. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  15. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  16. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  17. [Lung scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümichen, Carl; Schmidt, Matthias; Krause, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The S1 guideline for lung scintigraphy has been updated and extended in order to emphasize the advantages oft the method in detecting acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the periphery oft the lung (subsegmental PE), in underlying subacute and chronic pulmonary disorders, as well as in detecting chronic LE (CTEPH). Method of choice is ventilation / perfusion (V/P) SPECT or V/P SPECT/CT with even higher specificity. Because of its high sensitivity, a threshold (V/P mismatch in at least one segment or two subsegments) is introduced to avoid overtreatment. In case of a change in the therapeutic approach (observation only instead of anticoaculation) the threshold can be omitted. New data concerning the clinical and therapeutical impact of subsegmental PE are included, the chapters open questions have been extented. Other indications for V/P SPECT (secondary diagnoses, abnormalities in pulmonary perfusion, prediction of postoperative lung function) are presented with new data. Schattauer GmbH.

  18. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  19. Marijuana and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2018-05-17

    As marijuana smoking prevalence increases in the U.S. concern regarding its potential risks to lung health has also risen, given the general similarity in the smoke contents between marijuana and tobacco. Most studies have found a significant association between marijuana smoking and chronic bronchitis symptoms after adjustment for tobacco. While reports are mixed regarding associations between marijuana smoking and lung function, none has shown a relationship to decrements in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and few have found a relationship to a decreased ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC), possibly related to an association between marijuana and an increased FVC. A few studies have found a modest reduction in specific airway conductance in relation to marijuana, probably reflecting endoscopic evidence of bronchial mucosal edema among habitual marijuana smokers. Diffusing capacity in marijuana smokers has been normal and two studies of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) have not shown any association of marijuana smoking with emphysema. Although bronchial biopsies from habitual marijuana smokers have shown precancerous histopathological changes, a large cohort study and a pooled analysis of six well-designed case-control studies have not found evidence of a link between marijuana smoking and lung cancer. The immunosuppressive effects of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol raise the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia, but further studies are needed to evaluate this potential risk. Several cases series have demonstrated pneumothoraces/pneumomediastinum, as well as bullous lung disease, in marijuana smokers, but these associations require epidemiologic studies for firmer evidence of possible causality. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Lung radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Indication or main clinical use of Lung radiopharmaceuticals is presented and clasification of radiopharmaceuticals as ventilation and perfusion studies. Perfusion radiopharmaceuticals, main controls for administration quality acceptance. Clearence after blood administration and main clinical applications. Ventilation radiopharmaceuticals, gases and aerosols, characteristics of a ideal radioaerosol, techniques of good inhalation procedure, clinical applications. Comparison of several radiopharmaceuticals reflering to retention time as 50% administered dose, percent administered dose at 6 hours post inhalation, blood activity at 30 and 60 minutes post inhalation, initial lung absorbed dose, cumulated activity.Kinetic description of two radiopharmaceuticals, 99mTcDTPA and 99mTc-PYP

  1. Unusual progression and subsequent improvement in cystic lung disease in a child with radiation-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael S. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Chadha, Ashley D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Carroll, Clinton M.; Borinstein, Scott C. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Young, Lisa R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation-induced lung disease is a known complication of therapeutic lung irradiation, but the features have not been well described in children. We report the clinical, radiologic and histologic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a 4-year-old child who had previously received lung irradiation as part of successful treatment for metastatic Wilms tumor. Her radiologic abnormalities and clinical symptoms developed in an indolent manner. Clinical improvement gradually occurred with corticosteroid therapy. However, the observed radiologic progression from interstitial and reticulonodular opacities to diffuse cystic lung disease, with subsequent improvement, is striking and has not been previously described in children. (orig.)

  2. Bilateral fungal keratitis with ring infiltrates: a rare scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniyara, Manthan Hasmukhbhai; Pujari, Amar; Urkude, Jayanand; Sharma, Namrata

    2017-10-09

    A 12-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chief complaints of pain, redness, discharge and diminution of vision in both eyes over the previous 20 days. There was no history of preceding trauma, contact lens use, any eye drop usage or ocular surgery. Systemic history was not significant. Presenting uncorrected visual acuity in his right eye was counting fingers at 1 m and 20/200 in the left eye, with accurate projection of rays in both eyes. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed the presence of bilateral diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ring infiltrates and epithelial defect with corneal oedema. Potassium hydroxide wet mount showed the presence of septate fungal hyphae. The patient was treated with topical 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole over a period of 6 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/600 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye at 6-month follow-up. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Reactive melt infiltration of copper in Al–Cr preforms produced through combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naplocha, Krzysztof; Granat, Kazimierz; Kaczmar, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of microstructure and phase transformation during combustion synthesis and reactive infiltration. • Squeeze casting of Cu inducing reactive infiltration of Al–Cr intermetallic porous preform. • Fabrication of unique composite material resisted to high temperature oxidation. - Abstract: Combustion synthesis of Al–Cr preforms used for infiltration and reinforcing of composite materials was developed. Compacts of powdered Al and Cr with stoichiometric ratio Al/Cr equal to 2/1 were synthesized in a microwave reactor furnished with a pyrometer for controlling phase transformations. Due to low enthalpy of the reaction, green compacts were preheated and ignition occurred together with partial melting of Al at the interface with Cr particles. The synthesis proceeded by peritectic transformations L + Al 7 Cr → L + Al 11 Cr 2 → L + Al 4 Cr, reaching maximum temperature of ca. 1000 °C. Porous structures including residual unprocessed Cr particles were soaked to homogenize them and to transform the phases into the stable intermetallic compound Al 9 Cr 4 . Reactive infiltration of the preforms with molten Cu proceeds along with interfacial diffusion of Al that, released from a preform, infiltrates into the matrix changing its composition to Cu 9 Al 4 (Cr). At the same time, the preform is decomposed and converted into a mixture of globular precipitates of Cr 52 Al 35 Cu 13 embedded in the Cu 47 Al 41 Cr 12 phase. The produced composite materials exhibit significant hardness and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. The protective layer is composed of oxides Al 2 O 3 and (AlCu) 2 O 3 created at parabolic constant oxidation rate (k p ) equal to 1.9 × 10 −6 g 2 m −4 s −1

  4. Lung volumes: measurement, clinical use, and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Judd D; Dine, C Jessica

    2012-08-01

    Measurement of lung volumes is an integral part of complete pulmonary function testing. Some lung volumes can be measured during spirometry; however, measurement of the residual volume (RV), functional residual capacity (FRC), and total lung capacity (TLC) requires special techniques. FRC is typically measured by one of three methods. Body plethysmography uses Boyle's Law to determine lung volumes, whereas inert gas dilution and nitrogen washout use dilution properties of gases. After determination of FRC, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory vital capacity are measured, which allows the calculation of the RV and TLC. Lung volumes are commonly used for the diagnosis of restriction. In obstructive lung disease, they are used to assess for hyperinflation. Changes in lung volumes can also be seen in a number of other clinical conditions. Reimbursement for measurement of lung volumes requires knowledge of current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, relevant indications, and an appropriate level of physician supervision. Because of recent efforts to eliminate payment inefficiencies, the 10 previous CPT codes for lung volumes, airway resistance, and diffusing capacity have been bundled into four new CPT codes.

  5. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  6. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  7. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  8. Acute Lung Injury during Antithymocyte Globulin Therapy for Aplastic Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Christopher Goligher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 33-year-old man with aplastic anemia who experienced recurrent episodes of hypoxemia and pulmonary infiltrates during infusions of antithymocyte globulin (ATG is described. With the use of high-dose corticosteroids, the patient’s original episodes resolved, and were subsequently prevented before additional administrations of ATG. Rare reports of an association between ATG and acute lung injury are found in the literature, but this is the first report of successful steroid-supported re-exposure. Although the mechanism of ATG-related acute lung injury remains uncertain, it may be parallel to the mechanism of transfusion-related acute lung injury because the pathogenesis of the latter relies, in part, on antileukocyte antibodies. ATG-related toxicity should be included in the differential diagnosis of new, infusion-associated pulmonary infiltrates, and corticosteroids may be a useful therapeutic consideration in the management.

  9. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severity of the recipient's lung disease Recipient's overall health Likelihood that the transplant will be successful Immediately before ... will begin within days of your surgery. Your health care team will likely work with you to design an exercise program that's right for you. Your doctor may ...

  10. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  11. Respiratory reovirus 1/L induction of diffuse alveolar damage: pulmonary fibrosis is not modulated by corticosteroids in acute respiratory distress syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Lucille; Majeski, Elizabeth I; Altman-Hamamdzic, Sanja; Enockson, Candace; Paintlia, Manjeet K; Harley, Russell A; London, Steven D

    2002-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or noninfectious insult. We have previously described a unique animal model in which CBA/J mice infected with reovirus 1/L develop ARDS. This model recapitulates the histopathological changes observed in human ARDS, which consist of the overlapping phases of exudation, including the formation of hyaline membranes, regeneration, and healing via repair with fibrosis. In this report, we show that the development of DAD in the acute phase of the disease and intraalveolar fibrosis in the late phase of the disease was not modulated by treatment with methylprednisolone (MPS). In the presence or absence of MPS, the majority of cells infiltrating the lungs after reovirus 1/L infection were polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. A number of key proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines that are observed in the BAL fluid of ARDS patients were also found in the lungs of mice after reovirus 1/L infection and were not modulated by MPS. These include interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. The histopathology, cytokine/chemokine expression, and response to corticosteroids in reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS are similar to what is observed in human patients, making this a clinically relevant model.

  12. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  13. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  14. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  15. Diffuse pulmonary ossification. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres D, Carlos A; Ojeda L, Paulina

    1997-01-01

    The diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) is a rare disease characterized by metaplastic formation of bony tissue in the lung parenchyma. Generally it is associated with other disorders as mitral stenosis and interstitial fibrosis. Sometimes the DPO is idiopathic. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with cough and hemoptysis. The radiological findings suggested an interstitial lung disease. The fiber optic bronchoscopy was normal. The pulmonary function tests showed a mild airway obstruction. The bacteriological and serological studies for tuberculosis, mycosis, and collagen-vascular disease were negatives. An open lung biopsy was performed and the pathologic findings were interpreted as diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO). Any other disease was found; so, in this case the DPO was classified as idiopathic

  16. Lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with

  17. 015. Ethical dilemmas, medical protocols and deontology in diagnosis of lung cancer during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Emmanouil; Gkika, Dimitra; Euthimiou, Christoforos; Lola, Vassiliki; Potonos, Stefanos; Kokkori, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pililitsis, Leonidas; Angel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is second in frequency in both sexes, with very poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Smoking is the main cause. Malignant neoplasms of the lung on pregnancy are not very frequent. They constitute a direct threat for the woman’s life and simultaneously the outcome of pregnancy is doubtful. Objective We present this case because of the rarity of coexistence of lung neoplasm and pregnancy, in absence of treatment guidelines. The question of overcoming, by the attending physician, the ethical dilemmas and the medical protocols is apposed, in the progress and outcome of pregnancy, when lung malignant neoplasm coexists. Methods A 33-year-old woman, smoker, with occasional alcohol consumption and medical history of Leiden thrombophilia, is at 18-19 weeks of gestation. She presents to the emergency department of the general hospital with reported episodes of dyspnea and cough. She refers cough with difficulty in the elimination of sputum, dyspnea, orthopnea, facial and neck edema with venous distension, common symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. The CT scan revealed a lung mass in the right upper lobe with the right hilum involved. The rest of the staging was negative. Results The first bronchoscopy revealed edema in the main carina and right upper lobe stenosis while the biopsy samples did not demonstrate a histological identification. Mediastinoscopy was followed and revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma (primary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor). Both patient and relatives consented to start chemotherapy treatment. After four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin + etoposide, the patient in the 7th month of gestation, gave birth to a healthy baby boy weighted 1,130 gr. The patient died after four months because she suffered from an extremely aggressive tumor with brain and diffused spinal metastatic infiltrations and also from the appearance of paraneoplastic disorders like Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Conclusions The

  18. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  20. Computed tomographic and ultrasound appearances of focal spared areas in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, A.; Gill, G.; Hennessy, O.; Pryde, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and utrasound (US) appearances of diffuse and focal fatty infiltration of the liver (FIL) are well recognized as pseudo tumours of the liver. Characteristic appearances of fat free areas in FIL which help differentiate these areas from other focal liver lesions include location in the medical segment of the left lobe of the liver, absence of mass effect on surrounding vessels and liver tissue, and presence of typical changes of FIL elsewhere in the liver on CT or US examination. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  2. Modelling small scale infiltration experiments into bore cores of crystalline rock and break-through curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.; Jakob, A.

    1987-04-01

    Uranium infiltration experiments for small samples of crystalline rock have been used to model radionuclide transport. The theory, taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones, matrix diffusion out of these, and sorption, contains four independent parameters. It turns out, that the physical variables extracted from those of the best-fit parameters are consistent with values from literature and independent measurements. Moreover, the model results seem to differentiate between various geometries for the water conducting zones. Alpha-autoradiographies corroborate this result. A sensitivity analysis allows for a judgement on parameter dependences. Finally some proposals for further experiments are made. (author)

  3. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  4. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

    2018-05-01

    Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

  5. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  6. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  7. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  8. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  9. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  10. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  11. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  12. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  13. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  15. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  16. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rhea; Janssen, William; Altmann, Christopher; Andrés-Hernando, Ana; Okamura, Kayo; Vandivier, R William; Ahuja, Nilesh; Faubel, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury), intraperitoneal (IP) endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury) and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT) endotoxin administration (direct lung injury) with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10), BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration]), and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping), IP endotoxin (10 µg), or IT endotoxin (80 µg) with and without intratracheal (IT) IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng) treatment. Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin. IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of ARDS.

  17. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  18. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  19. The lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macey, D.J.; Marshall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Currently emission tomography of the lungs is only practical for perfusion images with sup(99m)Tc microaggregates and ventilation images with sup(81m)Kr. The following topics are touched on: the rotating gamma camera single photon ECT system, spatial resolution and linearity, resolution in phantom studies, area and volume studies, quantitation studies, with particular reference to the authors' experience of perfusion and ventilation in investigations of pulmonary embolism. (U.K.)

  20. Hyperlucent lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Gutierrez, Florana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent lung is also known as Swyer-James Syndrome, Macleod Syndrome or lobular or unilateral emphysema. It is an uncommon disease characterized by lung or unilateral lobe hiperlucency associated to an air trapping upon expiration. As regards to etiology, this syndrome is considered to be an acquired disease that appears secondary to respiratory infections during the early years of life, probably bronchiolitis and/ or viral pneumonia. The clinical presentation varies among patients. Some of them are asymptomatic, others present a history of recurrent episodes of pulmonary infections from early years of life or present effort dyspnea. The diagnosis is usually made accidentally by a chest radiograph in a child with history of respiratory infections or in an adult during a routine chest x- ray in an asymptomatic person. It is important to differentiate this syndrome from other causes of unilateral pulmonary hiperlucency on conventional chest x-rays. Few cases of Swyer-James Syndrome in children have been reported, it is presented the clinical case of a patient who had a parainfluenza 3 bronchopneumonia when he was a month and eighteen days of age. The differential diagnosis of this syndrome should be done with other thoracic entities that diminish the radiological pulmonary unilateral density. A case of a child who is the bearer of hyperlucent lung is described. (author) [es

  1. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary diffusion defects in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westedt, M L; Hazes, J M; Breedveld, F C; Sterk, P J; Dijkman, J H

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has still to be defined. Risk factors associated with lung involvement in RA were investigated by means of pulmonary function studies in 40 RA patients without apparent lung disease. A decreased carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion capacity indicative of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was the main pulmonary function defect found in the first 20 patients. The occurrence was associated with current cigarette smoking. This association was confirmed in a case control study performed subsequently. These data suggest that ILD in RA is stimulated by smoking and provide an additional argument that modification of smoking behaviour in RA patients might lead to less severe complications.

  2. Correlation between inflammatory infiltrate and epithelial lining in 214 cases of periapical cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Albertini Roquim Alcantara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of periapical cysts, identify their clinical and microscopic features and correlate their microscopic features with the inflammatory infiltrate present in the lesion site. A total of 214 cases were collected over a 10-year period. Clinical data, including gender, age, race, symptoms and location of the lesion, were recorded. Two independent examiners with no prior knowledge of the patients' clinical data conducted the microscopic evaluations. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's or chi-square tests at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that periapical cysts were more prevalent in white women, with a mean age of 35 years, and in the anterosuperior region. The majority of the lesions were lined by atrophic cystic epithelium, which was associated with moderate inflammatory infiltrate in the cystic capsule (p < 0.01, with a diffuse localization pattern (p = 0.03 and absence of neutrophils (p = 0.01. Our findings suggest that periapical cysts lined by atrophic epithelium are related to the presence of moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate.

  3. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Charlotte J.; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical

  4. Tumor-Induced CD8+ T-Cell Dysfunction in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Prado-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and one of the most common types of cancers. The limited success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes have highlighted the need to develop new therapies like antitumor immunotherapy. CD8+ T-cells represent a major arm of the cell-mediated anti-tumor response and a promising target for developing T-cell-based immunotherapies against lung cancer. Lung tumors, however, have been considered to possess poor immunogenicity; even so, lung tumor-specific CD8+ T-cell clones can be established that possess cytotoxicity against autologous tumor cells. This paper will focus on the alterations induced in CD8+ T-cells by lung cancer. Although memory CD8+ T-cells infiltrate lung tumors, in both tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs and malignant pleural effusions, these cells are dysfunctional and the effector subset is reduced. We propose that chronic presence of lung tumors induces dysfunctions in CD8+ T-cells and sensitizes them to activation-induced cell death, which may be associated with the poor clinical responses observed in immunotherapeutic trials. Getting a deeper knowledge of the evasion mechanisms lung cancer induce in CD8+ T-cells should lead to further understanding of lung cancer biology, overcome tumor evasion mechanisms, and design improved immunotherapeutic treatments for lung cancer.

  5. Depth of Intestinal Wall Infiltration and Clinical Presentation of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Evaluation of 553 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Roberto; Lisi, Giorgio; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Irene; Rettore, Lorenzo; Ruffo, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Intestinal involvement in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1922. The reported incidence ranges between 3% and 37% in patients diagnosed with endometriosis. In literature, there are few studies that correlate the severity of endometriosis (in terms of intestinal infiltration) and its clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to review the correlation between the severity of symptoms, the depth of intestinal wall infiltration, and lymph node involvement in our tertiary referral center. We retrospectively analyzed 553 patients who had undergone intestinal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2004 and 2009. Based on intestinal wall infiltration, we divided patients into three groups (Group A: intestinal infiltration that reaches the muscle layer, Group B: infiltration to the submucosa, and Group C: endometriosis reaches the mucosa). Symptoms, intestinal stenosis, and positive lymph nodes were compared in the three groups with the chi-square test. No statistical correlation was found between symptoms and the intestinal wall infiltrations. The three groups were also compared on the basis of positive visceral lymph nodes and we did find a statistical difference (P = .05) in the lymph node count in the two main groups. There seems to be no statistically significant difference in symptoms between patients with different degrees of infiltration. Although visceral lymph node involvement has been occasionally described in literature, we found that it is related to submucosal infiltration.

  6. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  7. Induced hypernatraemia is protective in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Shailesh; Dixon, Dani-Louise; Lawrence, Mark D; Bersten, Andrew D

    2016-06-15

    Sucrose induced hyperosmolarity is lung protective but the safety of administering hyperosmolar sucrose in patients is unknown. Hypertonic saline is commonly used to produce hyperosmolarity aimed at reducing intra cranial pressure in patients with intracranial pathology. Therefore we studied the protective effects of 20% saline in a lipopolysaccharide lung injury rat model. 20% saline was also compared with other commonly used fluids. Following lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury, male Sprague Dawley rats received either 20% hypertonic saline, 0.9% saline, 4% albumin, 20% albumin, 5% glucose or 20% albumin with 5% glucose, i.v. During 2h of non-injurious mechanical ventilation parameters of acute lung injury were assessed. Hypertonic saline resulted in hypernatraemia (160 (1) mmol/l, mean (SD)) maintained through 2h of ventilation, and in amelioration of lung oedema, myeloperoxidase, bronchoalveolar cell infiltrate, total soluble protein and inflammatory cytokines, and lung histological injury score, compared with positive control and all other fluids (p ≤ 0.001). Lung physiology was maintained (conserved PaO2, elastance), associated with preservation of alveolar surfactant (p ≤ 0.0001). Independent of fluid or sodium load, induced hypernatraemia is lung protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance and Structural Evolution of Nano-Scale Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Ann Virginia

    Nano-structured mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) materials have garnered intense interest in electrode development for solid oxide fuel cells due to their high surface areas which allow for effective catalytic activity and low polarization resistances. In particular, composite solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of ionic conducting scaffolds infiltrated with MIEC nanoparticles have exhibited some of the lowest reported polarization resistances. In order for cells utilizing nanostructured moRPhologies to be viable for commercial implementation, more information on their initial performance and long term stability is necessary. In this study, symmetric cell cathodes were prepared via wet infiltration of Sr0.5Sm 0.5CoO3 (SSC) nano-particles via a nitrate process into porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) scaffolds to be used as a model system to investigate performance and structural evolution. Detailed analysis of the cells and cathodes was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Initial polarization resistances (RP) as low as 0.11 O cm2 at 600ºC were obtained for these SSC-GDC cathodes, making them an ideal candidate for studying high performance nano-structured electrodes. The present results show that the infiltrated cathode microstructure has a direct impact on the initial performance of the cell. Small initial particle sizes and high infiltration loadings (up to 30 vol% SSC) improved initial RP. A simple microstructure-based electrochemical model successfully explained these trends in RP. Further understanding of electrode performance was gleaned from fitting EIS data gathered under varying temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to equivalent circuit models. Both RQ and Gerischer impedance elements provided good fits to the main response in the EIS data, which was associated with the combination of oxygen surface exchange and oxygen diffusion in the electrode. A gas diffusion response was also observed at relatively

  9. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Dong Wook

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse sclerosing papillary carcinoma (DSPC) is a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but it shows more aggressive clinical course and a poorer prognosis than the other types of PTC. Most PTCs show a focal nodular pattern in the thyroid on the imaging modalities, but DSPC reveals a diffuse infiltrating configuration in the thyroid without any focal nodular lesion. To our knowledge, there are scant radiological reports of diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this report, we present the case of a patient with DSPC who showed the characteristic findings on sonography and computed tomography

  10. Characterization of the Lung Parenchyma Using Ultrasound Multiple Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Kaustav; Blackwell, John; Egan, Thomas; Muller, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to showcase the application of ultrasound to quantitative characterization of the micro-architecture of the lung parenchyma to predict the extent of pulmonary edema. The lung parenchyma is a highly complex and diffusive medium for which ultrasound techniques have remained qualitative. The approach presented here is based on ultrasound multiple scattering and exploits the complexity of ultrasound propagation in the lung structure. The experimental setup consisted of a linear transducer array with an 8-MHz central frequency placed in contact with the lung surface. The diffusion constant D and transport mean free path L* of the lung parenchyma were estimated by separating the incoherent and coherent intensities in the near field and measuring the growth of the incoherent diffusive halo over time. Significant differences were observed between the L* values obtained in healthy and edematous rat lungs in vivo. In the control rat lung, L* was found to be 332 μm (±48.8 μm), whereas in the edematous lung, it was 1040 μm (±90 μm). The reproducibility of the measurements of L* and D was tested in vivo and in phantoms made of melamine sponge with varying air volume fractions. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain numerical simulations were carried out on rabbit lung histology images with varying degrees of lung collapse. Significant correlations were observed between air volume fraction and L* in simulation (r = -0.9542, p lung in which edema was simulated by adding phosphate-buffered saline revealed a linear relationship between the fluid volume fraction and L*. These results illustrate the potential of methods based on ultrasound multiple scattering for the quantitative characterization of the lung parenchyma. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  12. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in three soil management systems: minimum tillage (MT, conventional tillage (CT, and no tillage (NT. In NT, four levels of plant residue on the soil surface were evaluated: 0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, and Philip were used to estimate the infiltration rate. In the MT system, the final infiltration rate was 54 mm h-1, whereas in the CT and NT systems with up to 3 t ha-1 of plant residue on the soil surface, the rate was near 17 mm h-1. In addition, the results indicated that in the NT system the infiltration rate increased with plant residue coverage greater than 6 t ha-1, i.e., there was a positive correlation between plant cover and the water infiltration rate. The Horton model was the most suitable in representing the water infiltration process in the soil. Therefore, this model can be recommended for estimation of this variable regardless of the soil tillage system used.

  13. A METHOD AND AN ELECTRODE PRODUCED BY INFILTRATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperatur...

  14. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  15. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  16. Surface stability analysis of dikes subject to overtopping and infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, U. F.A.; Tran, Q.T.; Meij, R.

    2015-01-01

    The key contribution of this paper is the coupling of hydraulic loading conditions due to wave overtopping with slope stability of the surface layer of earthen flood protection embankments. Overtopping wave conditions impact overtopping discharges and infiltration time, and thereby the infiltration

  17. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  18. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  19. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  20. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  1. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  2. Soil infiltration characteristics in the Tarim River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overflow from rivers play an important role for ecological conservation in Tarim Basin, however, there was limited information on infiltration from overflow of the Tarim River. The objective of this study was to investigate steady infiltration rate for three types of land use (forest, shrub and bare...

  3. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook

    1990-01-01

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  4. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  5. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  6. Lipoedematous scalp: is there an association with fatty infiltration of the parotid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sarah; Jayarajan, Rajshree

    2017-10-09

    Lipoedematous scalp (LS) is an extremely rare condition characterised by a soft and boggy consistency in the scalp due to an increased layer of subcutaneous tissue.In this report, we present a case of LS in a 64-year-old Indian woman. Clinical examination revealed only vague boggy lumpiness involving the whole of occipital scalp extending to parietal scalp. MRI scalp showed diffuse fatty infiltration of the scalp, particularly at the posterior parietal and occipital convexity extending to both lateral aspects of the cranium, with homogeneous signal in keeping with fat. Incidentally MRI also found diffuse fatty infiltration of the parotids.The aethiopathogenesis of LS is still unknown, however it is believed that the hormone leptin could be the key hormone in the dysregulation of fat deposition and distribution. This case report highlights the subtle features with which these cases can present and explores the literature on reported cases of LS. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Metastatic tumors of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenologic semiotics of lung metastases and their complications, as well as peculiarities of lung metastases of separate localization tumours are presented. Definition table for primary tumour by roentgenologic aspect of lung metastases is given

  8. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  9. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  10. Time-lapse electrical surveys to locate infiltration zones in weathered hard rock tropical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubda, M.; Descloitres, M.; Yalo, N.; Ribolzi, O.; Vouillamoz, J. M.; Boukari, M.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.

    2017-07-01

    In West Africa, infiltration and groundwater recharge processes in hard rock areas are depending on climatic, surface and subsurface conditions, and are poorly documented. Part of the reason is that identification, location and monitoring of these processes is still a challenge. Here, we explore the potential for time-lapse electrical surveys to bring additional information on these processes for two different climate situations: a semi-arid Sahelian site (north of Burkina and a humid Sudanian site (north of Benin), respectively focusing on indirect (localized) and direct (diffuse) recharge processes. The methodology is based on surveys in dry season and rainy season on typical pond or gully using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and frequency electromagnetic (FEM) apparent conductivity mapping. The results show that in the Sahelian zone an indirect recharge occurs as expected, but infiltration doesn't takes place at the center of the pond to the aquifer, but occurs laterally in the banks. In Sudanian zone, the ERT survey shows a direct recharge process as expected, but also a complicated behavior of groundwater dilution, as well as the role of hardpans for fast infiltration. These processes are ascertained by groundwater monitoring in adjacent observing wells. At last, FEM time lapse mapping is found to be difficult to quantitatively interpreted due to the non-uniqueness of the model, clearly evidenced comparing FEM result to auger holes monitoring. Finally, we found that time-lapse ERT can be an efficient way to track infiltration processes across ponds and gullies in both climatic conditions, the Sahelian setting providing results easier to interpret, due to significant resistivity contrasts between dry and rain seasons. Both methods can be used for efficient implementation of punctual sensors for complementary studies. However, FEM time-lapse mapping remains difficult to practice without external information that renders this method less attractive for

  11. Effect of infiltrated water on rheology of plagioclase feldspar under lower crustal condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Muto, J.; Koizumi, S.; Nagahama, H.

    2016-12-01

    Fluids in the deep crust have an important role in deformation of lithosphere and seismicity. In this study, we performed deformation experiments to reveal rheological properties of plagioclase feldspars as a main constituent of crustal materials with infilitrated water. Axial compression tests on synthetic polycrystalline anorthite (An) were performed in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus at temparature of 900 °C, strain rates of roughly about 10-5 s-1 and various confining pressures of 0.8-1.4 GPa. Distilled water was added on samples before tests. Times for infiltration of water into samples were changed to investigate the variation of strength associated with diffusion of water. Strengths of wet An tended to decrease with infiltration time or strain magnitude. If other conditions such as temperature, time and strain being the same, strengths increase with confining pressures. Recovered samples show that deformation was concentrated in the lower part of samples. Differential stresses were significantly lower than predicted values by a previous flow law for wet An obtained by low pressure gas apparatus ( 0.4 GPa, Rybacki et al., 2006). This implies that the effect of water on mechanical behavior in higher pressure might be larger than those predicted by lower pressure experiments. Ideal water concentration and strength profile of internal of samples were estimated by one-dimensional model of grain boundary diffusion. Estimated strength of internal part of samples was significant higher than measured stresses. There is possibility that cataclastic flow partially occurred in samples. In addition, deformation-enhanced fluid flow probably occurred. In conclusion, strength of wet An depends on water infiltration time, strain magnitude and confining pressure. The results suggest that the strength of fluid-rich regions in the lower crust becomes lower than that predicted by previous studies.

  12. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  13. Quantitative computed tomography of lung parenchyma in patients with emphysema: analysis of higher-density lung regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to detect and evaluate the presence (or absence) of emphysema applying the density masks at specific thresholds, e.g., -910 or -950 Hounsfield Unit (HU). However, it has also been observed that subjects with similar density-mask based emphysema scores could have varying lung function, possibly indicating differences of disease severity. To assess this possible discrepancy, we investigated whether density distribution of "viable" lung parenchyma regions with pixel values > -910 HU correlates with lung function. A dataset of 38 subjects, who underwent both pulmonary function testing and CT examinations in a COPD SCCOR study, was assembled. After the lung regions depicted on CT images were automatically segmented by a computerized scheme, we systematically divided the lung parenchyma into different density groups (bins) and computed a number of statistical features (i.e., mean, standard deviation (STD), skewness of the pixel value distributions) in these density bins. We then analyzed the correlations between each feature and lung function. The correlation between diffusion lung capacity (DLCO) and STD of pixel values in the bin of -910HU lung parenchyma and lung function, which indicates that similar to the conventional density mask method, the pixel value distribution features in "viable" lung parenchyma areas may also provide clinically useful information to improve assessments of lung disease severity as measured by lung functional tests.

  14. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  15. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  16. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  17. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  18. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frage, N.; Froumin, N.; Rubinovich, L.; Dariel, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90 o . Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90 o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  19. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  20. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  1. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  5. A mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, prevents the accumulation of hyaluronan in lung tissue injured by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Bjermer, L.; Hellstroem, S.H.; Henriksson, R.; Haellgren, R.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation with a single dose of 30 Grey on the basal regions of the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats induced a peribronchial and alveolar inflammation. Infiltration of mast cells in the edematous alveolar interstitial tissue and also in the peribronchial tissue were characteristic features of the lesion. The appearance of mast cells was already seen 4 wk after irradiation and by weeks 6 to 8 there was a heavy infiltration. The staining properties suggested that they were connective tissue-type mast cells. The infiltration of mast cells was paralleled by an accumulation of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) in the alveolar interstitial tissue 6 and 8 wk after irradiation. The recovery of hyaluronan (HA) during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of the lungs also increased at this time. Treatment with a mast cell secretagogue, compound 48/80, induced a distinct reduction of granulated mast cells in the alveolar tissue. Regular treatment with compound 48/80 from the time of irradiation considerably reduced the HA recovery during BAL and the HA accumulation in the interstitial tissue but did not affect the interstitial infiltration of mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. By contrast, an accumulation of HA in the alveolar interstitial space was induced when compound 48/80 was given not until mast cell infiltration of the lung had started. The effects of compound 48/80 indicate that the connective tissue response after lung irradiation is dependent on whether or not mast cell degranulation is induced before or after the mast cell infiltration of the alveolar tissue

  6. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  7. Lung function and airway inflammation in rats following exposure to combustion products of carbon-graphite/epoxy composite material: comparison to a rodent model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Gregory S; Grasman, Keith A; Kimmel, Edgar C

    2003-02-01

    Pulmonary function and inflammation in the lungs of rodents exposed by inhalation to carbon/graphite/epoxy advanced composite material (ACM) combustion products were compared to that of a rodent model of acute lung injury (ALI) produced by pneumotoxic paraquat dichloride. This investigation was undertaken to determine if short-term exposure to ACM smoke induces ALI; and to determine if smoke-related responses were similar to the pathogenic mechanisms of a model of lung vascular injury. We examined the time-course for mechanical lung function, infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, and the expression of three inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Male Fischer-344 rats were either exposed to 26.8-29.8 g/m(3) nominal concentrations of smoke or were given i.p. injections of paraquat dichloride. Measurements were determined at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days post exposure. In the smoke-challenged rats, there were no changes in lung function indicative of ALI throughout the 7-day observation period, despite the acute lethality of the smoke atmosphere. However, the animals showed signs of pulmonary inflammation. The expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in the lavage fluid 1 day following exposure, which preceded the maximum leukocyte infiltration. MIP-2 levels were significantly increased in lavage fluid at days 2, 3, and 7. This followed the leukocyte infiltration. IFN-gamma was significantly increased in the lung tissue at day 7, which occurred during the resolution of the inflammatory response. The paraquat, which was also lethal to a small percentage of the animals, caused several physiologic changes characteristic of ALI, including significant decreases in lung compliance, lung volumes/capacities, distribution of ventilation, and gas exchange capacity. The expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 increased significantly in the lung tissue as well as in the

  8. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided. PMID:26309390

  9. Comparison of upper gastrointestinal radiographic findings to histopathologic observations: a retrospective study of 41 dogs and cats with suspected small bowel infiltrative disease (1985 to 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.C.; Feeney, D.A.; Hayden, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    It was the intent of this study to define which, if any, radiographic observations corresponded with specific causes of diffuse infiltrative small bowel disease and if radiographic findings could differentiate inflammatory disease from neoplastic disease and either of them from normal. Bowel spasticity, luminal narrowing, and thumb printing tend to indicate the presence of tumor more often than inflammatory disease. Increased bowel gas in cats and barium adhesion in dogs and cats suggest that a component of enteritis is present. Decreased bowel gas in dogs is more often associated with obstructive disease, but is not helpful in differentiating diffuse inflammatory disease from diffuse neoplastic disease. While several observations that can foster differentiation of neoplastic from inflammatory disease were found, this study also indicated that the UGI lacks a high degree of predictive value other than to indicate the presence of infiltrative small bowel disease

  10. Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Improvements in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have made unilateral lung transplantation feasible in selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease. We report two cases of successful unilateral lung transplantation for end-stage respiratory failure due to pulmonary fibrosis. The patients, both oxygen-dependent, had progressive disease refractory to all treatment, with an anticipated life expectancy of less than one year on the basis of the rate of progression of the disease. Both patients were discharged six weeks after transplantation and returned to normal life. They are alive and well at 26 months and 14 months after the procedure. Pulmonary-function studies have shown substantial improvement in their lung volumes and diffusing capacities. For both patients, arterial oxygen tension is now normal and there is no arterial oxygen desaturation with exercise. This experience shows that unilateral lung transplantation, for selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease, provides a good functional result. Moreover, it avoids the necessity for cardiac transplantation, as required by the combined heart-lung procedure, and permits the use of the donor heart for another recipient.

  11. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  12. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  13. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  14. [Is therapy with local infiltrations feasible in primary care consultations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Loarte, J E; Pérez Franco, J; Sánchez Sánchez, G

    1999-01-01

    To study the feasibility of local infiltration in primary care consultations. Before-and-after intervention study. Two clinics at an urban health centre. Patients diagnosed with pathology of tender areas and treated with corticosteroid infiltration between May 1997 and May 1998. Corticoid infiltration plus local anaesthetic. Weekly check-up. Analysis of the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, time elapsed between indication and start of treatment, subjective assessment of pain before and after treatment (VRS scale), number of infiltrations per patient, side-effects. Evaluation of overall and individual effectiveness. 41 patients were infiltrated. Average age was 58. Most common pathologies were: rotary joint tendinitis (48.7%), anserine bursitis (24.4%), plantar fasciitis (7.3%). Average number of infiltrations per pathology: 1.3. Mean waiting time: 3.5 days. Comparison of pain by means of VRS (range 0-5) before and after treatment used the Wilcoxon test, with a statistically significant difference and p < 0.001 (z = -5.5109). For 35 patients (85.4%), pain was solved very well (values 0 and 1 on the VRS). For 3 patients (7.3%), improvement was moderate; and for 3 (7.3%) there was no improvement. 1. Treatment with local infiltration of corticosteroids is effective in dealing with pain, and is an alternative to treatment with NSAIDs. 2. It is feasible in primary care, and there are many advantages if the general practitioner employs this therapeutic technique.

  15. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  16. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  17. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  18. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient’s non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor’s morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

  19. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  20. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  2. Differentiation between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in patients with glioblastoma during bevacizumab therapy: A longitudinal MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran, E-mail: artzimy@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bokstein, Felix, E-mail: felixb@tlvmc.gov.il [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T., E-mail: deborahblumenthal@gmail.com [Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Aizenstein, Orna, E-mail: Ornaaizenstein@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad, E-mail: giladliberman@gmail.com [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Corn, Benjamin W., E-mail: bencorn@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Institute of Radiotherapy, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ben Bashat, Dafna, E-mail: dafnab@tlvmc.gov.il [Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Treatment with bevacizumab is associated with substantial radiologic response in patients with glioblastoma (GB). However, following this initial response, changes in T{sub 2}-weighted MRI signal may develop, suggesting an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression. The aim of this study was to differentiate between vasogenic-edema versus tumor-infiltrative area in GB patients. Methods and materials: Fourteen patients with GB were longitudinally scanned, before and during intravenous bevacizumab therapy (5/10 mg/kg every 2-weeks). A total of 40 MR scans including conventional, diffusion, dynamic susceptibility contrast, dynamic contrast enhancement imaging, and MR-spectroscopy (MRS) were analyzed. Classification of non-enhancing fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) area was performed based on mean diffusivity, cerebral blood volume and flow maps, and further characterized using multiple MRI parameters. Results: The non-enhancing FLAIR lesion area was classified into: vasogenic-edema, characterized by reduced perfusion and increased FLAIR values; or tumor-infiltrative area, characterized by increased perfusion. Tumor-infiltrative area demonstrated a higher malignant pattern on MRS compared to areas of vasogenic-edema. Substantial reductions of the enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted (58 ± 10%) and hyperintense FLAIR (53 ± 9%) lesion volumes were detected mainly during the first weeks of therapy, with a shift to an infiltrative pattern of tumor progression thereafter, as detected by an increase in tumor-infiltrative area in the majority of patients, which correlated with progression-free survival (week 8: r = −0.86, p = 0.003, week 16: r = −0.99, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Characterization of non-enhancing hyperintense FLAIR lesion area in GB patients can provide an MR-based biomarker, indicating a shift to an infiltrative progression pattern, and may improve therapy response assessment in patients following bevacizumab therapy.

  3. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  4. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  5. Pulmonary hematological parameters, energetic flight demands and their correlation with oxygen diffusion capacity in the lungs Parámetros hematológicos pulmonares, demandas energéticas del vuelo y su correlación la capacidad de difusión de oxígeno en los pulmones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M CANALS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematological parameters of birds and mammals seem to respond to environmental requirements, such as hypoxia at high altitude and the energetic demands of locomotion and flight. In this work we hypothesize that lung capillary hematocrit and red blood size may be influenced by the energetic requirements of flight. Also, we propose that hematological parameters should vary together with the morphological parameters that determine oxygen diffusion capacity. We analyzed the red blood cell size and the local characteristics of the pulmonary capillary hematocrit correlating these with the pulmonary factors that determines the oxygen diffusion capacity. We deal with seven species, non-flying and flying birds and mammals, with different energetic requirements. The capillary hematocrit was not different in each taxon, but the red blood cell size was smaller in flying mammals and birds than non-flying ones. Correlation of erythrocyte size with the diffusing characteristics of the lungs produced a non-phylogenetic clustering with a group constituting by the bats Tadarida brasiliensis y Myotis chiloensis, and the bird Z. auriculata; revealing similar functional response in unrelated species. Finally, in mammals, a negative correlation between the red blood cell size and the mass-specific oxygen diffusion capacity was obtained. These results suggest that the direction of the hematological and pulmonary adjustments is governed mainly by the requirements of flight independent of phylogenetic origin of the species studiedLos parámetros hematológicos y pulmonares parecen responder a las exigencias ambientales como la hipoxia y la alta altitud y a los requerimientos energéticos de la locomoción. En este trabajo sometemos a prueba la hipótesis que el hematocrito del capilar pulmonar y el tamaño del glóbulo rojo pueden ser influidos por los requerimientos energéticos del vuelo. También proponemos que los parámetros hematológicos varían en conjunto con

  6. Diffuse fatty infiltration of the liver: Pitfalls in computed tomography diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, Y.H.; Dunn, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of a fatty liver often complicates the interpretation of abdominal computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities in or adjacent to the liver, including dilated bile ducts, liver masses and subphrenic collections, may be masked by the fatty liver. Furthermore, normal structures may simulate pathological conditions. Five cases are presented to illustrate some of these diagnostic pitfalls. (authors)

  7. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......, microstructural characterization and electrochemical testing are discussed. Data on polarization resistance, Rp, are obtained from impedance spectra recorded on quasi-symmetrical cells (YSZ backbones/YSZ/LSM-YSZ (screen printed)). The backbones are infiltrated with LSM and compared to a standard LSM-YSZ screen...

  8. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  9. NMR 1D-imaging of water infiltration into mesoporous matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feunteun, Steven; Diat, Olivier; Guillermo, Armel; Poulesquen, Arnaud; Podor, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    It is shown that coupling nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1D-imaging with the measure of NMR relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients can be a very powerful approach to investigate fluid infiltration into porous media. Such an experimental design was used to study the very slow seeping of pure water into hydrophobic materials. We consider here three model samples of nuclear waste conditioning matrices which consist in a dispersion of NaNO(3) (highly soluble) and/or BaSO(4) (poorly soluble) salt grains embedded in a bitumen matrix. Beyond studying the moisture progression according to the sample depth, we analyze the water NMR relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients along its 1D-concentration profile to obtain spatially resolved information on the solution properties and on the porous structure at different scales. It is also shown that, when the relaxation or self-diffusion properties are multimodal, the 1D-profile of each water population is recovered. Three main levels of information were disclosed along the depth-profiles. They concern (i) the water uptake kinetics, (ii) the salinity and the molecular dynamics of the infiltrated solutions and (iii) the microstructure of the water-filled porosities: open networks coexisting with closed pores. All these findings were fully validated and enriched by NMR cryoporometry experiments and by performing environmental scanning electronic microscopy observations. Surprisingly, results clearly show that insoluble salts enhance the water progression and thereby increase the capability of the material to uptake water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR 1D-imaging of water infiltration into meso-porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Feunteun, St.; Diat, O.; Podor, R.; Le Feunteun, St.; Poulesquen, A.; Poulesquen, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that coupling nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1D-imaging with the measure of NMR relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients can be a very powerful approach to investigate fluid infiltration into porous media. Such an experimental design was used to study the very slow seeping of pure water into hydrophobic materials. We consider here three model samples of nuclear waste conditioning matrices which consist in a dispersion of NaNO 3 (highly soluble) and/or BaSO 4 (poorly soluble) salt grains embedded in a bitumen matrix. Beyond studying the moisture progression according to the sample depth, we analyze the water NMR relaxation times and self-diffusion coefficients along its 1D-concentration profile to obtain spatially resolved information on the solution properties and on the porous structure at different scales. It is also shown that, when the relaxation or self-diffusion properties are multimodal, the 1D-profile of each water population is recovered. Three main levels of information were disclosed along the depth-profiles. They concern (i) the water uptake kinetics, (ii) the salinity and the molecular dynamics of the infiltrated solutions and (iii) the microstructure of the water-filled porosities: open networks coexisting with closed pores. All these findings were fully validated and enriched by NMR cryo-poro-metry experiments and by performing environmental scanning electronic microscopy observations. Surprisingly, results clearly show that insoluble salts enhance the water progression and thereby increase the capability of the material to uptake water. (authors)

  11. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  12. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  13. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  14. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  15. A new infiltration method for coating highly permeable matrices with compound materials for high-power isotope-separator-on-line production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Stracener, Daniel W; Alton, Gerald D

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration coating method has been conceived for uniform and controlled thickness deposition of target materials onto highly permeable, complex-structure matrices to form short-diffusion-length isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) production targets for radioactive ion beam research applications. In this report, the infiltration technique is described in detail and the universal character of the technique illustrated in the form of SEMs of several metal-carbide, metal-oxide and metal-sulfide targets for potential use at present or future radioactive ion beam research facilities

  16. Alveolar epithelial fluid transport capacity in reperfusion lung injury after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, L B; Golden, J A; Finkbeiner, W E; Matthay, M A

    1999-03-01

    Reperfusion lung injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic lung transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of the alveolar epithelium in the setting of reperfusion lung injury. Simultaneous samples of pulmonary edema fluid and plasma were collected from eight patients with severe post-transplantation reperfusion edema. The edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was measured, an indicator of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability. The initial edema fluid to plasma protein ratio was > 0.75 in six of eight patients, confirming the presence of increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier. Graft ischemic time was positively correlated with the degree of permeability (r = 0.77, p mean +/- SD). Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated from serial samples in six patients. Intact alveolar fluid clearance correlated with less histologic injury, rapid resolution of hypoxemia, and more rapid resolution of radiographic infiltrates. The two patients with no net alveolar fluid clearance had persistent hypoxemia and more severe histologic injury. This study provides the first direct evidence that increased permeability to protein is the usual cause of reperfusion edema after lung transplantation, with longer ischemic times associated with greater permeability to protein in the transplanted lung. The high rates of alveolar fluid clearance indicate that the fluid transport capacity of the alveolar epithelium may be well preserved in the allograft despite reperfusion lung injury. The ability to reabsorb fluid from the alveolar space was a marker of less severe reperfusion injury, whereas the degree of alveolar-capillary barrier permeability to protein was not. Measurement of alveolar fluid clearance may be useful to assess the severity of reperfusion lung injury and to predict outcome when pulmonary edema develops after lung transplantation.

  17. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  18. Shrinking lung syndrome complicating pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Natalie S. [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Stevens, Anne M. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) can affect the lungs and pleura, usually manifesting with pleural effusions or diffuse parenchymal disease. A rare manifestation of SLE is shrinking lung syndrome, a severe restrictive respiratory disorder. While pleuropulmonary complications of pediatric SLE are common, shrinking lung syndrome is exceedingly rare in children. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl previously diagnosed with lupus, who developed severe dyspnea on exertion and restrictive pulmonary physiology. Her chest radiographs on presentation demonstrated low lung volumes, and CT showed neither pleural nor parenchymal disease. Fluoroscopy demonstrated poor diaphragmatic excursion. While shrinking lung syndrome is described and studied in adults, there is only sparse reference to shrinking lung syndrome in children. (orig.)

  19. Pulmonary Abscess as a Complication of Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, Joseph H; Kern, Ryan M; Midthun, David E; Edell, Eric S; Maldonado, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 49-year-old man who developed pulmonary abscess as a complication of transbronchial lung cryobiopsy. He had been receiving prednisone therapy, but otherwise had no specific risk factors for lung abscess. Cryobiopsy is a novel technique for obtaining peripheral lung parenchymal tissue for the evaluation of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Cryobiopsy is being increasingly proposed as an alternative to surgical lung biopsy or conventional bronchoscopic transbronchial forceps biopsy, but the safety profile of the procedure has not been fully appreciated. Pulmonary abscess has been rarely reported as a complication of other bronchoscopic procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy, however, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary abscess complicating peripheral lung cryobiopsy.

  20. Shrinking lung syndrome complicating pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Natalie S.; Stevens, Anne M.; Iyer, Ramesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) can affect the lungs and pleura, usually manifesting with pleural effusions or diffuse parenchymal disease. A rare manifestation of SLE is shrinking lung syndrome, a severe restrictive respiratory disorder. While pleuropulmonary complications of pediatric SLE are common, shrinking lung syndrome is exceedingly rare in children. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl previously diagnosed with lupus, who developed severe dyspnea on exertion and restrictive pulmonary physiology. Her chest radiographs on presentation demonstrated low lung volumes, and CT showed neither pleural nor parenchymal disease. Fluoroscopy demonstrated poor diaphragmatic excursion. While shrinking lung syndrome is described and studied in adults, there is only sparse reference to shrinking lung syndrome in children. (orig.)

  1. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  2. Pulmonary infiltrates in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: a diagnostic approach using non-invasive and bronchoscopic procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rano, A; Agusti, C; Jimenez, P; Angrill, J; Benito, N; Danes, C; Gonzalez, J; Rovira, M; Pumarola, T; Moreno, A; Torres, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of pulmonary infiltrates is a frequent life threatening complication in immunocompromised patients, requiring early diagnosis and specific treatment. In the present study non-invasive and bronchoscopic diagnostic techniques were applied in patients with different non-HIV immunocompromised conditions to determine the aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates and to evaluate the impact of these methods on therapeutic decisions and outcome in this population.
METHODS—The non-invasive diagnostic methods included serological tests, blood antigen detection, and blood, nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), sputum and tracheobronchial aspirate (TBAS) cultures. Bronchoscopic techniques included fibrobronchial aspirate (FBAS), protected specimen brush (PSB), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Two hundred consecutive episodes of pulmonary infiltrates were prospectively evaluated during a 30 month period in 52 solid organ transplant recipients, 53 haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, 68 patients with haematological malignancies, and 27 patients requiring chronic treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs.
RESULTS—An aetiological diagnosis was obtained in 162 (81%) of the 200 patients. The aetiology of the pulmonary infiltrates was infectious in 125 (77%) and non-infectious in 37 (23%); 38 (19%) remained undiagnosed. The main infectious aetiologies were bacterial (48/125, 24%), fungal (33/125, 17%), and viral (20/125, 10%), and the most frequent pathogens were Aspergillus fumigatus (n=29), Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=12). Among the non-infectious aetiologies, pulmonary oedema (16/37, 43%) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (10/37, 27%) were the most common causes. Non-invasive techniques led to the diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in 41% of the cases in which they were used; specifically, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures was 30/191 (16%); sputum cultures 27/88 (31%); NPW 9/50 (18

  3. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Mašíček; F. Toman; M. Vičanová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG) and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v) on time (t) was de...

  4. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  5. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... reduced surface runoff and soil losses, but increased infiltration rates. The effectiveness of ... Soil and water conservation is essential for sustaining food production and ...... Earth Surface Processes, 4:241-255. McIntyre DS ...

  6. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  7. Infiltration Variability in Agricultural Soil Aggregates Caused by Air Slaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkova, L.; Urik, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on variation in infiltration rates of soil aggregates as a result of phenomenon known as air slaking. Air slaking is caused by the compression and subsequent escape of air captured inside soil aggregates during water saturation. Although it has been generally assumed that it occurs mostly when dry aggregates are rapidly wetted, the measurements used for this paper have proved that it takes place even if the wetting is gradual, not just immediate. It is a phenomenon that contributes to an infiltration variability of soils. In measuring the course of water flow through the soil, several small aggregates of five agricultural soils were exposed to distilled water at zero tension in order to characterize their hydraulic properties. Infiltration curves obtained for these aggregates demonstrate the effect of entrapped air on the increase and decrease of infiltration rates. The measurements were performed under various moisture conditions of the A-horizon aggregates using a simple device.

  8. Calibration and validation of a general infiltration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Ranjan Kumar, Shashi; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-08-01

    A general infiltration model proposed by Singh and Yu (1990) was calibrated and validated using a split sampling approach for 191 sets of infiltration data observed in the states of Minnesota and Georgia in the USA. Of the five model parameters, fc (the final infiltration rate), So (the available storage space) and exponent n were found to be more predictable than the other two parameters: m (exponent) and a (proportionality factor). A critical examination of the general model revealed that it is related to the Soil Conservation Service (1956) curve number (SCS-CN) method and its parameter So is equivalent to the potential maximum retention of the SCS-CN method and is, in turn, found to be a function of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity. The general model was found to describe infiltration rate with time varying curve number.

  9. Fabrication and optical characterization of gold-infiltrated silica opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Gang; Tang Fangqiong; Tam, W.Y.; Li Jensen; Chan, C T; Sheng Ping

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of metal-infiltrated silica opals for optical studies. Highly mono-dispersed silica microspheres are fabricated and assembled by a force packing method to form opals with large domain sizes. The opals are then infiltrated with gold by an electroplating technique. The optical properties of the infiltrated opals in the visible range are studied and model calculations based on a multiple-scattering formalism are used to interpret the experimental results. The calculated position of the directional gap of the silica opal agrees very well with experimental observation. We found that the optical properties of the infiltrated sample can be explained using a model system in which the voids in the silica opal are partially filled with Au and the surface of the slab is covered with a thin layer of Au

  10. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  11. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon; Cerwinsky, Derrick; Gahalaut, Krishan Pratap Singh; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration

  12. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  13. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  14. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  15. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  16. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  17. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally,